The Architecture and Art of Egypt (Kemet): The Etching and Encryption of Dynasties I to IV

Triad sculpture of Pharaoh Menkaure (4th Dynasty) with Hathor and the Seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt.
Triad sculpture of Pharaoh Menkaure (4th Dynasty) with Hathor and the Seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt.
Photography Poster: Menkaura reigned for 63 years during the IV Dynasty, which itself lasted for 135 years; the other two Pharaohs to reign during the IV Dynasty being Khufu and Khafra; the remaining Kings had reigns within Menkaura's reign.
Photography Poster: Menkaura reigned for 63 years during the IV Dynasty, which itself lasted for 135 years; the other two Pharaohs to reign during the IV Dynasty being Khufu and Khafra; the remaining Kings had reigns within Menkaura's reign.
Funerary Complex and the Step Pyramid of Zoser(Djoser) This was built by Vizier Imhotep and is the first Monumental structure to be constructed entirely of carved stone. #9 photo
Funerary Complex and the Step Pyramid of Zoser(Djoser) This was built by Vizier Imhotep and is the first Monumental structure to be constructed entirely of carved stone. #9 photo
Inside the Great Pyramid of Khufu.
Inside the Great Pyramid of Khufu.
A cross-section of the Pyramid showing the passageways.
A cross-section of the Pyramid showing the passageways.
The Great Pyramid instead of using a golden rectangle, the Pyramid uses what is called a Golden Triangle.
The Great Pyramid instead of using a golden rectangle, the Pyramid uses what is called a Golden Triangle.
In the tomb in Hierakonpolis is the detail of the watercolor copy. In the painting on one of the walls on the boats which are like those  on the pottery appear to belong to a funeral scene, by Gerzean craftsmen. #5 Photo
In the tomb in Hierakonpolis is the detail of the watercolor copy. In the painting on one of the walls on the boats which are like those on the pottery appear to belong to a funeral scene, by Gerzean craftsmen. #5 Photo
Decorated ware with boats with standards from the Gerzean period. These decorated vessels represent the beginning of painting in Egypt #1 photo
Decorated ware with boats with standards from the Gerzean period. These decorated vessels represent the beginning of painting in Egypt #1 photo
The Narmer Palette shown in its front and back part and King Narmer is shown bashing the heads of his victims, but at the same time, by him shown on the back part wearing the Crown of Upper Egypt(North) and his attendants line up with him; and the fr
The Narmer Palette shown in its front and back part and King Narmer is shown bashing the heads of his victims, but at the same time, by him shown on the back part wearing the Crown of Upper Egypt(North) and his attendants line up with him; and the fr
Negada I -Amratian vessel red topped  and polished  vessel decorated with cream-colored paint. #3 Photo
Negada I -Amratian vessel red topped and polished vessel decorated with cream-colored paint. #3 Photo
 Schist bowl from Saqqara, Dynasty I. The Ornamental tri-loved bowl has maximum diameter of 61 cm and a maximum height of 10 cm, and is on display at the Cairo Museum. #8 photo
Schist bowl from Saqqara, Dynasty I. The Ornamental tri-loved bowl has maximum diameter of 61 cm and a maximum height of 10 cm, and is on display at the Cairo Museum. #8 photo
An extraordinary ivory comb from Hierakonpolis, Egypt and can be seen in the new Nubia Museum in Aswan #4 Photo
An extraordinary ivory comb from Hierakonpolis, Egypt and can be seen in the new Nubia Museum in Aswan #4 Photo
An Ivory Comb from Naqada II. And it was at this time when there was a propensity for cultural-territorial encroachment and development at all levels of specialization (ideological, technological, artistic, political-organizative, commercial, spiritu
An Ivory Comb from Naqada II. And it was at this time when there was a propensity for cultural-territorial encroachment and development at all levels of specialization (ideological, technological, artistic, political-organizative, commercial, spiritu
A reconstruction of the Tomb of Merneith in Abydos
A reconstruction of the Tomb of Merneith in Abydos
The Step Pyramid Complex, Dynasty III.  #11 photo
The Step Pyramid Complex, Dynasty III. #11 photo
Statue of the Dynastry III King Zoser(Djoser)
Statue of the Dynastry III King Zoser(Djoser)
Vizier Imhotep, the World First Multi-Genius, Original Architect, Doctor for the Royalty, Deity of Medicine, and other accolades bestowed upon him too many to numerate.
Vizier Imhotep, the World First Multi-Genius, Original Architect, Doctor for the Royalty, Deity of Medicine, and other accolades bestowed upon him too many to numerate.
This 1.5 Kilometer wall enclosing the Pyramid has only one gate here. #6 photo
This 1.5 Kilometer wall enclosing the Pyramid has only one gate here. #6 photo
Tombs of the Nobles at Saqara #7 photo
Tombs of the Nobles at Saqara #7 photo
Cairo, False Door tight close-up #12 photo
Cairo, False Door tight close-up #12 photo
Papyrus Columns, in Egypt #13 photo
Papyrus Columns, in Egypt #13 photo
Seated,  Statue of Khafre(Cephren), at Giza, Old Kingdom - Dynasty IV. He was the son of Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid.
Seated, Statue of Khafre(Cephren), at Giza, Old Kingdom - Dynasty IV. He was the son of Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid.
Khufu was the second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. He had nine sons and fifteen daughters, one of whom later became Queen Hetepheres II
Khufu was the second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. He had nine sons and fifteen daughters, one of whom later became Queen Hetepheres II
The Sphinx and the Great Pyramid in the Background. The Sphinx guards the Number One Ancient Wonder of the World.
The Sphinx and the Great Pyramid in the Background. The Sphinx guards the Number One Ancient Wonder of the World.
The Sphinx, close-up.
The Sphinx, close-up.
Fragmentary face of King Khafre. It displays - even at a small scale - the subtle and very sensitive modeling and finely finished surfaces of these masterpieces of Old King royal sculpture
Fragmentary face of King Khafre. It displays - even at a small scale - the subtle and very sensitive modeling and finely finished surfaces of these masterpieces of Old King royal sculpture
Pharaoh Khafre in black diorite with white veins, his head embraced by the hawk god Horus. It has a concentrated force and presence unequalled over 5,000 years. #16 photo
Pharaoh Khafre in black diorite with white veins, his head embraced by the hawk god Horus. It has a concentrated force and presence unequalled over 5,000 years. #16 photo
The Three pyramids of Giza, and these were commissioned by the pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty #14 photo
The Three pyramids of Giza, and these were commissioned by the pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty #14 photo
Men-Kau-Re stands on Hathor's left with his left foot advanced. His remarkably individualized facial feature - the prominent eyes, fleshy nose, moustache and protruding lower lip are all characteristics recognizable in other presentations of the King
Men-Kau-Re stands on Hathor's left with his left foot advanced. His remarkably individualized facial feature - the prominent eyes, fleshy nose, moustache and protruding lower lip are all characteristics recognizable in other presentations of the King
Menkaure: "Traditional Legend provides that Menkaure's reign was both benevolent and prosperous(Herodotus)
Menkaure: "Traditional Legend provides that Menkaure's reign was both benevolent and prosperous(Herodotus)
Bed with Headrest from the funerary furniture of queen Hetepheres, from the 4th Dynasty- the bed's length is 177 cm (5ft 9in). #17 photo
Bed with Headrest from the funerary furniture of queen Hetepheres, from the 4th Dynasty- the bed's length is 177 cm (5ft 9in). #17 photo
Gilded Queen's wooden armchair
Gilded Queen's wooden armchair
This is a rough estimation of how Cleopatra looked from the coin, artifact and wall depiction of her. She was of African ancestry.
This is a rough estimation of how Cleopatra looked from the coin, artifact and wall depiction of her. She was of African ancestry.
This is a limestone stela showing Cleopatra dressed in kilt and crown of a male king, but offering to Isis
This is a limestone stela showing Cleopatra dressed in kilt and crown of a male king, but offering to Isis
A joint team of Egyptian and Dominican Republic archeologists found a new head of Cleopatra in a temple near Alexandria in Egypt
A joint team of Egyptian and Dominican Republic archeologists found a new head of Cleopatra in a temple near Alexandria in Egypt

The Birth and Evolution of A Civilization and iIt's Dynasties

The Egyptian culture had attained a high level of development both in Art and Archeology in very ancient times.

"When the curtain goes up on the Nile Valley, at the dawn of history, an astounding scene is disclosed, and one as far from primitive as the Cafe de la Paix... The solid foundations of civilization was full blown, as it were, and in full working order.

"Yet what mighty structures were to be erected on those foundations as the next three millenniums were ticked off on time's clock! And be read in sequence and in detail as nowhere else on earth. Fifty-three centuries of unbroken history!"(George A. Dorsey)

Even in pre-Dynastic times, the Egyptians had reached a high level of civilization. They imported gold, silver, copper,tin,lead, iron, hematite, emery, galena, turquoise, obsidian, serpentine, lapis lazuli, coral and tortoise shell. With these materials, they produced beautiful and useful works of art, which were to call forth the wonder and admiration of later ages.

The Step Pyramid of Zoser(Djoser)

This was built in 2,800 BC by Vizier Imhotep, is the first monumental structure to be constructed entirely of carved stone. It comprises the vast funerary complex of Djoser, the second King of the 3rd Dynasty, that served ancient Memphis. Vizier Imhotep himself has been called Doctor, Sage, Architect, Astronomer, High Priest and so forth. James Henry Breasted says about Imhotep:

"Before taking leave of the Pyramid Age, we must say something about Imhotep, the architect who designed the first pyramid. This truly great man, besides being an Architect, was Vizier(Prime Minister) to King Zoser of the Third Dynasty(5343-5307 BC). In addition, he was an Astronomer and Magician, and held the post of Chief Physician to the Monarch. In those latter days he was deified and became the God of Medicine. Known to the Greeks as Imouthes, he was recognized as their own Aesculapius.

A Temple was erected for him near the Serapeum at Memphis, and at the present day every Museum possesses a bronze statuette or two of this apotheosized wise man, The Proverb Maker, Physician, Multi-linguist, Priest, Architect, for Zoser and Administrator.

The priest who conducted the rebuilding of the temple of Edfu under the Ptolemies, claimed to be reproducing the structure formerly erected there after the plans of Imhotep(James Henry Breasted). Imhotep was the World's first Genius. On the Step Pyramid, most of the outer casting is now gone. In some paces the core masonry has disappeared as well. (See #9 photo)

The Great Pyramid of Khufu

The Pyramids are very old, and yet it, in their own inimitable way(even in ruinous condition) it still evokes the same kind of awe and astonishment; standing, still exuding its particular brand of serenity and regalness, they still continue to serve as immobile and silent witness to the inevitable passage of time — sightless and silently, interminably tolling the hours, days, years, centuries, in witnessing man's tenuous mortality. Herodotus gave a classic account of the building of the Great Pyramid:

"The Pyramid itself was twenty years in the building. It is a square 800 feet each way. ... Built entirely of polished stone, fitted together with utmost care. The stones of which it is composed are none of them less than 30 feet in length.... After laying the stones for the base, they raised the remaining stones to their places by means of machines formed of short wooden planks. ...

"There is an inscription in Egyptian characters on the pyramid which records the quantity of radishes, onions and garlic consumed by the laborers who constructed it; and I perfectly well remember that the interpreter who read the writing to me said that the money expended in this way was about 1,600 talents of silver [A talent in ancient Egypt contained about 56 pounds of silver].

So the modern equivalent of 1,600 talents would be the value of 89,000 pounds of silver. If this then is a true record, what a vast sum must have been spent on the iron tolls used in the work, and on the feeding and clothing the laborers, considering the length of time the work lasted, which has already been stated, and the additional time-no mall space, I imagined — which must have been occupied by the quarrying of the stones, their conveyance, and the formation of the underground apartments."

The architecture of the pyramids served many purposes for religion,science and carving a civilization.

The French Astronomer, Abbe Thomas Moreaux points out that the Great Pyramid was used as a vault for the preservation of scientific instruments, and of standard weights and measures, rather than as a tomb. In place of a sarcophagus there is a granite slab, which evidently served as a standard of measure.

The length of this slab on one-ten-millionth of the distance of either pole from the center of the earth. This invariable distance, only recently determined by modern science of the poles to the center of the earth is 3,949.79 miles. From this measurement we are enabled to calculate the circumference of earth through the poles, which is 24,817.32 miles. Abbe Moreaux was convinced that this fact was known to the Egyptian Astronomers sic thousand years ago.

The Chaldeans were able students of astronomy, but their best estimate of the circumference was twenty-four thousand miles. The Egyptians has vast and extensive knowledge of astronomy and mathematics than we had hitherto been led to suspect. The height of the Great Pyramid is one-billionth of the distance form the earth to the sum a unit of measure not accurately established in modern times until 1874.

This pyramid is orientated within one-twelfth of a degree, a remarkably accurate precision; and that parallel of longitude passing through the pyramid traverses the most land and the least sea of any world — a fact which also applies to the parallel of latitude passing through the structure. In the North side of the Great Pyramid is the entrance o an underground tunnel, which is bored through 350 feet of solid rock, at an angle of 26 degrees 17 minutes to the horizon.

Alpha Draconis, or Thuban, was the pole star about 3440 BC, and for several hundred years before and after that date. At its lower culmination, when 3 degrees 42 minutes from the pole, this star shone down the underground tunnel. The ascending passage suns from the underground tunnel of the pyramid at the base-line level, and leads into the grand gallery.

Both the ascending passage and the grand gallery are inclined to the horizon at an angle of 26 degrees 17 minutes — the same as that of the underground tunnel, but in the opposite direction. These passages served two purposes; first, they enabled the builders to orient the base and the lower layers of the masonry up to the King's chamber in a true north and south line; and secondly, the passages were so arranged that the grand gallery could serve ad the equivalent of the equatorial telescope of a modern astronomical observatory.

Richard Proctor, and English Astronomer shows that the Great Pyramid was used as an Astronomical observatory. He pointed out that the sun's annual course round the celestial sphere could be determined much more exactly than by any gnomon by observations made from the great gallery.

The moon's monthly path and its changes could have been dealt with in the same effective way. The geometric paths, and thence the true paths of the planets, could be determined very accurately. The place of any visible star along the Zodiac, could be most accurately determined.(Samuel Laing)

The triangular area of each of the four sides of the pyramid equals the square of the vertical height, a fact mentioned by Herodotus. The added lengths of the four sides of the square base bear to vertical height the same proportion as that of the circumference of a circle to its radius.

This involves the mathematical constant [pi sign](3.1416), so important in modern mathematics. The length of each side of the square base is equal to 3651/4 sacred cubits, an equivalence of the length of the year in days. The two diagonals of the base contain 25,824 pyramid inches, a good approximation of the number of years in the precessional cycle(Prof. Piazzi Smyth)Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace summarized Smyth's careful measurements as follows:

1. That the pyramid is truly a square, the sides being equal and the angles right angles.

2. That the four sockets on which the first four stones of the corners rested are truly on the same level.

3 That the directions of the sides are accurately to the four cardinal points.

4. That the vertical height of the pyramid bears the same proportion to its circumference at the base as the ratio of a circle does to its circumference.

Now all these measures, angles, and levels are accurate, not as an ordinary surveyor or builder could make them, but to such a degree as requires the best modern instruments and all the refinements of geodetical science to discover any error at all. In addition to this we have the wonderful perfection of the workmanship in the interior of the pyramid, the passages and chambers being lined with huge blocks of stone fitted with the utmost accuracy, wile every part of the building exhibits the highest structural science.

The Great Pyramid is 756 feet long on each side, 450 high and is composed of 2,300,000 blocks of stones each averaging 2 1/2 tons in weight. No side is more than 8 inches different in length than another, and the whole structure is perfectly orientated to the point of the compass.

Until the 19 century, it was the tallest building in the world and, at the age of 4,500 years, it's the only one of the famous Seven Wonders of the Ancient world still standing. Another less known example of the golden ratio, is its use in the Great Pyramid . Instead of using a golden rectangle, the pyramid uses what is called a golden triangle.

The golden ratio is represented by the ratio of the length of the face(the slope height) inclined at an angle O to the ground, to half the length of the side of the square base, equivalent to the decant of the angle-it's an isosceles triangle with base angles equal 72 degrees and vertex equal to 36 degrees.

If you divide the long side by the short side you get Phi or the Golden Ratio. If you bisect one of the 72 angles, you get a smaller one exactly proportional to it. And next to it is an obtuse triangle with angles 36-36-108. You will have also created another golden section. This repeating number has been observed when scientist and mathematicians surveyed the lengths of the Great Pyramid.

The peculiarly Egyptian concern with the continuity of life after death in a form similar to that which had been experienced upon earth provided an element in the development of the arts which was not present to such an extent in to other countries.

While architecture, painting and sculpture ordinarily appeared in the service of a religious organization or to glorify the wealth and power of the rule, in Egypt we find emphasis laid upon providing a lasting dwelling-place for the dead, and recreation of life magically in pictures to serve him and lastly provision of a substitute in stone for his perishable body.

The Egyptian had an instinct to imitate closely what he saw about him. His natural disposition towards balance and proportion, combined with a long-maintained tradition or orderly craftsmanship, and this strike a sympathetic note for the Modern day civilizations(Heinrich Schafer)

The availability of working materials in one other factor that must be taken into consideration. The abundance of stone was an advantage for the Egyptians. The Egyptians learned how to cut block of building-stone, and for the sculptor, there was plentiful supply of rectangular blocks from the quarry for his work. This allowed for largeness of scale which is another outstanding feature of Egyptian work both in sculpture and architecture.

Predynastic Paintings, Art, and Architecture

Pre-Dynastic Period: (5500-3100 B.C.)In the Predynastic Period of Ancient Egypt, people evolved from hunters and gatherers using stone weapons into an organized central society. Animals such as donkeys were tamed and used in daily life, not just for food, Egyptians trace their roots to a place in Africa a lot of scholars of Egyptian history and African history, geneticists, along with other disciplines, have generally accepted the hypothesis of man's monogenetic and African origin.

More than 150,000 years ago, beings morphologically identical with the man of today were living in the region of the Great Lakes.

The Edfu Text is an important source document on the early history of the Nile Valley. According to this record, civilization was brought from the South, around the Great Lakes region of Central Africa. In fact, the indigenous Southern African origin of the ancient Egyptians, who were Africans,is based upon a historical message extracted from the highly respected "Papyrus of Hunefer" found in the Egyptians' and other Nile Valley indigenous Africans' "Book of the Coming Forth By Night," as follows:

"We come from the beginning of the Nile where the God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the mountain of the moon" (Kilimanjaro - between Kenya and Tanzania, or Rwenzori in Uganda). By the time history evolved in the lands of Somali land or Punt, King Horus invaded Egypt and brought civilization.

This ruler, Horus, was later deified and became ultimately the Egyptian Christ. The followers of Horus were called "Black Smiths," because they possessed iron instruments. This early culture has been traced from Somalia and back to the regions and areas of the mountain of the moon, as attested to by the Edfu Text. This migration of Africans from the mountain of the moon began long before 7,000 BC

That these ancient Africans possessed tolls and weapons of iron should occasion no surprise; for the magazine, Natural History, Sept.-Oct 1932, there is an article by the Italian explorer, Nino del Grande, entitled "Prehistoric Iron Smelting in Africa" in which the author tell of his discovery of an iron-smelting furnace in Northern Rhodesia of an antiquity of from five to six thousand years or more(Northern Rhodesia is modern-day Zambia which has Lake Nyasa part of its land and water mass).

Art in the Nile Valley early 7th Millennium BC ...

At around 7,000 BC, the early inhabitants in the Nile Valley were beginning to emerge from the neolithic culture of the villages of Upper-Egypt and those of Merimdeh on the western edge of the Delta and on the shore of the lake of Fayum, which was in the escarpment of the western desert a little south of Cairo.

The early inhabitants of Kemet(kmt), began the task of controlling the flood waters of the Nile by building dykes and canals. Joint effort and co-operation of several communities came together and accepted an appointed leadership and the pre-eminence of it's local god… These districts coalesced and came to be known in later times as Nomes, each with its chief city.

The coalition of these districts resulted into the two Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, which was late in pre-dynastic times, and the uniting of the whole country at the beginning of the historical period. These periods fit into well defined groups; The Earlier Amratian of Upper Egypt, and the Gerzean; then there is also the material from Fayum in Northern Egypt called the Negada I for Amratian and Negada II for the Gerzean. Most material of the Gerzean was found in Northern Egypt, where it succeeds the Amratian.

While the same types of material like same types of pottery and other grave equipment that goes into Late Gerzean, showed the advance stages of development, which characterized a much more sophisticated culture like that of Dynasty I. The sculptured objects deposited into the ancient shrine of the Southern Capital at Hierakonpolis are commemorating victories of the south over the north, in a struggle which finally resulted in the subjugation of the Delta(north) which had been ruled from Buto.

The Predynastic Period was a time in which man was beginning to learn the use of coper for tools and weapons and was slowly working out of a Stone Age Culture. In the designs on pottery and figures modeled in mud and fashioned from bone and ivory, we see the beginnings of Egyptian art. The craftsman was also learning how to work stone in the form of vessels as well as palettes(See #1 and #2 photos) The crafts men were also learning how to work stone in the form of vessels as well as palettes for mixing the green paint, made from powdered malachite, which was smeared around the eyes.

The skill that they had gained was to form a basis for the Egyptian's extraordinary mastery of stone, along with the fine black-topped red pottery which had begun to appear in the Badarian times, and the Amratian pottery produced a red polished ware which was decorated in cream-colored paint(See #3 Photo)

The Hierakonpolis ivories present a considerable variety in pose, costume and headdress. However, it's not easy to distinguish an early group among the statuettes, since there is too general resemblance to the small carvings of stone, faience, and ivory objects found in the Abydos temple deposit, which indicate that they belonged to Dynasty I and II, and to ivory carvings found in the first Dynasty tombs at Helwan(Smith)

Egyptian Pictographic language

The Hierakonpolis painting does show an advance over the linear one-color treatment of the vases in that the red of the flesh and white of the skirts, and the black and white of the animals and boats are filled with solid color inside the red outlines. It is a development manifest on the relief of a series of palettes and mace heads which display much more accomplished drawings than paintings, but also show a progression towards orderly arrangement from the confusion of animals on the Oxford palette from the Hierakonpolis temple.(N. de G. Davies)

Pharaoh Min of the 4th Millennium

Egyptian Pharaoh Min who was know as the God of Fertility and Power and and purported to be the earliest Ruler of Egypt as told to Herodotus by the Egyptians themselves
Egyptian Pharaoh Min who was know as the God of Fertility and Power and and purported to be the earliest Ruler of Egypt as told to Herodotus by the Egyptians themselves

To this place from the sea[Now] is seven days passage up the river ... Later Solon, en route from Greece, happened upon an Egyptian priest of Sais. Trying to engage him in an historical debate the priest answered thus, "you Greeks are novices in all knowledge of antiquity. you are ignorant of what passed here or among yourselves in the days of old.The history of eight-thousand yeas is deposited in our sacred books, but we can ascend to much higher antiquity and tell you what our fathers have done for nine-thousand years. I mean their institutions, their laws, and their brilliant accomplishments."

According to Diodorus' sources, which corroborate those of Herodotus, the Ethiopians began to migrate into Egypt while some of it was still underwater: "They even allege that this country was originally under water, but that the Nile,dragging mud as it flowed from Ethiopia, and finally filled it in and made it a part of the continent." The is ample evidence that the Mediterranean still covered Egypt while the rest of the continent was already dry, and that the firs of the new Egyptians began to build as the water receded.

Herodotus, as we have already said, was told that the first ruler Min lived at this time and recorded his own conclusion: "I not only believe the people who gave me this account of Egypt, but my own conclusions strongly support what they said ... Now it is my belief that Egypt was originally an arm of the sea." In support he noted, "I have observed for myself that Egypt at the Nile Delta projects into the se beyond the coast on either side; I have seen sea shells on the hills and noticed how salt exudes from the soil to such an extent that it affects even the pyramids; I have noticed too, that the only hill where there is sand is the hill above Memphis, and that the soil of Egypt does not resemble that of the neighboring country of Arabia, or Libya, or even Syria ... but is black as one would expect of an alluvial soil ..."

More evidence comes from books of Thoth (Hermes). It describes one of the pyramids as standing upon the seas-shore, "the waves of which dashed in powerless fury against the base."

Modern scientists confirm these ancient writers. An archeologist, Dr. H. Getzinger produced startling photographs of one of the sides of the Great Pyramid revealing the incrustation of sea-shells at a certain level quite above the present level of the base of the structure. Dr. R. Rennel and American geologist substantiates this by saying, "The configuration and composition of the low lands of Egypt leave no room to doubt that the sea once washed the base of the rocks on which the the pyramids ... stand; the present base of which is reached by the inundations of the Nile at an elevation seventy or eighty feet above the mediterranean."

Apart from the question of Egypt's chronology, there remains the intriguing questions as to who were the Egyptians and from where did they originate? Having raised this question, it is better that we learn as to what the Egyptians have to say about their origins. I maintain, as the author of this article that the Egyptians are of Southern African origin. My reason for stating that the Egyptians originated from Southern Africa is covered in my Hub(soon to be published called "From Gondwanaland to Mzantsi: Untold Human Origins and African History Of African South African," wherein I trace the history and architecture of South Africa, which thus far has been hidden in plain-sight by theApartheid regime.

I was still stating my reasons for emphasizing the indigenous Southern origins os the Ancient Egyptians, who were equally "Africans," is based upon historical message extracted from the highly respected "Papyrus of Hunefer" found in the Egytpians' and other Nile Valley indigenous Africans' "Book of the Coming Forth by Day and Night"; thus, the Egyptian clearly state that:

"We came from the beginning of the Nile where the God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the Mountain of the Moon." (Kilimanjaro-between Kenya and Tanzania, or Rwenzori in Uganda).

The Places/Areas Where the Egyptians say they have originated from

he Rwenzori Mountains are steep, rugged and very wet. They owe their origins to thrusting of the earth's crust associated with the creation of the Albertine Rift, which makes them geologically quite different to the other high East African mountains
he Rwenzori Mountains are steep, rugged and very wet. They owe their origins to thrusting of the earth's crust associated with the creation of the Albertine Rift, which makes them geologically quite different to the other high East African mountains
The foot of Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya
The foot of Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya | Source

In reviewing Egypt's beginnings, we find an advanced civilization already intact from the earliest Dynasty. This fact has perplexed historians down through the ages. common sense dictates that if Egypt began fully mature, then its civilization must have originated elsewhere. "we find when we discover egypt in what we call the First Dynasty, under Menes, that it is at its absolute zenith of culture in Painting, Sculpture, Architecture and history

So that, after the first four Dynasties discussed in this Hub, that is, from this peak period, the Egyptian culture steadily declines. It is very much as if the Egyptians found themselves the inheritors of a great ready-made culture of which they could take advantage, which they could utilize and even to some degree emulate, but which they themselves did not create. But this is what this part of this Hub is going to attempt to debunk and tell a bit about the how the creation of the architecture, art, sculpture and pyramids that we see was done by the egyptians themselves.

enes made an impact on his civilization by unifying (uniting) Upper and Lower Egypt. He could have unified the two kingdoms by military force or being peaceful. How did he do this by being peaceful? It could have been marriage or administrative measu
enes made an impact on his civilization by unifying (uniting) Upper and Lower Egypt. He could have unified the two kingdoms by military force or being peaceful. How did he do this by being peaceful? It could have been marriage or administrative measu | Source
The Anu
The Anu | Source

Abbe Emile (1850-1916) is credited with the discovery of the Anu and their contribution to Egyptian civilization. It was Amelineau who designated the first African race to occupy Egypt as the Anu. He followed their path along the Nile, and revealed that they built cities of Esneh, Erment, Qouch, and Heliopolis. According to Amelineau, "All those cities have the characteristic symbol which serves to denote the name Anu.

"These Anu(Africans) were agricultural people, raising cattle on a large scale along the Nile. shutting themselves up in walled cities for defensive purposes. To this people we dan 'attribute without fear of error', the most ancient Egyptian books. The book of the Dead and the Text of the Pyramids, consequently, all the religious teachings. I would add almost all the philosophical systems then known and still Egyptian. They evidently knew the crafts necessary for any civilizations and were familiar if not adapt/efficient with tools of those trades as required.

They made and discovered the earliest forms and ways of writing, and the whole Egyptian tradition(historyof the arts, etc) attributes this Art to Thoth, the Great Hermes, and Anu like Osiris, who is called 'Onian' in Chapter Fifteen of the The Book Of The Dead, and in the Texts of the Pyramids.

Certainly the people already knew the principal arts; it left proof of this in the 'Architecture' of the tombs at Abydos. Also, just to note in passing and in brief, Count Constantin de Volney, on his sojourn to Egypt, made the following statement, "... all[the inhabitants] have a bloated face, puffed up eyes, flat nose, thick lips .. I was tempted to attribute it to the climate, but when I visited the Sphinx, its appearance gave me the Key to the riddle. On seeing that head, typically Negro(African) in all its features. I remembered the remarkable passage where Herodotus [5th century B.C.] says: 'As for me, I judge the Colchians to a be a colony of the Egyptians because, like them, they are Black(African), with wooley hair. ...' In other words, the Ancient Egyptians were the True Negroes(Africans) of the same type as all native-born Africans.

"Just think that this race of Black(African) men, today our slaves and the object of our scorn, is the very race to which we owe our arts, sciences(architecture) and even the use of speech! Just imagine, finally, that it is in the midst of peoples who call themselves the greatest friends of liberty and humanity that one has approved the most barbarous slavery and questioned whether Black(African) men have the same intelligence as Whites!" (Count de Volney)

A much more close-up Face of the sphinx as seen and described by Count de Volney.. The Face of an African person... The Great Sphinx of Giza. His beard has fallen off and his nose was shot off during target practice by the French!
A much more close-up Face of the sphinx as seen and described by Count de Volney.. The Face of an African person... The Great Sphinx of Giza. His beard has fallen off and his nose was shot off during target practice by the French! | Source
The African Origin of Egyptian Civilization. Banqueting Scene, tomb of Nebamum and Ipuky
The African Origin of Egyptian Civilization. Banqueting Scene, tomb of Nebamum and Ipuky | Source
The ancient Egyptians were not Europeans or Asians. They were in fact largely indigenous Africans, both biologically and culturally. That is not to say that there was no cultural or genetic influence from Europe or Asia, but any such influence was no
The ancient Egyptians were not Europeans or Asians. They were in fact largely indigenous Africans, both biologically and culturally. That is not to say that there was no cultural or genetic influence from Europe or Asia, but any such influence was no | Source
Another line of evidence showing a relationship between ancient Egyptians and populations from tropical Africa concerns the skeleton beyond the skull, specifically the proportions of the limbs. Tropical African populations have proportionately longer
Another line of evidence showing a relationship between ancient Egyptians and populations from tropical Africa concerns the skeleton beyond the skull, specifically the proportions of the limbs. Tropical African populations have proportionately longer | Source

The Making of a Civilization, its History, Art and Architecture

In order for me to not only repeat the oft said historical facts, in this part of the Hub, I will be looking at those who have made all this possible, the people who have made the existence and longevity of the civilization of Egypt possible. It is also important to note that Egypt was African inspired and African originated mega civilization second to none on earth.

Having stated the bold assertion above, and as an African historian, the point I made above about the fact that the Egyptian civilization is not only magnificent, but it helped Greece and the civilization spawn to the myriads manifestations that ended up being called Europe, to Europe, through Egypt, but, my contention is that it was not only a magnificent civilization, but it was a carry-over, or should we say, the ability of African people to carry or have carried their civilization,

From a quarter of billion years ago, and by so saying I am stating as a matter of fact that the present Egyptian civilization, has its antecedents, its beginnings, its founding, and was an evolving and spreading civilization from which, this Egyptian civilization has its antecedent in the place and land of the origin of Man, and the creation, by Africans in Mzantsi, of their Civilization and a show of how and why Egypt came into being this civilization we see today as it can now be traced as far back as 200,000 B. C., has before been met oft with berating and derisive downgrading dismissal shown and talked about above.

As one can see from those who came before me, of African descent, have been shut down, cast out, or as those master teachers were never given enough publicity and publications, and if they did, their works were for the few who have met these Master Teachers, and listened full and at length what they have to say.

Once you tarry from the educational fine-tuning one has been through, but look outside that academic box with one's perspective, know-how, research, and continuous hard nosed research, this then has to begin to dawn upon the people of Mzantsi and Africa, that the day is nigh that we Really begin, to commence to look at historical facts as we find them ourselves, write them anew, in a more confident and informed light, and have them believe that we can be liberated like that historically we are motivated and applying these new, fresh and emerging ideas, which are enabled by the new world social media and the Internet plus the explosion of data and meta-data in the viral system, that, when I therefore state what I have just said above, it is then best to move forward on this postulation.

The Egyptian civilization was an African phenomena of original what we see today, and because of that, African people and people of goodwill should begin to look at African history, as a very old, antiquated History of human magnificence, that, what was left of the culture of Mzantsi, was the much more well-synthesized and magnificent civilization as the one that can be found in Mzantsi. There is a real and existing material culture to back up what I am saying. But in this Hub, I will not show any pictures of the Hub I am working onto, which has broken my point that:

Egyptian civilization and in its manifestation, was a civilization that has evolved from prior civilization dotting the landscape of Africa, and the oldest of these cities and structures, can be fond and have been photographed, and can be seen too. So, My point is that the architecture, Art and whole civilization of Egypt, was a carryover of the remote and antiquated civilization that flourished in southern Africa.

Having said this, I am presently working on a Hub that fully confirms what I have said above about Egypt being a civilization of African origin, which, through its march throughout Africa in past and remote antiquity, was just as shining and better/advanced. The builders of this civilization went on to build many other civilizations, developing their landed real estate as would a man developing his country, region, locale, street, home and family.

The civilization of Africa in the Congo, Cities in ruins from the East Coasts to the West-Such as Monomotapa, Zimbabwe, Mapungubwe, was this desire to build throughout Africa, in stone all the way to Egypt. In its progression this originating of all things, founding of cities and the establishment of different levels of all types of organization, economics, war-preparedness or not, and so forth.

To be understood, it has to be looked at from the historical facts that the origination of cities, agriculture, irrigation and so forth, types of organization, have their origins in South Africa.(I will come back to this part and announce the publication of the ideas I am cobbling up above into the Hub that helps me point out the this historical reality-See my Hub "From Mzantsi To Gondwanaland..." published here on HubPages).

Nonetheless, I will progress, in this Hub, from the Egyptian historical point of view, and hope the read bears in mind that I maintain that this was an evolved form of civilization that originated in South Africa, which up to the point I am making this statement, had been a bit like pieces of a puzzle.

This puzzle was and its still a chasm that was built into the social fabric, psyche and should that we , Africans, are different and we will never untie given our many languages and cultures, and studying of those different cultures has been neglected, and the new perspectives that one can glean from that kind of practice and discipline, are lost academically and intellectually to many "Edumacated " Africans.

So that Africans would never be able to develop their historical/or any other thing that is in the best interest of Africans because it has long been hi-jacked by the in-built biases against Africans from those institutions they are Edumacated in, and their shaped and formed into those same institutional historical gatekeepers. African scholars, not all, we the up and coming generation, get caught-up quoting and not writing about the present, of which we have so much ample evidence about the past, that Africans should be writing into the record books of history, our history from new African-centered perspectives of the "Present Future."

So that, this Hub, on the architecture and art of Egypt is of prime importance because that to, is a time period that is important, because, all that was done between the 1st to the theAnother line of evidence showing a relationship between ancient Egyptians and populations from tropical Africa concerns the skeleton beyond the skull, specifically the proportions of the limbs. Tropical African populations have proportionately longer limbs than European or Asian populations, because longer limbs dissipate heat more easily. Measurements of ancient Egyptian skeletons has shown that their limb proportions were within the range of tropical African populations (Zakrzewski 2003)

This does not really matter, because as I have given some pictures above of African Egyptians, These are Africans and they are the people who live and were of the continent and originated from Africa. And in my case here, to those who dare challenge the accepted historical status quo, and this has an effect on the potential scholar or reader/student or "Western Schooled" Africans, who were and have been orientated and tutored into the system of their dominance.

So that subjects like African Egyptian history were the purview of White Egyptologists, that, we the present-day African historians are saying that there was a civilization of Mzantsi, and there is ample evidence from the south of Egypt, and from all parts of Africa, that there have been civilizations all the way to the civilization of Mali, Songhay, and so forth-starting from and emerging and originating in South Africa(Mzantsi).

So that, African scholars need to begin to put the puzzle together, according to how we see that history of Egypt and as it relates to Africa. This was African History and it should be told from an African-centered perspective. Each of the best African historians should come together from all countries of Africa, and tell all about their countries in well written scholarly works of African descent.

This had been going on from the time Herodotus got to be informed about the history of Egypt

The civilization of Egypt, when it emerged in the Nile Rover, has been well told above, and ow, what this did was to affect many of the subsequent civilization of the Near East. I think that the emergence of the first known African kings near Abydos in middle Egypt, or came from the first Kings of central Africa gets caught up with my analysis that this civilization, did not come out of thin air. It was a 200,000 evolution coming out of the desire of these Africans to build on their landed estate, African cities and symbols throughout these cities, that the sooner we accept the facts as willresented elsewhere, this remains the bone of contention.

I therefore assert that the Thinite Kings, whose origins still baffle the Egyptologist, is because we Africans, too, have not yet linked all they know and unknown cities and civilization that proliferated throughout Africa, and by dating these, African will begin to see the pattern of movement in historical time line so great that, is still needed something, either that speculation or careless dismissal from some in White History departments and circles that, referring to the origins of the Thinite, the scholars, being frustrated, simply write: "Whatever their origins.."

No, In this case, I will rely on my assertion that Egyptian origins from Africa can be traced back right into South Africa, and have been dated to be even older than Egypt. The 17,00 to 200 20 tracing of the Egyptian, for if one includes the history and search into the Ethiopian, Nubian or Kushite civilization, yields even older and antiquated history of cities and civilization that were thriving in that part of the African world(This can be seen with new Digtal imagine showing vast cities buried under the sand spanning the ength and breadth of the Nile River).

The concepts of political organizations, economical situations, high level of technology and inter/intra Human communication and development-are what comprised the African Egyptian civilization. This concept did not originate from nowhere, but if one were to study very closely and carefully this historiography, whatever the remnants of culture in country like South Africa, one is able to build a different and powerful picture about African history and how this history originated, evolved and spread throughout Africa at at different times of the region; where one can find those cities of stone(In Rustenburg , South Africa), 10 times larger than the biggest cities in the world, and that, the concepts that were to govern and build Egypt later, can be found and traced back to the Africans of South Africa and their Culture. history, and material culture to back up this historical fact and truth.

It is important also to have a serious and well-informed research on the culture of Africans of South Africa, because in it, since it is the origin of humanity, there are ideas, thoughts and practices that are carried on from antiquity that help clear up this argument as to the origin of all civilizations, which is the Stone Builders Civilization of Mzantsi.

Egyptian Art And Architecture Is African History

Left Palette-The Principal scene on the Narmer Palette; Right Palette-King walks among decapitated bodies of is enemies; the middle part is the intrusion of Mesopotamian part-which I do not buy-lower part of this panel shows King as royal strong bull
Left Palette-The Principal scene on the Narmer Palette; Right Palette-King walks among decapitated bodies of is enemies; the middle part is the intrusion of Mesopotamian part-which I do not buy-lower part of this panel shows King as royal strong bull | Source
Ivory Sandal label of Kin Den (4th King, 1st Dynasty); showing him smiting an enemy
Ivory Sandal label of Kin Den (4th King, 1st Dynasty); showing him smiting an enemy | Source

To be learned in all that is worth while knowing. Not to be crammed with the subject of the book or the philosophy of the classroom, but to store away in your head such facts as you need for the daily application of life, so that you may the better in all things understand your fellowmen, and interpret you relationship to your creator.

You can be educated in soul, vision and feeling, as well as in mind. To see your enemy and know him is a part of the complete education of men, to spiritually regulate one's self in another form of the higher education that fits man for a nobler place in life, and still, to approach your brother by the feeling of your own humanity, is an education that soften the ills of the world and makes us kind indeed.

Many a man was educated outside the schoolroom. It is something you let out, not completely take in. You are a part of it, for it is natural; it is dormant simply because you will not develop it, but God creates every man with it knowingly or unknowingly to him who possesses it—that's the difference. Develop yours and you become as great and full of knowledge as the other fellow without even entering the classroom. (Mark Garvey)


Great Pyramid of Giza is also a worth mention on the list of destinations that provide a life-changing experience to travelers. In the Giza Necropolis, Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest of the three. This Pyramid was the tallest mad-made structure
Great Pyramid of Giza is also a worth mention on the list of destinations that provide a life-changing experience to travelers. In the Giza Necropolis, Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest of the three. This Pyramid was the tallest mad-made structure
Pharaoh Khufu
Pharaoh Khufu
Imhotep _multi genius- (Lived in 27th century BCE) Egyptian architect, chief magician at the Pharaoh's court, vizier, sage and astrologer. About 100 years after his death, he was elevated to a medical demigod. About 2000 years later, he was elevated
Imhotep _multi genius- (Lived in 27th century BCE) Egyptian architect, chief magician at the Pharaoh's court, vizier, sage and astrologer. About 100 years after his death, he was elevated to a medical demigod. About 2000 years later, he was elevated

The first King of Dynasty I was Aha Mena, or Menes; but before his time there were many petty Kings ruling over small territories in Upper and Lower Egypt. One clan in Lower Egypt has sixty Kings before the reign of Menes. Their totem was the "Hornet," and the King's crown was a low red cap with a high peak at the back. Further South was the "Reed" Kingdom, whose regal headdress was a tall White Crown. Still more distant to the South were two "Hawk" kingdoms.

All these kingdoms were in time united by marriage and conquest. We have to remember that even in Predynastic Egyptian had by then reached a high level of civilization. They imported gold, silver, copper lead, iron, hematite, emery, galena, turgoise, obsidian, serpentine, lapis lazuli, coral, and tortoise shell. With these materials they produced beautiful and useful works of art, which were to call forth the wonder and admiration of later ages.

Egypt's first golden Age was initiated by an invasion from Ethiopia. According to Petrie: "A conquerer of Sudani featured founded the third Dynasty, and may entirely new ideas entered the country. The achievement of the reign of Khufu was the building of the Great Pyramid. The classic account of the building of the Great Pyramid was related by Herodotus in this manner:

"The Pyramid itself was twenty years in the building. It is a square 100 feet each way, ... built entirely of polished stone, fitted together with the utmost care. The stones of which it is composed are none of them less than 30 feet in length. ... After laying the Stones for the base, they raised the remaining stones to their places by means of machines formed of short wooden planks. ...

There is an inscription in Egyptian characters around the pyramid which records the quantity of radishes, onions and Garlic consumed by the laborers who constructed it; and I perfectly well remember that the interpreter who read the writing to me said that the money expended in this way was about 1,600 talents of silver[A talent in ancient times would be the value of 89,000 pounds of silver.]

If this then is a true record, what a vast sum must have been spent on the iron tools used in the work, and on the feeding and clothing of the laborers, considering the length of time the work lasted, which has already been stated, and the additional time-no small space, I imagine-which must have been occupied by the quarrying of the stones, their conveyance, and the formation of the underground apartments"

We learn more concretely and clearly about the Structure and design of the Pyramid from

Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace in an Address before the British Association for the advancement of Science, at Glasgow in 1876, as follows:

"1. That the pyramid is truly square, the sides being equal and the angles right angles. 2. That the four sockets on which the four stones of the corners rest are truly on the same level. 3. That the directions of the sides are accurately to the four cardinal points. 4. That the vertical hight of the pyramid bears the same proportion to its circumference at the base as the radius of a circle does to its circumferences.

"Now, all these measures, angles, and levels are accurate, not as an ordinary surveyor or builder could make them, but to such a degree as requires the best modern instruments and all the refinements of geological science to discover any error at all. In addition to this we have the wonderful perfection of the workmanship in the interior of the Pyramid, the passages and chambers being lined with huge blocks of stone fitted with the utmost accuracy, while every part of the building exhibits the highest structural science."

An Unusual feature connected with the orientation of the Pyramid has been studied by Colonel Brahine, and in his own words wrote:

"A detailed study of the structure will convince any investigator that the wealth of mathematical, geometrical and astronomical data concealed within it is not accidental, but has been produced intentionally after numerous and complex calculations, made by somebody possessing an astounding amount of knowledge.

"... Not the least interesting detail concerning the orientation of the Pyramid in the following: the reflection of the sun rays from the sides of the pyramid indicates almost exactly the equinoxes and solstices and therefore, the sowing time. The northern side of the pyramid is lighted at sunrise for some moments during the period from the Spring-equinox till the autumn-equinox. During the remainder of the year the southern side is lighted at sunrise till sunset. This phenomenon fixes the moment fixes the moment of the equinoxes with 12 hours."

"When the Stone-facing was intact, this phenomenon of the missing shadow must have been still more pronounced was noticed by the ancients. The Latin Poet Ausonius writes:

"Que et ipsa coumit puramis umbras."

["The pyramid itself swallows the shadow born on its summit,"] This phenomenon has now been explained by Prof. Pochan, who discovered that the northern and southern sides of the Pyramid are not true planes, but dihedral angles of 179 degrees 50 minutes. Thus in plain speaking, the sides in question have been hallowed out to the extent of 94 centimeters, insuring a rapid disappearance of the shadow of the sunrise at the equinoxes."

The building of the Great Pyramid was a great and well organized project. One hundred thousand men were employed three months at a time, in transporting the rocks to the construction site. The actual construction required an additional 20 years, which according to Petrie, basing his conclusions on data supplied by Herodotus, gives a vivid picture picture of how this vast engineering job was accomplished:

"This time would imply that a gang of eight men (about as many as could work on one block) could move ten stones from the quarry across the Nile, up the causeways, and raised into place within three months. This would be quite possible with organization.

There are several causeways besides the main one, still visible on the desert, and they must have been closely packed by working gangs to get up the thousand blocks everyday during the working season. Of course there also highly skilled masons necessary for the thirteen acres of finely jointed casing, and the internal parts, the barracks for these are still visible, and would hold, at the outside, 4,000 men, who would live there continuously

"If half of them were engaged on the casing, each man would have to prepare accurately and fit in place one casing, each man would have to prepare accurately and fit in place one casing block every three weeks, or rather, a gang of three men doing a block in a week. This is also a reasonable result. Of course, the great blocks at the base would take far longer, and the small courses would be done in perhaps half the time for each stone. ...

"Much nonsense has been written about the oppression of the people, their tears and their groans. With the splendid organization evident in the work, the people must have been well-managed, and there was no hardship, whatever, in carrying out the work.

Each man might have been levied twice in his lifetime; he would be just as well off there as at home, for he could do nothing during the inundation. All that was necessary was to transport a couple of hundredweight of food with him, which he would eat there instead of home. The immense gain to the people was the education in combined work and technical training."(Petrie).

We are informed by Stanley Carson that, "When the Greeks first began to come to Egypt, awed by its antiquity and overwhelmed by its multiplicity of gods, it what they really found was a nation of fellahin ruled with a rod of iron by a society of Antiquaries."

The Priestly caste of Egypt may have been a "society of Antiquaries" in the seventh century BC, when the first Greeks settled in the country, but that certainly was not the case in the days of the Old Kingdom. The Priesthood of early Egypt comprised not only the sacredotal officialdom, but also the entire learned and professional classes of the nation, including the civil service in its entirety. A colorful and accurate account of the achievements of these African, is still a wonder to learn about

Some Smattering of Egyptian Priesthood

Priest for the Royal funerary religion, 6th Dynasty., -2400 B.C.
Priest for the Royal funerary religion, 6th Dynasty., -2400 B.C. | Source
There was no distinctive priestly clothing during the Old Kingdom. - Provincial officer and priest Merire on his funerary stela (23rd or 22nd cent. B.C., Dendera,
There was no distinctive priestly clothing during the Old Kingdom. - Provincial officer and priest Merire on his funerary stela (23rd or 22nd cent. B.C., Dendera, | Source
Priest and Astronomer Taitai, 18th Dynasty
Priest and Astronomer Taitai, 18th Dynasty | Source
The priest Anen with a leopard skin imitation and a decorative sash. He served under Pharaoh Amenhotep III., 14th cent. B.C. (Statue was found in Karnak, today: Turin, Egyptian Museum)
The priest Anen with a leopard skin imitation and a decorative sash. He served under Pharaoh Amenhotep III., 14th cent. B.C. (Statue was found in Karnak, today: Turin, Egyptian Museum)
Statue of the priest Amenmose, 11th cent. B.C. He kneels and holds the chapel with Goddess Hathor (Turin, Egyptian Museum)
Statue of the priest Amenmose, 11th cent. B.C. He kneels and holds the chapel with Goddess Hathor (Turin, Egyptian Museum)
Priest Djasha, serving at a royal funerary temple, statue from a Mastaba at Gizeh(Found in the Egyptian Museum, today)
Priest Djasha, serving at a royal funerary temple, statue from a Mastaba at Gizeh(Found in the Egyptian Museum, today) | Source
Block-Statue of the Priest Sennefer, with dedication to Hathor, ~1360 v. Chr. (Berlin, Neues Museum
Block-Statue of the Priest Sennefer, with dedication to Hathor, ~1360 v. Chr. (Berlin, Neues Museum
A Priest with a papyrus scroll in his right hand; on his skirt the first words of a prayer to Osiris(Middle Kingdom)
A Priest with a papyrus scroll in his right hand; on his skirt the first words of a prayer to Osiris(Middle Kingdom)

Life Of The African Peoples Of Egypt..

Winwood Reade wrote this about the Priesthood of Egypt:

"Priests were the Royal chroniclers and keepers of the records, the engravers of inscriptions, physicians of the sick and embalmers of the dead, layers, lawgivers, sculptors and musicians. Most of the skilled labor of the country was under their control. In their hands were the linen manufacturers and the quarries between the cataracts.

Even those posts in the Army which required a knowledge of arithmetic and penmanship were supplied by them: every general was attended by young priest, scribes, with papyrus rolls in their hands, and reed pencils behind their ears. The clergy preserved the monopoly which they had invented; the whole intellectual life of Egypt was in them.

"It was they who, with their kilometers, took the measure of the waters, and proclaimed the harvest to the people or bade them prepare for hungry days. It was they who studied the disease of the country, compiled a pharmacopoeia, and invented the signs which are used in our prescriptions today-in the modern world.

"Their power was immense, but it was exercised with justice and discretion; they issued admirable laws, and taught the people to obey them by example of their own humble, self denying lives(Ubuntu/Botho — on steroids...

Under the tutelage of these pious and enlightened men, the Egyptians became a prosperous and also a highly moral people. The monumental paintings reveal their whole life, but we read in them no brutal of licentious scenes. ... The penalty for the murder of a slave was death; this law exists without parallel in the dark slavery annals both of ancient and modern times. ...

It is a sure criterion of the civilization of ancient Egypt that the soldiers did not carry arms except on duty, and that the private citizens did not carry them at all. Women were treated with much regard. ... When a party was given, the guests were received by the host and hostess, seated side by side in a large armchair. In the paintings their mutual affection is portrayed. Their fond manners, their gestures of endearment, the caresses which they lavish on their children, from sweet and touching scenes of domestic life. ...

"The civil law was were administered in such a manner that the poor could have recourse to them as well as the rich. The judge received large salaries that they might be placed above the temptation of bribery, and might never disgrace the image of Truth which they wore around their necks suspended."

There's more we are going to have to beginto dig up and learn about the civilization, people, and lives of the African Egyptians.

Imhotep - the World's Firs Multi-genius
Imhotep - the World's Firs Multi-genius

A Bit On Imhotep

Something needs to be said about Imhotep before wrapping up on the Pyramid Age and the Old Kingdom. We learn from James Henry breasted that "Imhotep, the architect who designed the first payramid,that this truly great man, besides being an architect, was Vizier (Prime Minister) to King Zoser of the Third Dynasty (5345-5307 B.C.).In addition, he was an astronomer and magician, and held the post of Chief Physician to the Monarch. He was the world's first multigenius"

"In the latter days he was deified and became the God of Medicine. Known to the Greeks as Imouthes, he was recognized as their own Aesculapius. "A temple was erected to him near the Seraum at Memphis," we are informed by an American Egyptologists, "and at the present-day every museum possess a bronze statuette or two of this apotheosized wise man, the proverb make, physician and architect of King Zoser.

"The priests who conducted the rebuilding of the temple of Edfu under the Ptolemies, claimed to be reproducing the structure formerly erected there after plans of Imhotep; and it may therefore well be that Zoser was the builder of a temple there."

All this took place in Egypt because for a long time Egypt was protected by a formidable desert barriers and confined to a narrow river valley. It was less subject to outside influences and its culture presents as one of its salient characteristics, along, virtually unbroken continuity. The peculiarity of life after death in a form similar to that which had been experienced upon earth provided an element in the development of the arts which was not present to such an extent in other countries.

"Thus, while architecture, painting, and sculpture ordinarily appeared in the service of the cult of a god or to glorify the wealth and power of a ruler, in Egypt we find emphasis laid upon providing a lasting dwelling place for the dead, the recreation of life magically in pictures serve him, and lastly the vision of a substitute in stone for his perishable body.

Whenever we begin to tell the history of Egypt, there are a myriad things that have to be talked about. It is a massive task, and in the Hub above, this is still ongoing work, and will be adding some other interesting aspects of this narrative very soon

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Comments 10 comments

rakesh mahadik profile image

rakesh mahadik 6 years ago from indore(m.p.)

sir nice hub i am reding your all egyption hubs.

thanks and what is imege of queen cilopetra


ixwa profile image

ixwa 6 years ago Author

In order to answer your question, I added a few pictures of Cleopatra in the Picture gallery of this hub. Cleopatra remains Elizabeth Taylor at her zenith in a film by that name. That film gives the impression that Cleopatra was fair skinned like the English beauty that played her, only now evidence shows something else entirely with her African roots an area needing development n the 2000 year old story that is Cleopatra. Saying that she was Africa is something that is true,and seeing her pictures etched in stone, buttressed the fact that she is of African origin. The discovery of her bust, listed in the picture gallery and her limestone stela, attest to the fact of her African origins. I hope I managed to answer your questions and thank you for your interest and comments.


AlanZimmerman profile image

AlanZimmerman 6 years ago from Chicago, IL

This is an incredible hub, with some great insight into the architecture of Egypt. The Egyptian's really had a knack for doing things years ahead of other civilizations, and I am always amazed at what they accomplished.

Ahhh, a dream vacation would be The Nile....someday.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 6 years ago Author

AlanZimmerman: Welcome to the Hub above. I am very impressed with your comments and got a lot of encouragement from them. I am also happy that you got the gist of the article which is the fact that you point out that the 'Egyptians really had a knack for doing things years ahead of other civilizations', which is true, and I hope modern man might learn from the Egyptians, I have travelled quit a bit to Egypt, and it's a travel in time (earth) and space(the universe) unequalled in my travels. Please take the trip, it's worth it, and I hope you have a good guide to put it all into perspective. Thank you very much and I appreciate your visit and comments.


electricsky profile image

electricsky 6 years ago from North Georgia

Thanks for sharing your pictures of Egyptian history and art. I especially like the pictures of Cleopatra. They say she was queen of Egypt but I did not know she was of African ancestry.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 6 years ago Author

electricsky: Than you or visiting the Hub above and viewing the picture gallery. You will have to know by now that Egypt is in Africa, and Egyptian art and architecture is African Art and architecture. Yes, Cleopatra was African and you can read up on her African origins and rule from any books in the library. A librarian my be able to assist you pick up a specific book of the history of Egypt, as an African entity, and Cleopatra being African, too. Thanks for the response.


ChristinCordle12 profile image

ChristinCordle12 5 years ago

This is cool hub, Thanks for sharing.


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ixwa 5 years ago Author

ChristinCordie12: Welcome to the Hub above, and am glad you came by. I am also happy that you think well of the information within the Hub. I am looking forward to see some of your comments in the other Hubs I have penned for HubPages. Thanks for the kind comments. Thank you!


Johna610 2 years ago

Greetings! Very useful advice within this article! It is the little changes that make the most important changes. Many thanks for sharing! bcfecadacbed


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ixwa 2 years ago Author

Thanks you, I hope you got something beneficial out of the the Hub above... Johna610...

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