Sugarcane Cultivation And Sugar Cane Uses

A version of the sugarcane known as ribbon cane. Not as sweet as the traditional sugar cane.
A version of the sugarcane known as ribbon cane. Not as sweet as the traditional sugar cane. | Source

About the sugar cane

If you have ever been to Jamaica you probably have enjoyed this wonderful treat. If you haven't, make sure you do the next time you visit.

The sugarcane or sugar cane is a member of the grass family. The grass plant likes the tropics or warm climates. It somewhat has an appearance like bamboo with joints. But whereas the bamboo is hollow the sugar cane isn't and has a juicy fiber under the skin.

The skin of the sugar cane is hard and even though many Jamaicans peel the cane using their teeth it is recommended to use a knife or machete to do so.

The fiber or of the sugarcane cannot be eaten or swallowed and the fibers are very hardy or rough. They are not soluble at all. The sugar cane is usually enjoyed by chewing to extract the juices then discarding the fibers or as we say "thrash".

In some cases a cane juice extractor is used. This contraption is usually made by locals for squeezing the juice from the fibers thus getting the sweet liquid to enjoy over ice.

There are several types of 'cane' as we call them in Jamaica, as a matter of fact there might be over 30 species of canes and the sugarcane is just one of them. Actually, the sugar cane is the one that is grown specifically for the purposes of making sugar, rum and ethanol. If you noticed I use the spellings interchangeably because both spellings are used: sugarcane and sugar cane.

Here are some of the types of "cane" we have in Jamaica:

  • Sugar cane
  • Ribbon cane
  • Black cane
  • Craw fish cane
  • and a few more that I don't quite know the names of.

The different kinds of cane has to do with the colour of the skin, it's pattern, the texture of the fibers and the taste of the juice.

The type known as sugarcane is the one most people are familiar with so they will call any cane sugarcane but the other types of canes are not used to make sugar. These are used for domestic purposes only like eating/chewing or to make syrup.


How Sugar Cane is Cultivated

The sugarcane can be grown on almost any soil but the sugar cane loves temperate or warm climates, however, a minimum of about 24 inches of rainfall per year is required. The sugar cane loves a lot of water and sun.

The land is usually cleared, then ploughed and the baby canes are planted in rows. This can be done on flatlands or hillsides. The root of the sugarcane is sturdy and helps to prevent erosion. The sugarcane is usually reproduced from the harvest even though they can produce seeds, meaning that each cane that is harvested must contain at least one bud so that it can be replanted to produce another.

This plant is one of the lowest maintenance crops around. The only maintenance that might be needed is water via way of irrigation or rainfall. Farmers must make sure the soil is ready for the cane but most of the nutrients do not come from the soil but the sun. This plant is one of the highest photosynthesizers around. It is able to capture the energy of the sun and put it to good use.

It takes about a year or year and a half to mature where it can be harvested. At this time the field is set on fire to reduce the bushiness, dry leaves, kills dangerous pests like snakes, rats and any other pests that might have taken up residence in the field or root of the canes. It is now easier for the harvesters to cut through the field. In some countries a mechanical harvester is used and even a mechanical planter.

The sugarcane begins to lose its sugar content after being cut so must be taken to be processed as soon as possible.

Even though the plant is grown for commercial purposes many people will have a patch of cane in their yards. For instance, I just went over to my own house ( I live with my partner), next door, and just got a cane from the garden and took some pictures. You will find this happening right across the island.

show route and directions
A markerBrazil -
Brazil
[get directions]

The top sugarcane grower with over 700 million tons in 2010.

B markerIndia -
India
[get directions]

India is the second leading sugarcane cultivator with over 200 million tons in 2010.

Countries that grow sugar cane for making sugar

Jamaica was one of the leading sugarcane growers in the Caribbean but in the 1990s the crop fell and some sugar plantations and mills were closed. We started importing sugar. Recently some of these plantations were re-open and talks of re-opening some of the mills have been ongoing.

These are the countries that grow the most sugar cane:

  • Columbia
  • Pakistan
  • Brazil
  • India
  • Australia
  • Argentina
  • Philippines
  • Mexico
  • China
  • Thailand

Source

Have you ever had sugarcane?

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The sugar making process

After being cut a machine will gather the sugar cane then take it to the processing plant or sugar factory. The sugar cane is then taken through the washing machine where it is thoroughly cleansed. It then goes through another machine where the juice is extracted.

The trash or remaining fiber of the cane is reserved to be used for several purposes such as:

  • mulch for farmers
  • to make paper
  • to make panel boards
  • to make cardboards or paper boards
  • for fuel
  • other purposes

The sugar making process is a very complicated one. In olden days it was just boiling the sugar in a very large pot then drying to make crystals but now there are different processes involved.

A mill extracts the raw sugar from the cane then bleaches it to make what is sometimes called "mill white" sugar. The refinery processes the raw sugar to make a refined white sugar. Now the two processes are merging because there have been a demand for refined sugar and refined sugar products.

The refining of the sugar is another long process where it is then mixed with a heavy syrup then washed to remove the outer impure layer. The sugar is then dissolved into a syrup then a combination of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid is added. The impurities will then float to the top of the sugar where they are skimmed off. After a long process the sugar is then dried by heating then blow drying with cool air for several days to make granulated sugar.


Other purposes of the sugar cane

  • The sugar cane is used in the processing of ethanol which is an alternative to gasoline
  • The Jamaican Rum is also made from sugar cane which is made via a distillation process
  • To eat. The cane is chewed and the juice extracted while eating...please do not swallow fiber.
  • Molasses
  • Rock candy made from crystallized cane juice
  • Cane juice is the juice extract from the sugarcane
  • The fibers are used as fuel, mulch and the producion of paper and panel boards

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Comments 20 comments

pstraubie48 profile image

pstraubie48 4 years ago from sunny Florida

This is very informative. I knew a tiny bit about sugar cane but not nearly what you have shared here Once, when I was making a home visit, I came upon a very elderly man sitting in the commons area of the housing complex where he lived. He was surrounded by piles of sugar cane and was working with it to get it down to a state that could be used for 'something.' I asked if I could sit and watch. He smiled a smile that made me know he was thrilled I had asked and made a little spot for me on the stone bench where he was perched. I was almost hypnotized as I watched him work. He even gave me a piece to chew. Thank you for this article and for reminding me of that experience.


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Hi Pstraubie48, chewing sugar cane is a common practice here in Jamaica. I just had a whole cane yesterday when I made this hub. Thanks for stopping by and sharing your experience.


WD Curry 111 profile image

WD Curry 111 4 years ago from Space Coast

I love the pictures most of all. We have markets here that sell fresh cane, sometimes. They messed up the Everglades to grow it down south. There are no lazy cane harvesters.


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Hey WD, all except for the sugar mill are my photos, thanks. Cane harvesters are very hard working men. These lazy young people these days could never do it the way our fathers and grandfathers did, that's why they are using machines to do most of the work. Thanks for stopping by.


Green Lotus profile image

Green Lotus 4 years ago from Atlanta, GA

I remember tasting the pulp of raw sugar cane in Jamaica so many years ago, this brings back memories. So interesting and rated up :)


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Hello Green Lotus, so you've been to Jamaica...great! Thanks for stopping by. Have a wonderful day.


always exploring profile image

always exploring 4 years ago from Southern Illinois

Cardisa, This is very interesting. I've never seen sugar cane. I can't imagine life without sugar. Thank's for a very informative hub...


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Hi Ruby, you are missing a wonderful treat. We love to eat or chew the cane. It's like having a refreshing drink. Thanks for stopping by and I hope you get to know the sugar cane some day.


GoodLady profile image

GoodLady 4 years ago from Rome, Italy

Thumbs up and voting because it is so interesting and so nicely written and so lovely to look at. I'd love to chew on it.


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Thanks GoodLady, I wish I could send you some sugar cane to chew on....lol. Thank you so much for reading , voting and commenting.


WD Curry 111 profile image

WD Curry 111 4 years ago from Space Coast

Cardisa - I know. Someone in my neighborhood complained that one of the vacant lots was too overgrown. Now, this part of Florida is not jungle, it is scrub. The owner is an old Haitian guy, probably around 80 years old. He cleared the whole lot, including a couple of pine trees with a machete in two days. It took three men three days to haul off the debris he left. He told me he could have done it in a half day when he was young.


Green Lotus profile image

Green Lotus 4 years ago from Atlanta, GA

Love Jamaica! Many happy memories :)


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

WD, that old man reminds me of my grandfather before he went to England. He is now very ill because he went to a very cold climate in his late eighties, straight from our warm climate here. Before he left he was still farming all on his own. He could carry loads of stuff and work from 6 to 6. Wow, how strong these men are!


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Green Lotus, you have me intrigued!


WD Curry 111 profile image

WD Curry 111 4 years ago from Space Coast

I am so sad to hear about your Pops. My first glimpse of Jamaica was on B&W TV in the sixties. It was a show about all spice (pimento). There was an old man with a machete over his shoulder walking under some lush trees and singing, "Soon and very soon, I am going to see the Lord." Do you know that song?

Many an Islander, Native American, and Indian have caught their death in that dreadful English climate. The people who live there too long turn white.


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

LOL WD, that is so true. I do know the song. My Grandfather can't travel because he live on a ventilator and the air pressure from the plane is too much so he can't come home.


Vinaya Ghimire profile image

Vinaya Ghimire 4 years ago from Nepal

In the past we used to grow sugarcane enough for the family. We boiled juice and made thick liquid which we used as sweetener, to everything including tea.

But I did not know much about the plant. Thanks for sharing your expertise.


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Hi Vinaya, our grandparents did the same thing in the past also. We used to call it the wet sugar. It was the most natural part of the sugar process. Thanks for stopping by.


flashmakeit profile image

flashmakeit 4 years ago from usa

That was a very informative article and I learn some facts about sugar cane. I did not know that it had that many purposes.


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica Author

Hello Flashmakeit, thank you. I really appreciate the visit and the comment. Have a wonderful day.

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    Carolee Samuda (Cardisa)1,134 Followers
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    Carolee is a passionate writer with a love for learning and teaching. She is a published author, poet, blogger and content creator.



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