Southeast Native American Indian Nations

A Chickasaw spoon from 1885.
A Chickasaw spoon from 1885.

What Should We Call Them?

LorettaKryzanski asks a question and states that she is in the 4th grade. She would like to know which of the many Native American Nations in the Southeast US are the largest.

American Indigenous Peoples are called Native Americans, American Indians, or Native American Indians. Some are also called Native Alaskans. They all descended into what is now USA or America from what is now Alaska (formerly land owned by the USSR) and Canada. In those area, they are known as First Nations, because they were the first people to set foot into the New World of the Western Hemisphere.

Competing theories exist about a time frame in which SubPolar Peoples from the Old World of the Eastern Hemisphere traveled across the Bering Land Bridge, which is now the Bering Strait (a body of water separating what is now Alaska from Russia/Siberia). One theory suggests these peoples migrated to Alaska about 36,000 BC and another estimates the time as about 12,000 BC, both give or take a few thousand years. SubPolar Peoples are those that live in and have migrates across to the East and West in Northern Europe and Northern Asia just below and above the Arctic Circle. In annual national festivals celebrating the peoples of the USSR in the early 1980s, those most northern in USSR were called simplyThe People of the North. They were/are a fearsome people, because they survive in -75° F weather without modern heating or homes. Some North and South Koreans still survive in this manner as well.

Map of the Southeastern United States

In the United States

There may have been one continuous or two separate waves of migration from Northern Europe, Siberia, Northern China, Korea, and Japan into what is now USA, but we will concern ourselves with the more recent peoples of 12,000 BC. They came across Alaska, moved across Canada to the Atlantic Ocean and crossed parts of that as well.

Some of this First Nations group moved instead down into the Pacific Northwest and fanned out across the US and Mexico, mixing with other peoples that likely came across the Pacific Ocean further south by longboats and other craft. They also mixed eventually with African slaves, especailly in Florida and with other Africans.

Some Native Americans migrated all the way south into all the areas of South America, down to the southernmost tip of the continent. Some later migrated back northward and we think they ended up in the Ohio Valley. many Native Americans mixed with whites and nearly all nationalituies that came into the New World and they are known as Metis or other similar terms, spelled differently depending upon the region of the US.

We have 1000s Nation American Nations in what is now the USA. Some are recognized by the Federal Government, some are recognized by US State Governments, and some have no legal standing at all, although many of applied for it. Some groups are very small and are called communities or other designations, instead of nations.

While the "teepee" is largely found in the western USA, American business people of the 1940s - 1960s built Wigwam Village motor courts in 6 SE USA locations, AZ and CA.
While the "teepee" is largely found in the western USA, American business people of the 1940s - 1960s built Wigwam Village motor courts in 6 SE USA locations, AZ and CA.
A Wigwam Village Motel
A Wigwam Village Motel | Source

Southeastern USA

The Native Americans spread all the way across America to the Atlantic Ocean all along the East Coast. Then, as Europeans landed and claimed more and more of the land, these settlers and the governments that formed in the USA pushed the Native Americans back to the West. Not all went westward, but many did. A particularly sad case of this is the Trail of Tears, which you may want to study.

 

Choctaw Chief Pushmataha and Shawnee Chief Tecumseh (public domain).
Choctaw Chief Pushmataha and Shawnee Chief Tecumseh (public domain).

Southeastern Native American Nations

By US State in the Southeast Region, the Indigenous Peoples in the SE United States are located at these presentations:

In order to find largest groups or nations of Southeast Native Americans, look at the hubs at the links above and look for nations that have their own websites. This may provide recent census information.

The 2000 US Census is now outdated and a new census was taken in 2010. Many Native American groups have been growing and the largest groups in the year 2000 may not be the largest groups in 2010, so it is difficult to say which Southeastern groups are actually largest unless they have been logging statistics of this nature. Even if counted, these numbers may not yet be posted anywhere public. Some of these numbers on the Internet are even as old as from 1990 and much outdated.

However the US Census Bureau published a 2004 estimate by nation (tribe) on PAGE 2 of the document below that gives the tribe name and the number of people in it. Compare the names of tribes from the two Hubs above with the nation/tribe names and population numbers on the 2004 document at this link: http://www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/acs-07.pdf

CENSUS2010 includes this interesting quote on January 25, 2012:

The U.S. Census Bureau today released a 2010 Census brief, The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010, that shows almost half (44 percent) of this population, or 2.3 million people, reported being American Indian and Alaska Native in combination with one or more other races. This multiracial group grew by 39% from 2000 to 2010.

Top 10 US States for "American Indian" and Alaska Native alone-or-in-combination population in 2010 were:

  1. California
  2. Oklahoma
  3. Arizona
  4. Texas
  5. New York
  6. New Mexico
  7. Washington
  8. North Carolina
  9. Florida
  10. Michigan

More by this Author


Thoughts and Comments 16 comments

Dim Flaxenwick profile image

Dim Flaxenwick 6 years ago from Great Britain

Fascinating as always Patty. Thank you.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 6 years ago from North America Author

Thanks! I'll be interested in the 2010 results as well.


Hello, hello, profile image

Hello, hello, 6 years ago from London, UK

Thank you for your interesting hub. I love reading about the Native American people. To me they were very proud people with a wisdom the white man could have learned a lot from and very gifted in handicraft and art.


dahoglund profile image

dahoglund 6 years ago from Wisconsin Rapids

An interesting hub on an interesting subject.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 6 years ago from North America Author

We'll never be done studying this topic and it never becomes boring. Agriculture was magic when done by some of these nations as well as their art and crafts. Thanks for all the comments. I hope our 4th grader constructs an outstanding project.


Artin2010 profile image

Artin2010 6 years ago from Northwestern Florida, Gulfcoast

Most all of us born in America the last 100 years, with the exception of a few have some Native Indian blood mingled in with the Irish, French, Italian, etc. blood that moved here from the old countries.Very nice hub and truly an interesting subject. Myself, I am some portion Blacfoot Tribe, so I've been told.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 6 years ago from North America Author

Blackfoot! That's wonderful. Artin2010, I wonder if that nation still operates a pen and pencil company. I think they do and they are the best writing pens I have ever found in my life.


RGraf profile image

RGraf 6 years ago from Wisconsin

Great information. Thank you for such a plethora of info for this learner. I'll have to have my children read this for their History class.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 6 years ago from North America Author

RGraf, I hope they are as interested as I have been since the 4th grade -- Happy New Year!


paul_gibsons profile image

paul_gibsons 6 years ago from Gibsons, BC, Canada

although it is udoubtedly true that there have been a number of migrations across the Alaska/Aleutian Land bridge, we have to be careful not to think of say the 12000 BC migration as a large number of dfferent bands or armies marching into northern America and then "fanning out". It is difficult to reconstruct exactly what happened but the most likely scenaro is separate groups of (displaced) peoples crossing over and in at separate times, either pushing earlier established peoples further out or being pushed further out and "down" themselves.

The second and third questions are of course "why?" and "where did they come from", even more difficult to answer but a couple of hours spent with a pencil, paper and some research into what (little we know) was going on in eurasia at the time, something which isn't done very often as we just tend to concentrate on north America, is highly illuminating and entertaining.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 6 years ago from North America Author

Defintely, I think the numerous bands developed as the larger groups of immigrants came over the land bridge and moved out in order to find additional resources over at least 12,000 years; some say about 40,000 years of you think there were at least 2 major waves of such Aisn/Northern European-related immigrants. Then, how many different cultures actually boated across fomr Oceana and the Pacific areas?

The Vancouver Olympics Ceremony acknowledged nearly 1,000 groups in Canada alone. Good to see them included.


Michael Shane profile image

Michael Shane 6 years ago from Gadsden, Alabama

Veryinteresting hub Patty! Thanks for sharing...


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 6 years ago from England

Hi, this is fascinating. I am glad I found this. Nell


ndnfoodie530 profile image

ndnfoodie530 5 years ago from Nothern California

I disagree with the land bridge theory, and the photos of the dwellings provided were from the Plains, but overall a good article. (Sam, TsaLaGi/Powhatan/Siksika Nations)


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 5 years ago from North America Author

@foodie - What? No Teepees in Florida? Have you not heard of the Wigwam Villages (motels) in Orlando FL, Kentucky, Louisiana, and Alabama? :)

Many disagree with land bridge theory, yet DNA tracks back to the Old World, except for one marker that I think developed here. Also links between Zulu nation and Iroquois present themselves. All moot points, since all humans of the last 12,000 years are related, except for perhaps the Basque and a nation in New Zealand, but the jury is still out. And the people of the Land of Nod, of course.


cclitgirl profile image

cclitgirl 4 years ago from Western NC

Fantastic hub, as always. I, for one, COULD NOT live in -75 degrees F. I moved farther south than my native Colorado so I could be warmer. :) It's so interesting to think about the Bering Land Bridge and when people may have migrated. There is a great series of fiction books by Sue Harrison. They're getting harder to find, but she basically looked at historical evidence and created stories around what may have happened. They all take place in what is now Alaska. In any case, thanks for sharing this. I'll have to link to it in an upcoming hub. :)

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