Types of Social Stratification | Forms of Social Stratification

What is Stratification

stratification stands for the arrangement of people in a society into various layers on the basis of social status. The term stratification was originally derived from geology. In geological terms 'stratum' means layer and 'strata' means layers. The term stratification refers to the structure of earth in terms of its natural properties as revealed in its crests or layers. Social sciences have borrowed this term and applied it to the arrangement of people in society.

Groups in a society are arranged in hierarchy depending upon its rank. All the people who occupy the same status within a society occupy a single stratum. Status and stratum are interlinked. Stratum is divided into units. Stratum implies equality, strata refers to inequality.

Stratification is a universal phenomenon, it occurs in every society. It rests on both social and psychological characteristics. Stratification is socially patterned or based on collective elements. It is governed by norms and sanctions. Social stratification has its own mechanisms of socialization. It is not static but dynamic. Stratification is a product of history. All strata in a society are articulated in a systematic way with their function.

Forms of Social Stratification

Social stratification assumes different forms in different societies on different criteria. These forms are slavery, estate, class and caste.

Slavery is the earliest form of social stratification. It is the legally recognized division of society into slaves and citizens. Citizens have the citizenship rights whereas the slaves doesn’t have citizenship rights. It existed in most of the parts of Europe and other ancient nations between 500 BC to 600 BC.

Estate is a later form of social stratification. Estates were owned by the feudal. They were established in the Europe in seventh century and they lasted into the sixteenth century. Estates include serfs and clergy. Serfs are the commoners and clergy comprises the feudal.

Social class had its origin in the feudal estates of Europe. Classes are the consequences of economic factors. According to Marx the ownership of the means of production is the crucial factor that shapes the class system. Those who own the means of production like land and capital, form one class and those who do not, form another class. Marx believe that throughout human history only two classes have appeared, those are Lord - Slave in ancient society, Landlords - Peasants in feudal and agrarian society and Bourgeois - proletariat in capitalist industrial societies.

Max Weber disagreed with the Karl Marx. According to him there are more than two classes. He said that class system emerges when economic status, social status and political status and political power converge into what he called Status Crystallization.

Caste is the social stratification which exists only in India. It is a system of classification which states that a person born into a particular position in a society and that no action on his/her part in raise or lower that position. The term caste is derived from the Portuguese word ‘casta’ which means a group. When an individual born into a caste he remains to be a member of the same caste forever, it is an ascribed group. Each caste has a name and is endogamous, the membership is by birth. Castes are arranged in hierarchy and each caste have a fixed occupation.

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Comments 18 comments

Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY

Very informative. Social stratification is something that should fade from the modern world.

christopheranton profile image

christopheranton 6 years ago from Gillingham Kent. United Kingdom

We have always been a heirarchical species. Any time that people have tried to change that, it either hasnt worked, or society has come to grief.

dilipchandra12 profile image

dilipchandra12 6 years ago from India Author

Robwrite and christopheranton thanks for your comments..

Robwrite, yes, Social stratification is something that should fade from the modern world.. that's right and christopheranton's reply here is giving a true fact, Any time that people have tried to change that, it either hasn't worked, or society has come to grief. Thanks again for the comments.

D'souza 4 years ago

amazing piece of writing.,... waahh!

Francesca 3 years ago

Thanks! This has been very helpful for my assignment on stratification :)

payal dubey 3 years ago

thanks! this has been very helpful for my exam as well as my assignment.

also easy to understand the meaning of s .s

amit kumar 3 years ago

thank u so much.it is very helpful for me.

janet james 2 years ago

Tnks vry mch it really hlp mi wif ma assignmnt...unical studnt

meki rebecca 2 years ago

as much as we have to agree that social stratification exists, there are some members of the society who are being oppressed with this fact such as the workers working for capitalists with social stratification they are not given the chance to talk aloud their pressing issues....

Aqib 2 years ago

thanx it is undrstndable

Anastasia 2 years ago

very useful info, thanks

steve 23 months ago

its really educative n underst


barbie 23 months ago

thanx a lot it has realy helped me

Egwin Yim 20 months ago

Reliable piece

Siddhartha GHANTY 18 months ago

Very much helpful for exam and it's clearly explained. Thanks!

savita 12 months ago

very useful to me

luoga 3 months ago

caste system is not good due to its segretive nature to its people

baby lovely 5 weeks ago

thank u so much it is very helpful for me

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