History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices Of the Africans of South Africa: Deconstructing Historical Amnesia

An artists impression of Mapungubwe in the thirtheenth century A.D.
An artists impression of Mapungubwe in the thirtheenth century A.D.
The newly re-zoned South African map. This Map shows the position of  Mapungubwe in relation to the country of South Africa as a whole
The newly re-zoned South African map. This Map shows the position of Mapungubwe in relation to the country of South Africa as a whole
Traditional  South African Venda region demarcated in Yellow, shown from the Old Transvaal Map, right on the Limpopo River
Traditional South African Venda region demarcated in Yellow, shown from the Old Transvaal Map, right on the Limpopo River
Mapungubwe replica wall
Mapungubwe replica wall
The Map Showing the Limpopo River
The Map Showing the Limpopo River
Major rivers and streams within Limpopo River Basin
Major rivers and streams within Limpopo River Basin
Aerial view of the Limpopo River
Aerial view of the Limpopo River
This map shows the approximate locations of modern African Peoples of south Africa
This map shows the approximate locations of modern African Peoples of south Africa
Map of Limpopo
Map of Limpopo
The magnificent Baobab Tree in the Limpopo Bushveld
The magnificent Baobab Tree in the Limpopo Bushveld
Limpopo takes up to 10.2% of South Africa's total Land Area
Limpopo takes up to 10.2% of South Africa's total Land Area
Location of Mapungubwe on the Limpopo River   on the Old Transvaal Map
Location of Mapungubwe on the Limpopo River on the Old Transvaal Map
Mpumalanga (Formerly Eastern Transvaal) in the Old Transvaal
Mpumalanga (Formerly Eastern Transvaal) in the Old Transvaal
KwaZulu Natal on the Eastern coast of South Africa
KwaZulu Natal on the Eastern coast of South Africa
Eastern cape on the Southern Eastern Coast of South Africa
Eastern cape on the Southern Eastern Coast of South Africa
Batswana people's pottery-making and is a dying tradition, today
Batswana people's pottery-making and is a dying tradition, today
Batswana people's earthenwre used to cook food and water
Batswana people's earthenwre used to cook food and water
Traditonal Botswana gbaskets
Traditonal Botswana gbaskets
Open Cast mines in Phalaborwa
Open Cast mines in Phalaborwa
At a later stage of the operation a slightly more sophisticated type of bosun's chair takes Mr. Karel Kolkenbeck-Ruh across when the Selati River is in full flood
At a later stage of the operation a slightly more sophisticated type of bosun's chair takes Mr. Karel Kolkenbeck-Ruh across when the Selati River is in full flood
The two 'koppies' that the baPhalaborwa regard as sacred ground. Right: Sealene - (spread the blanket) - the original place of residents and the burial place of chiefs and sub-chiefs. Left: Mmodimulle "(the Gods have eaten")  where the chiefs' mother
The two 'koppies' that the baPhalaborwa regard as sacred ground. Right: Sealene - (spread the blanket) - the original place of residents and the burial place of chiefs and sub-chiefs. Left: Mmodimulle "(the Gods have eaten") where the chiefs' mother
Close up VCR conglomerate at Vaal Reefs (10 Shaft),  with its hangingwall of Ventersdorp basaltic lava
Close up VCR conglomerate at Vaal Reefs (10 Shaft), with its hangingwall of Ventersdorp basaltic lava
Good exposures of Banded Iron Formation can be seen in the open pit sidewalls, Thabazimbi Mines
Good exposures of Banded Iron Formation can be seen in the open pit sidewalls, Thabazimbi Mines
Stromatolitic structures in the Transvaal dolomites, Pering open pit
Stromatolitic structures in the Transvaal dolomites, Pering open pit
Thatba(means Mountain) in this case Thabazimbi means Mountain of iron- several pits have been established on the mountainous region underlain by steeply dipping Banded Iron Formation
Thatba(means Mountain) in this case Thabazimbi means Mountain of iron- several pits have been established on the mountainous region underlain by steeply dipping Banded Iron Formation
Cross section through the Kimberley Mine ("Big Hole")
Cross section through the Kimberley Mine ("Big Hole")
Aerial view of Kimberley, the type of locality of Kimberlite - the primary source of diamonds. Kimberley Mine open Pt ("Big Hole") in the foreground, and De Beers mine open pit in the background
Aerial view of Kimberley, the type of locality of Kimberlite - the primary source of diamonds. Kimberley Mine open Pt ("Big Hole") in the foreground, and De Beers mine open pit in the background
Vaal River near Bothaville, from cliffs cut into Karoo sandstones deposited in a beach environment, complete with heavy mineral placers
Vaal River near Bothaville, from cliffs cut into Karoo sandstones deposited in a beach environment, complete with heavy mineral placers
Mineral resources and ore reserves
Mineral resources and ore reserves
Zulu Hut
Zulu Hut
Zulu houses or huts in a beehive formation close-up
Zulu houses or huts in a beehive formation close-up
The inside design of the Zulu hut; note the central post and the bent stalks which are then covered with thatch
The inside design of the Zulu hut; note the central post and the bent stalks which are then covered with thatch
Ubumba meaning Zulu Potter
Ubumba meaning Zulu Potter
Zulu gourd used to drink traditional beer and mostly used during the "Amadlozi" (Ancestors) celebration or customary rites(called "Ukhamba")
Zulu gourd used to drink traditional beer and mostly used during the "Amadlozi" (Ancestors) celebration or customary rites(called "Ukhamba")
TheZulu ceramics shown here were baked in fire
TheZulu ceramics shown here were baked in fire
Zulu ceramics, arts and other crafts
Zulu ceramics, arts and other crafts
Zulu gourd/ceramics
Zulu gourd/ceramics
Zulu earthenware/ceramic of the 19th Century
Zulu earthenware/ceramic of the 19th Century
Vibrant Zulu ceramic ware and domestic cultural decorative tradition
Vibrant Zulu ceramic ware and domestic cultural decorative tradition
The Basotho Hat or "Mokorotlo(Mokianyeho
The Basotho Hat or "Mokorotlo(Mokianyeho
Basotho people's hut made of stones with thatched grass serving as a roof
Basotho people's hut made of stones with thatched grass serving as a roof
Basotho Arts and crafts
Basotho Arts and crafts
Basotho Arts and Crafts
Basotho Arts and Crafts
A Basotho gourd or Pot
A Basotho gourd or Pot
Dungamanzi(stirring Waters is part of the Tsona and Shangaan Art and shows awareness of the richness of creativity, inovation and a high degree of artistic skill in Limpopo and surrounding regions
Dungamanzi(stirring Waters is part of the Tsona and Shangaan Art and shows awareness of the richness of creativity, inovation and a high degree of artistic skill in Limpopo and surrounding regions
Khoi-Khoi Pot
Khoi-Khoi Pot
Mapungubwe aerial 1. Aerial photos taken a few months ago(around -2010 show the destruction  raken place, mined by an Australian company Coal of Africa Limited(CoAL) which was abruptly halted inits operations in Vele coal mine, 6 k km from Mapungubwe
Mapungubwe aerial 1. Aerial photos taken a few months ago(around -2010 show the destruction raken place, mined by an Australian company Coal of Africa Limited(CoAL) which was abruptly halted inits operations in Vele coal mine, 6 k km from Mapungubwe
South Africa has 11 official languages, and scores of unofficial ones. English is generally understood throughout the country. But more needs to be done in order to understood the broadly fused up African languages . Updated Census 2001 Statistics
South Africa has 11 official languages, and scores of unofficial ones. English is generally understood throughout the country. But more needs to be done in order to understood the broadly fused up African languages . Updated Census 2001 Statistics
This diagram shows how the sounds made by Africans, especially on the part where we speak of and should say the sounds originate from from when spoken
This diagram shows how the sounds made by Africans, especially on the part where we speak of and should say the sounds originate from from when spoken
This IPA Chart, if one understands it careful will help with the pronunciation of the African words in south Africa, along with "Kasi Slang" words or African Origin
This IPA Chart, if one understands it careful will help with the pronunciation of the African words in south Africa, along with "Kasi Slang" words or African Origin
The chart above is put into the Picture gallery to help pronounce and understand better the Consonants used in African Languages
The chart above is put into the Picture gallery to help pronounce and understand better the Consonants used in African Languages
The symbols above will help the reader pronounce and  spurt words which may be hard to understand or say in the languages of south Africa.
The symbols above will help the reader pronounce and spurt words which may be hard to understand or say in the languages of south Africa.
These are symbols and helping marks dealing with the Word Accents, tones, levels and contours found in the African languages in South Africa
These are symbols and helping marks dealing with the Word Accents, tones, levels and contours found in the African languages in South Africa
This chart helps the learner and reader of African languages in south are formulated and combined
This chart helps the learner and reader of African languages in south are formulated and combined
Home languages of South Africa's citizens
Home languages of South Africa's citizens
Languages in South Africa
Languages in South Africa
Home Languages of South Africa Citizens
Home Languages of South Africa Citizens

Mapungubwe's History, Culture, Traditions, Customs and Practices Writ -Large


The psychology of individuals and groups may also, in part, be constructed from "historical and experiential amnesia".(Wilson)

"Out of The Mountain of Despair, You Can PIck Up A Stone Of Hope". MartinLuther King Jr.

The Loss Of African History and its Consequences

The culture of a people is perhaps best reflected in the language or languages. ...Each language, no matter how small the group, is dear to that group. To ask the members of any clan to replace their language with a foreign tongue is the same as asking them to replace themselves, for their native tongue is an inseparable part of themselves and their personalities. Yet, obviously, easy communication and understanding between numerous language groups are primary requirements of true nationhood and, what is more, there can be no effective national education program to help create an intelligent nation [with nine(9) languages-[that of the 9(nine] peoples spoken about in the first Hub ("South African Culture, Custom, and Practices Writ Large:Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence")

This hub is the continuation of the Hub: South african Culture, Custom and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence. The covering and resuscitation of a culture of a people, in reality, needs more volumes than I can provide. In any case, I am working on giving a clearer and much more true history, culture and languages of the Africans in south Africa, than the phony-baloney fake distortion and culturally dividing and confusing the African people whose culture still needs to be discussed and interrogated thoroughly and extensively and finally, be put into its proper African historiographical perspective.

We must always be aware of one thing as we learn from these lessons from cultural differences and that is that culture cannot be lightly judged by simply saying "this is better" or "that is worse." But by that I do not mean that cultures do not have negative features which have to be surmounted, nor differences inimical to them. ...In preparing oneself for the necessity to understand cultural differences from the point of view of social class, without ever imagining that in a way one is preparing oneself towards understanding Class difference and regional differences-questions of taste, not only as regards the color of the clothes one wears and how one furnishes their room, the practice of hanging photographs on the walls, but also taste as regards food, what seasoning one uses-people's preference at dances for having the sound of the music turned up high, is part of the practices and validation of everyone's culture as practiced by all human beings globally.

Distinctive differences in language, in sentence construction and meanings, also teaches one that to hold on to ones' class prejudices against them or that would be the fatal denial of ones political stance. It also teaches one that to actually overcome ones negative aspects, which requires change in the material basis of society, and it means that the working class must assume their role as subject in the effort to revive the expressions of their culture (Fromm). Fromm says that we need to learn to have an attitude, to practice virtue, not only from a political standpoint, but also existentially: tolerance (Fromm). Understanding this definition above regarding culture, will only help us understand the hub and its contents below much more better and clearer, but the lessons of tolerance are embedded within that culture or cultures.

Mapungubwe: Unlinked Civilization and High Culture of African South Africans

African Kaleidoscopic Cultural, Historical,Traditional and Customary Mosaic

The preceding Hub has covered as much ground as possible in trying to show the Historical, Cultural and Traditional linkages between African South African culture, tradition, custom with that of and as being the same with that of Mapungubwe. When one goes through the historical, cultural, archeological, social, and anthropological literature and records, one is struck by the attempt to sway the fact that African South African Culture is one-and-the-same with that of Mapungubwe, and some want to demonstrate that the only way for historians to understand this is by the way of understanding this culture as if it was really Shona, Zimbabwean, not really South African.

So that, again, here we are confronted with recalcitrant intellectual class which is hell-bent on distorting the linkages between Mapungubwe and the indigenous peoples of South Africa. It is at this point in the Hub we that we try to stitch certain events that took place in the "Old Transvaal", and ferret-out if not tease/flesh out the events that will somehow glue the reality of the Civilization of Mapungubwe as being that of African people in South Africa.

Also, as described in the foregoing Hub on the Custom, Culture and Traditions of African and the fact that they are the very original cultures and custom of Mapungubwe, is an attempt by this author to draw heavily on what other historians have to say about the fact that it is the case: Mapungubwe is a civilization of the African people of South Africa, and I want to bring out written historical account about the fact that African South African history should forever be written in a way that connects with that of Mapungubwe.

In order to address this crucial point,that is, who are these people who lived and flourished and suffered disasters at Mapungubwe and nearby, we will need to- as we will cull very deeply from Basil Davidson and many other writers in order to bring this Nguni/Bakone cultural, social, traditional and customary patchwork into a one and coherent National Kaleidoscopic cultural historiographical mosaic- ply and apply the historical past/records and south Africans history to link and show that the present day African cultures of South Africa, are in fact the live culture, custom, traditions, languages and practices of the civilization of Mapungubwe.

We have already established and demonstrated that the people of African descent in South Africa have their own culture, and have attempted to preserve their languages and concepts of themselves and their culture by introducing new cultural and customary meanings, words and their meanings, as they explain and narrate their own lived culture to the world today.

The 9(nine) peoples we have been talking about above, the ones I more times than not refer to as the 9(nine) peoples or Nguni/Bakone, is to cut clear all the shenanigans and the smokescreens and historical obfuscations that have been thrown and inlaid and embedded within the arguments about this culture of Africans in South Africa, thus adding confusion and ignorance to the indigenous Africans about themselves, history, customs, traditions practices, rites and languages, music, dances and cultural garb.

As I have said at the beginning of the previous Hub that I have been meaning to write this article for years now, and I am now going much deeper into how this culture is re-morphing as part of the cultural renaissance as Africans of South Africa faced with a dysfunctional existence, history, customs, culture, tradition and languages, will be addressed and looked at anew and in an in-depth manner within this present narrative.

The Historical and Cultural Highway From Maputo to Angola

Clearing the Mist About Monomotapa

In re-arranging the history of African South Africans, the colonialists, more specifically, the Apartheid regime, promulgated a lie that Africans are not the original inhabitants of the country of South Africa. They claim that Africans arrived at the same time the Dutch settlers landed in the Cape in 1652. This is untrue because those Apartheid regime's historians were omitting too much of the historiography of Africa and breaking it up to suit their needs.

They isolated the culture, history, languages, traditions, customs and practices of and amongst the Africans in South Africa, that the historical narrative for Africans of South Africa should never gel as a historiography and in the African minds, souls and consciences/consciousness. They even sold this fiction to Africans who believe it because they have no alternative story and history to tell about their history, culture, traditions, customs, languages and practices-and they bought it hook-ank-sink. Even if they wanted to tell it in their own way, this too has been sabotaged through the type of education, socialization and institutionalization of Apartheid.

This Hub will will attempt to connect the dots which were left out in order to sow confusion and chaos amongst Africas' historical and cultural consciousness and conscience-and this has been done for over 400 centuries. The hidden history of the occupation, creation and rule of Monomotapa from the Cape of Good Hope, to the Transvaal, Mozambique and from Angola to Mozambique, has not been fully told, and I will attempt to tell it in its historical context and connect the left-out parts to fully make my point that South African Africans were forever in South Africa, long before the coming of the Settler. In fact, I will be making a follow-up history and with pictures to go with it of the history of South African Africans that dates back to 160,000 Years Ago-in my next coming Hub!

It is important, then, at this juncture, to go over the history of Monomotapa in order to establish clearly and firmly that the History of Africans of South Africa is the history of Mapungubwe, and this is an undisputed fact. Barbosa(Portuguese Mariner) illuminates us to this issue when he talks about what they found when they met with the civilization of Monomotapa.

The mouth of the Zambezi itself had been held by the Portuguese for 400 years, and was considered by them from the earliest times to be a great gold district-and at the seat of an ancient civilization. Duarte Barbosa, the cousin of the great Magellan, thus describes the Kingdom of Benamatapa or Monomotapa: "On entering within this country of Sofala, there is the kingdom of of Benamatapa, which is very large and people by Gentiles, whom the Moors call 'Cafers'(Kaffirs).

These are brown men, who go bare, but covered from the waist downwards with stuffs or skins of wild animals. ... Leaving Sofala for the interior of the country, at fifteen days' journey from it there is a large town of Gentiles called Zinbaoch(Zimbabwe); and it has houses of wood and straw,in which the King of Benamatapa frequently dwells, and from there to the city of Benamatapa there are six days' journey. There are some who have identified this city with the recently discovered 'ruins' of Zimbabye(Zimbabwe), in Mashonaland.

From this city the old chronicler narrates that the merchants bring to Sofala the gold which they sell to the Moors for colored stuffs and beards of Cambay. The Kingdom of Benematapa extended both South wards to the Cape of Good Hope, and northwards to Mozambique(Barbosa, 1514). In the first voyage of Vasco da Gama to the Indies the Portuguese stayed for a month at the mouth of a river, the Bons Sinaes, north of Sofala, to careen and repair.

At the mouth of this river they 'set up a marble pillar, which had two escutheons, one of the arms of Portugal, and another on the other side,of the sphere and letters engraved in the stone which said "Of the Lordship of Portugal", Kingdom of the Christians. Five days after this they arrived in Mozambique, which was subject to the King of Quiloa(Kilwa)) (Hakluyt)

The interior of the country, however, was little known, India and the East offering far greater attraction to the Portuguese. The right of discovery belongs entirely to them. In old maps of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries this kingdom of Monomotapa appears. In the Geography of Livius Sanutus, dated at Venice, 1588, it lies behind Caput Currentium or Cape Corrientes, a headland just below Inhambane Bay, and almost exactly facing the Island of St. Lawrence or Madagascar.

In a manuscript , map of John Thornton in 1662, to be seen in the Bodleian Library, the Kingdom of Monomotapa reaches as far as Delegoa Bay, apparently covering a great part of the territory now included in the Transvaal Republic(of which Mapungubwe is part of); then came the Kingdom of Suffalo or Sofala, then Mozambique, then Quiloa(Kilwa), then Malinde(or Malindi).

Almost all the names on this manuscript map are Portuguese, proving that up to 1682, a period of more than 250 years since the first discovery of south-east Africa, neither Dutch, nor French, nor English, had added much to the geography of the country. In Maps of 1670, however, the Dutch colored South Africa as their own. They may be supposed to have done this for two reason, the first being their actual occupation of the Cape in 1652, an occupation which, as we know, they considered to give them first claims to the whole of the Hinterland, and to the coasts and regions of Natal(Hakluyt).

In the seventeenth century the Dutch would appear to have carried on a certain amount of South African exploration. Van Riebeeck, the first Dutch governor of the Cape, had studied the Portuguese books of travel and geography, Linschoten's celebrated work, and Father Martin's verbal description of the country, and though he could fix the exact position of Monomotapa.

'From the sources of information at his command, Mr. Van Riebeeck laid down the city of Davagul, in which the Emperor of Monomotapa kept his treasures, as 828 English lies in a north-easterly direction from the Cape of Good Hope, and 322 miles west-ward from the Indian Ocean sea, that is, in the neighborhood of the present town of Pretoria.

It was built on the bank of the the river Spirito Santo. The city of Cortado on Rio Infante was believed to being the same direction, only much nearer than Davagul. The inhabitants on the route are stated to be the Cochoqua, the Chainouqua, and the Hancumqua. Next to these last were the Chobona, who were believed to be civilized people of Monomotapa.

Such were the vague and shadowy notions of geography then prevailing in the standard maps of South Africa of the middle of the seventeenth century, that are two great rivers flowing eastwards across the interior of Africa, the Rio Fante, identified by some with the Fish River, on which the town of Vigiti Magna and of Camissa, in search of which the Dutch sent several expeditions up to the end of the seventeenth century; and the river Spirito Santo, arising from the same sources on the Zambesi, and having its origin in a great lake in the interior (Amstelodami, 1679).

Davidson writes:

"Hitherto it had been generally assumed that all the mining and stone-building cultures of the southern plateau were the work of the 'Bantu-speaking people whose physical origins and appearance and been pretty much the same as those of their descendants living today - Shona, Sotho(Bapedi, Tswana, and VhaVhenda, that is, of one branch or another. And the material evidence of pottery and objects in metal at Mapungubwe seemed to confirm this [I simply think that it does not "seem" to confirms this, but confirms that[this has has been a liv culture for millenniums which still needs to be researched further]..

But Mapungubwe also produced much skeletal material; and the evidence of this skeletal material was roundly declared by the anthropologists to be in conflict with this simple view of the matter. These skeletons - and eleven out of the twenty-four recovered on the summit were found to capable of investigation - showed a people with "great scarcity of Negro features" who represented, Galloway's words, "A homogenous Boskop-Bush [that is, Hottentot or near Hottentot(KhoiSan?)] population physically akin to the post-Boskop inhabitants of the coastal caves" of South Africa.

They showed some Negro(African) Features, but far fewer than the skeletons of Bantu-speaking inhabitants of Rhodesia(Zimbabwe) and South Africa(Mzantsi) today. How to reconcile these conflicting judgements? It was rather as though the skeletons of William the Conqueror and his Norman Knights had been taken from their tombs, and found to be skeletons of people of Saxon stock (Davidson) Preposterous, and that is what the falsification of African origins and history had amounted to).

The confusion and not understanding nor accepting the fact that the people of the Nguni/Bakone stock are the one who are responsible for the civilization of Mapungubwe is disconcerting and a very hard hurdle to overcome in the annals of African History and Cultural history. There are many variations of this approach to deny African their rightful history and culture as can be noted in the paragraph above. No wonder one finds some descriptive definitions about the origins of Mapungubwe and the those who peopled it, which is very misleading.

Yet, the oral history and the people who are the direct descendants is ignored(which is still the same as that which was used in Mapungubwe), even with the information they(the descendants of the people of Mapungubwe) provide, and rather, this would be shifted to the Hottentots, or some not-African peoples as the inhabitants of Mapungubwe, and yet, the Pedi, Tswana and Vendas are ignored as neither having anything to do with it.

And at the same time, the graves of the very people who showed them and provided these scholars with the information pertaining to the civilization of Mapungubwe are pushed aside, ignored in favor of some concocted or invented inhabitants, and on top of that, no information is given, nor known about their social life and social engineering, yet the informants remain South African Nguni/Bakone or the 9(nine) peoples as I have termed it throughout this narrative, are the ones who know the culture and customs of the Mapungubwe civilization and have some direct descendants of the rulers of that civiliations in their midst...!

We further defer to Davidson which informs us as follows: 'The controversy was not resolved. Either solution seemed impossible. To assume that the "royal burials" of Mapungubwe had been Bantu was to assume that physical types alter almost out of recognition within a few hundred years, which they undoubtedly do not. Moreover, the "royal burials" were made in a fixed position which Bantu-speaking peoples are not known to have used.

"Yet, to take the other view and assume these burials to be Hottentot, seemed no better; for this was to assume that Hottentots had enjoyed a metal-using culture at a much earlier date (and a much higher level of skill) than they were otherwise know to have done. Later opinions have thrown much doubt on these neat skeletal identifications. All that can be said with certainty is that the purely African origins of everything at Mapungubwe are established without doubt: They are "Bantu"(African) or Nguni/Bakone in their present state. [while direct links to Zimbabwe have been identified, so does much of the culture fall, mostly, under the influence of the Nguni/Bakone peoples of South Africa as I have named them above]."

It is generally agreed that they were were successive offshoots of migration from the peoples who built and occupied Zimbabwe and its like(Mapungubwe?): The Sotho(baPedi, and baTswana)), Shona(from Zimbabwe), and the Venda - all of them Bantu-speaking peoples whose descendants are numerous today (and they include, for instance, The Basotho of Basotholand, and Batswana of Botswana and South Africa, the Mashona of of Southern Rhodesia(now Zimbabwe), and the BaVenda of the Transvaal. The Venda were succeeded by the Hottentot(KhoiSan) population(and these last were dispersed by Mzilikazi and his northward-driving Matebele in 1825).

Excavations at Mapungubwe and its many sites, have been enriched and modified by an earlier picture of Iron Age civilization in southern Africa without an essentially changing it. One sees again that the Bantu(African)-speaking peoples of Africa today are the product of migration, intermarriage, and multiplication over many centuries, remotely into the antiquated past; and it is this as much as anything else that is confirmed by the evidence from all these sites.

The only useful conclusion to be drawn, so far as the origins of most of the present Africans of southern Africa are concerned, are that their ancestors evolved from mingling of indigenous Stone-Age stocks with successive waves of Bantu(African) migration from the north; that these migrations became important at least fifteen hundred years ago; and that they were numerous and powerful, along the banks of Limpopo, from the beginning of our own millennium and probably a good deal earlier (Davidson).

As I have promised above, I found some interesting history of South Africa that dates back to 200,000+ BC years ago, and it will be able to set up and put the history of South Africa in its proper place in the History and Historiography of Africa, South Africa and the world.(See My Hub titled "From Gondwanaland To Mzantsi: Untold Human Origins And African History Of African South Africans~African Historiography."

The View of Historical/Cultural Amnesia:

Historical/Cultural Reminders

"Historical and experiential amnesia" is when an individual or a group is compelled various circumstances to repress important segments of his or its formative history he/she or it at the same time loses access to crucially important social, intellectual and technical skills associated with the history which could be used to resolve current problems. Consequently, to some lesser or greater degree, the individual or group may be handicapped or disadvantaged by the resulting amnesia.

Finally, individual and group psychology are in part constructed from the perception he/she or it has of his/her or its history, the inferences drawn from that history about the kind of person of group he/she or it may be, what other persons or groups think of him/her or it, and the destiny that awaits him/her or it.

"The study of history cannot be a mere celebration of those who struggled on our behalf. We must be instructed by history and should transform history into concrete reality and planning and development, into construction of power and the ability to ensure our survival as a people.

...If we are not studying it in a way that it is a threat to their power then we are studying it in a way that it is not a threat to their power then we are studying it incorrectly, and our celebration of it it is helping to maintain us in a state of deception [and perpetual bondage]. So let us make sure that we look at and study history in a light such that it advances our interests, not inflates our egos and blinds us to reality.

"History is projected in this culture as being irrelevant, I don't think by accident. Again, if it is made to look irrelevant, if it is made to look unprofitable, then making it appear so must serve some purpose. When courses in college or university are apparently presented "nonpolitically," "objectively," "neutrally," they are actually presented in the most political way.

We must understand that it is in the nature of this racist culture to hide its political agenda. Therefore, it presents so-called facts and information as if they have no political connection or implications. Let us mediate on these issues and I think we'll come to realize that there is a direct relationship between history and economics, political and social development.

"So when history is projected as irrelevant, as unprofitable, as a system of dates and events, as a system of rarified causes and effects, it is projected that way, I think, because it helps to maintain the political and social status quo, and because it serves a politico-economic function. People who are ahistorical, who have little knowledge of history, are people who are more gullible, more easily adapted to the capitalist machine than people who are historically knowledgeable. History can become a basis for self-criticism, a basis for self-understanding, and more importantly, the basis for the understanding of the motives and the psychology of others.

"When History is not taught appropriately, we are left to jut follow orders, and to just trudge to our work, our jobs, without knowing the reasons why. Yet trudging to our job has not secured our futures at all. We must recognize that merely going to work, merely studying computer science, merely going to the office, is not enough. We are going to have to understand they psychology of the people who run this world.

We can only understand our oppressors' psychology by understanding their history. They rob us of a knowledge of history and want us to think that history is irrelevant and unimportant so that we cannot see through their deadly games. We must recognize that history is the very center of life."(Wilson)

Erich fromm writes the following in order to put a better perspective about culture and knowing other peoples culture and so forth,which I had partially addressed in the preceding Hub "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: "Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence.". Fromm states: "Discovering other people, discovering a different world , with different things, different gestures, different hands, different bodies, is where most of us ought to begin.

And, since different languages have left their imprint on us, and we are used to different gestures, different styles of relationships, this new learning process of discovering, or relating to the world in a new way, takes a long time. And yet the differences are the starting points for this learning process. You discover people who are different and, linked, with the discovery of other people, the need to be tolerant of.

This means that through the differences between us, we must learn to be tolerant of those who are different, not to judge them according to our own values, but according to their own values, which are different from ours. And here it seems to me to be fundamental to link the concept of culture with the concepts of difference and tolerance."

Fromm adds: "Culture is not only artistic or intellectual phenomena expressed through thought: culture is to be seen above all in the simplest actions of everyday life-culture as eating in a different way, shaking hands in a different way, relating to people in a different way. So it seems to me that these three concepts - culture, differences and tolerance - are old concepts being used in a new way.

Culture for us, I would insist, includes the whole range of human activity, including everyday life; and it is basically in everyday life that we make the discovery of what is different, what is essential. And this understanding of what is essential is different rom the the traditional one, which views essential as those features which are held in common ... the essential is what is different, what makes us different people.

"When the people do not reflect on their everyday lives, they do not become aware that there is a deep gap between these ideas and values and the acts we perform in our daily lives. While we affirm certain values at the intellectual level, these values are empty if they are removed from our everyday life, from our relations with our wives, children, our friends and the people we meet in the street, whom we do not know, but with whom we have a relationship.

"All these ideas of personal, communal and moral values which should govern our relations with things and persons are no doubt very beautiful ideas; but, to the extent that we do not reflect on them and try to ensure that they and our actions coincide, there continues to be a gap between what we think and the values we affirm and the way we perform with regard to things and persons. And this is equally applicable to the field of religion, in which there is a gap between what is affirmed and practiced day-by-day, and to the political plane, where there is a gap between what is affirmed and the day-to-day struggle."

Historical-Cultural Gridded Mosaic

Whenever we address the meanings and definitions of history,culture, customs traditions and languages, we need to further give definitions and meanings as to what culture and the rest are in the modern era and sense. As Wilson further informs us: "Culture is man's adaptive dimension. Man alone among the forms of animated nature is the creature that has moved into an adaptive zone which is an entirely learned one. This is the zone of culture. The man-made, the learned part of the environment" (Ashley Montague). After citing Montague, Wilson continues to write: "If societies are to survive, they must minimally satisfy certain biological, psychological and social needs of their members.

"They must successfully counter those and their very biological survival. Culture is the social-institution instrument which is crucial for facilitating a people's adaptation to the complexities of their world. Therefore, its functional structure, cohesiveness, resilience, flexibility, responsivity to reality, evolutionary growth and development, or the relative lack thereof, to a very significant extent, determine its longevity and quality of life. Culture is learned and is the result of historically and conceptually created designs and patterns for living with and relating to others and the cosmos."

"Culture is a social machine, a power grid system. As a holistic system, it is composed of a number of sub-systems, power systems in their own right. The family is one such fundamental cultural subsystem. It is a system of social relations, hierarchical in structure, where different members exercise different privileges, prerogatives, and different levels of authority. The family is a primary organization, a fundamental generator or source of power where the human and non-human capital resources of its members are pooled and shared as means of achieving its vital goals.

"These goals include sexual preproduction, socialization of its children, securing a common habitation, language, providing protection and affectional relations among its members, maintaining and enhancing the social status of its members and providing for their economic well-being." Anthropologists have defined culture as all the historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational and non-rational which may exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of man. (Wilson)

As a set of designs for guiding the behavior of its members, i.e., a set of guidelines for directing and regulating the behavior of it members, a culture provides standards of proper cognitive, emotional and behavioral conduct; a set of proverbial precepts as to what reality is, and an accompanying set of rationalization or ostensible explanations for its nature and purpose.

Thus, culture, though a product of much of the actual lived experience of a people - the primal source of much of their their daily personal and social activities, their forms of labor and its products, their celebratory and ceremonial traditions, modes of dress, art and music, language and articulatory style, appetites and desires - is essentially ideological in nature based as it is on shared beliefs, customs, expectations, and values. Culture constructs definitions, meanings and purposes.

"These cultural constructs are used to proactively and reactively mold the mind, body, spirit and behavior of the constituent members of a culture. These active constructs become the cultural and social heritage of the members of a particular culture. Hence, culture does not exist outside of and independent of its human subjects.

Culture is represented symbolically and operationally in the minds and characteristically mental/behavioral orientations or styles of its members, and is incarnated in the customary ways they move and use their bodies. The culture is represented "in" the minds and bodies of its members, and expresses itself through the systematic ways they attend, experience, categorize, classify, order, judge, evaluate, explain and interact with their world. (Wilson)

Wilson explains further that: "Mentally, culture involves the socially shared and customary ways of thinking, a way of encoding, perceiving, experiencing, ordering, processing, communicating and of behaviorally expressing information which distinguishes one cultural group from another. All these activities are dedicated to the end of adapting the culture to the consistent and changing demands of its physical and social environment and reciprocally adapting the environment to the demands of the culture.

Socially, culture patterns the ways its members perceive each other, relate to and interact with each other. It facilitates the ways they create, develop, organize, institutionalize and behaviorally apply their human potential in order to adapt their human potential in order to adapt to the conditions under which they live so as to satisfy their psychological, social and survival needs.

"To the degree that the shared beliefs and behavioral orientations of the members of a culture are consensually consistent, reasonably rational and realistic, are effectively and consistently socialized and reinforced, the culture is characterized by coherence, somewhat low levels of internal conflicts and contradictions, relatively smooth, automatic, coordinated operation, and thereby effectively functions in the interest of its members. It is very important to keep in mind that a culture is to a significant extent a historical product, a social product. A culture is socially manufactured, the handiwork of both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactoins.

"A culture also manufactures social products. Some of the most important social products it generates include its own cultural identity, and the social and personal identities of its constituent group and individual members. In the final analysis, the cultural identity of an individual, or group, is the social product of a socialization process in which new responses, values, perspectives and orientations are acquired and existing behavioral repertoires of the individual or group are modified to some extent, as the result of his/her or its subjection to direct or indirect social conditioning experiences. Cultural identity also results from the patterning of its modal thoughts, feeling, or actions after other cultures or groups who serve as models. (Wilson)

Historical and Cultural Gestation

Thus far, we have been citing from Erich Fromm and Amos Wilson in order for me to fill in the gaps of putting down a theoretical framework that undergirds and plays a foundational theoretical role of clearly explaining and understanding as to why I have written about the topic of culture, customs, traditions and practices of the Nguni/Bakone as discussed in the First Hub before this one "South African Culture, Customs, and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morpehed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence."

Also, to begin to set up pillars and ways in which Africans in South Africa can begin to look at their culture within the theoretical framework and understand as to what culture is all about, and how it can and should be used or applied towards a national collective manifestation, projection and desire..

In this second Hub[This one Im now onto] I am working on making a presentation of the scholastic definitions of History and Culture, also exploring emergent African languages, so that I can begin to synergize the historical outlook and reality and deconstruct the cultural miasma and that is faced by Africans in South Africa that ultimately makes them dysfunctional and out of sync as a Nation.

Also, debunk the prevailing lies about African and South African history, culture and so forth that is still lingering out here on the viral stream.. Africans in South Africa, I reiterate, are not 'tribes', but a 'Nation' made up of values which facilitate and have been pre-programmed for entropy and national/cultural decadence, brought about by ignorance of cultural and historical importance manufactured by the colonizers and imperialists.

The condition in which African South African find themselves in a state of both historical and cultural amnesia is because of the affects and effects of Settler wars, colonial occupation and domination, and Apartheid Nazism and oppressive depression mechanisms and Concentration Camps(Called Townships).

They(the oppressors) evolved systems of subjugation listed above are the ones that were used and applied to aggressively attack and carry out a Total Cultural War African history, culture and its people relentlessly. As this was taking place, the effects on Africans was monumental.

Through the use of the Gattlin gun and other modern murderous weapons of the day, Africans were decimated, and wiped out and the enslavement of the Khoi and the San, were implemented and initiated; the Eastern Cape Frontier wars between the Xhosa, the Boers and the English, up to the Zulu wars, Blood River being one and numerous others, were the favorite forms of genocide perpetuated against the Africans of South Africa; up to the depression and conquering of the Bapedi, the Batswana along the boarders of Botswana, and those living in South Africa, to the point where Swaziland and Lesotho became British Protectorates and vassals(in a colonial sense).

These latter events tabulated here served or were used as raw and brutal force that was used to subjugate and , enslave, colonize and apartheidize Africans to the extend that what we are witnessing about Africans South is that they have become a dysfunctional nation. The Africans in South Africa are malfunctioning as a nation because for over 400 years, the constant in the reality of Africans has been that of being servants, slaves and segregated subjects of Different European rule. At no time have Africans in South Africa ruled themselves as a nation and even today, with a democratically elected African government, this is still denied to them: Nationhood.

In many ways this has handcuffed and incapacitated Africans to behave and function in way contrary to the cultural customs, traditions and practices. This has even gone to the extend that their languages have been invaded and transformed(more particularly in urbanized settings). In fact, Africans from the north of Africa have even gone so far as to accuse Africans in South Africa as not Africans. The 'poor copy' Of Europeans Africans in South Africa have become, validates the assertion that they are dysfunctional. Everything that was African in South Africa was demolished, wiped out and emptied of content and meaning, that,in the end, we have Africans who no more study their history, languages, custom, cultures, traditions and practices that are their own.

In other words, Africans in South Africa behave like a people who do not have an African Consciousneness. Wilson says: "To possess consciousness is to be possessed by consciousnesss. for consciousness "takes over" and represents itself in the body as feelings, emotions, tastes, values, intelligence, and behavior. When relatively stable or consistent , habitual dispositions and tendencies which dynamically structure and are reciprocally structured by consciousness, incline the individual or group to act or react in certain fairly predictable ways.

Bourdieu*1991, refers to such a set of related tendencies as a Habitus. The related tendencies which characterize an individual's consciousness, conjoin to generate practices, perceptions and attitudes which may appear to the individual and others to be natural, cultural or compulsive in nature. As interpreted by an editor of his work (Thompson, 1991) Bourdieu contends that: "The body is the site of incorporated history. The practical schemes through which the body is organized are a product of history and, at the same time, the source of practices and perceptions which reproduce history."

Thompson goes on to state that Bourdieu's work implies that: "Structured dispositions are also durable: they are ingrained in the body in such a way that they endure through the life history of the individual, operating in a way that is pre-conscious [and unconscious] and hence not readily amenable to conscious reflection and modification....As a durably installed set of dispositions, the habitus tends to generate practices, and perceptions, works and appreciations, which concur with the conditions of existence of which the habitus is itself the product."

To make the point I was discussing as to how the nascent culture is affecting Africans, Wilson further points out that: "The habitus also provides individuals with a sense of how to act and respond in their daily lives. It 'orients' their actions and inclinations without strictly determining them. It gives them a 'feel for the game', a sense of what is appropriate in the circumstances and what is not, a practical (le sens pratique).

The practical sense is not so much a state of mind as a state of the body, a state of being. It is because the body has become a repository of ingrained disopositons that certain actions, certain ways of behaving and responding, seem altogether natural." Yet, for Africans in South Africa, they can look at their Habitus and find that in their culture there are mores and norms that can help them to re-orient themselves to attain harmony, fluency and development.

Language as a Cultural and Historical Compass

Lest we forget and be smitten by historical and customary, cultural and traditional Amnesiac virus and whiteout, we should state that "the African languages of southern Africa belong to the following groups: Venda, Sotho Tsonga, Nguni and Inhambane [the Nguni/Bakone peoples].The Lexico-statistical method shows the Shona, Venda, Tsonga, Pedi, Tswana, Basotho, Zulu, Shangaan, Ndebele, Swazi are coordinated branches within The Eastern African of Southern Africa.

It means that the overwhelming majority of the Bantu speakers of southern Africa belong to a single group, one and the same with the Shona, Venda, Tsonga, Pedi of the Northen transvaal and Tsonga Inhambane of the Northern Transvaal, Swazi and Ndebele, and Shona of Southern Mozambique and the Transvaal plains. The period between 1,000 and 1,500 formed a crucial era in the past of southern Africa. New ways of life were spreading after 1,100. The Khoikhoi became pastoralist and expanded over a huge area.

The importance of cattle also dramatically increased among the other peoples, who were mostly southern African language now contemporaneously found in south Africa.. It is to this earliest of periods up to contemporary times we find the origins of these major Nguni/Bakone cultural traditions that are so characteristic of the Ngunii/Bakone living in the region, the Sotho(Bapedi)/Tswana and the Shona, Swazi, Zulu s and Xhosas, along with the Ndebele, Shangaan had been found among these people mentioned here as already having being formed and spoken.

This language has affected and influenced the lives of the coastal fishing communities, the shepherds near the Caper and the Hunters (Elphick) Linguistic data not yet sufficiently exploited; in particular, we need to reconstruct early Nguni/Bakone vocabulary, and it would be very rewarding and revealing to study the Khoisan Lingua-franca found in the Nguni/Bakone languages and those Nguni/Bakone languages found in the Khoisan language. When the comparative anthropological regional languages, constructed with a time perspective, would make clear the sameness and commonality affected by regional 'degradation' of their languages-which are but the same language with different dialects, inflections and deflections, affected by tonal variations and accentuation, depending on the region. the language remains the same , caused by distance, and space, region and temperature, and linguistic evolution, understand such would help in tying these artificially different, but same language and show the sameness and coherence of the whole whole and its wholesome unityunity.

It must be pointed out and admitted that for a long time there was and has been constant interaction between the Shona, Venda, Tsonga, Pedi and Tswana languages in the regions between the Zambezi all the way down to the central(Basotho) and Kei River (the Xhosa). This could explain the large number of related words in Nguni/Bakone, as well as the considerable resemblance in social habits (patrilineal inheritance, circumcision and polygamy. The same customs and the same forms of socio-political-cultural-customary organizations are the result of a long cohabitation, intermingling and communalism.

Although there is the pustulation and assumptions running rampant among the historians when the writing on the history of South Africa about the "Bantu"(code word de-africanizing Africans), wherein they assert that they("Bantus') migrated and immigrated into South Africa from the North of africa is totally incorrect. It would be more understandable if one were to write that these African, according to available evidence, there was no invasion, rather, an infiltration of small groups.(Phillipson).

Just as is happening today in contemporary South Africa, there is no invasion of Africans in the sense of war, but, many legal and illegal Africans, in an osmotic fashion, are coming into South Africa, acquiring South African culture, language and citizenship, to the extend that the arises, occasionally, what is called Xenophobic attacks on Africans from the north. This is not to say here in this Hub as to whether that Xenophobia is right or wrong, but to make the point that Africans in South Africa have long been the inhabitants of South Africa, and impact of other cultures on it, does not make the original Africans in South Africa Sojourners or late-comers to their land, but that other cultures were absorbed into the current cultural milieu.

Just like when one speaks about ancient beginnings and dwelling of the Africans in South Africa, "oral traditions provide information going back as early as 300 B.C., up to the sixteenth Century(when the Europeans came into South Africa), and subsequent centuries, that this data needs to utilized by the writers of African South African History, and begin to learn what South African History is 'really' about. This is what the first Hub has dealt with as much thoroughly as possible: "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cutlrual Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence." This Hub mentioned will be posted following this one, but it is the first Hub and this one I am presently onto is a sequel to it.

Download This! History Gone Viral....

To put together a coherent historical matrix and mosaic of Africans in South Africa, we need to interconnect all the various historical timelines and oral and traditional history as has already been begun to be sculpted in the first Hub- "South African Culture, Customs, Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence". There is a history of South Africa either earlier than 11-- and 1600 A.D.

Tracing this history from, say then, "around say the sixth century when the migration patterns of Africans in Africa came to an end, the continent was from then onwards occupied by farmers whenever the climatic conditions allowed. In the forests of Central Africa, a farming technique based on a field cleared each year was developed. Yams, plantains and vegetable were grown there; food-growing was only one element in a complex in which trapping and gathering remained very important.

South of the forest, in the tsetse-fly-infected savannas, the agricultural system was built around two fields a year; one cleared in the gallery forrest and another in the Savanna. Cereals were dominant and the complex was completed by hunting rather than trapping. In eastern and south-eastern Africa, as well as in South-Central Africa, food production was based on stock-raising and agriculture centered on the growing of millets, sorghum or finger-millet.

Stock-raising predominated in the direr regions: this was the case in Botswana, Northern Uganda, and Southern Sudan, as well as Kenya and its areas. By 600, wholly pastoral ways of life, using cattle only existed in the Horn of Africa, in the Sahel, on the edge of the Sahara and from the southern Sudan east of the White Nile as far as central Tanzania.

But from the ninth century, a new variant of the south-east African economic complex developed in Botswana and came to be dominated by cattle raising. It took several centuries to perfect a pastoral system that would enable the Khoi-khoi to occupy all the sites favorable to stock-raising in Namibia and the Cape.(J. Devisse/J. Vansina)

It is therefore bogus to claim that the Africans of South Africa arrived in South Africa at the time when the Dutch Settlers landed in the Cape, for a trading station and gathering of Fresh food for their trip around the bottom of South Africa, hugging the East coast all the way to India and China, for spices, cloth and other goods. "In East Africa, the pastoralist expansion was lined to the diffusion of breed of humped zebu cattle. These breeds were known to in Christian Nubia but on the White Niles region and the Horn of Africa they are to be found only after 1200 AD.

The Sanga breed, which is found as far as South Africa, where it gave birth to another breed, is older than the Zebu breed. In the final analysis, the record provided by prehistoric studies in Southern Africa shows the high interior plateau lands to have played a leading part in the evolution of Man the tool-maker. The increasing ingenuity and efficiency with which succeeding hominid populations developed and combined adaptations and innovations demonstrate the great antiquity and continuity of many cultural traits which still persist to the present day. (Vansina)

In fact, the Khoi-Khoi herdsmen were living in harmony with the local Nguni/Bakone than did the San, as can still be seen living their life their way they did from historical ancient memory to today. These harmonious relationships were already established with the Xhosa, Zulus(from even more remote ancient times), and the Tswana. The distinctions between these groups was not as jagged as made out by latter-day historians.

The cultures dating back to the middle Ages were certainly African-language communities (1100-1600) and almost certainly those of the Bakone/Tswana/Nguni peoles. In these village are to be found some huts with stone walls. Except in the case of the Leopard's Kopje style, it has not been possible to find a site where the passage from the beginning to the last period of Early Iron Age is clearly apparent.

It may be that the archeologists will have to abandon this important distinction, at least in its present form. The only site where transition may be verified is at Eiland in central Transvaal, where salt was worked throughout the period. Early Iron Age pottery was replaced in the eleventh or twelfth century by Mapungubwe ware Inskeep; Phillipson; Klapwijk)(this has been covered in the First Hub- See the Photo gallery of the "South African Culture, Custom and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence". The nearby site of Silver leaves (in Tzaneen, South africa) shows the same development.

A very different pottery and way of life appeared at Phalaborwa, one of the two main centers of copper production in Transvaal at that time. It lies near the tributary of the Limpopo, the Olifants river - which Vasco da Gama called the "river of copper" in 1498- some 80 km east of the Drakensberg Mountains in the Transvaal. Mining had gone on at least since the eighth century, but the earliest site so far discovered goes back to between 960 and 1130.

The style of the pottery has no equivalent from the Early Iron Age, but is virtualy similar to pottery made by the people of Phalaborwa today. Several centuries before the beginning of the period under cosideration, this pottery has established its present character, which is found among the Lobedu, some 90 miles north(N.J. van der Merwe)

This proves that pottery is not a barometer of cultural change. Over several centuries Lobedu society has become noticeably differentiated from that of Phalaborwa, especially in the political field (it is famous for its rain queens). Phalaborwa itself now in the cultural orbit of the northern Sotho(Bapedi), but in 1700 it was like Lobedu, part of the Venda Kingdom.There's some belief that in the seventeenth century at least, if not later, the speech of these people was close to Venda, rather than Sotho (R.T.K. Scully).

[But, if you study the speech and phonetic of the these two,there is not so much of a difference, as it is a regional degradation and variation of language]. It seems therefore that between 100 and 1500 there were agricultural settlements on the Transvaal low veld that traded among themselves and exchanged their craft products[there is evidence of trade of these low veld people with the people of East Africa]-(this will take another Hub).

The Phalaborwa mines were a source of iron objects, within a radius of at least 32 km, and a source of copper over much great diances. Some of it found its way as far as the lower Limpopo and overland to the coast. Tzaneen provided salt for the area and , further north, the Mesina copper-mines were certainly trading their products over a wide area. Scully postulated that and put forth the hypothesis that the society became a state as a result of the development of metal-working at Phalaborwa and the trade that followed.

The chiefdoms that grew up all over the transvaal plain were on a small scale at first, but still had to cope with roaming bands of hunters and competing neighboring Chiefdom[but generally there was more peaceful co-existence throughout the land and this is one aspect of the history of the people South of the Limpopo practiced and knew each well as being peaceful]. But after the end of this period, around the seventeenth century, the Venda Polity subdued them all and united them in a single kingdom(R.T.K. Scully)

In the triangle bounded by Rustenburg, Klerksdorp and Johannesburg, north of the Vaal [River], traces have been found of a group of villages of the same tradition, ranging in date from 1060 to 1610; some extra excavations have been carried out there by Mason (R.J. Mason). On the plastered Floors of the round houses were platforms, also plastered, whereas the wall were of perishable materials, probably palisades of wood or, given the scarcity of wood on the high veld, reeds coated with mud.

Millet was cultivated and live-stock, including sheep and goats, were kept. The houses were located around an oval or circular space, about 1 hectare in area, indicating that there was a kraal, (Afrikaans word for livestock enclosure). The villages were small, consisting of only ten to twenty huts, at least in the three sites excavated.

This type of settlement is significant because it preceded building in stone, which present evidence indicates that was very widespread on the high veld of the Transvaal in the seventeenth century. As only four of the hundreds of settlements that have been identified(as of the writing of this citation), have been identified in central and Southern Transvaal have been excavated, and with research, [with the coming in of the ANC-led government], there's an encouraging sign that more stone-walled sites would be found that may date back to 1500 or even earlier and more remote dates. It is all the more likely because in the Orange Free State one type of settlement built in stone, the 'N' type, is at least as early as 1400-1450.(Phillipson). I have already pointe out to the fact, above, that I will be writing a Hub which traces the History of Africans in South Africa from 170,000 years, BC

This history has been written by the people cited above and there is still more out there [Which as I have indicated above, will be discussed in full in another up-coming Hub]. That the Transvaal was settled from the North, center and south, has been something that the Nguni/Bakone of contemporary African South Africa have not been privy to. In fact, the dates of these settlements may even be traced to remote antiquity.

The stitching together of all these disparate and disjointed historiographical notations is of great importance in helping to flesh-out the gaping historical timelines and provide coherence that is sorely need to be done and and also give a heads-up read by the majority of Africans South Africans who are in pursuit of something historical, and provide a much more clearer blue-print about their cultures and custom and tradition and practices that will enable them to build a more resilient and more knowledgeable about their past, present, future, culture, customs, traditions and practices they were denied by the Apartheid regime and other racist regimes of the colonizers of the past 400+ or so years.

There has been some flimsy and 'weak' ahistorical postulations to the fact that South Africa was uninhabited before the coming of the Europeans, and that Africans were the swarming and raiding hordes that descended on the poor Khoi-Khoi and the San,[decimating them in their conquering and war-like manner] and that they(Africans) found an empty country which they inhabited at the same time when the Europeans came to Africa.

This is far from the truth as far as archeological research and analysis cited above is showing. This Hub above and the one preceding it ("South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence") have asserted that the culture of South Africa is linked akin to and same as the civilization of Mapungubwe in all aspects: history, culture, customs, traditions, languages, music, dances, cultural dresses and sacred rites and practices.

Architectural and Other Material Culture

Blackburn, near Umhlanga lagoon, some 15 km north of Durban,(see the Kwazulu section map in the Picture Gallery), has been excavated,. It consisted of a village with a dozen or so houses, two of which were dug up. (O. Davis). Built on a circular plan, with a diameter of c. 5.5 meters, the structures, the structures are beehive-shaped and supported internally by one or more central posts. The frame was made of of bending stalks and the whole structure covered with thatch (See photo Gallery).

This resembles classic Nguni/Bakone style of huts and architecture and along with those of the Khoi-Khoi practice. This site contained a few scraps of iron. The food found there included game bones, shellfish and a few fish bodies. Somehow, one can postulate that this was a site once occupied by the Khoi, then in the end the xhosas took over it in the eastern Cape. It is well known that the Nguni/Bakone ate fish, that too shows that it was part of their diet since ancient timesThe pottery that was found on the Vaal River shows tht there was interaction and a connection between the Xhosas and the Basothos and Batswana of South Africa; also, it was because a large ware was found in the ruins near the Vaal River (Inskeep)

The site at Moor Park near Estcourt, in Natal, dates back to the thirteenth or fourteenth century. It is located on a promontory and surrounded by a wall which encloses not only the houses, but also clearings and terraces. the settlement was obviously located in a strong defensive postion. The remains of the houses indicate a rectangular floor plan. OIf that is correct, it is unique in the whole of southern Africa. The inhabitants used iron, cultivated sorghum, hunted game and herded cattle. The Pottery has not yet been securely linked to other ware(I still believe that diversity was the strength and is still the strength of the culture, custom, traditions and practices of the Nguni/Bakone; this also includes architecture and so on]. (O. Davies)

A last set of sites was found in 1978 near Umngazi River mouth in the Transkei. These represent Early, Middle and Late Iron Age occupations. Evidence of iron smelting and a hut floor of baked clay resembling the floors of the high veld have also been found. confirmation of an early date for the hut floor and the smelting has had revolutionary implications for our understanding both of the links between the societies north and and south of the Drakensberg("UKhahlamba") and of the time when the ancestors of the Nguni[/Bakone] settled there (Matiyela).

One of the most important pieces of historical information about the Nguni/Bakone came from the "survivors of shipwrecks along the Natal and Cape Coasts in the sixteenth Century. Survivors from the wrecks on the Transkei coast since the sixteenth century described a population and a way of life which left no doubt that lining then were the ancestors of the present occupants of the country (M. Wilson and L. Thompson).

Survivors of the Stavenisse refferred explicitly in 1688 to 'Maponte' on the coast they now occupy. The detailed account s given by these survivors suggest that change in the way of life of the Xhosa-speaking was slow for more than two centuries, ofr what the shipwrecked men describe was not very different from the domestic life described amongst the Nguni/Bakone peoples, despite their loss of political independence and diminsihing economic self-sufficiency that characterized their societies before the coming of the Coloialists (A. Steedman)

Information gathered from oral tradition indicates that the Transkei was inhabited by the Xhosas chiefdoms by the sixteenth century. The ruling families had lived for many generations on the upper reaches of Mzimvubu River, specifically near the Dedesi stream. They had been living there long beefore c. 1300 (Wilson; Peires; Harinck)

By the 1300s and 1400s, the Nguni/Bakone were occupying the whole territory in which the were found living in the 1800s, although the western parts were mixed with the Khoi-Khoi, with whom they mixed and gradually assimilated. The Khoi-Khoi left a deep imprint on both the eastern and the western Nguni Languages. Lanham maintains that this influence stated only the Xhosa and Zulu languages clusters began to separate. Khoikhoi influences were very strong in both Zulu and Xhosa, amounting to about 14 per cent and 20 per cent of the vocabulary respectively.

The Khoi influence transformed the Xhosa phonemic system, which means that these influences existed when the Xhosa began to differentiate themselves from the Zulus or Eastern Nguni/Bakone. It is true that the influence of the Khoikhoi was effcective and played a role of influence on the Xhosas, but this does not mean that the Xhosas are exclusively Khoikhoi, inasmuch as the Khoikhoi were absorbed into the Xhosa people's system of thought, culture and customs.

What the Historians are not really telling us is where the language of the Zulus and Xhosas emanates from, and not only that, why is it interconnected with the other Bakone/Ngunis, meaning, Batswana,s, Bapedi, Vendas, Ndebeles, Shangaans (of which some speculate these came by way of Mozambique and the emanate from the Rowzi nations of antiquity). The author of this article believes that there has always been an intermarriage and intermixture between the 9(Nine) peoples, as they have been tagged in the first hub.

There has always been a cross and mixture between the Xhosa and the Koikhoi that it is impossible to say where one starts and the other end. It is also superficial to divide and present them as different because it is not like the Khoikhoi are from another continent and another race. If they have "disappeared", as assumed, it is because they and the Xhosas, the Pedis, Tswanas, Vendas, Shangaan, Ndebeles Swazis and Zulus are the same looking-alike phenotype of Africans in South Africa: Nguni/Bakone.

I do not buy nor am I prepared to separate Africans into Negro(What) and Africans- i.e., as if the Khoi and the San people are not African, by the stretch of their historical, anthropological imagination and mind-set. This is a bogus distinction, and it does not hold any historical reality of certitude. Any imagined difference does not tally with the fact the connections and relationships and customs, culture traditions and practices of these people are the same.

Yet, the same people who perceive and write about these differences are perplexed by the "oneness" of these cultures, the interaction they had maintained with each each other, form antiquity and other interrelated and same customs, languages, cultures, customs and teaditions. Linguistic and biological evidence does point to the fact that the Khoi lived in Natal as well as the eastern Cape; what is not further elaborated upon is the intermixture and intermarriage and assimilation of the Khoi into the systems of the Xhosas, Pedis, Basothos and so forth that in effect makes the superficially discussed 'differences' amongst them, bogus and misleading.

These nations were and are still one, mo matter how its cut or described- they are not different at all, and the discussion of their cultures in the foregoing Hub attests to that. It is true that the Khoi influenced the NguniBakone of South Africa, and so too were they affected, and assimilated into the Nguni/Bakone Cultures. This is a fact the will not be denied the Africans of South Africa, i.e., the 11(eleven) peoples of South Africa are one and all are the same- and they present themselves as a diverse kaleidoscopic African mosaic. The Khoikhoi belong to the South Africa hunting populations and not derived from any other part of the continent.

The Cultural basis for the Civilization of African South africans

T.M.O.C. Maggs writes: "Type 'N' sites occur north and south along the upper Vaal River, as far west as the Wilge River and as far south and east as the Drakensberg. The area enjoys good rainfall and rich grasslands. The patterning of granaries, byres and houses within a wall surrounding the whole settlement is strong evidence of a mixed economy of agriculture and stock-raising. After 1600, type 'N' was to develop into other types of settlement that spread across that of the Orange Free State that lay north of modern Lesotho.

One variant of these later types is clearly Tswana and appears the latest around 1600." It is the contention of these two Hubs that the Tswana have been there as early as research will allow us to know, as we shall see later. For the very fact that Mapumgubwe was at the confluence of Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa, the Batswana are some of the key and major players of this civilization. As were the the Shona of Zimbabwe and the Pedi, Tswana, Venda, Shangaans, Nebeles, Swazis, Zulus and Xhosas.

Whilst we are at this point trying to lay bare the historical fact and connection of the peoples of South africa, the literature is abound with unproven and baseless postulations about the civilization of Mapungubwe as it related and is intimately connected to that of the Nguni/Bakone peoples of the nation of South africa. Inskeep writes: "Only future research will determine whether the Rustenburg/Klerksdorp/Johannesburg pre-stone sites, and perhaps the undated village site at Lydenburg, further east, are in fact prior to the stone settlements of type 'N' and related stone settlement sites north of the Vaal River, reaches right into the regions between the Marico and Crocodile Rivers, a territory associated with the dispersal of some Sotho groups, or at least since the sixteenth century."

Still on this topic, B.M. Fagan informs us thus: "The data at our disposal now are tantalizing, but perhaps's Inskeep's view, which identifies these pre-stone settlements with the Sothos's way of life and indirectly[this Hub will also attempt to point out to the commonalities of these languages] with the Sotho-language group, may still be pemature. Earlier attempts by Mason to link distinct pottery styles of the period 1100-1500 in these villages with distinct Tswana groups have not stood the test of time, [but still needs to be expanded upon]. Only future research will solve this question."(Fagan)

The settlement sites north of the Drakensberg show obvious ad dramatic changes in the economy had dramatically increased. The scale of local organization also increased, because during this period the size of settlements also grew markedly. The general impression derived from oral tradition - that by the sixteenth century states were beginning to be formed - corresponds with the available data. When we compare the situation here with the low veld (Phalaborwa) or with Botswana, the extent of change near the Vaal is even more spectacular [These Will be touched upon when I write an even more extensive Historical Historiography of Africans in South Africa-See The Hub Titled "From Gondwanaland To Mzantsi: Untold Human Origins And African History Of African South Africans~African Historiography"].

Changes here in settlement patterns and pottery seem to have been quite well marked (L.D. Ngcongco).The key to the riddle may well lie in Botswana, where Denbow's research has uncovered well over 150 sites, dating from +800 to +1300. Excavations at two sites show a continuous local development of the Zhizo phase of Gokomere pottery (Early Iron Age) into Tautswe ware. Most of the sites in central Botswana (North of Mahalapye) contain strong evidence of intensive herding of cattle. Some manure deposits there are up to 1 m thick (Denbow).

These people were semi-pastoralist and the environment was very favorable to this activity because of the sweet veld and the nutritious Mopane leaves. It is here, and not in Natal as Huffman believed, that the multiplication of livestock seems to have occurred. After the year 100, the sites in Botswana shows less evidence of trade with the East African coast, which is not surprising since Zimbabwe, and later also Mapungubwe to the east, began to centralize trade. After 1300 A.D.,the number of sites diminishes rapidly, because the climate became drier (the Kalahari is not far away) or because of a shift in in the tsetse-fly, which would have forced an emigration of the cattle and their masters (Ngcongco).

It is more than tempting to associate this decline of population with the apparent demographic growth which occurred in the Western Transvaal and the evidence of large-scale cattle-keeping ther. Some of the semi-patoralists could have moved with their animals to better environment near the Vaal and and would then have use their cattle to absorb Early Iron Age groups into their communities.

The introduction of "Lobola/Mahadi"(As has been discussed in the Hub Prior to this one and that information was culled from Azriele Sekese), have made this possible (bride bride-wealth paid in cattle) and of clientship contracts for cattle would have made this possible, and favored the owners of the largest herds but, as has been shown with the Sothos and Swazi, etc., this was not necessarily the case, but that anyone who wanted to marry, how many cows they gave depended on the woman's peoples].

Lobola, along with cattle clientship and the payment of tribute in the form of cattle, are characteristic of the ]Nguni/Bakone] peoples and cultures. The Lobola/Mahadi custom was another way of bring families and communities together, and prior to the Cattle rendered as an exchange for the bride, anything was accepted, and Sekese reflects on this aspect of Lobola/Mahadi. Those that dwelt on the Vaal had by then been accompanied and adopted a pastoral and agricultural economy and the introduction of milking [and production of other dairy products].

The Africans [in this place] kept some cattle, for meat, milk production, the skin for clothes and drums, and horns as musical instruments and containers for medicinal mixtures and so on]. It can also be stated that the Tautswe pottery and that made on the banks of the Vaal during the Later Iron age might bear some resemblance. This was made possible by the infiltration of other African immigrants into the Vaal River areas that a new style developed out of these immigrants and of the contact between the indigenous and imported styles.

So that, later, a change in the environment of central Botswana(as has been already noted) and the rise of the Zimbabwe political organization led to the immigration near the Vaal and the appearance of the typical Nguni/ Bakone(typically the Sotho-Tswana/Pedi and Venda ways of life and languages). The mixture of other pastoralists and semi pastoralists moved further south and east, affecting and partly modifying the the whole population of south-east and southwest Africa (Ncongco).

The Nguni/Bakone of the South Of 'Ukhahlamba' (Drakensberg Mountains)

The Unified Cultures, Traditions, Customs and Traditions of the Nguni/Bakone

As we have discussed above, the Nguni people have populated the areas of South Africa earlier than has been suspected, and their culture, no matter how this has been spun by historians and detractors of African culture, customs, traditions and practices are the same and have been so as far as the literature on this subject can reach into antiquity.

Many Dates have been thrown around from Pre-stone Age to the Middle and Post Iron Age time periods, that in the final analysis, whenever we look at the cultures, custom, traditions of the Nguni/Bakone peoples of South Africa, there is a continuum of these aspects of their forming a nation, and all derive from one single continuum.

The use of pottery to draw distinction between this one cultures is but one serious attempt and flaw at discrediting Africans of South Africa from the civilizing experiences engendered by Monomotapa, Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe. The common theme that keeps on emerging, in terms of the Nguni/Bakone cultures and peoples, is the cattle rearing economy and similarities of languages that are ensconced and embedded dialects on a single continuum. Meaning, they are one language with different dialects, but are originally coming from antiquity as one language.

Again, to challenge the adage that "Africans came at the same time, or had migrated down to South Africa in a given historical time" (depending on who is writing about it), is bogus and historically disingenuous. If these societies were to have come to South Africa around 1the 1500s or 1600s, the evolution of languages and cultures would not have cohered at the point at which they were found thriving amongst the Africans of South Africa by the Early European settlers.

It is also distortion of a people's history to try and separate the Zulus, Xhosas and the Sothos, who, if one were to view the maps provided in the Photo Gallery, live adjacent to each other, that they are not similar and are different from each other. This is that spurios argument made by those who claim to know the cultures, customs, traditions and practices of the Nguni/Bakone peoples.

If one were to listen to theses supposedly different clans relate eachs' culture to the other, all would note and agree that they were the same, but it's only the matter of dialect and accent variations, and in fact, these languages share each others' terms in some form or speech accent, tone and vocal trebles. [this point would require a whole new hub to explain, which might be in the works, in the future].

There are no differences in cultural, traditional and customary practices of all these diverse linguistic mosaic. Even the Afrikaans language has stolen some words from the different dialects and incorporated some Malay words, too. A casual look or listening to the type of words, language structure, phonemes, phonology and phonetical pronunciation, utterances and meaning and vocalization of their languages in their present form, presents us with a glimpse as to the commonality of a language with National implications, their cultural, traditional, customary remain the same.

The Zulu people have 3,000 words for the different colors of the skins of their herd. Cows are given as a nexus of building relationship with other peoples or to those one is marrying into, the consultation of the herbalist and spiritual healers has the same practices, approach and beliefs attached to them, how children are brought up, the care of the pregnant and sick, the games children play, the preparation for war, circumcision practices, customs, culture and rites, the respect for the maternal side of families and societies, the laws and rules of and for the shepherd-boys, their laws for the Kings, how they managed and distributed and regulated different types of work, issues and matters pertaining to the weather and seasons regarding planting, harvesting, birth and ceremonies, the customs, traditions, laws and rules that regulated relations between the elderly, ancestors and other people in the pantheon of the clan and the like.

All these activities has names that African use to carry them out and palaver about; or, what is to be done for women who do not bear children, health and other natural and socially related phenomenon, the sick and those affected by death and other such social malaise, healing practices, remedies and the relation of rain, hail and prayers for rains and so on[As noted with Queen Modjadji 'the rainmaker', that such persons and practices are found all around the various clans that form the Nguni/Bakone peoples, their customs, traditions, culture and practices, which are one and the same, as both Hubs have been asserting.

For the African people, "the extended family is in fact a cooperative in spirit and pracitce. It could become nation's basic economic unit.. It is one of the best means through which individual initiative, self-reliance, self-help and cooperative efforts my be promoted and realized. The African family system, then, is another cultural institution that should be modernized and be preserved first as an important social unit in which both the personality and family disorganization now going on may be checked and, secondly, as a basic economic unit in and around which cooperative enterprises may be developed.

We do not mean "modern" in any sense lie the modern Western family, the progressive disorganization of which is one of the chief sociological problems of our time.s. Rather, we refer to such things as the matrilineal system of inheritance and the removal of the chains forged on the industrious and enterprising members by the eternal parasitic dependents whose chief aim is to share in the earnings of the successful without contributing anything themselves" (C. Williams)

Traditional African Values

In relation to the populations being discussed above, the expression "traditional values" refers to a composite set of principles, and to an extent knowledge and beliefs are held in high esteem embedded in african societies, and that are deemed worthy of being regarded as the guidelines for African behavior and interpersonal, group and inter-group communications and relationships. African societies share certain fundamental values that guide the day-to-day life of inhabitants in traditional "African Settings". The values of interest here are mainly those that guide the various processes of commuication.

There are, for example, certain "rules" that guide discourse in the deliberative,forensic and epideictic genres. The rules are grounded in values such as "respect for elders",; acceptance of the hierarchical structures of family, society and nation; performance of certain rituals in respect to the ancestors, following the set protocols and time tested rigorous regimes from performing certain rituals for various occasions ranging from farming to death and burial ceremonies; sibling relationships (Of which these have been covered in the Hub "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence).


The bit mentioned above about the values of African culture, is critical in our efforts to understand communication philosophies, ethics, processes, structures and genres in traditional African settings

Traditional Knowledge or Indigenous Knowledge


The right that govern the speech and act through guaranteed international declarations have their roots in the traditions of African societies. Therefore, African traditional values become an important point of departure. The values embedded in a given tradition also form the basis for some form of "knowledge" about how one goes about fulfilling his rights in society. theis "Knowledge" has been referred to by to by some as "traditional" knowledge or "indigenous" knowledge.

It is this knowledge that equips the individual to know when to speak, to whom, at what place and at what level of involvement. The knowledge acquired depends upon the socialization process - the way a man or woman is taught to speak, his/her choice of works, his/her style and a full understanding context. the composite set of factors mentioned above represent the value system that guides discourse.

African tradition and history are replete with cases of "rights" being exercised and/or demanded. Despotic leaders at the 'Chieftancy' level and higher are challenged and deposed as a result of popular up-risings. Women in contemporary literature are portrayed as 'rightless'-(which incidentally is true in so many instances) have exercised their rights within traditional contexts ranging from the right to divorce to the right to divorce to the right to rule. In West Africa, there have been several women who were chiefs and Paramount chiefs- like the case of Manthatisi, in the history of Africans of South Africa.

At the level of communication, the issue of rights within African traditional sosciety. There are certain conventions that serve as guides for the exercise of such rights which form the core of African culture, customs, traditions and the whole bit. One can find great rhetorical traditions written about by authors such as Achebe, and other African writers found on the African Writers series. This is when one can learn how one is offended , one gets to learn the guidelines that dictate the approaches the offended has to utilize to make his/her case.

The right to communicate during deliberative events is also based on guiding principles that point to status in society and power relations. The same can be said for epidiectic occasions which in this instance includes all forms of rituals. so that, if one can discern it, African traditional values do not hinder the individual's to communicate as long as there is an understanding of the guiding principles upon which such rights could be exercised.

When it comes to an elaborated view of the right to communicate as through the print and electronic media against the background of traditional African values, however, we are entering into an entirely different realm. As could be expected, one could hardly talk about the right to express oneself in an oral traditional setting by means of the print and electronic media. Such media do not generally exist in traditional Africans settings. In addressing the subject matter of traditional African values and the right to communicate, therefore, it seems logical that we would have to confine our discourse to the speech act, since the communication tradition is mainly oral.

The Nguni/Bakone of the South Of 'Ukhahlamba' (Drakensberg Mountains)

The Unified Cultures, Traditions, Customs and Traditions of the Nguni/Bakone

As we have discussed above, the Nguni people have populated the areas of South Africa earlier than has been suspected, and their culture, no matter how this has been spun by historians and detractors of African culture, customs, traditions and practices are the same and have been so as far as the literature on this subject can reach into antiquity. Many Dates have been thrown around from Pre-stone Age to the Middle and Post Iron Age time periods, that in the final analysis, whenever we look at the cultures, custom, traditions of the Nguni/Bakone peoples of South Africa, there is a continuum of these aspects of their forming a nation, and all derive from one single continuum.

The use of pottery to draw distinction between this one cultures is but one serious attempt and flaw at discrediting Africans of South Africa from the civilizing experiences engendered by Monomotapa, Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe. The common theme that keeps on emerging, in terms of the Nguni/Bakone cultures and peoples, is the cattle rearing economy and similarities of languages that are ensconced and embedded dialects on a single continuum.

Meaning, they are one language with different dialects, but are originally coming from antiquity as one language. Again, to challenge the adage that "Africans came at the same time, or had migrated down to South Africa in a given historical time" (depending on who is writing about it), is bogus and disingenuous. If these societies were to have come to South Africa around 1the 1500s or 1600s, the evolution of languages and cultures would not have cohered at the point at which they were found thriving by the Early European settlers.

It is also distortion of a people's history to try and separate the Zulus, Xhosas and the Sothos, who, if one were to view the maps provided in the Photo Gallery, live adjacent to each other, that they are not similar and different from each other. This is that spurios argunet made by those who claim to know the cultures, customs, traditions and practices of the Nguni/Bakone peoples. If one were to listen to theses supposedly different clans relate eachs' culture to the other, one would note that their cultures, they would agree is the same, but it's only the matter of dialect and accent, and in fact, these languages share each others terms in some form or another[this point would require a whole new hub to explain, which might be in the works, in the future].

There are no differences in cultural, traditional and customary practices of all this diverse mosaic. Even the Afrikaans language has stolen some words from the different dialects and incorporated some Malay words, too. A casual look or listening to the type of words, language structure, phonemes, phonology and phonetical pronunciation, utterances and meaning and vocalization of their languages in their present form, presents us with a glimpse as to the commonality of a language with National implications, their cultural, traditional, customary remain the same.

Cows are given as a nexus of building relationship with other peoples or to those one is marrying into, the consultation of the herbalist and spiritual healers has the same practices, approach and beliefs attached to them, how children are brought up, the care of the pregnant and sick, the games children play, the preparation for war, circumcision practices, customs, culture and rites, the respect for the maternal side of families and societies, the laws and rules of and for the shepherd-boys, their laws for the Kings, how they managed and distributed and regulated different types of work, issues and matters pertaining to the weather and seasons regarding planting, harvesting, birth and ceremonies, the customs, traditions, laws and rules that regulated relations between the elderly, ancestors and other people in the pantheon of the clan and the like.

What is to be done for women who do not bear children, health and other natural and socially related phenomenon, the sick and those affected by death and other such social malaise, healing practices, remedies and the relation of rain, hail and prayers for rains and so on[As noted with Queen Modjadji 'the rainmaker', such persons and practices are found all around the various clans that form the Nguni/Bakone peoples, their customs, traditions, culture and practices, which are one and the same, as both Hubs have been asserting.

Blackburn, near Umhlanga lagoon, some 15 km north of Durban,(see the Kwazulu section map in the Picture Gallery), has been excavated,. It consisted of a village with a dozen or so houses, two of which were dug up. (O. Davis). Built on a circular plan, with a diameter of c. 5.5 meters, the structures, the structures are beehive-shaped and supported internally by one or more central posts. The frame was made of of bending stalks and the whole structure covered with thatch (See photo Gallery). this resembles classic Nguni/Bakone style of huts and architecture and along with those of the Khoi-Khoi practice. This site contained a few scraps of iron.

The food found there included game bones, shellfish and a few fish bodies. Somehow, one can postulate that this was a site once occupied by the Khoi, then in the end the xhosas took over it in the eastern Cape. It is well known that the Nguni/Bakone ate fish, that too shows that it was part of their diet since ancient timesThe pottery that was found on the Vaal River shows tht there was interaction and a connection between the Xhosas and the Basothos and Batswana of South Africa; also, it was because a large ware was found in the ruins near the Vaal River (Inskeep)

The site at Moor Park near Estcourt, in Natal, dates back to the thirteenth or fourteenth century. It is located on a promontory and surrounded by a wall which encloses not only the houses, but also clearings and terraces. the settlement was obviously located in a strong defensive postion. The remains of the houses indicate a rectangular floor plan. OIf that is correct, it is unique in the whole of southern Africa. The inhabitants used iron, cultivated sorghum, hunted game and herded cattle. The Pottery has not yet been securely linked to other ware(I still believe that diversity was the strength and is still the strength of the culture, custom, traditions and practices of the Nguni/Bakone; this also includes architecture and so on]. (O. Davies)

A last set of sites was found in 1978 near Umngazi River mouth in the Transkei. These represent Early, Middle and Late Iron Age occupations. Evidence of iron smelting and a hut floor of baked clay resembling the floors of the high veld have also been found. confirmation of an early date for the hut floor and the smelting has had revolutionary implications for our understanding both of the links between the societies north and and south of the Drakensberg("UKhahlamba") and of the time when the ancestors of the Nguni[/Bakone] settled there (Matiyela).

One of the most important pieces of historical information about the Nguni/Bakone came from the "survivors of shipwrecks along the Natal and Cape Coasts in the sixteenth Century. Survivors from the wrecks on the Transkei coast since the sixteenth century described a population and a way of life which left no doubt that lining then were the ancestors of the present occupants of the country. (M. Wilson and L. Thompson)

Survivors of the Stavenisse refferred explicitly in 1688 to 'Maponte' on the coast they now occupy. The detailed account s given by these survivors suggest that change in the way of life of the Xhosa-speaking was slow for more than two centuries, ofr what the shipwrecked men describe was not very different from the domestic life described amongst the Nguni/Bakone peoples, despite their loss of political independence and diminsihing economic self-sufficiency that characterized their societies before the coming of the Coloialists (A. Steedman)

Information gathered from oral tradition indicates that the Transkei was inhabited by the Xhosas chiefdoms by the sixteenth century. The ruling families had lived for many generations on the upper reaches of Mzimvubu River, specifically near the Dedesi stream. They had been living there long beefore c. 1300 (Wilson; Peires; Harinck)

By the 1300s and 1400s, the Nguni/Bakone were occupying the whole territory in which the were found living in the 1800s, although the western parts were mixed with the Khoi-Khoi, with whom they mixed and gradually assimilated. The Khoi-Khoi left a deep imprint on both the eastern and the western Nguni Languages. Lanham maintains that this influence stated only the Xhosa and Zulu languages clusters began to separate. Khoikhoi influences were very strong in both Zulu and Xhosa, amounting to about 14 per cent and 20 per cent of the vocabulary respectively.

Khoi influence transformed the Xhosa phonemic system, which means that these influences existed when the Xhosa began to differentiate themselves from the Zulus or Eastern Nguni/Bakone. It is true that the influence of the Khoikhoi was effcective and played a role of influence on the Xhosas, but this does not mean that the Xhosas are exclusively Khoikhoi, inasmuch as the Khoikhoi were absorbed into the Xhosa people's system of thought, culture and customs.

What the Historians are not really telling us is where the language of the Zulus and Xhosas emanates from, and not only that, why is it interconnected with the other Bakone/Ngunis, meaning, Batswana,s, Bapedi, Vendas, Ndebeles, Shangaans (of which some speculate these came by way of Mozambique and the emanate from the Rowzi nations of antiquity). The author of this article believes that there has always been an intermarriage and intermixture between the 9(Nine) peoples, as they have been tagged in the first hub.

There has always been a cross and mixture between the Xhosa and the Koikhoi that it is impossible to say where one starts and the other end. It is also superficial to divide and present them as different because it is not like the Khoikhoi are from another continent and another race. If they have "disappeared", as assumed, it is because they and the Xhosas, the Pedis, Tswanas, Vendas, Shangaan, Ndebeles Swazis and Zulus are the same looking-alike phenotype of Africans in South Africa: Nguni/Bakone.

I do not buy nor am I prepared to separate Africans into Negro(What) and Africans- i.e., as if the Khoi and the San people are not African, by any stretch of their historical, anthropological imagination and mind-set. This is a bogus distinction, and it does not hold any historical reality of certitude. Any imagined difference does not tally with the fact the connections and relationships and customs, culture traditions and practices of these people are the same.

Yet, the same people who perceive and write about these differences are perplexed by the "oneness" of these cultures, the interaction they had maintained with each each other, from antiquity and other interrelated historical timelines and that same customs, languages, cultures, customs and traditions are of one people-one ethnic stock: Nguni/Bakone. Linguistic and biological evidence does point to the fact that the Khoi lived in Natal as well as the eastern Cape; what is not further elaborated upon is the intermixture and intermarriage and assimilation of the Khoi into the systems of the Xhosas, Pedis, Basothos and so forth that in effect makes the superficially discussed 'differences' amongst them, bogus and misleading;

These nations were and are still one, no matter how its cut or described- they are not different at all, and the discussion of their cultures in the foregoing Hub attests to that. It is true that the Khoi influenced the NguniBakone of South Africa, and so too were they affected, and assimilated and influenced by and into the Nguni/Bakone Cultures. This is a fact the will not be denied the Africans of South Africa, i.e., the 11(eleven) peoples of South Africa are one and all are the same- and they present themselves as a diverse kaleidoscopic African mosaic. The Khoikhoi belong to the South Africa hunting populations and not derived from any other part of the continent.

For the African people, "the extended family is in fact a cooperative in spirit and pracitce. It could become nation's basic economic unit. It is one of the best means through which individual initiative, self-reliance, self-help and cooperative efforts may be promoted and realized. The African family system, then, is another cultural institution that should be modernized and be preserved first as an important social unit in which both the personality and family disorganization now going on may be checked and, secondly, as a basic economic unit in and around which cooperative enterprises may be developed.

We do not mean "modern" in any sense lie the modern Western family, the progressive disorganization of which is one of the chief sociological problems of our times. Rather, we refer to such things as the matrilineal system of inheritance and the removal of the chains forged on the industrious and enterprising members by the eternal parasitic dependents whose chief and men aim is to share in the earnings of the success without contributing anything themselves" (C. Williams)

Therefore, in this case, we would have to deal with the nature and classes of the speech act in traditional African settings against the background of African traditional values and the right to speak. The lack of historical material on issues pertaining to African history is daunting and it is this scarcity that is hindering much more further progress in moving the history forward. But what we have will be used to flesh-out the History of languages, cultures, customs and traditions and practices of the Africans of South Africa.

Language Reflects History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Meanings

The African community of brotherly and sisterly relations must be saved, recognized and modernized. It should be a self-reliant,socio-economic community that provides full scope for individual initiative, individual freedom and individual rewards, while at the same time putting the community's welfare first. ...The culture of a people is perhaps best reflected in their language or languages(as has already been discussed in the first Hub: "South African Culture, customs and Practices Writ Laarge: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence".

Each language, no matter how small the group,is dear to that group. Easy communication and understanding between the numerous language groups are primary requirements of true nationhood and, what is more, there can be no effective national education program to help create an intelligent nation with 12 different languages as the media of instruction. It must be recognized that the nation must have a world language. English, a world language, just happens to be here.

English is here as a world language, and is much needed. Use of English should not be discouraged because of one's strong hatred of colonialism. If English is used as a medium of instruction on any advanced level, it should be taught at first grade levels, or the students will be forever handicapped as they advance through the higher levels. ...And English, far from being a means of destroying culture, could be the companion language that helps to conserve and enrich it in many distinctly important respects needed. ...All other languages should and, as a matter of fact, will be maintained.

But the languages other than those nationally required should bemaintained through the local initiative of their own language groups. They should also be used in the local schools and encouraged by the National Government. Through local cooperative effort, the smallest language group can enrich and otherwise develop its native tongue in any way it desires, such as by publication of a local language newspaper, monthly magazine, story books , pamphlets, an plays. The most groundless fear is that English will destroy the country's culture. Quite the contrary, English can help save and enrich that culture (C. Williams).

In the first Hub I have referred to above and this one, I have reflected upon the culture of Africans using the authentic words in Sotho and Swazi to describe and give form to African culture, and I have used English to give interpretation to the world community to understand the 'meanings' of these words. I agree, English, in many cases, is used around the world, and it should be also be used to enhance and give meaning to the languages Africans use in south Africa and throughout africa.

South African Languages are Different from Europeans Languages

Paulo Freire says that: "The decolonization of mentality is much more difficult to achieve than the physical expulsion of the colonialists. Sometimes the colonizers are thrown out but they remain culturally, because they have been assimilated into the minds of the people they leave behind. Language does not remain uaffected. The more this colonialists presence haunts the assimilated spirits of the colonized people, the more they will reject their own language. In fact, language is so much a part of culture that by rejecting it, the reappropriation of one's culture becomes a revolutionary illusion.

The ex-colonized in many ways continue to be mentally and culturally colonized. The colonized people were told either verbally or through message systems inherent in the colonial structure that they did not possess effective cultural instruments with which to express themselves. This language profile imposed by the colonizers eventually convinced the people that their language was in fact corrupt and inferior system unworthy of true educational status.

People end up believing that the way they speak is 'savage'. They become ashamed of speaking their own language, particularly in the presence of the colonists who constantly proclaim the beauty and superiority of their own language. The colonizers behaviors and tastes, including language, are the models that were imposed by the colonial structure over centuries of oppression.

At some point, the ex-colonized internalize these myths and feel ashamed. In essence, the challenging task of reappropriating their culture and history could not be achieved through the language that negated their reality and attempted to eradicate their own means of communication (Freire).

The colonialists languages, throughout Africa were imposed on African nations at the expense of the native languages. This then, viewed from this perspective, was that the colonialists' languages hid the true linguistic issue. Africans in South Africa should study English, as Williams elaborated above, but only as their second and third language(if need be). If we are talking about the renaissance of society's culture, custom, traditions mired in the grip of a dysfunctional society, means that the 'reinvention of a society is a political act taking place in history.

The failure of the African peoples efforts to resuscitate their cultures, traditions, customs and education, 'demonstrated the inviability of using [Afrikaans] and English as the only vehicle of instruction in the literary campaigns. This is a fundamental point (Freire). Still, to-date, Africans in south Africa have not really looked at and truly use their own languages(or the evolved forms thereof-case in point- Kasi Slang) to edify and empower their communication mode and ways of talking to each other. Yes, they talk this language amongst themselves, and I think the point is that they need to see the power of their own language and their preparedness to raise it to even loftier heights of World language systems. That is why we read from Cheik Anta Diop that:

Linguistic unity dominates all national life. Without it, national cultural unity is but fragile and illusory. Cheikh Anta Diop differs a bit from Chancellor Williams, in his assessment of the affects of foreign languages on native tongues, above and in the following excerpt, puts the language issue into its proper perspective when he writes: "Linguistic unity based in a foreign language, however one may look at it, is cultural abortion.

It would irremedially eventuate in the death of the authentic national culture, the end of our deeper intellectual and spiritual life and reduces us to perpetual copycats, having missed out on our historical mission in this world. ...We must be radically opposed to any attempts at cultural assimilation coming from the outside: none is possible without opening the way to the others. One might say that it makes no difference to a Wolof Speaking African whether he adopts Zulu of English or Portuegese.

This is just not so. An African educated in any African language other than his own is less alienated, culturally speaking, than he is when educated in a European language which takes the place of his mother tongue. Likewise, a Frenchman who got an Italian education would be less alienated than if inculcated with Zulu or Arabic in place of French. Such is the disparity in cultural interest which exists between European and African languages. European languages must not be considered diamonds displayed under a glass bell, dazzling us with their brilliance. Our attention must rather be fixed on their historical development. Creatively, we discover that similar paths are open to all. (Cheikh Anta Diop)

Africans have to be re-educated about the importance of their languages and the linguistic parlance that they share or have with other foreign or international languages. Regarding this matter, Diop states: "The influence of language is so great that the various European mother countries feel they can afford to withdraw politically from Africa without great loss as long as their linguistic presence remain in the economic, spiritual and cultural spheres. They assume that onetime colonies will officially retain the colonizer's language; anything else would be disappointing, ungrateful and inacceptable.

Such a design is impossible of realization, even though former colonies continue to honor the tongue of the mother country as the prime foreign language in high school curricula. We are not at all talking of a radical cultural severance. Because of the huge difficulties to be overcome in mastering the African linguistic mosaic, some observers in Europe are convinced that we will not be up to the challenge, that we will be unable to undertake a change requiring so much human energy, so much intellectual lucidity, so much creative thinking.

If they do not actually sneer, they are nonetheless sure that the drive for African cultural unity will fail. Cultural surrender is a foregone conclusion, in view of the ignorance of vital problems that extends to some of our most responsible political leaders. Political independence to a certain degree is, yes, what they envision now. None of what makes for the greatness of modern nations in national culture or even economic infrastructure will, when all is said and done, ever exist among us,they, assume.

On the other hand, they firmly expect perpetuation of the cultural mix they created, and one can already hear the pseudo-dialectical phrases that will be used to try to legitimize such a state of affairs in the name of efficiency, progress, planetary unity and what have you. Our generation is out of luck, so to speak, in what we will not be forced to take the bull by the horns, to rid our minds of intellectual formulas and tidbits of thought in order to enter resolutely upon the only truly dialectical path toward solution of the problems that historry forces upon us. This connotes active research, in the most authentic meaning of that term, by clear and fertile minds capable of proposing effective solutions and realizing them without intellectual guardianship [from Europe, I might add]." (Diop).

That will mean real independence and freedom, bodily, spiritually, intellectually, and within the cultural, customary, traditional practices, without anyone peeking over the shoulder and telling one what to do, how to do it, and why. Diop counsels: "Historical circumstances now demand of our generation that it solve a felicitous manner the problems that face Africa, most especially the Cultural problem.

"If we do not succeed in this, we will appear in the history of the development of our people as the watershed generation that was unable to insure the unified cultural survival of the African continent; the generation which, out of political and intellectual blindness, committed the error fatal to our national future. We will have been unworthy generation par excellence.

"The selection of a single language for the continent-one which any foreigner, whether French, English, Russian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian or other, would have to learn to communicate with any African on our African Continent-would thus obviously lead to a simplification of our intercourse with the outside world. International relations, far from becoming more complicated, would become more easier" (Cheikh Anta Diop).

This Hub hope to begin to lay out some form of foundation in regards to writing and talking about the types of African languages in south Africa and hope that this will help someone else somewhere to further the process of putting our languages on the Web and bringing them back to life.

What is the present status of African languages in South Africa? The African National Congress has instituted some laws and guidelines that there should be equity in the treatment and speakers of different languages. According to Nkonko Kamwangamalu, :The social history of South Africa indicates that over the past 360 years the country has experienced four major ideologies in language policy, with each ideology impacting the whole society as we as societal language use.

The four ideologies include Dutchification (1652-1795) Anglicization (1795-1948), Democratization (1994-present)." The Dutch imposed their language when Van Riebeeck landed in the Cape. The Dutch of the day were the rulers of their "newly discovered" colonies. This was the beginnings of Apartheid(separate development. With the policy of Anglicization of South Africa, the British "sought to replace the Dutch by English in all spheres of public sphere. Anglicization required knowledge of English for access to whatever resources were available.

The policy of Anglicization ended effectively in 1948 when the Afrikaners came into power and swiftly replaced it with Apartheid [Afrikanization and total apartheidization of the the whole country of South Africa] And they imposed Afrikaans as one of the official languages of the country. The ANC has facilitated for African languages, through the new Language Democratization Policy (1994) to be accorded official status to 11 language, the Languages of the 9(nine) peoples, plus English and Afrikaans. Therefore, the suppressed languages of the Africans of south African should be viewed within the lens of the part historical background given above.

The Civilization of Mapungubwe is African South African

Throughout these two Hubs [South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional existence" and "History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices Of the Africans of South Africa: De-Constructing Historical Amnesia."] I have consistently maintained that the civilization of Mapungubwe is the civilization of the African peoples of South Africa. I provided proof in terms of the similarities and sameness of the cultures of the 10(nine) peoples of South Africa: (the Zulus, Xhosas, Vendas, Pedis, Tswanas, Ndebeles, Tsongas/Shangaans, Swazis and Basothos).

It is better for us to get a sense and take of what civilization is and in the process define the meaning of culture within its content and and context. John G. Jackson informs us thus: "Before deciding the future of civilization, if any, let me define it. The shelves of numerous libraries contain voluminous histories of civilization. The authors of these works rarely tell us just what civilization is.

At the beginning of an eleven-volume work, The Story of Civilization, Dr. Will Durant informs us that: "Civilization is social order promoting cultural creation." This is no doubt true; but let me try to clarify it. Since Civilization is a form of culture I must fist define culture. Speaking precisely, culture is patterned behavior; the organized behavior which individuals learn through imitation or instruction from other members of the mutual social group. Culture consists of all forms of human behavior except those which apes and mankind share in common. Among behavior patterns common to apes and men are impulses toward mating and parenthood.; tendencies to show off; to attack others when angry; to take flight when scared; and the desire for companionship.

These are all non-cultural activities and may be denoted as (1) the growing of crops, (2) the domestication of animals and plants, (3) the art of cooking, (4) the wearing of clothes, and (5) the use of language for the purpose of mutual communication. Civilization is nothing more, or less, than literate culture, and a society is civilized only if it contains scientists and scholars.

This has been explained by an eminent anthropologist as follows: "A society is civilized only if it contains scholars and scientists. The scholar consolidates and clarifies the knowledge which has already been acquired and hand it on the scientist, who, thus provided, proceeds to experiment and thus to the increase of knowledge. Without the torch of learning, the scientist is reduced to groping in the dark, and without the scientist to use and test the results of his learning the scholar sinks into a barren pedantry.

Thus scholarships and science, in the widest sense of these terms, are the warp and woof of civilization. And the scientist, no less than the scholar, is dependent of the written word; not only must he be able to use the learning of scholars, but he must be ale to record the results of his own investigations. Since, then, civilization depends upon scholarship and science, and these depend upon writing, civilization can only rise where the art of writing is known." (Jackson). Well as long as language evolution and erudition propels the culture forward, it should also be considered as part of the civilizing component of humanity. And as we shall see, this view is expounded upon by historical linguistics of Walter Ong below.

I have issues with the definition above because it only tell the second-half of the story. It would be proper here to start from the beginning, and put this into proper perspective. Walter Ong informs us that: "Recently,however,applied linguistics ad sociolinguistics have been comparing more and more the dynamics of primary oral verbalization and those of written verbaization. Jack Goody's book, "The Domestication of the Savage Mind (1977"), and his earlier collection of his own and other' work," Literacy in Traditional Societies (1968)", still provide invaluable descriptions and analyses of changes in mental and social structures incident to the use of writing. Chaytor very early (1945), Ong (1958b, 1967b), McLuhan (1962, Haugen (1966), Chafe (1982), Tannen (1980a) and others provide further linguistic and cultural data and analyses. Foley's expertly focused survey (1980b) includes an extensive bibliography.

Ong adds: "The greatest awakening to the contrast between oral modes of thought and expression and written modes took place not in linguistics, descriptive or cultural, but literary studies, beginning clearly with the work of Milman Parry (1902-35) on the text of the Iliad and the Odyssey, brought to completion after Parry's untimely death by alert B. Lord, and supplenented by later work of Eric Havelock and others. Publications in applied linguistics and sociolinguitics dealing with orality hierarchy contrasts, theoretically or in fieldwork, regularly cite these and related works of (Parry 1971; Lord 1960. Havelock 1963; McLuhan 1962; Okpewho 1979; etc.).

"Human beings communicate in countless ways, making use of all their sense, touch, taste, smell, and especially sight, as well as well as hearing (Ong 1967b). Some non-oral communication is exceedingly rich - gesture, for example. Yet, in a deep sense, language, articulated sound, is paramount. Not only communication, but thought itself relates in an altogether special way to sound. We have all heard it said that one picture is worth a thousand words. Yet, if this statement is true, why does it have to be a 'saying'? Because a picture is worth a thousand words only under special conditions - which commonly include a context of words in which the picture is set." (Ong) So that, one can observe that language is very important for a people to evolve and become great/

It's true that 'civilization can only rise where the art of writing is known. It is also true that before there was literature there was Orality. I have written a sub-heading just a little above and called it "Language Reflects Culture, Traditions, Customs Tranditions [and I may just add a little] and their Meanings, and it was my aim to highlight, denote and connote what language is to a people.

I am extending this discourse in this part of the Hub, for if you read the first Hub, "South African Culture, Customs and Practices writ-large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence", the reader will notice that in it when I was giviing the narrative of a culture as it was told by those who live it; I used, in most cases, words, and sentences, [where possible], of the African peoples of South Africa to give the texture, the color, the taste, the audio and the pronunciation along with accents, deflections, inflections and meaning as to how and why these words were used by them and are still being used and is the lingua franca of Africans in South africa, and in the process be creating a much more meaningful and deeper understanding about the culture of the 10(ten) peoples: (Africans of Mzantsi- African South Africans).

Language(Orality), Literature and Writing

For us to better understand the importance of language, writing literature and spoken word, we will defer to Ong who writes: "Wherever human beings exist they have a language, and in every instance a language that exists basically as spoken and heard, in the world of Sound (Siertsema 1955). Despite the riches of gesture, elaborated sign languages are substitutes for speech dependent on oral speech systems, even when used by the congenially deaf (Kroeber 1972; Mallery 1972; Stoke 1972).

Indeed, language is overwhelmingly oral and that of all the many thousands of languages - possibly tens of thousands - spoken in the course of human history only around 106 have ever been committed to writing to a degree sufficient to have produced literature, and most have never been written at all. Of some 3000 languages spoken that exist today, some 78 have literature (Edmonson 1971).

There is as yet no way to calculate how many languages have disappeared or been transmuted into other languages before writing cam along. Even now hundreds of languages in active use are never written at all: no one has worked out an effective way to write them. The basic orality of language is permanent (Ong). It is interesting to learn about the fact so many languages have yet to be written, and yet, Africans in South Africa are told that this language is useless and a non-language- of which the falsity of this assertion should be borne in mid as one reads-on.

For the people of African descent in South Africa, it is important to have these facts regarding language, orality and literature when it concerns their straightening of their own history, be thoroughly known and understood. African people's lack of coherent and cohesive theories and informed historiography regarding all the diverse related issues that constitute the elements considered in rebuilding African history in South Africa is palpable and disconcerting. The history of Africans, their Languages as spoken and their phonetics("di-Fonetiki" were taught and written in their indigenous accent and pronunciations).

There is a serious literature on the novel(fiction) and other literary styles that can be found amongst the 10(ten) peoples of South Africa. So that, the fiction and bogus claims that the culture is backward and will never develop remain like that, are lies and misinformation. The fear that the former colonizers have is that Africans, if they learn, know and understand their history, will fulfill their potential as humans and as a united nation of the Nguni/Bakone.

As Ong has pointed out above, there are many languages that have as yet to be written and that does not make them backward nor having no potential for the speakers to use them and develop and enhance their peoples and cultures. As Ong aptly points out: "The basic orality of language is permanent." Just because a language has no literature nor is written does not make it non-existent or useless. In the follwing quote, Ong explains to us the difenrences between certain types of Languages,wherein he continues to write:

"We are not here concerned with so-called computer 'languages', which resemble human languages (English, sanskrit, Malayalam, Mandarin Chinese, Twi, Shoshone, Zulu, Venda, Sotho, etc.) in some way but are forever totally unlike human languages in that they do not grow out of the unconscious but directly out of consciousness. Computer language rules 'grammar') are stated first and thereafter used.

The 'rules' of grammar in natural human languages are used first and can be abstracted from usage and stated explicitly in words only with difficulty and never completely. Writing, commitment of the word to space, enlarges the potentiality of language almost beyond measure, restructures thought, and in the process converts a certain few dialects into 'grapholects' Haugen 1966;)

A grapholect is a transdialectal language formed by deep commitment to writing. Writing gives a grapholect a power far exceeding that of any purely oral dialect. The grapholect known as standard English has accessible for use a recorded vocabulary of at least a million and a half words[and counting..], of which not only the present meanings but also hundreds if thousands of past meanings are known. A simply oral dialect will commonly have resources of only a few thousand words, and its users will have virtually no knowledge of the real semantic history of these words (Ong) Ong goes on to add that:

Yet, despite the oral roots of all verbalization, the scientific and literary study of language and literature has for centuries, until quite years, shied away from orality. Texts have clamored for attention so peremptorily that oral creations have tended to be regarded generally as variants of written productions, or, if not this, as beneath serious scholarly attention. Only relatively recently have we become impatient with our obtuseness here (Finegan 1977)

Language study in all but recent decades has focused on written texts rather than on orality for a readily assignable reason: the relationship of study itself to writing. All thought, including that in primary oral cultures, is to some degree analytic: it breaks its materials into various components. But abstractly sequential, classificatory, explanatory examination of phenomena or of state truths is impossible without writing and reading.

Human beings in primary oral cultures, those untouched by writing in any form, learn a great deal and possess and practice great wisdom, but they do not 'study'. They learn by apprenticeship - hunting with experienced hunters, for example - by discipleship,which is a kind of apprenticeship, by listening, by repeating what they hear, by mastering proverbs and ways of combining and recombining them, by assimilating other formulary materials, by participation in a kind of corporate retrospection - not by study in the strict sense.

When study in the strict sense of the extended sequential analysis becomes possible with the interiorization of writing, one of the first things that literates often study is language itself, from the very early stages of consciousness, long before writing came into existence. Proverbs from all over the world are rich with observations about this overwhelmingly human phenomenon of speech in its native oral form, about its powers, beauties, its dangers. The same fascination with oral speech continues unabated fro centuries after writing comes into use." (Ong)

It is interesting that what Africans in south Africa call their culture, customs and traditions, and practices are what Ong just described above. The manner in which Ong connects orality to writing, in a way gives Africans a leasehold and better understanding in their attempts to resuscitate their nation's culture, customs, traditions and practices and also a way of talking about it/them(national culture, traditions, customs and practices). Their rich proverbs pregnant with observations, meanings, and learning and acquiring these through 'apprenticeship' and 'discipleship', affords the culture a survival.

This means that leaning was done through the word and action required in relation to the spoken and oral traditions and meanings That African South African culture, customs and tradition were not valid nor exist because they were not written, then this is debunked by the the facts as doled out by Ong that, "Writing, commitment of the word to space, enlarges the potentiality of language almost beyond measure, restructures thoughts, and in the process converts a certain dialects into 'grapholects: a 'grapgpolet' being a transdialectial language formed by deep commitment to writing: writing gives a 'grapholet' power far exceeding that of any purely oral dialect"[quoted above-and re-quoted again].

Writing does that, but what came before writing was orality. Literature textually formatted speeches which can be read as speeches in a typographical literary format. Africans in South Africa have "dithoko"(Praises); "izibongo" (Praises) and so on, which contain historical data of a people, which too are part of their lingua franca and language mosaic which have been dismissed as non-existant and irrelevant, and yet hardly understood and very well-known by the detractors of Africans and the African nation in South Africa.

The ways in which oral authorities felt threatened by writing, is encapsulated from this griot, a rememberer and teller of the past in Mali in west Africa: "We Griots are depositories of the knowledge of the past ... Other peoples use writing to record the past, but this invention has killed the faculty of memory among them. They do not feel the past anymore, for writing lacks the warmth of the human voice.."

Socrates who wrote nothing, and Plato, employed the oral form of the dialogue, a dramatized sequence of questions and answers, to convey his ideas in written form. So that, language is an important component and a highway towards learning more and anchoring African South African history in World historical context.

The Case for the Indigenous languages in South Africa

African Languages Colonized to Serve Divisive Dysfunctionality

South African languages (the languages of the 10(ten) peoples of South Africa has be under constant attack from the colonizers and their use of the languages (English and Africans) as the official languages of government and society. And this is what the first Hub was dealing with. It is not really true that African languages in South Africa are no more used and are dead.

It is true that English and Afrikaans had a head start in terms of its colonizing and cause of social confusion and dysfunction of the Africans is South Africa. With the imposition of European language upon Africans, this had a devastating effects displaying symptoms of Amnesia of all cultural, social, customary, historical, and traditional mores, norms and values.

Africans have forgotten what they used to do, or learn-like, or their own educational values through tradition, culture, customs and practices, and the languages related to them, and how these languages in their usage gave meaning and transmitted culture and customs and and traditions for their use and Uplifting and Upgrading of their national lot. Chancellor Williams reminds us thus: "The cultural basis for a new African civilization may be even clearer if we look briefly at African education before the advent of the White man.

The pre-European of the African child was a cooperative effort between the home and the closely-knit community , both being jointly responsible for the outcome. This process has continued down through the centuries, impaired, but never completely broken by the impact of the West. The sentiments it inspired and the kind of character it moulded help to explain the Africans of Ghana today."

[In citing this piece by Chancellor Williams, I am also saying that this applied in many ways to the culture of African South Africans, as I have demonstrated in the Hub prior to this one "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfuncritional Existence", by talking extensively about the Basotho, Swazis, Xhosas, Zulus, Pedis and Vendas in regards to their cultures, customs, traditions and practices, that, they are one, and bear a lot in common that if looked at in that way, form a nation with a cultural, customary, traditional mosaic in a myriad and diverse setting, but common and the same in its manifestations, and embedded within the African Society core and psyche.

Clan Memory In Retrospect

Chancellor further informs us that clan memory is like the written records, and describes the way it was impressed on its learners and the importance of that in one knowing and carrying their history forth: "Central in the early education of the child was a knowledge of the past; and no child wanted to hear the belittling charge by his fellows that "Nnyim wo nkyir!" ("You don't now your past!").

This history was imparted in the home and the the community adai by the trained story-teller who, it is well known, was always rigidly checked for accuracy by the Elders; and learning the past became a real pleasure when it was reinforced by the message-bearing song and dance." One other thing I would like to add is the one Williams talks about when he writes: "At the age of six the boy began his more formal training by helping is father, and through this longer and closer association he learned the values of the society, the names of all animals, plants and trees, what dangers, if any, lurked in the forests, and how to attack a dangerous beast, defend himself, climb a tree swiftly or, if need be, run.

He began to learn the rigid division of labor between the sexes at this early age, what duties were expected of him around the home and those which were taboo for men. He also began to learn his trade. His social and political education also began at six: Obedience, politeness and respectful deference to all elders in the community, an elder here meaning anyone older than oneself. He knew at once when kinsmen approach carrying a staff of the clan that it either meant sad news or an appeal for help.

His political education stated just s early, although it was limited mainly to observation. He carried his father's stool to council meetings, listened to the discussions, and was prepared to report what the Elders said.." Ong alluded to the the "Apprenticeship" nature and role of learning within an African context and setting; Williams break it down to its actual context and content.

Williams adds: "The training of the girl, also taking a more definite turn at the age of six, was no less thoroughgoing. The objective was, very simply, to make her a good wife. She became more closely associated her mother in the household tasks: sweeping, bringing water, airing the sleeping mats, caring for the baby and any other younger ones, working in the garden and limiting the mother when she prepared meals by sitting beside her with smaller cooking utensils. She also accompanied her mother to the market, learned the rules of the trade, and how to add, subtract, and divide mentally, and quickly.

The training was exacting for both girls and boys, but a sharp watch out was made to determine the varying levels of actual ability, and no child was forced beyond his or her capacity, because one had to "remember that all flowers of a tree do not bear fruit"-which, educationally, meant that individual differences in ability had to be recognized." (Williams) Being knowledgable about the ways and practices of their culture, this was and is still worn was a honor and and respected very much.

When it came to the dance that Africans indulge in during the leisure and work time, Williams gives us this clarification: "The dance and its meaning and community activities were learned i one's all-importnt age-group. The sense of heritage and a knowledge of all the family's history were developed in the kinship group meetings. All of this training went on until the age of twelve. At the age of twelve the child began the study of his district, its topography, names of places, the sacred places, the different kinds of birds and animals(names and colors-in the case of the Bakone/Nguni people), and their habits, and the art of hunting and fishing. Landmarks were learned.

The history of the group was given greater emphasis at this level, and a clearer distinction made between the real and mythological. Farm education was now stepped-up. The youngster was taught classes of soil and the kinds of crops appropriate to each, soul culture, the role of the weather, the rainy seasons and the work cycle, plowing, sowing, harvesting and pets" [on which months and seasons-ciscussed partly when dealing with the Basotho Culture and Customs and Traditions in the Hub first Hub already mentioned in this section].

We learn more from Williams when he informs us that: "The work cycle was, of course, determined by such things as the rainy season itself or the "slack season." Then both men and women, boys and girls, could concentrate on their respective crafts such as furniture making, basket weaving, carving, pottery, sandal- making, and dress-making. It was at this level that training was advanced in rapid calculation, weights and measures, exchange value of cowries (money) and gold weights.

Health education consisted of body cleanliness and a knowledge of the native herbs and other medicines known to cure, especially antidotes for poisonous snake-bites. At the age of twelve, most African youths already knew the social organization of the clan from the family on up to the Oman (State), along with the rights and responsibilities in its complex structure. They also already knew how to "read" messages of the drums from far away. Religious education, like character education, was not a thing apart, but inseparable from the total process which was a total way of life.

Unlike Christianity, the African religion governed life, and was therefore more of what did than what one believed. Beliefs were merely guides to action and the satisfying justification for what was done. A Psychology of mental and social stability seemed to run through it all. In addition to the youth's developing a healthy personality, a feeling of growing strong, capable and secure in a mutually supporting group, each youngster had his own Kra, or patron saint to who he could appeal. The Kra was his protecting spirit." The same can be said about Africans of South Africa as narrated above, that is, how the culture of Africans functioned, applied and manifested itself in the consciousness and reality of Africans in South Africa.

The words used by Africans in South Africa are terms like "Amadlozi", Badimo and so forth for the word Kra, because, If one were to read the excerpt above to Africans in South Africa, they would put names and meanings that they are familiar with onto the way of bringing up youth and socializing young adults and their elders within the dictates of their customs, traditions, cultures and practices. Because of Apartheid, which started with Van Riebeeck, all the way to Botha and De Klerk, and the policy of "Total Onslaught" on Africans and their very existence, their languages, and the meanings which their languages preserved their cultures, they still retained a highly civilized scheme of political and social organization.

This too was suppressed with all types of 'raids', 'wars' and 'forced labor', wherein, as we have shown above, they became acculturated and infused with the vocabulary, vernacular and manners of speech of their colonizers. But in the process, Africans did not loose their mother-tongue in any way, but what they did was hybridized and fused the different European languages to form their own language. What many people who talk about the political, cultural and social linguistics as determinant formed by the colozers' languages and speechifying, is that, within South African there are many African languages, depending on what region one is in, that are spoken by Africans and evolve just as fast as any languages that that are spoken and are evolving around the world.

Notwithstanding, Africans in South Africa had a definite system of education prior to the coming of the Europeans; that their religion was that of brotherhood, cooperation and "Ubuntu"(the quality of being a human being), and that they had an actual way of life and inseparable from it; that their proverbs, which played an important part in character formation, were as rich in a philosophy of life and in poetry as any found in higher civilizations; and, that while they priced intellectual excellence most highly, their main educational objective and concern was the character of the individual.

That, in this character development the desired qualities were not left to chance, but were spelled out; and that, strangely enough, despite their clan divisions and contrast in inter-clan activities, they had,underlying it all, a concept of universal brotherhood and "Ubuntu". (This excerpt was inspired by citations from Chancellor Williams used to reconstruct, and debunk myths about the backwardness of African Cultures, Customs, Traditions and Practices in south Africa, and this applies to almost the rest of Africa and Africans in the Diaspora- author's note.)

It is therefore important to make a note, again, that though the effects of colonization have negatively impacted African languages in South Africa, it is also important to note that the product of this impact was a language that had been in existence since colonization, that some of the words used in English, Afrikaans, Portuguese and other few European languages have be usurped by Africans and used whenever they speak amongst themselves. This language (Kasi Slang) is country-wide with many variations, meanings, and inherent and contained in them is embedded a vocabulary of words from the time of colonization right up to the golden days of Democracy under ANC.

There may have been an impact on the Africans speech because of colonization, internationalization and democracy, but, there is still this ignored fact and seemingly ignored linguistics reality existing amongst the indigenous of SouthAfrica that has been pushed aside and regarded as non-existant and a non-language. This language, if understtod fully and as many term or words be committed to writing/paper, this will give the world a window into the lives and reality of Africans as they speak about it using Kasi Slang.

KASI (Township) SLANG (Tsotsie Taal; Scamtho; Siwelewele): Soweto/South African Slang

When the African people moved from the country-side to the big cities, they brought along with them their languages, cultures, traditions and custom and practoces. The Separate development policies of various governments, after the Africans build shacks, built what came to be known African Townships, and the biggest of them all was SOWETO, South of Johannesburg; and these were built as cheap labor workers they dubbed as "match-box houses" with no inside toilets neither any plumbing, for all kinds of workers, and their bourgeoning families.

There grew a need for all the new African people to communicate amongst themselves and with their masters. This created a new language through which the conquered and ruled began to address their real-reality and that of their domination and oppressed existence. Amiri Baraka informs us thus: "Language,which began in one base and spread wherever the conditions had changed, is the oldest record of human life. How one meaning is transmuted from another language, may not be used in the same way in other languages, especially since we are talking about "Kasi Slang". As we have noted above, some linguists treat dialects which are offshoots of, or derived from some "main stream" language as not a language. McWhorter has this to say about that: "One of the most frustrating things for any linguist is a virtually universal misimpression that the world is full of people neglecting "proper," "logical" speech for "lazy speech" full of "errors," considered slovenly lapses in the vein of bad posture or inattentive grooming.

This sentiment takes a great number of forms-the feeling that "dialects" are detours from an ideal, that Caribbean creole languages are bastardizations of European languages, that t is "wrong" to say "Billy and me went to the store" or "Tell the student that they can come in." Any linguist works to convince people of the fallacy behind such views, based on one of the central findings of modern linguistics, that human speech is always systematic, whether casual of formal. However, dinner party guests, cafe lunch dates, and pals in living room bull sessions are rarely convinced by this characterization, confidently maintaining that dialect are just sloppy versions of "languages," and that the do's and dont's of "grammar" they were taught in the school-room are vital to clarity andlogic. Many people suspect that linguists are putting a dewey-eyed egalitarianism over scientific vigor" (McWhorter)

McWhorter continues to write: "Underlying the truth about dialects and causal speech is a fundamental fact about human language, with which we must make a deep and lasting peace: Language is always changing. This is not as obvious as it may at first appear. Of course, we all know and love the fact that slang terms and expressions come and go all the time. What was "bee's knees" in the 1920s was "swell" in the 1930s, "keen" in the 1950s, "groovy" in the 1960s, "neat" in the 1970s, "wicked" for a while in the 1980s, and today is "bad" or is said to "rock."

It is less easy to perceive, however, that language is also always changing in a much deeper and more significant sense than mere colorful words and idioms. Sounds are always wearing off, other sounds are always evolving into different ones; endings are constantly wearing off, new endings are constantly developing; word meanings drift; and the order of words changes. These things happen so slowly that they are usually barely perceptible within a human lifetme. However, the changes are so relentless and so profound that there is no society in the world in which people could converse with their ancestors for more than a thousand years back. In this amount of time, and usually much less, any language develops into a new one."

We have already noted above that language is constantly changing. There are many factors that contribute towards the changing of language and why it is important for us to look at "Kasi Slang" within that informed viewpoint. We again defer to McWhorter who informs us as follows: "If we are not aware of this on a day-to-day level, we know it in a historical sense. It is important for us to note that such change is going on every day in all languages.

We further delve into what McWhorter has this to say: "It is important to realize that this kind of change was not something unusual, connected to something like the rise of England as a world power or the many people the English came into contact with as a result. This kind of change has happened to every single one of the 5,000-plus languages on earth. Two thousand years ago, there was no such thing as the French (and Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and other languages) later, in the exact same way as Old English developed into Modern English. ...What is especially crucial for us, however, is that such change is still going on everyday in all languages ...Now, seen as history, laid out nice and tidy on a page, language change looks harmless(I have discussed this above extensively through Ong).

"Where our discomfort with language change come in is that in comparison to the original form, the new version is almost always thought of as "wrong" or "sloppy," and the older one as "correct"-humans are creatures of habit. Thus we think of singin', instead of singing as a mark of lazy speech; most importantly, within our lives, we think of such usage as "static", as fleeting misuses of an otherwise stalwart "language. [In a human linguistic reality and existence] saying "singin' does not affect communicstions.

More to the point: singin' is the inevitable descendant of a world like singing as it is used over time, as eternal as the metamorphosis of a caterpillar into a butterfly - transformation of this kind occur in every language in the world and always has. Singin' is no more sloppy or avoidable than the coming of Spring." So, McWhorter is saying that when language changes, anywhere in the world, whatever that language is, is sort of the Darwinian evolution of language which ought to happen, and that there is nothing we can do about it.

Of course, As we are about to write down the words that are ignored by linguists when talking about African languages(omitting slang in their analysis), we read from McWhorter that: "What all this means is simply that our working conception of a language as a set, established system, which we only vary out of a sort of shaggy, six pack laziness, is simply an artifact of the perspective from the vantage point of our brief lifespans. In reality, language is indeed a system, but it is a system that is at all times on its way to changing into a different one. What we see as "departures from the norm" are nothing more or less than what language change looks like from the point of view of a single lifetime."

The main words and the language we are about to deal with below, has similar aspects and ramification, evolution and change; it also has a vocabulary of words that were used a long time ago, and those that are used today.

Before we delve deeper into the written form of the Kasi Slang, we will consult with McWhorter's clarifying this dichotomy between the changed form of the regular or main language and writing(Which Ong explained), but in this case, this concerns slang. "In our own heads," McWhorter writes and informs us, "and especially when captured in print, languages unavoidably looked etched in stone, eternal, authoritative. In reality, a printed page in a language is like a polaroid snapshot of a person, a fleeting image of an organism always in transformation.

The snapshot freezes this in a scrapbook, but the person stopped looking precisely like the image as the time goes on. Illiterate socieities actually have less trouble with language change than we(advanced modern societies) do. Having written language-those snapshots - is what throws us. Because speaking is primarily an effortless, subconsciously controlled activity, we cannot resist the tendencies of change on the spoken level. Writing, however, is an artificial, conscious activity, and thus easy to resist language change in writing.

We are taught to do just this, and therefore language is an artificial representation omitting the signs of change which the real language has established. Indeed, writing slows language change down somewhat even on the spoken level, as writing reinforces our sense of "language" as a disembodied blueprint to be followed or flouted. ...What we must realize, however, is that during these changes, because renewal always complements erosion, all languages are eternally self-sustaining, just as while our present mountains are slowly eroding new ones are gradually being thrown up by the movement of geological plates.

Thus at any given time, a language is coherent and complex, suitable for the expression of all human needs, thoughts, and emotions. Just as linguists have encountered no languages that do not change, they have also not encountered any languages whose changes compromised their basic coherency and complexity. We have encountered no society hampered by a dialect that was slowly simply wearing out like an old car. Anthropologists report no society in which communication is impossible in the dark because the local dialect has become so mush-mouthed and senseless that can only be spoken with help from hand gestures.

In other words, there is no such thing as a language "going to the dogs"-never in the history of the world has there existed a language that has reached, or even gotten anywhere near, said dogs. So language change is not decay. What it comes down to is that we have an analogy problem. We tend to think of language as being like a clock mechanism-a conglomeration of parts intended to function unchangingly over the decades. As the system operates, there is natural tendency toward erosion of the parts, which must be counteracted at all times lest the system breaks down.

...In fact, however, the most useful analogy to keep in mind is that a language is like a lava lamp. The "lava" slowly swirls and clumps and rises and falls in its fluid in an eternal, mesmerizing flow. Although constantly changing, in no sense is the clump lava decaying-if one piece is beginning to drip or split into strands, we can be sure that a few inches away, other pieces are joining together. At any given point, we do not see the present configuration of the lava clump as somehow "better" than the one thirty seconds ago-the joy is in the infinite variations that the clump can take while at all time remaining consistent in its expressive motility" (McWhorter).

KASI SLANG!: Mzantsi Speak!

Keeping the explanation above made by McWhorter in mind, I will offer below a language that is spoken throughout the Townships in Soweto and throughout other African counties an Provinces. Below I will give a roughened sketch of the language as it is spoken today in South Africa. KLasi Slang is the language that is spoken and changes daily in South Africa. I cannot write all of it down in this Hub, but will give it a fair-enough coverage so that the reader can know something about it. Linguists in South Africa do not regard it as a language, and since I am talking about culture, customs, traditions, languages and practices, it will be best to give this part of this language some mention and close in-depth attention:

Siwelewele; Scamtho; Mahovo: African Slang for the word "Language"

  • 2 BOB - 20c Origins from British money; and it is what it is called by Africans
  • The car - The Woman/girl; The Bonnet is hot - Her face is beautiful
  • 6 no 9 Kuya fana; ho a tshwana: Zulu and Sotho words meaning 6 and 9 are the same
  • 6,9 - (six-nine) one says these numbers when you need to use the toilet
  • 18 - Refers to ones true girlfriend(Used in Limpopo Region in Mahwelereng)
  • 9,9 - (nine-nine) Straight talk; I am telling you 9,9 means I am telling straight(akin to 20/20
  • 1-0 refers to one night stand or hit and run; 20/20 - Golf II GTi for its 2 liter engine
  • 560 - Means ones steady girlfriend
  • 5 Iron - Fifty Cents
  • June-July means scared; fear or shaking; Mzito means Cousin; Thaema - Father/Dad
  • O'lady can mean either an elderly woman or mother, or sometimes wife
  • R2 [rand] Boyz; R1 [rand] Jongo, KutaYanga; R5-half tiger; R10-Tiger; R20-Chocolate(choc); R50-Pinkies or Hff-Clip; R100-Drada(trata), Cip or Klipa; R1000-Sgodo(Skoto)
  • 10111- police; Code 14 - big , fat girls; Twa- means the girl is pregnant. Pentium 2 means slow/dub stupid; Siwelwele means Slang, talk/talkative; or coins; Goni- means knife
  • Vati-means water; rashushu means shoes; diski means football

K/S "A" Alphabet

  • Ama Arab- Means Petrol/Gasoline; African Bank- Big breasts. Audi TT-One without car
  • Amabinneplaas- locals; Ayoba means cool; Abomsgebengu- goldiggers; Ayobaness- Popular salute, state of being cool; Afred Kuzwayo means AK 47; Anega Maleiri is a person who keeps on smiling
  • Amachochoroach- Thugs or criminals; Archie/Atchie or Achie) means passage or alley; Etchie or Echie or Ashie or Toss means a box of matches; Authi means a boy
  • Anti- as in Aunt
  • Umabeleza/Ndenga or 9Nnine) or Mshoza means my girl or baby-love; Thekene-Girlfriend; Ukugereze/Ukurheleza means to hustle; Zi Khipha bo Ma What means what's up or what's happening; 9 or nsaeza means girlfriend; Shaz meaning a beautiful well built lady; Shuga-Money; Xeno means a foreign man; mochwatlo means fake brand- con-job; ijackie -foolish guy/Punk
  • Ukushayashaya, Uya ngigaadla to tell a lie; Azishe means let's smoke pot; intash means cocaine
  • Nqosi - Baby; Nyuko/Zaka-Money; Kasi-Location; Kadaa/That side; Zoso-Food; Nngaye-give me; Qava/Cava-see; Lejeje-meat; Sthaweni/Sthalala-Town; My Bra-My brother; Qando-Food; Gaolo or "Balance, Cando-Food; Kea ho Chayela-I'm telling you; Dibathu-Shoes; Plasha-take a bath; Ndhlopha-Dress-up; Dladla-House/home; Vaya-go; Zengila-come
  • Pablo means snazzy dressers; Ngangara are BEE guys driving big cars and abuse women
  • amaGents- The main guys; Gogola Daar; look over there; Setlamama-Hangover; Di a wa- The party is hot or rocking; Snae-Punk, useless; 1 Meter is 1 million; last dish-Supper; tjarara-Money; Bloma means to hang out or to redie; Fede- so, What's Up? Mageza e Mpopmpin-Dirty and unwashed Taxi cab drivers; Dubula Magazine- Golf 5; Jacket is R10; Ukumbamba Injeva(drinking without paying for ones liquor; dinasour-very ugly person; Santo-weak; Le Ndofaya-Foreign person; Geyser-Pot Belly; Tiger Woods-Cheater; MP3 means one talks too much; Kaizer Chiefs means yellow teeth; Sgodi Phola means hangout place; Sgela is school; Arsenal means ponography; Mzumbe-slow person; Gazi means good friend and relative friend; Mjondolo means shack; Ntabani-How much; Ten One, Dega, Umnwayi or Seven-Knife;
  • Umgongo means Sound System; Rich man skyf means Drugs; Langwenya/Kwena means Lacoste. 35 0r 411 is All Star Sneakers; Gawula is to eat; Ukubelesela is to persist; Shipa means shopQhebuka/Chebuka means sit downBhagaza is a gun; Pantusla is a street wise thug or dresser of tough guy; Jampas late in the afternoon or evening; Rwaqa means pregnant; Mjondolo means Johannesburg; Bhutiza is a Gentleman; Gidla is to sleep; itjotjo is a bribe; Dushi or maUshi are Colored in South Africa; Ringas means talking; Bari is a fool or a a punk/Dud; Gashu means fool or punk; Mangama is HIV/AIDS
  • Vraeza- to ask; Takalane half normal person; Emsontra meand Soweto; Vreega is Vereeniging; Emsawawa means Johannesburg and/or Soweto; amaMboza means guys

KS "B" Alphabet

  • Bantam or 14 hundred(1400, Markortana) is a Short man; Braai is a coockout; Baaza means go away; Babalzi(Setlamatlama - Hangover; Beirut means a dangerous place; Bhecesha means to drive; Bhudah means Brother; Bra - Bother Bogada means the plice, Bomber means a train; Bhude means big brother; Sbhayizane id a bungling idiot; Bellas means Cell Phone; Phaphilon a wayward and forward; Ho Dipopo means everything is alright; Ku- or Zi- Mabodo means everything is okay; Tswe a popular and streetwise person; Manocha is a very smart and an alpha Male; Gaedo means train; Bova means a bulldog; Mahovo, Whita Scamtho means to talk; Bass-Boss ;Bentsa meaning a girl; Brag-gat is a cheap boaster; Bagaza means a gun- to shoot or be shot; Bhaki means a brick; Baeza means confused or stupid; Bloma means hang out; Braai - Cookout Button/Konopo - Mandrax Pills; Buzoka means one is drunk; Bewys means show off; Bluza means worries or problem; Braza means Brtoher; Boni; Bozokile means one is drunk; Botsotso means girls tight jeans and it also means a two Rand calling card; Bapalami means riders or those on the constant move; Ba-Krufi/Batwisti(as in screw) but it means those those who con other people

K/S "C" Alphabet

  • Cell C are gossipers; Cancer referes to White City Twonship in soweto; Charmza one who does a lot of charming; Chommie - Friend Cheese-boy soft or weak rich boy/girl; Cheri is one's girlfriend; Centimetre is anything too short on a woman; Ngebe is a gossiper; Cherrie - [Meddie}blueblacks means black Cops; Mbomboi/Zayizayi a foreigner or "Kwerekwere"; Chobolo means a very cheeky/bossy woman; Chila means cool down; Kholi Soda or Soft drink; Cellphone is a nip of whisky or brandy; Careless Driver are people who become weak-kneed in front of girls; Clever as in "Kleva"means wise-guy; Colgate means a bright smile; Cando(Qando) means food; Chama/Chamisa means to be made to pay a bribe; Chandis(Shandis) means awkward sitiuraiton, or percieved problem; ho-Chika means to scold and shout at; Current means vibe; Cisha to kill; Cheka(Tjheka) meaning going to see one's grifriend; Chandis means problems;

K/S "D" Alphabet

  • Double Cheese Burger means a pretty full-figured woman; Dagga (Marijuana); Danone means a shcool-going age girl; Duidelilik means precisely; Double-Doley means splendid/Okay; Da is shortened Afrikans "Daar",meaning 'there'; Dai Deng impugned from Afrikaans Dae ie Ding meaning that thing; Danke Sana usually found amngst the Xhosa speakers meaning thanks dude or chick; Danyane or Mawela refers to Prison; Digits refers to Cell phone number; Di Ntshang? meaning what's up by the Sesotho Speakers ; Doing a Bafana means demanding more "smeka"(money"); Doing a Benni pointing out to a behavior that apes Benni's refusal to play for the SA National Side; Dozu{Nkauza]Dorpie - Smal Town; Dozo means a cigarette; "Dulaas" refers to stolen goods; Domano is grade 12; Dizzy Tyd(African mixed with English) meaning Xmas time; Diyenza means 'me' or 'I'; Duwenza means You; Daily Sun (Local Gosip Newspaper) refers to gossipers; Ding Dong to be Dizzied by the situation or realty or "Ndaba"(News); Ditswile (Sesotho) meaning there's vibe or 'it is out in the open'; Dodo is a Dumb Person; Dimamzo meaning Mother; Dzwere means penis; Impokompoko means , also; Di-Buda means dude; Dwesh means two or leaving in other contests; Dresh menas three in Soweto Kasi parlance; Dronkie(Drukard) Drum-ten means the Zulus those who resided in Township hostels during Apartheid; Dablap meaning chance to do something; Dumani means the last coach of the train; ho-Dishaya means to be in-love with a girl; di-Cha kang? What is happening? Ho-Dipitsa ass is fine
  • K/S "E" Alphabet
  • Exodus means moving; "Skhohko" Tough and enduring person;Mawaza means chaos; Intjiza Zulu meaning Gun; Umgongo means Sound system; Igedlela means a car; Slayza means run away; Shizila to do time in Jail; Ndzo means bread; Bhagaza means a gun; Wang' Geija showing one no respect; Chaff Pozi is hiding place; i-Mpatha means fool; Umagrizin is Grandma; Madala older men. Ngamla/Mlungu means a white person or a rich person; Ichebu means seat; cjb(se ja bana) meaning a ladies man; Cupcake is one who thnks they are better than everyone; Mizana means female teacher; Nokia 5110 meaning a crazy person; Nzomela means bread; Uku Gidla Nje Nge Okapi(the knife) means sleeping alone; Eish which is an orinal sound/name made by Sowetans to express dismay, imaptience as like in 'sucking teeth'; Ekse take taken from Afrikaans to means I am sayng, in Soweto is to draw one's attention, whatever the situation; Ei-Sani as one would comment watching a soccer action or calling on a young boy; E ja Panana meaning one should be cool and relax; Es'xekweni means in the city; or 25 means a thigh
  • K/S "F" Alphabet
  • Free Walk means leaving an abusive relationship or adulterous relationship; Fototo means finished/today has changed to being also a Fat and Ugly Girl; Fede means what's happenin ow how is it; Fong Kong means cheap and fake products; Fahlakiza meaning putting someone in jail; Fo Sho meaning when something is for real; Frying Pan is someone who like to lie; Fudumeza amasi meaning that one is letting an opportunity go bye and scared to take on it; Fambola is to err; Vokol'/Fokolo derived from Afrikaans meaning nothing; Fasa is to propose to a woman; Fraza is to be asking something; A Falla means that he ran Helter Skelter; Foloza means follow me or follow up; Wang' Fraza means you are frustrating me
  • K/S "G" Alphabet
  • Grorax-Ugly Girl; Gatvol-Fed up or(Afrikaans) or full of Sh*t; G8 means a rich person; Gashu is an idiot; Gidla means to sleep Ginda or Jinda means leave it; Ginger means to commit rape; Gintsa means a thug or robber; Gogola means to look or seek for or at something; Gomora refers to alexandra Township; G-String means a grill of the BMW car, or to BMW being fast; speedy or sexy; name of Female Kwaito group; Gintsa is to Poop; Groovy is a 340 ml soft drink can; Guru means a fight; Gushesh, High speed and sexy BMW 325 ideal for Jo'Burg gangsters; G-Unit in the house reffering to sowmeone wearing baggy clothes akin tohose worn by USA Hip-Hop youth
  • Gaulo refers to food; Guboda means to die /dead; Geitsha/Geija means to size-up someone; Skruf means criminal; Tikiline means a loose and easy woman; Ghosta or Ghost to show off or nowadays it means to fight; Gedlele means car; Gaido means train; Matchbox meant Soweto Apartheid built houses; Google somebody who has lots of infomration about local and other issues; Gafa in Pedi means 'mad' but in Kasi slang means to pay; Gabane in Tsonga and means gold digger or someone looking scary; Ghosha or Matchbox is a BMW 528i: BMW 325 is known as Ghosha(Gusheshe meaning 'hurries' or 'faster'); Goba means to peer; Gologo means bottle of straight shesky or brand; iGqubusha meaning a thug(Tsotsi) or clever; uku-Gerereza means to hustle; Gazi lam' means blood brother or my main man/brother/friend; Gudla means to get by or cruise by
  • K/S "H" Alphabet
  • Helen Zille means a nagging woman, over protective or an insecure partner; Howzit (Afrikaans-'Hoe is dit?) now morphed to'howzit'?- how is it going?; Half Mark refers to a R5.00 coin, commonly used in Pretoria; Hantisa or Hantile- the former means 'to be made to give'-the latter to 'have already given';- in Mahwelereng township, Mokopane in Limpopo it means Keepin something with you and not willing to give it up; Hlahla or Dladla refers to a house or home; Ho Eshesa;Change - to go away; Hola means "Hello"; Hola-Hola Gazi(Blood)-Hallo blood brother or how are you my friend; Hanta means to give it up; Hit and Run- one night stand in Kasi lingo; Hang Ten means bare foot(used to be TJ 10); Hesha meaning to Force; Hava/Gafa; Horse Power-Ladies hair extension or weaves; Ho di shaya/ho di Kapa to be in-love; Ho Monate Or Ke Monate means it's good or I am good; ho Phedla or ho Trapa means to be confused and going nowhere fast! Ho Mazama and ho Baeza means to be giddy and confused-uncertain; ho di Mathisa means to be in needless haste and hurry; Ho di Keqa means to be hurried or in haste; Guzeni menas let's go for it; Holalantu mens let do away with them-Let's chase them away; ho-Hesha means to force; hoMatjapza means all is good; ho baArisa to tell on them; Haja means dry Whisky or Brandy; Halal means a girl; Ho Jwang ka Mmele moo meaning how is it with your body there as in saying let's have sex
  • K/S "I" Alphabet
  • Iqhoks refers to HIV mostly used in KwaZulu Natal; I-Green means R10.00; iPod or Mini Cooper meaning a slender girl; Ijalumba(From Jalopy) means car; Ijuba means lover; Igado means trainIhashi means 5 series BMW modelI; Imbayi means anything tangible; Incala means gun; Incaza simple means a trouser; Inceshe merely means a woman; Incosi means a little child or being given a little of whatever..; Ingamla means a Boss or a White person; Ingudu refers to a 750ml beer ; or a grown up amongst children; Inja literary means dog and in this case means Top Dog; Ijangela (From Jungle knife) meaning big knife; Injelezi(Skhwela) spoken in Zola in Soweto, meaning jealousy; Inkawuza(Dozo) meaning cigarette; Intselentsele meaning a Cell Phone; Inyoni is a fool- or it used to said uneNyoni meaning one is scared; Iskhumba(cow skin) meaning an Ugly woman; In'ncanda means a kiss; Ithimulile menaing things did not go right; Ithumbu meanig gossip, e.g., "Lithini ithumbu elisha-What's the new gossip; Izinyoka)Zulu for Snakes)meaning Thugs or Thieves (commonly used for people who steal cables); Ithiza(From Teacher) meaning mostly male teachers-Imiza(From Mistress)meaning Female teacher; Icombothi/iQomboti means one has a court case, and also means there is a conundrum; isi believana referring to a doctors note; Isiwasho meaning Booze or Alcohol; i-Shark is one who has acquired his wealthy in shady and unseemly way; iGudu means marijuana; iNgavi is a womens underwear; iGado Manyambose means a train; Mpashampasha means a dud, bum foo iBhokobhoko means a lady with thick thighs, also means the Rugy Springoks; iGintsa meaning ones woman is cheating, or meaning a thug or thief; ilokhuza'ilokenjnani(iDaeding) -meaning that 'thingy" something; Kuhambani is asking what's going on; Uyaloopa menas a boring person; Inzule a person from Natal; Ivanga or igoji or Isabane, Izangazanga means a thigh; Umjelemba or Umje(abbreviation) is penis; Ityhalarha is nuts or balls; iNjici meaning thug or crook; i-Go Slow means things are not going right; is'Yanko means beer; Ibunju/Isbhamu means a beautiful woman; Iguzene means lets go gents, what's up against any tough-going situation
  • K/S "J" Alphabet
  • Jacket is a Ten Rand note; Johnnie Walker is someone who does not have a car(a pedestrian); Jol/Jola is when teenagers are in love;Juish(Joowish), Juta/Shayashaya to tell a lie or be full of tricks; Jub Jub is a Mini Cooper S; Tjotjo is a Bribe; Jaro-clothes; Tjaro, term of endearment; Ku- or Ho Mabodo- everything is alright; Jong is a R2 note; Jepa is to cut short; Joint means home or a spliff; Jive- What's the problem; Jinja means to rape; Kgatsa is to marry; Janjase-Jail; Jack Bemel means witchdoctor; Jersey means girlfriend; Khumbul'Ekhaya It is a Toyata Avanca(A car mostlyin a SABC popular TV show); eMjindini means at home or in the Mjondolo(Jo'burg) or Mkhukhu (tin-shack house); Kreb(Crab) as in not finding one's girlfriend at home, or as in playing dice
  • K/S "K" Alphabet
  • Kgozola(Gozola) means to HustleKau in cololored peoples slang means brother, Ke Nako in Sesotho means "It's time"- used mostly during the World Cup in south Africa, but has always been used on the Radio;Pulling a Kelly Khumalo- pretending to be what you are not; Kosovo means a dangerous place; Kikela means give me, spoken in the Limpopo region; Kgope, means one is a fool used in Limpopo; Kasi means African ghettoes of the Apartheid era; Gashu, Bari, Mavuguvugu means a punk, dud, fool; Kgasitse,means crawling or have fallen/befuddled/bamboozled because of some action/talk; Khenya means baffling, stupefying; Kota is South African half of a half bread stuffed with all cold cuts, gravy, eggs and so forth and stuffed into the cut-off; Kwaito is a popular teenage genre akin to Hip Hop in the States with a South African flavor; Ku Million meaning it's all good; Kumanzi phansi meaning one is caught up in a bad situation; Kwaal it means one has a problem; Kgwatha means touch and bring someones attention; Ketane means a necklace; Khanjana means a driver's license or train ticket.concert and so on; Khanyi Mbau means one is a gold digger; Khapha is when one accomapnies the other; Kondri is an attrative woman; Kwata(Sotho) for a man from the real rural areas; Keqa means to beat up; Kumjojo all is fine; zi- or Di-mabodo; Khenya yiNdere means one has got nothing to do; uKhehlile means he is loaded with money; Kobo means R10;
  • K/S "L" Alphabet
  • Lunch Box is a substitute word "Obvious"; LG meant Life is Good'; Lekker(Afrikaans) meaning nice or feel-good; Letetempa meaning an ugly girl; Last number meaning Top of the range, be it a car, house or clothesLe Arab means gasoline(Petrol); Lebenxane refers to a boy or girl; Lebodo means a funeral; Legai means a dumb and stupid person; Legobodo means fight; Lehlwibi refers to a beautiful woman; Lepyatla is a gorgeous woman; Levenga is a pretty womanLive means it is exciting and great; Load Shedding when one does not understand somemthing; Lahile refers to an easy target; Legozo means tough dude/thug or sttough street smart dude; Ledlaba/Ledlavu means a careless unkempt person; Lenaba{Sotho for enemy; Lephyega/Legansa means one is just sh*t; DoublePeriod is finding something hard to understand; Lejuta means tricky, means, miser and prone to robbing one; Lecox a sister who is above 35 years of age; Lekhamba(Mixture of Zulu/Sotho meaning a gourd to drink beer or water; Lejari is one Rand; Letolo is a Friend; Lendlanga is a guy or dude; Lezembe(mixture of Zulu/Stho) meaning literary an axe; or unfaithful/unreliable and dangerous person; Levi(Form Lavatory) meaning toilet ; Lekau(Sotho)means a boy; Lekhaokhao literally means reckless and and as in "cowboy" American style; Legata/Legada means a cop; Lenyora is sex-driven or sex demanding person; Pantsula or "Clever"is a local-well-dressed wise-guy and thug); Legintsa meas a latter-day thug and car-hijcacker; Legwala means a coward- or one who is scared; Lepora means someone who is rich; Lezote a beautiful chick(Spoken in Bophutatswana; Letlalo is a badly behaved woman; Lekwerekwere all Africans north of South Africa; Lago means having sex without a condom (Spoken in the Vaal area); Le-Niger means a Nigerian; Legomora is an all star boot; Lekhaza means bitter cold; Lebandla(Sotho mixed with Zulu) means ones' crew; Lekgema is a Gentleman; Lesnaba/nambanamba means top of the range; Lekula means one who is selling goods at dicey prices- tricky person; Ndiyndiya talking a round about; Kuntswembu means it's bad; Kumabodo means all is fine; LaKwena means LaCoste; Lenaba means enemy; Lezenke(Lesenke) means a badly behaved girl; uKhehlile means you have loads of money; Lentswe means word
  • K/S "M" Alphabet
  • Magwanga means nice and OK; Mojero/Mtsotsobela means a Tsotsi (crook/Thug) Used in Vryburgb[the former] and the [latter] in Soweto(way) back in the days]; Maponya/Mapanya refers to fake eyelashes; Mageza means a Taxi Driver; Madam Speaker or Speaker of Parliament refers to a steady girlfriend whose advice is always correct; Mdadada refers to Marijuana; Mini Cooper is a slender girl; Manyeke/Manepe(Sotho for Honey) means good stuff; MP3 means a talkative person; Mogo.Moegoe means a dull dimwit, a fool or stupid person;e-Mzambia means e-
    Zola one of the townships of Soweto; Ma-Pakistan means nice hot chicks; Mma Khumalo(Zuma's first wife) meaning-main boyfriend or wife; Mabebeza refers to a girl, lady; Madonna refers to a beautiful lady; Magatjane/Magatshane means father; Maglassana someone who wears prescription glasses; Magrizza refers to ones grandmother; Mahevi(as in heavily loaded) means more money-Limpopo Slang); Maimane/Manna refers to freebies; Majiyane means a lawyer or someone who lies; Makhulu Phakama meaans the Boss; Makhwapheni/Roll On means when one, being in affair with a married or someone else's lover dubbed-they are either called Makhwapheni/(a plural form of Armpits in Zulu) or /Roll On;Ma' Ol' Lady refers to ones mother; Malankana/Tonto referring to a tall person; Malaisha greedy and unscrupulous person/Usually, today, used to describe a rich person like Motsepe the billionaire; Mamzereva means steady and 'serious' girlfriend; Maphela(cockroaches illegal Skorokoros(broken down cars) illegally operating as local taxis; Marifresha refers to Soda; Mazawathe/Mazaza/Bablush are the Sunglasses; Mbombi or Mbobozo means beer; Mbombi/Mbombozo means beer; Mbuqo means a lot of cash; Mdlalose/Mdli (abbreviation); Mdraiseli means driver; Medi means one's girlfriend; Menase meaning 'me'(Limpopo slang); Meter refers to money usually R1-million; Mjojo/koMjomjo/koMgasha/kuGrand/koMoja means everything is okay- also meant a flashy car; Mnca means nice; Moer(Afrikaans,usually used by SA Colored people meaning to hit you and beat you hard; Moegoe(Mogo) means a punk, fool or idiot-simpleton; Moemish(Mumish) means a stupid and guillable person-Punk; Mfemfane means a foolish stupid person; Mshishi a person or at times means Durban/Natal?; Mogwanthi a promiscuous person; Mpama means a clap or Mpamyo refers to a foolish person who does not listen; Mpanji is a shack; MVV or Mbomla an ugly person; Mzimkhulu means bank or main home(homestad in the farms); Zuma main man;Missed Call is a fool or stupid spoken as such in Pretoria(Pitori); Mashwabane Monied/Rich as spoken in Pretoria- Crumpled clothing o or one in haste of getting away(Johannesburg); Mfana means a friend or boy; Mzee(shrtened) means friend or From Zulu word word Mzala(cousin) from Zulu; Manyonyo/Mnyonyo meaning (Monate) or delicious as in food or having extreme enjoyment; Mengel/Ndere means plan;Mokhelele means cell phone; Mpama means counterfeit or a had slap or someone who is ugly; Snanegane means drunkard; Mapirara means Pretoria; Skweeza/skwiza means sister or brother-in-law; Azikhiphi means no progress/not happening; Chomi/Chama means dear/best friend; Moja, Sharp, Dipopo, Grand, Kumabodo, Twine; Shwi all mean eerything is fine;(Makarapa, Magwaya/Marwaya-[Xhosa}) means a hustler/ In other regions it means a miner; Mohodu, Paperback/Popense or Mkhaba means Pot Belly; Magotlo means those who reneging against the strike; little kids; annoyances; Mpempe means snitch; Magazmala means beer or Magazman is a drunkard means creating problems; Maphepha means to run/retreat away in haste; KuMabodo means all is well-or Mabodo means Mother; Mpandra means beer or Sqo meaning home made beer; Mpizwana is to urinate; Mbomla means an ugly girl- in other region Mbomla means a 10 cent coin; M'tororo means all is well; Mshishi is a fool or Durban; Mgenge/Ibandla, amaGents means ones crew, group friends or buddies; Mgeve or diBuda terms of endearment which means ones' close compatriot/s; Giver to tell a person one's mind; MVV accronym for Afrikaans "Mooi Van Ver') meaning Beautiful from far; Amabawu means liquir; Amaboweni or Amatjkura means money; London means Orlando East in Soweto; Vreega/BVriga means Vereeniging; Mshoza means rough or Tom-boy(feminine) woman; Choko means twenty Rands; MmaKhumalo means a steady girlfriend/wife; Mzet means the Lekganyane people; Mjondolo means home or tin-shack houses or Johannesburg; Njeva one who never buys any liquor; Ntol'Bantji one who comes into a woman's house with his jacket only; Magegeba means a lot of money; Mepako means a sexy girl; Letswai means one is very horny; Mamahabe means a pretty woman; Mashodana/Makortana/Mshodex means a short Person; Mavetana, Maspinki, Halal means a girl and one in light complexion; Motsepe means a very rich person; Malambana is a poverty-stricken person; Mxhaka/Mqhaka means a punk and stupid backward person; Mguzumelo means sex; Marcia Turner means a very beautiful woman; S'gaqa means a lot of money or a fat woman; S'bigo name for slang used in Welkom; Shimeza/Leshimi means booze/alcohol(spoken in Welkom) Mzwita means left alone; Mmadlamini/Mmagumede or Fudumeza means a full panty; Metsi means cops; Mgwaja means Punk; Mokwepa is a prolific person; Mnwayi means knife; Mhlobo Mdala means old fashioned; Umgaga or Umrharha ukuNjica to put on a mask; Marakalas means reckless one or talk-creator of chaos; Mahovo means talks; Makhula ka Nzima being brought up the hard way; Toast the bottm hardened Pap the Skhokho(hardened pat of the pap at the bottom of the pot); Magosha means a prostitute; ; Mgasha means bouatiful/Cool; Matwetwe means one who is capale and or wise and informative or savvy, prolific-life-wise; Mmantshese means slender girl; Mabiza/Magwenya means fat cakes; maShayela tops means one thinks high of one-self; Baku shiya/jinda u Mpunga literally left grey and ashen- or left tired; kuMcemane all is fine/all good; Umca means a clever or streetwise person; Mixen means a crazy and loco person; Mazama means confused and not knowing what one is doing; Mgeve means dude; Mthakathi same as Gazi meaning brother or dude; Mshemane means guy or dude in Township parlance
  • K/S "N" Alphabet
  • No Choice Lovers 'Phela'('by the way') means you are screwed; Now(nou-Afrikaans) means in the indeterminate future and not as the Anglicized immediate now); Noyo means an unattractive boy and easy target for boys; Nkwe means gossipers and meddling folks; Ncaza means trouser; Nelly Pandora that which women smear on the faces means a hot chic; Naar means listless or worthless Nare refers to R100(from Pretoria); Ndolishi means bread; Nickle and Time is a small-time crook; Ngwaner means a nice teenager; Ngamla means a rich man, authority or white person; Ngoxho(Ngoxo) Miser-stingy person; Njivana/Njiva a person who does not buy their own booze or things, preferring free things; Nkawuza, or Dozo, Fu or Cancer Stick is cigar or cigarette; Notcha/Nocha I will see you later; Ntja means my main man(My dog Afro-American lingua Franca); Ntshaela/Nchaela mans tell me or telling me; Nkaoza means cigarette; Ntwana or Ntozo means younger brother or Friend and the last one means dude; Ntringa means one's crazy-mad;Ntenesh means a cheating spouse; Ncosi/Ncosana means child or baby; Nyatsi/Makhwapheni means underground lover; Nyembani means a train; Nyuku men's money; Nyoko means bile or that one is full of sh*t. Nyusha means to greedily gobble up anything; Nkaoza/45(four-five) means ones penis; Ntswembu might mean something that is nice(beautiful) or also ugly as in bad; Nex meaning nothing-(Niks in Afrikaans and Nix in English) Nkokoma/Nqwaba means a pile of money or Skhokho(hard core, resilient, smart and brilliant person); Nama having sex without a condom; Nja Yami meaning "My dog"(Afro-American lingua franca or jargon/Slang); Ntsaeza is a girlfriend; Sterring means a star in the movie or any act/ a real man/Hero; Ngxisha means to beat up; Ntloko means a person with a big head and is dull; Ngwece means; Ngaye means give me; Ntunta means one is legally crazy; Nkwankwa means a lot; Nzabaiki is 5 cents; Nocha/Jaja means see, observe or pay attention; Manocha/Cacile/Qavile means aa slick and street smart person
  • K/S "O" Alphabet
  • Offie or le-Offie means mother; 'Ola or Hola means Hello(heitha!) Okapi as like one sleeps like an Okapi, as the blade of the Okapi knife sheathed/folded; Ou plaas/plek or pozi as one's grandparents house; Oke as in Oukie or even shorter to "Ke" to "O" or "Ou") A shortening of bloke; Oorla or Oorlede somewhat who has already passed and is dead; Ornetta refers to an 'agreement'; Ouens Gents or ama-Gents refers to a group of guys; Oulady means mother and "Ou" means old(Afrikaans) or boyfiriend in some quarters or a guy in others; Oil has many meanings; Ou Kasie means Old location/Township; A wu ngi Oile dah('Daar' in afrikaans means 'there'), give me some money; U Oilile means did you have sex, and so on; means a fat woman; O Imetswe ke Maoto means you came just too late; O di Shebile means one is observant; Shebile means you are being observed
  • K/S "P" Alphabet
  • Phala means cigarette; Pentium II means slow or dumb/stupid; Peanut Snack someone with pimples on their face; Public Opinion is men's Pot Bellies; Pap means Maize meal or being flat; or despondent; Pokemon or Pontsonono means a young food looking guy; Pacman is someone who eats a lot; Platinum is someone (especially ladies) who are gold diggers; Platinum is someone who is loaded or rich; Phapha; Spita means one is too fast even for her age or in life- bad mannered and naughty person; Phala or Springbok means a slender person; Pakistan a full figured woman; Pakile means a curvaceous woman; Pampers refering to someone being childish(spoken in Mamelodi); Phly(Fly) means a good-looking person; Piyo-piyo means the Shangaan peoplePiece means a cick or asking for a morsel or bite from someone; Pinkies means a R50 note; Podesta a beautiful woman; Paloni is someone who talks too much; Pulling a Jabu Pule means performing a disappearing act; Pulling a Mbeki means one keeps mum because they have nothing intelligent to say. some use the term 'diplomacy' just because it sounds intellectual; Pulling a Mbau means one is a gold digger; Patla means a R1000 note; "iStarch" means food, "Ukudla"in Zulu; Ivavavoom means a car or refers to a virgin; Pringle means a three-some or money; Nongtshane from Nongoloza which means a girlfriend; Piece means a particular music rack or morsel of some food; Poppeye no Spinach means crazy friends; Parola means to snitch or talk too much; Paniki means sda cap or exensive wheel-caps for cars; Panel Beat means to beat somone very badly; Pepereza means to talk too much; Pedes or TJ 10 means a pedestrian and who has no car; Pencil pronounced Pensele means a Citi Golf; Piyela means to see, or peep; Parola/Pepereza means to talk too much; Pompo e Qala ka 'Sa" means one is is ignorant(Ignant- as said amongst African Americans in their slang); Paraka to hide or hang-out; Umtjingo mean the china man who runs a numbers ring throughout Soweto [and this has been going on for decades]; Fafi is a numbers gambling; "Ons Dak Nie, Maar Ons Phola hier" we are not shirking nor jiving, but we are chilling here
  • K/S "Q" Alphabet
  • Qhoma means to boast; Qoma means to accept the proposal; Qhuma means govanish(Zulu); Qonda means to pay attention, Qeqesha means to hit at in small measured ways both physically and verbatim; Qomboti means crazy mix up which is negative; Qhunyilwe means Zikurobile which means you are stoned; Qesha means to kill or died; Qombola is to go somewhere; Qanda can mean an egg or means to eat; Quantum means loose girls; Qisha is to kill; Qhosha mans to brag or (Swenka)meaning to show-off/brag; Qhuba/Qhoba(Sotho and Zulu subsequently) meaning to push-on or carry on; Qolo meaning back; Qhude Manikiniki a big fight or brawl; ukuQamtha means to talk(slang)
  • K/S "R" Alphabet
  • Rara means lots of talk; Rutlha means to rout; Ravaza means to wreck; Row-row as in Rau-rau means trouble/fight; Rwaza means a beer house; Rwaqa/Raxa means the woman is pregnant Rwaya means to cheat upon or on one; Rutla means to rob or cheat upon; Regte means a steady and rightful girlfriend; Raff(Ruff) means hectic and tough; Reli means relative; Rusty; Rabaza to shoot; Rashushu means shoes(used mostly in Jozi; Ribs or Salds Underage girlfriend; Raw someone who has no class; Ringasi (pronounced Ringaas) Palaver or to have a talk, or discussion; Rock Boy means mature and formal-wearing person; Rastene means main boyfriend; eRhontjini/Pozi meanshangout place; Re a Lekantsha means having sex
  • K/S "S" Alphabet
  • Skweqe refers to a loose girland also is used by guys in greeting each other; Stolen means a married man/woman; Solve kissing or make out; Sjijo, Sjakes, Skajaja, Georgie-potjie, Mjojana, Majikza ma-George, Majijo, Mjijo, Mjix, Mjikzo, Mjekeje refers to a person with the name George; Short Basin means a portable and short lady; Sjamgalala means a beautiful lady or when guys in the townships are talking about their 'favorite car'; Shapa(hit) Dozo(45) is to have sex; Sgidla Waar-Sgidla (Where do we sleep) Waar(Afrikaans for where); Shabir Shaik means you cling to someone when you are sick; Sunroof is a bald-headed person; Sasa/560 a steady grilfirend who always spoil the party because of jealousy, dressed in nice clothes, big bags found mostly in night-clubs;Sthepha means a fool or a doctors' letter or official document; Skere(i-skere) means a woman who makes sure she spends her husband's money; Sdlodla means a fat person and Sdlodlo means Prison; Scima is a hard clap/slap in Zulu from 'cima' that is to switch off; Shambula means a beautiful girl; Shandapha means a beautiful girl; Shapa or Keqa(see "K/S "K" above means to hit or beat; Shapa Mfana translated means 'hit the boy'; Sbhlawane refers to a nice and pretty girl; Sbati means pregnant; Soul Child isspoken or uttered when guys or girls are eyeing a pretty girl; Shaya(Hit) Round((walk about) means talk a walk around but not here; Shlava drug or 'the Pill'; in another context it means school; Skandi-Hop a mixture of Maskandi(those who lead Mbube Choirs) and Hip-Hop- Zulu Boy the Radio DJ originated the term and called his music Skandi-Hop; Shay-shaya means to lie; Sheleng or Shiqa means a 10c coin; Shela is to propose a love interest to a woman; Qoma or ho-Stema means that the proposal is being accepted by a girl; Shisa Nyama(from Zulu literally "Burn Meat" is to do a meat cookout or "Braai"(Afrikaans for Coockout; Sholoza means paying or receiving a bribe; Sho' Left means turn right for sure; Skanky means someone who is well-dressed and shows skin); Skeem saka(Sotho) iSkim sami(Zulu) means my buddies or crew; Skepsel means taking pity on someone(morphed Afrikaans word); Skipper means T-Shirt; Skhokho means hardcore, smart and streetwise guy-knowledgeable and wise person; Slolo means doing a U-turn; Syoyoyo means a bum, punk and fool; Stharara means a very loose girl; Slender means a tiny(wiry) person; Smetlana or Smehlana means wine also means Brandy or Whisky; Smiley means a well cooked sheep's head- a township delicacy; Snaai/Snayi or Snae means a fool or stupid; also means a dagga or pot smoke; Sphatlo Kasi(location) Burger made from a quarter loaf with Monamonate, Ma- or Diqebelekwane or Mnadis(all the good foods stuffed-in} Sthepa means a fool or dud, in Pretoria it means a woman who sleeps around; S'belivana means identity card, driver's license or doctor's letter; Stoep(Afrikaans word) or Stupu means Highways(N1, M1, N3) or floors in the prison; Smoko means trouble or problems; S'dididi(Zulu) Sthithithi(Sotho) meaning stupid or a dizzy fool; Spaezozo(Spyzozo refers to Fast foods; Stena means R1000 or :Ba mo shayile(To hit) ka Stena meaning that they took his girlfriend away; Starter Pack emanating from the technological term for mobile phone companies and their issuance of new phones and their condiments, also, meaning cheap and common cars that can be stripped and parts used for fitting other cars; Sunshine means prison on the assumption that prisoners sit in the sun the whole day doing nothing; Swak(Afrikaans meaning seak) but the contest in Kasi slang is that weakness can be pinpointed not only to strength by failure to think, act or think ahead; Sparara means alcoholic drinks; Spashahsa means a well built and beautiful woman; Spingza means whiskeys, brandiy and so on; Spotong(Shebeen House) nowsays called Taverns; Stopo(cadaver) means an undecided person-Living Dead; Stambuza means money; Setjapa(sefefe) means man-hunter; Sefebe means prostitute; Wardrobe/Room Divider/ or Oros means a Fat woman; S'phume Jozi an utterance meaning 'we are from Johannesburg' saying disliked by "Plaas-Japies"(Farm Boys/Girls) when uttered by these Johannesburg City Slickers; Shashi or Pozi where men and boys smoke weed; Skepa means to take a girlfriend for a night and seeping with her; Stol means ignorance; Shipa means shop; Sgela mans school; Sminaiza means mine; Spraaka means to peopose to a girl Kwae/Nkauza means cigarette, or men's provate part ; Sputla meand whiky or Brandy; Sjaka means a girlfriend; Sebabola means a very pretty girl; Stazi means station; Semaumau means stupid; Lethalathala means stupid; Hehehe means half normal; Tsheretshere means dumb-mute; Tlabutlabu means stupid; Dipatputla/Sepaputla means to clap someone; Maefudi means stupid; Smadzadza(Smatsatsa) and Lehlwebi means a beautiful woman/girl; Shuba means space; Skhwakhwalala means bad luck and/or bad omen; iShongololo means a creepy person; iScwepu means meas a suit or being well dressed; Sjweva means money; Skurabraba means slippery candy; Spankapanka is Township funk, soul and rhythm; ukuShay' Isthupa means to consider one above the others; Shabir Shaik means fraudsters; Shanty or Shentela to avoid; Stena means R1000; Skhombe is a pretty young girl; Sholomba is money
  • K/S "T" Alphabet
  • Thahemi(Mayime)-let it stop here meaning hold fort to end it all or Time Out; Toast refers to slender and well-built women; Two slice refers to a slender girl; Tjovitjo means all in order, or a a cry about something exiting event, to have sex; Takalane means a mentally disturbed person; Twitter is someone who talk too much; "Tjatjarag"(pronounced (cha-cha-raach) too forward, over-zealous, hyper to towards being an annoyance(Malema used it in countering a White reporter, but has long been used in Soweto; T-connection close friend, used mostly amongst Coloreds - Tafola in some quarters it means being deceived in others it mean Tafel-tyd(Afrikaans) meaning that one has timing; Taken means one's exclusive girlfriend; Thaema-Thaima means father; Danyani means prison; Techy easily irritated person; Teki means sneakersWa Trapa means you are confused; Two-One means a stupid and dumb person; Thalala means a fool; Thetisa means to shoot or gun down; Chafa/Tjhafa means to hide; Timing means being with it every step of the way; Tony Yengeni refers to Mercedes ML series; Topi means father; Thaema(as in Timer) but means father; Tozzy means toilet; Transi means transport-car, bus, train etc.; Tseketseke means retarded person; Tsotsi means hoodlum, thug and Tsotsi used to mean a stove-pipe trouser, and also refers to the movie Tsotsi by Athol Fugard; To dribble and score is double cross somebody, and it is also to confuse and baffle others; Ta(Tah) means thanks or Thank you; Teka means catch on, to take, or meaning a circle of guys performing acrobatic ball-passing to each other on the corner or tar-road; Teka-; Teeka means a slut; Tshutsa means the Mpondos and Bacas who used to collect toilet buckets before there were running toilets in Orlando and throughout Soweto, and in other contexts it means to inform on someone; Tos/Tosa means to throw dice, marble and it also means cigarettes, lighter or match box; Tjeya means take; Teka eans as easy as all that; Tjotjo means bribe; Tsamaya means a top of the shelve soccer sill, firstly trade marked by Jomo Sono, Teenage Dladla, Ace Mnini and then carried on by Thabo 'Tisktsiki Mooki; Tiger means means R10 or 'Ten Arries'; Tiza means a teacher; Trata means hundred or fencer(fro Afrikaans Draad); Toothpick menas means a slender girl; Skeqane means a thorough beating Thekene means a girl; Mazawathe means beautiful sungalssesThinanko means "I" or "Me"; Mazakaza aka means one's woman; Cellular means a small bottle of Brandy or Whisky; Shenti means shift or leave it; Majiyane means lawyer; "Touch on my studio" means to piss off/annoy/take for granted; Tikiline means a Bitch; Twista(as in twister) but means to cheat-on or rob someone; Twist means to cheat or rob a person; S'duda a woman rear-end; Twalatsa a recent modern youth dance; E re ke ho Thenthe means let me get back to you or in touch with you; Thesha means work; Ho Trapa Boni(bicycle) e senang Tjheini(as in chain) means going nowhere fast; uyaNtunta meaning one is loco, mad or crazy; Two one means a dud, fool or stupid; Two six means speechifying and talking with a spin; Tsaarpence(Tsari) is 5 cent;
  • K/S "U" Alpahabet
  • Umshoza means a girl who dresses in particular way and hangs well dressed boy; Umntwana means a chic; umMbemi means one who one smokes with or dude; umKawuzi means one who smokes weed; Umgabe means putting on a serious face on someone; Umgaga/Umrharha is putting on a mask on one's face; Umfundisi means a preacher with morals and a healthy code of behavior; Umqomboti means home made beer; Umzantsi means South or South Africa; um-Tjitjimbo a dance crazeof the early sixties; umaJikamajika a modern dance featured on Local TV; unoTsokolo means train; uyangForstana do you understand me; ukuShinga means are you in a fighting mode or stance; ukuShilizila means to do time in prison or working hard towards one's goal; um-Jita/ubujita means a boy; uma-Dibest means one thinks one is better than other people; ukuNaneka means to get drunk; ukuChebuka means to reside or hang-out at; ukuShishiriza means to slide; umaQhoboza meaning rich and named after a socialite in Durban; uya Zamula as in yawning or not knowing what to do; Umthobo means having sex
  • K/S "V" Alphabet
  • Vaya means go; Vuvuzela means the plastic instrument used profusely in the World cup, and it also means a noisy person; Vala Nzimande means make sure everything is tightly colsed or stoped; Vreega/Vriga means Vereeniging; amaVava means soo many lies, to be scared uncertainties or some form of chaos or talks; meaning also slap dash especially when washing; Vader means policeman; Val'amagarage tell someone to stop smiling or close his/her lips; Viniger very nasty people who suffer from wholesome complexes; Viga/Vega is cigarettes mixed with weed; Vithiza means to finnish something off; Vurra means the VR6 one of the old cars that was fast; Visa means home alone; Vuks(Mavukuvuku-Xhosa) meaning scumbag or meaning a bitch; Vat en Sit(Afrikaans) but meaning living with a woman and not married to her; Vuruzela means to throw -in ones lot or going hither and tither
  • K/S "W" Alphabet
  • Watarag means whatever; Wharataz means Whatsup or how are you; Waywaya meaning it went on or goes on continuously forever; Wola means Hello or 'Hi'; Ke wet or cherie ena e wet both meaning I am good and that this chic is sexy; Wa Mazama you are confused ; Whita or Wita means to talk or tell; Wa Phapha or Wa Spita means your are irritatingly over-exuberant; Wa Pedla means you are confused and at loss of understanding what you are doing; Wang' Chwatla means you are cheating me; Wang Mbaezela means you are too confused for me; Wa Bela means you are mad or angry at something; wa Dimathisa-Wa Dikeqa means you are too fast for one's own good; Weteza means one talks too much; Website means a clever somebody; ;
  • K/S "X" Alphabet
  • Xava/Xavile means to know or being knowledgeable
  • Ziyapedema means the fun is going on big time

Socio-Historical Linguistic:

The Nguni-Bakone Language Mosaic

As we have shown above, this is one of the many languages spoken in South Africa and with time I will add some more. It is important to note that this language came about because of the intermixing of Africans in South Africa serving as a cheap labor pool for the mines, white suburbs and so on. This mixing of africans from all corners of South Africa, forced the to forge a language that is as contemporary as the one which I have just delineated above, and it covers a long span of time. This language has been there since Africans were living in separate regions within South Africa as a whole. It has been called many names depending on the time period in the historical linguistics of South Africa. It is important at this juncture to put this language diatribe into a historical context: historical linguistics.

History in South Africa has been asserting that the Bantu languages walked-in from north of the Limpopo around 1652. This has been lately confined to be one of the greatest myths of the twentieth-century South African historiography as propagated by the Early settlers/colonialist rulers. Archeological research has shown that African-speaking people herding livestock practicing cultivation were already established in the Transvaal and Natal before AD 300 (Maggs 1991))

The history of a people is reflected in its language.

We can build up a picture of past social conditions on the basis of language and name items of material culture and social life (including religious, political, legal and kinship institutions).(Warmelo 1989) Without a keen historical awareness on the part of the investigator, the historical evidence contained in languages will be misinterpreted, as has generally been the case. The applicability of the family-tree model of genetic relationship to southern African languages has never been questioned, and the issue has been rather whether the larger groups such as the Sotho, Zulu, Xhosa, Shona, Pedi, Ndebele, Tsonga/Shangaan, Venda and so forth, entered South Africa separately or whether they can be differentiated linguistically and culturally in situ.

It would seem that Monica Wilson posed a relevant question when she asked "have the Nguni/Sotho[Bakone] a common origin within the last thousand yeas or have have a diverse origin?"(Mesthrie) What these two hubs I have written attempt and assert that both are true and these Hubs seek to show that their origin was one. In South Africa, if one were to trace it from the Zinjathropus Africanus Bosei to date-the African languages inform and instruct us as they are 'spoken history', demonstrating how one language is similar to the other, also, because of region and zone, degrade as mentioned above by McWhorter, "as a moth changes into a butterfly", as one moves from south to north, east to west of South Africa, but still maintain the linguisticc oneness and sameness: they are in esscence one language which presents itself a a diverse mosaic and speak with variatons that in Kasi slang are rediscovered, reformed, remade, fused and made one language, yet the old and original languages, which are within the mix, remain functional and relevant.

The South African Linguistic scene is extraordinarily rich and diverse. There are twentieth-century cases of language shift as pointed out a paragraph-or-so above with the example of the actual jargon of Kasi Slang); language death, language murder (northern Transvaal Ndebele), language creation (planning), bilingualism. diglossia, language avoidance registers, koines, developed slang registers(as presented above), language mixing alongside puristic movements, and more. Moreover, we have no reason to believe that prededing centuries were any less eventful.

Now, it is important that when linguists start giving us their "know-how" of African languages that Africans must read and pay attention to their dicing and dividing the languages, not to inform or show their unity, but to try very hard to show how different they are. Also, these linguists, in their explaining words that are used by the Africans in their various stations in life, work their own confusion to show how different or maybe similar these languages are, because they really do not understand it; not only that, they make mistakes in their using and understanding of the words they are trying to use to show similarities or dissimilarities or comparing and contrasting these words to achieve a certain end concerning these South Africans African languages.

It is the contention of this author that there is still a lot of misinformation and misuse and misunderstanding of the African language which ultimately is tied to the Kasi Slang or "Tsotsietaal" as it was known then and now; but it should be noted that it has a foundation with the support of African languages as its driving engine, and usage being fused by the city-dwelers who were thrown together as pools of cheap labor as alluded to above, up to this day.

What I am saying is that the Kasi Slang or "Tsotsie Taal"(Thug Language-As negatively referred to by the White rulers), that has been listed above, it is a language that is in flux, changing and a product of the nature of fusion of African culture and how within this culture what is spoken and how it is spoken, has maybe not yet been taken into account or studied seriously, and the origin of the names and how these heave merged, morphed and formed other new ways with some words being a combination of either three or so, that is, this is done by fusing the etymologies of both or more languages to form a word/s, sentences, thoughts and so forth (in the african spoken words and lingua franca)-what it really means to Africans and what they mean whenever they use or talk through it.

The fact is that it still remains a language that is spoken today by the large majority of Africans in South Africa.

Distortions and Corrections

Divide and Reclassify: Language Techne

When one reads up on the linguists theories, researches and articulations regarding the languages of Africans in South Africa, they do so from the premise that they have up to till the point the write about it, they are 'scientific specialists on all the languages of the 10(ten) people of South Africa. Bailey notes that the fusions of the zulu etymologies, with those of the Xhosa, Sotho, Pedi, Venda, Shangaan in their phonolgising are historically etymologically valid". Bailey furthers adds that there is a close (nongenetic) relation of contact between Southern Sotho(Basotho) and Nguni/Northern Nguni(Zulus).

We have to remember here that the two Hubs are concerned with showing how the languages of the two people are the same along with their culture, customs and traditions. The words chosen by Bailey to show borrowed words from Arabic, as in the word 'dagga''is not necessarily new, and as shown in Kasie Slang, which came about and is an outcrop of the fusion of Africans, who created a language which was affected and effected by 'their' intercultural interaction foisted on them by the demands of South Africa's rapid industrialization, and need for cheap labor, plus Apartheid, necessitated the "Tsotsie Taal" to emerge within an urban setting trickling to the rural areas and assuming other meanings or becoming degraded as it to region and zone.

"The lexical forms travelled directly (e.g., through intermediaries), create a high degree of isomorphism between the African languages; speakers of different languages who are bilingual do recognize interlanguage phonological correspondences or equivalences easily. Original roots that have been lost and borrowed back into a language are likely to acquired their true, expected historical shape."(R. Bailey)

The African languages have historically evolved as they ar known and spoken today to what they are-in terms of them retain teir mother-tongue content and context up to Kasi Slang. What I means is that they maintained their Allophones, compounds, words with etymologies, whilst maintaining their fundamental frequencies in each dialect (which this hub maintains is the same throughout all these languages), within a variety of grammatical morphemes; and, within this consistency still these languages hold up their harmonic frequencies, since all harmonics are periodic at the signal frequency.

They all display an iconic modal which have a relationship of similarity with its meaning(both visual and acoustic similatrity) An example of this is the mimicking of animal sounds in a language(as in Kokolokoko, "Mooo-oo'(heard mostly from fans when they holler at someone who missed a football in a stadium, they the fans, mean the player is a cow, so' Mooooo-ooo- he cannot play soccer'.

These languages even display Index signals we understand a 'morpheme' to be the smallest unit of a language carrying meaning, it therefore follows that the African languages subscribe to the same notion. We know that a morpheme consists of one or more morphemes because we know that there are "content morphemes or root" and "grammatical morphemes" (structural morphemes). These are also accompanied and work in tandem in a Paradigmatic relation, classifying relations of similarity and difference between signs(e.g., synonyms and antonyms)

This is where a phoneme, being the smallest word-distinguishing unit of speech, is known to be consisting of different 'phones'; that is why then a group of 'phones' that belong to the same 'phoneme' are called 'allophone'. Language is kept intact and unified by a Structure like the syntagmatic and paradigmatic, along with the semiotic relation (realization and interpretation, which with Constitutive relations relate to the real world).

We then begin to realize that the language of the Bakone/Nguni languages and words are like symbols because there is no acoustic resemblance to the object, in some African languages there is some. So that, a word functioning as the smallest meaning part of a sentence, has an external structure that can be described as being the smallest invisible part of a sentence, while the internal structure is a stem with inflection. The orthography and the phonology form the rendering.. (O'Sullivan).

The grist above was to try to draw attention to the fact that African languages in South Africa are malleable and evolve like all human languages and transition through many forms, and become what we have shown in the first Hub to this present Hub that both indigenous languages used to describe culture and Kasi Slang to show the evolutionary nature of the language.

For example, we will now look at some cases of how this language fuses and morphs and changes to what what is spoken both as in the cultural and ancient historical and linguistic context, and to that of today's cultural changes in socio-linguistical history as has been discussed above about the Kasi Slang and its linguistic change and evolution. Varieties which are not of other types of South African languages not given sanction in the official censures include urban lingua francas (Tsotsitaal, Flaaitall, Iscamtho) and the pidgin(Fanagalo)(mostly spoken in the mines between the African workers and their White bosses). Here are some cases of the people of Gauteng about the languages they are proficient in:

** "My father's home language was Swazi, and my other's home language was Tswana. But as I grew up in a Zulu-speaking area we used mainly Zulu and Swazi at home. But from my mother's side I also learnt Tswana well. In my high school I came into contact with a lot of Sothos and Tswanas, So I can speak these language well. And of course I know English and Afrikaans. With my friends I sue Tsotsitaal [this was a 23 year-old male student from Germiston]" (Mesthrie)
** Betty a female domestic worker was born in the Transkei and has learned English in school, and the language was not a medium of instruction. She dropped out of school after standard. She then moved to cape Town and had various employers working as a domestic worker ever since. She was exposed to White South African English at her work place [it should be pointed out here that too was a different type of English the White people who had a particular way of talking to her-this needs to be researched- my addition]

** Maria was a female cleaner and born in Potchefstrom and attended an independent schools, probably a missionary school, which was attended by both African/Colord and White chidren. At the time of her intervew, she was larady fifty, living in Ikageng, a township near Potchefstrom. Her mother tongue is Tswana

** Julia is a chambermaid at a Cape Town hotel and received her education at a state school. She lives in Crossroads, one of the townships of Cape Town. On her job at the hotel, she regularly interacts with both native and non-native speakers of English [and Afrikaans]. Her mothe tongue is Xhosa

** Kamohelo, a female clerk, was born in the Transkei and later moved to Cape Town and now lives in Khayalitsha. Sotho is her mother tongue, an she learned English in school until she was twelve. She now helps disadvantaged men an women produce artwork. She is i regular contact with her the English an Afrikaans-speaking people, and speakers of other African people an English -speakers of other countries

** Nomi is a young woman who attends Cape Town University; she had by then attended former apartheid-state-governed schools in Khayelitsha. She attended remedial English classes. She lives in the university residence where she has met with students from a variety of linguistic backgrounds. Her mother tongue is Xhosa. (Christiane Meierkord)

Language as Spoken History: Linguistic Talking Points

If You Want To Go Faster, go alone, But if You Wanna go Far, Go Together

Up to this far, language is the spoken history of a people. It is through language that we maintain and contain our history, past, customs, traditions (everything) that pertains to a lived experience(culture ) of a people. In South Africa, one can view the changes that were affected by Industrialization of the country, and the merging of the same people(intensely) in Townships that were created as a cheap labor pool and dormitories of The African labor force.

What has happened here is that now that Apartheid lock was partially dislodged, there is a colonization of information, culture, customs and traditions of Africans in South Africa by non-South Africans from all over the globe. People read books written about Africans by people who are not South African. There is a claim out there in intellectual morass that the ownership of the History, culture, customs, tradition are for all to write about(even though they have never really lived with[for an extensive time].

Africans, neither understand and these people (experts on everything African South African), eventually become the experts of South Africa. As one can see above, the language that is spoken by all these fused 10 (ten) people [Nguni/Bakone called Kasi Slang/Tsotsi Taal] which is a window into the ways, talk, lives and being of a people as seen through the prism of this spoken language. There is some historical realism in the tabulated language of the people which will still be expanded and added to in this Hub.

The quote above at the start of this Hub states that : "To Ask a people to replace their language with a foreign tongue is like asking them to replace themselves". It should be an appreciable fact that South Africans can speak English and Afrikaans, whilst being able to speak four or more of their African languages and one that they have formed because of conditions foisted upon them by a very vicious system(As noted in the cited cases above).

The language, culture, custom traditions and practices need to be looked anew with the light cast upon language by this Hub, as I have attempted to do this far. It is clear that the language of African South Africans is as viable as any language, but for those writing about it, will be better served if they were to walk in the moccasins of the Africans for many years-that is, learn the 11 languages of Africans in South Africa for longer than a year

. Kasi Slang/Tsotsitaal has evolved ever since the Townships were created as a way of communicating. Because of the affects and effects of intercultural mixing(conditioned by Apartheid), it behooves the inhabitant of African descent within South Africa to take up the cudgel, and raise their language to global heights. Some words have been lost to time, but if one were to look now at these from their earlier times, one would find that many endure to date, and new ones have been added, and because of the Age of Technology we live in, there is a spill-over and picking up of the incoming jargon from all over the world, which has been incorporated into the present Kasi Slang orTsotsitaal lingua franca.

Listening to the hubbub and linguistic sound systems emanating from present ay South Africa, one is struck by how African South African are allowing themselves to be Anglicized even though their programming may be for that particular language audience and content-controlled speech producing colonized thoughts. With the coming of the African-led government, we see this phenomena in some of the Kasi Slang emerging from the rural areas and far-flung and remote place where the same words used in the big metropoles, but with a different context and meaning suited for those regions in the hinterland.

This also gives us an idea how and why the 10 languages of South africa have morphed to what they are today(Zulu, Sotho, Xhosa, etc., as I am talking above about how Kasi slang is changing and this is affected by regions and the usage is tailored to meanings that are related to that region, although the word may be the same-the meaning and usage differs-sometimes it remains the same. Indigenous languages are still spoken throughout South Africa, but there needs to be an awareness brought along to the African people that the maintenance of their original languages is akin to retaining one's history-through their languages. They should also begin to understand the nature and role of Kasi Slang to the mixing and fusing of all their languages and how this can be done with their mother tongues, that is making them one language of Africans in South Africa.

As McWhorter clearly observed, "Any language is always and forever on its way to changing into a new one, with many of the sounds, word meanings, and sentence patterns we process as "sloppy" and "incorrect" being the very things that will constitute the "proper" language of the future". He further adds that: "Because language changes in different random direction among different groups, any language is actually a bundle of dialects, none of which can logically be seen as degraded language because they all arise from the same process of gradual, unstoppable change.

Because there are so many languages in the world and so many bilingual people, language mixture is a natural and inevitable part of how languages have changed, now change, and will change-and not just today with words like macho or In Kasi Slang, "Skhokho(Hardened and suave person) or Sgodo(Thousand- my addition), but will do so deep into the past and at its very origins." McWhorter finally concludes by stating that "No language has ever changed in a way that contravened basic logic, and what looks illogical" in one language or dialect inevitably turns up as part for the course in the most elevated speech in some other language."

It is important to state here that the language of Africans is all what McWhorter is talking about, as one can see from the words taken from Kasie Slang/Tsotsitaal above, they belong to many languages and have found usage among the Africans of South Africa, and to them sound very logical, conversational and sharp. Charles Darwin elucidated that: "Judging from the past we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to a distant futurity." No people who are affected by their existence here on earth will remain untouched remain in their original form a humanity evolves and advances, is what Charles Darwin is saying.

Chinweizu caricatures for us as to how the past created present situation we see in South Africa today in this excerpt:

"Comparing the old trading system with that of today,sentimental morality of the liberal capitalist sort, Christian and non-Christian alike, might self-approvingly point out the export of human population is venal and inhumane, that it dislocates society in a manner distinctly more insidious than the export of nonhuman resources. To which it may be respectfully be pointed out that though slaves may not be exported today, in many ways an equivalent thing has been done. Where African labor was then exported to European-owned mines and plantations overseas, now European-owned mines and plantations have been brought to African labor. The loss of resources is much worse, for now Africa exhausts her soil and minerals in addition to her labor to service Europe's needs.

In return for keeping Europe supplied, Africa's elites of today, like their predecessors of slaving times, are still rewared. The items of reward have improved. Instead of rum, schnapps, beads and trinkets, muskets and dane guns, they now receive radios, televisions, computers, gold beds, trinkets, tanks, Cadillacs, Rolls Royces, Mercedes-Benzes, Audi's BMW's, Swiss Chalets and numbered Bank Accounts [and Tenders]. But the essential condition endures: Africa's resources and effort are employed, with no lasting reward to her, for the permanent profit and power of the West."

Chinweizu further adds: "Under the pressure of European demands and their own short-sighted greed. Africa's present elites, like the ruling classes of slaving times, make choices that hinder the development of such power as Africa will need to defend her independence it is again challenged. In slaving times, African elites were forced to choose between enslaving or being enslaved by their neighbors. Some tried to resist that choice. All failed. And by mutually devastating their powers, they softened up the continent for European invasion.

The choice before Africa's elite today, though superficially different, is fundamentally the same: Serve as agents of imperialist exploitation of Africa or be overthrown by others more willing to do so. An unmerry-go-round of coups and counter-coups, of massacres and counter-massacres, spreads fear, distrust and confusion across the continent, and distracts us from constructing that stable power we must have to beat off future invasions (in the case of South Africa, this needs to be put in better perspective, i.e., what type of invasion are South Africans faced with, and the answer is, "world, foreign and invasions from Africa and the Imperialist countries- my addition).

Africa's independence struggle has returned some measure of autonomy to African hands. But the winning of that autonomy left still unaccomplished is africa's total liberation from western political, economic and cultural hegemony. It still leaves unattempted the construction of a revitalized African society. Our task today, if we wish to protect Africa from new and more deadly imperialisms, is clearly to make her a first-rate power of the kind demanded by the particular world in which that power must be won and exercised.

Our condition-past and present as well as future-demands that we impose that enterprise upon ourselves. But as we look about us, what is there to see? Just as slaving wrecked the polities of our past, neocolonial plunder is wrecking the polities we inherited at independence. Just as most of the oligarchies of old did ot seem to have examined the disasters stored up in their future by slaving, our new elites seen not to care to examine what disasters, fattening upon the neocolonial connection, crouch in ambush to wreck our future.

Liberation is the task imposed upon us by our conquest an colonization. Construction of an independent African power is a task we must speedily carry out if we want to avoid another loss of soverignty. It is by these requirements that we must adjust our present and future actions. To understand what exactly remains to be don, we have to examine critically what has already been done. We must examine the conquest and colonization we suffered, evaluate the "independence" we won, and judge the use we have far made of it." (Chinweizu)

When we research African people's history, culture, customs, traditions and language, we can do so [some of the times], alone. But as we need to go further in our understanding our history, culture, customs, traditions and languages, we need to do so as a united African people, as Chinweizu is pointing out above. In order for us to clearly understand the diatribe above in relation to language, we will refer to Ong as he write: "In oral cultures experience is intellectualized mnemonic ally.

This is one reason why, for a St. Augustine of Hippo (AD 354-430), as for other savants living in a culture that knew some literacy but still carried an overwhelmingly massive oral residue, memory bulks so large when he treats of the powers of the mind. Of course, all expression and all thought is to a degree formulaic in the sense that every word and every concept conveyed in a word is a kind of formula, a fixed way of processing the data of experience, determining the way the way experience and reflection are intellectually organized, and acting as a mnemonic device os some sorts: it is history, spoken.

Putting experience into any words (which means transforming it at least, and is not the same as falsifying it) can implement its real. The formulas characterizing orality are more elaborate, however, than are individual words, though some may be relatively simple."

In the Throes Of Demcoract/Shame-Ocracy

What Africans Ought to Know and Remember: Bantu's Soliloquy

Understanding how history shaped our present and influences as it affects and effect and infects us in formulating the future is important. Understanding how things got to be the way they are is of prime importance in deconstructing the imposed amnesia regarding African history, culture, customs, traditions, languages and practices. The way the new elite is not paying attention to this fact in South Africa, merely hows us a people who are under "orders" to allow the imposition of cultural imperialism on the languages, customs, traditions and cultures of the Africans in South africa.

This can be discerned in the Kasie Slang, on the Radio with their Anglicized Commercials, coming out of the mouth of those children attending Model C schools and who socialize with white children, and are taught European mores, morals and norms, which, whenever they come back to their communities, are met with contradictions which become an affront to their newly acquired and foreign ways, language, custom, cultures and traditions.

The newly elected ANC officials have made it their focus to address their subjects(those who voted for them) in English, that in the end the English language ominously pervades the day-to-day speechifying done by most African people in all the strata of their beleaguered society. This is like the African ruling elite expects their polity to replace their different language and opt for English as a medium of instruction and dialogue- thus replacing themselves, their languages, cultures. customs, traditions, and practices.

The cultural mosaic that is indigenous is rapidly being decimated by the imperialist pandering African rulers at the expense of both their people and all their lived Experience, for a new way of communicating, which is, the Americanization and Europeanization of a whole people: transforming the past to the present, in order to have a more uniform people speaking one language(English) an imbibing foreign cultural values, mores, morals and norms at the expense of the indigenous histories, cultures, custom, traditions, languages and practices.

Bantu Biko addresses the issues discussed above in the in an eerily predictive manner akin to the situation faced by Africans in a a new and democratic manner:

"There is no doubt that the color question in south African politics was originally introduced for economic reasons. It is not surprising, therefore, that in South Africa, after generations of exploitation, White people on the whole have come to believe in the inferiority of the Africans [in South Africa- my addition], so much so that while the race problem started as an offshoot of the economic greed exhibited by White people, it has now become a serious problem on its own.

"White people now despise Africans [of South Africa], not because they need to reinforce their attitude to justify their position of privilege, but simply because they actually believe that "Black" is inferior and bad. This is the basis upon which Whites are working in South Africa, and it is what makes South Africa a racist society. The racism we meet does not only exist on an individual basis; it is also institutionalized to male it look like the South African way of life.

Although of late there has been a feeble attempt to gloss over the overt racist elements in the system, it is still true that the system derives its nourishment from the existence of anti-black attitudes in society. To make the lie live longer, blacks have been denied any chance of accidentally proving their equality with White men. for this reason there is job reservation, lack of training in skilled work and a tight orbit around professional possibilities for Blacks. Stupidly enough, the system turns back to say that blacks are inferior because they have no economists, no engineers, etc., although it is made impossible for blacks to acquire these skills. "

Bantu Adds: "It is not enough for Whites to be on the offensive. So immersed are they in prejudice that they do not believe that Blacks can formulate their thoughts without White guidance and trusteeship. Thus, even those Whites who see much wrong with the system make it their business to control the response of Blacks to the provocation. No one is suggesting that it is not the business of liberal Whites to oppose what is wrong.

However, it appears to us too much of a coincidence that liberals - few as they are - should not only be determining the modus operandi of those Blacks who oppose the system, but also that their role spells out the totality of the White power structure - the fact that though Whites are our problem, it is still other Whites who want to tell us how to deal with that problem. They do so by dragging all sorts of red herrings across our paths. They tell us that the situation is a class struggle rather than a racial one. We believe we know what the problem is, and we till stick by our findings." (Bantu)

We further learn from Bantu that: "It is important for Blacks to see this difference than it is for Whites. We must learn to accept that no group, however benevolent, can ever hand power to the vanquished on a plate. We must accept that the limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. As long as we go to Whitey begging cap in hand for our own emancipation, we are giving him further sanction to continue with hi racist and oppressive system.

We must realize that our situation is not a mistake on the part of Whites, but a deliberate act, and that no amount of moral lecturing will persuade the White man to "correct" the situation. The system concedes nothing without a demand (Bantu here echoing Frederick Douglass- addition mine), for it formulates its very method of operation on the basis that the ignorant will learn to know, the child will grow into an adult and therefore demands will begin to be made. It gears itself to resist demands in whatever way it sees fit.

When you refuse to make these demands and choose to come to a round table to beg for your deliverance, you are asking for the contempt of those who have power over you. This is why we must reject the beggar tactics that are being forced on us by those who wish to appease our cruel masters.That is is why this was SASO's cry: "Black man, you are on your own!" has become now more relevant," as it now in the present day of an African-led government. If Africans want to go farther, this is one of the issues that they need to pay close and intense attention to.

Take for example of the problem that is faced by African families with their school-going children who are today attending private school, some called Model C and institutions of higher learning, having attitude and adjustment problems living within the African society. "The same situation was found as long ago as the arrival of the missionaries. Children were taught, under the pretext of hygiene, good manners and other such vague concepts, to despise their mode of upbringing at home and to question the values and custom of their society.

The result was the expected one - children and parents saw life differently an the former lost respect for the latter. Now, in African society it is a cardinal sin for a child to lose respect for his/her parent. Yet how can one prevent the loss of respect between child and parent when the child is taught by his know-all White tutors to disregard his family teachings? Who can resist losing respect for his tradition when in school his whole cultural background is summed up in one word - Barbarism?" (Bantu)

Who can resist the awe one feels when Reading and ultimately be shocked back into reality from what Bantu teaches us and was saying to us when what he said then in the 1970s is more even more desperately relevant today, more than ever.

Bantu further writes that: "Thus we can immediately see the logic of placing missionaries in he forefront of the colonization process. A man who succeeds in making a group of people accept a foreign concept in which he is expert makes them perpetual students whose progress in the particular field can only b evaluated by him; the student must constantly turn to him for guidance and promotion. In being forced to accept the Anglo-Boer culture, the Blacks(Africans) have allowed themselves to be at the mercy of the White man and to have him as the their eternal supervisor.

Only he can tell us how good our performance is, and instinctively each of us is at plain to please this powerful, all-knowing master. ...As one Black(African) writer says, colonialism is never satisfied with having the 'native' in its grip but, by some strange logic, it must turn to his past and disfigure and distort it. Hence the history of the Blackman(Africans) in this country is most disappointing to read. It is presented merely as a long succession of defeats. The Xhosas were 'thieves' who went to war for stolen property-their property!; the Boers never provoked the Xhosas but merely went on "punitive expeditions" to teach the thieves a lesson. Heros like Makana, (Early nineteenth-century Xhosa prophet, sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island and drowned while escaping in a boat.

Refusal by Blacks to accept the truth of his death led to the mythical hope of his eventual return), who were essentially revolutionaries are painted as superstitious trouble-makers who lied to the people about bullets turning into water. Great nation-builders, like Shaka, are cruel tyrants who frequently attacked smaller "tribes" for no reason but for some sadistic purposes. Not only is there no objectivity in the history taught us, but there is frequently an appalling misrepresentation of fats that sicken even the uninformed student."

Distortions, lies, debasement and put down of Africans have been part of the Apartheid mantra whenever it came to histories and other issues affecting and effecting and relating to Africans of South Africa. Biko succinctly captures this reality above.

Bantu informs us about history in the following manner:

"Thus a lot of attention has to be paid to our history, [as already stated above- addition mine], if we as Blacks want to aid each other in our coming into consciousness. We have to rewrite our history and produce in it heroes that formed the core of our resistance to the White invaders. More has to be revealed, and stress has to be laid on the successful nation-building attempts of men such as Shaka(see my Hub on Shaka), Moshoeshoe, HIntsa, Manthatisi, Mzilikazi, Sekhukhuni and so forth.

These areas call for intense research to provide some sorely-needed missing links. We would be too naive to expect our conquerors to write unbiased histories, [and African historiography- my addition], about us, but we have to destroy the myth that our history starts in 1652, the year Van Riebeeck landed at the Cape."

The Hub "South African Culture, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence" and "History, Culture, Customs, Traditions and Practices Of the Africans of South Africa: Deconstructing Historical Amnesia" is about precisely what Bantu prescribed above. The confusion and chaos that we are now witnessing in South Africa, has ben contributed to by the events as stipulated by Bantu and articulated by those inhumane actonss that are mentioned at length in both Hubs and also mentioned above.

By rewriting African South African History, Customs, Traditions, Culture, Languages and Practices, from antiquity to the present, from an African perspective, puts the story of these people into a viral stream akin to media virus in the Web or Net/Internet, to use the contemporary technical parlance and jargon. African South Africans need to seriously study and enhance their culture "by any means necessary as averred by Malcolm X. Bantu talks to and addresses with authority these issues in the following manner:

"Our culture must be defined in concrete terms. we must relate the past to the present and demonstrate a historical evolution of modern Black man. There is a tendency to think our culture as a static culture that was arrested in 1652 and has never developed since. The "return to the bush" concept suggests that we have nothing to boast of except lions, sex and drink.

"We accept that when colonization sets in it devours their indigenous culture and leaves behind a bastard culture that may thrive at the pace allowed it by the dominant culture. But we have to realize that the basic tenets of our culture have largely succeeded in withstanding the process of bastardization and that even at this moment we can still demonstrate that we appreciate a man for himself. Ours is a true man-centered society whose sacred tradition is that of sharing." (Bantu)

Even today as of the writing of this Hub, there is still a semblance of sharing and dealing with each other as human beings first and sharing whatever we can scrap-up with our family, society and strangers! The term, "Ubuntu" is now hawked, peddled and drained, emptied of its content, context, cultural meaning, and of its content and bandied on the Web for whatever purpose that has nothing to do with the Africans in South Africa.

Poverty is wreaking havoc in the Township with total devastating effect. People still share food, housing, clothes and moral and spiritual support for each other in these uncertain and debilitating social existence. At the same time, there are the effects and affects of South Africa having become Democratic, and the onslaught of foreigners has bludgeoned the social fibre, culture, customs and traditions, although, as Bantu has already stated, one can still see the traces of a cultural, customary, traditional heartbeat ever so slightly pumping, beating and stutter-starting in an entropic mode.

Bantu adds: "We must reject, as we have been doing, the individualistic approach to life that is the cornerstone of the Anglo-Boer culture. We must seek to restore the Black man the great importance we used to give to human relations, the high regard for people and heir property and for life in general; to reduce the triumph of technology over man and the materialistic elements that is slowly creeping into our society." What Bantu predicted and foresaw is what is taking place in contemporary South Africa today.

Reading Bantu is like being in the present, and he was still live, today, warning the African as to what they have become as the privileged few Africans are intensely engorging themselves with crumbs and inadequate and paltry economic power and also being economically impotent. The African people of South Arica in fact say it loosely and characterize it as "Dog Eats Dog time", a social malaise cloaked in "One-Uping" the next for 'personal aggrandizement' and being callous whilst going about their dastardly act of greedily accumulating wealth, at the expense of ones' fellowmen and brothers/sisters and Nation.

These are essential feature of African culture to which we must cling. Black culture above all implies freedom on our part to innovate without recourse to white values. This innovation is part of the natural development of any ulture. A culture is essentially the society's composite answer to the varied problems of life. We are experiencing new problems everyday and whatever we do adds to the richness of our cultural heritage as long as it has a man as its centre. The adoption of Black theatre and drama is one such important innovation which we need to encourage to develop. We know that our love of music and rhythm has relevance even in this day.

Reading up further on Bantu, one learns more from him when he says: "Being part of an exploitative society in which we are often the direct objects of exploitation, we need to evolve a strategy toward our economic situation. We are aware that Blacks are still colonized even within the borders of South Africa. Their cheap labor has helped make South Africa what it is today. Our money from the Townships takes a one-way journey to White shops and White banks,and all we do in our lives is pay the White man either with our labor or in coin. Capitalistic exploitative tendencies,coupled with the overt arrogance of White racism, have conspired against Africans.

Thus in South Africa now it is very expensive to be poor. It is the poor people who stay further from town and therefore have to spend more money on transport to come to work for the White people; it is the poor people who use uneconomic and inconvenient fuel like Parafin and coal because of the refusal of the White man to install electricity in Black areas(Today they use paraffin because it is now sold and those who cannot afford it use the fuel to cook and warm up.

It is the poor people who are governed by many ill-defined restrictive laws and therefore have to spend money on fins for "technical" offenses; it is the poor people who have no hospitals and are therefore exposed to exorbitant charges by private doctors; it is the poor people whose un-tarred roads, have to walk long distances, and therefore experience the greatest wear and tear on commodities like shoes, clothes and even their habitats; it is the poor people who have to pay for their children's books while whites get them free.


We are oppressed because we are Black(African, to be more precise- my addition). It does not need to be said that it is the Black people who are poor. Black people are not oppressed as Zulus, Xhosas, Pedis, Tswanas, Coloreds or Indians(as apartheid would have liked the world to believe that Africans are all different as they comprise Ten(10) peoples). Africans must use that very concept to unite themselves and to respond as a cohesive group. Africans must cling to each other with a tenacity that will shock the perpetrators of evil.

Bantu advises poor Africans this way: "Our preparedness to take upon ourselves the cudgels of the struggle will see us through. We must remove from our vocabulary completely the concept of fear. Truth must ultimately triumph over evil, and the White man has always nourished his greed on this basic fear that shows itself on the Black community.

In a true bid for change we have to take off our coats, be prepared to lose our comfort and security, our jobs and positions of prestige, and our families, for just as it is true that "leadership and security are basically incompatible", a struggle without casualties is no struggle. We must realize that prophetic cry of Black students: "Black Man, you are on your own!" Africans parrot this today, but still do not understand it deeper meaning and implications as it related to them then and now.

What Africans ought to do is not slide into ignominious ignoramuses and into a state of petty jealousies and pettiness, but read what Bantu is talking about and advising about to the extend as to what is actually happening to African people in South Africa, who have to align, beg for and collaborate with their former oppressors to perpetuate the past oppressions of 'in-your-face Apartheid', to the one that today has has morphed into DA and other secret forces . of alien movement, but still the same outfit, with a Black face to go with it-in the case of the ruling ANC-led government.

Bantu was spot-on when he pointed to the absurdness and bogusness by Africans, of hoping that the oppressors will accept their slaves as equals even if they were to achieve economical parity. Today the new Middle-class which was a spinoff of the gravy train, has even surpassed some rich Whites, has still not received nor reached parity with their former oppressors (even if they live next door to them!). All of this is a paltry grandiose and dwarfed helpless hope by grandiloquently having unrealistically unreal dreams and expectations of a massive petty -grandeur phantasmagoria.

What needs to be reiterated here is how Bantu explains what was done to implement this process of de-Africanizing blacks and by explaining what a people without a positive history are: "One should not waste time here dealing with manifestations of material want of the Black people. A vast literature has been written on this problem Possibly a little should be said about spritiual poverty. What makes the Black man tick? This is the work that should be done by the present generations in consultation with the Older one.

While we were talking about language, I would like to add some notes and prefaced remarks on African Literature offered to us by Chiweizu:

Decolonizing and and Curtailing African Literature From Colonization and Imperialism

"At this point in history, it is Arica's mission to intensify its decolonization and pursue it into libertion. How is this to be done? How, in particular, shall Africa's literary culture be decolonized and liberated?

The cultural task at hand is to end all foreign domination of African culture, to systematically destroy all encrustations of colonial slave mentality, to clear the bushes and the stake out new foundations for a liberated African modernity. This is a process that must take place in all spheres of African life - in government, industry, family and social life, education, city planning, architecture, arts, entertainment, etc.

Given the task in hand, and the necessity for rooting out imperialist rot and planting fresh seeds, this hub is unabashedly polemical and pedagogical. In Africa's present condition, Africa's prose literature is under attack from a dominant and malicious praise by the same school, and Africa's orature is under a blanket obloquy spread by the same school. Let us pause and define some terms.

Our conception of literature is perhaps a little broader than is conventionally allowed. In our view, literature must include all the genres of publicly communicated written matter of a society. Thus, in addition to prose fiction, poetry and drama, we consider essays, biographies, addresses and orations a vital part of literature. Now, it should be borne in mind that poems, plays, stories, essays, speeches, etc., do exist in two modes-written and oral.

Bearing this fact in mind, we find it useful to follow Pio Sirimu and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's seminal example in using the term "orature" to denote poems, plays, stories, etc., in oral form, and in reserving the term "literature" for the same things in their written forms. Because "obloquy" has been routinely heaped upon African orature by Eurocentric critics critics of African literature, we have, in discussing African literature, found it necessary to examine at some length the qualities of African orature. furthermore, African orature is important to this enterprise of decolonizing African literature, for the important reason that it is the incontestable reservoir of the values, sensibilities, aesthetics, and achievements of traditional African thought and imagination outside the plastic arts.

Thus, it must serve as the ultimate foundation, guidepost, and point of departure for a modern liberated African literature. It is the root from which modern Africa literature must draw sustenance.

In examining the criticism of African writing we find that a significant number of African critics are Eurocentric in their orientation, whereas they ought to be Africcentric. Such critics habitually view African literature through European eyes. If at al they are aware thatAfrican culture is under foreign domination, they seem to think that it ought to remain so-with minor adjustments;or they may perceive a need for a restorative cultural enterprise but fail to see its implications literary criticism.

Most of them would be ashamed to admit it, but the fact of the matter is that these african critics view African literature as an overseas department of European literatures, as a literature with no traditions of its own to build upon, no models of its own to imitate, no audience or constituency separate and apart from the European, and, above all, no norms of its own (none, at any rate, that would be applicable to contemporary writings) for the proper, the beautiful, or the well done.

As a result, these critics have followed their their European colleagues in charging African novels with various technical, thematic and ideological inadequacies-charges which might conceivably make sense if African novels were intended to be replicas or approximations of European ones, employing the same techniques and in approximately the same emphases, and urging the same values.

In addition, these critics have encouraged the manufacture of a stiff, pale, anemic, academic poetry, slavishly imitative of 20th-century European modernism, with its weak preciosity, ostentatious erudition, and dunghill piles of esoterica and obscure allusions, all totally cut off from the vital nourishment of our African traditions and home soil-a poetry in such sorry contrast to the vibrancy, gusto and absolute energy of the African oral poetry which is so firmly and deeply rooted in the African home soil

But African literature is an autonomous entity separate and apart from all other literatures. It has its own traditions, models and norms. Its constituency is separate and radically different from that of the Europeans or other literature. And its historical and cultural imperatives impose upon it concerns and constraints quite different, sometimes altogether antithetical to the European.

These facts hold true even for those portions of African literature which continue to be written in European languages. In our body of work we have examined the Eurocentric prejudices, showing them for what they are, that is, not the "universal" values which their adherents. In addition, we have attempted to define the proper constituency for African literature, explored some of the traditions into which modern African writing should seek to insert itself, displayed some models from those traditions, and itemized some of the qualities and norms which we believe to be transferable from traditional African orature to contemporary African literature."

African literary selections below are such as engage, probe, assess and reveal the African experience in all its rich diversity. In their thematic range they represent a cross section of life in the pan-African world, with the attitudes of members of that world to their lives and conditions, in magnificent variety.

The aim of these literary masterpieces is to present the community to itself, a community discussing its experiences with itself, commenting, for its own entertainment and enlightenment, upon the world in which it finds itself-the physical world, the social world, the esthetic world, the moral.political world, the private life-but all communicated as part of a dialogue 'within' the community, a dialogue of the community with its traditions, its present, and its future. The task of decolonization cannot be carried out in a vacuum. It requires an atmosphere of active nationalist consciousness.

It must be conducted within the guiding parameters set by those intellectuals who have upheld African Consciousness through the centuries. It is by constantly keeping in touch with such African nationalist thinking that we all, and our writers and critics especially, can avoid being conned into pseudo-universalism. We must keep in touch with the intellectual tradition of African cultural nationalism lest we forget or be led astray from the central purpose of African intellectual life..

SOUTH AFRICAN LANGUAGE LITERATURES

Ntongela Masilela Wrote The Following:

The writing of African literature(s) in the African languages, rather than in the imperial and hegemonic English, was a historical project undertaken by the New African Movement in the process of constructing modernity in South Africa . Although Xhosa intellectuals of the 1880s such as Elijah Makiwane (1850-1928), Walter B. Rubusana (1858-1936), Pambani Jeremiah Mzimba (1850-1911), John Tengo Jabavu (1859-1921), William Wellington Gqoba (1840-1888), Isaac Wauchope (1845-1917) were part of the Movement's historical horizon, it was in approximately 1904 in the essay "The Regeneration of Africa" that Pixley ka Isaka Seme clearly delineated and articulated the conceptual vision of the project. In the essay Seme writes the following: "The giant is awakening! . . . Ladies and gentlemen, the day of great exploring expeditions in Africa is over! . . .

Yes, the regeneration of Africa belongs to this new and powerful period! By this term, regeneration, I wish to be understood to mean the entrance into a new life, embracing the diverse phases of a higher, complex existence. The basic factor, which assures their regeneration, resides in the awakened race-consciousness." With the unfurling of this banner of modernity over the African continent four years after the beginning of a new century, Seme (1880-1951) effected its political realization by being the principal founder of the African National Congress (ANC) in 1912.

Two other New African intellectuals in this critical year of 1904 similarly also hoisted above the continent their particular articulations of modernity in their equally avant-garde essays: Solomon T. Plaatje's "Negro Question" and John Langalibalele Dube's "Are Negroes Better Off in Africa ? Conditions and Opportunities of Negroes in America and Africa Compared". Plaajte (1879-1932) was the first Secretary-General of the ANC, and Dube (1871-1946) was the first President-General of the ANC. In actual fact, the necessity of modernity had already been given cognizance in the 1860s by Tiyo Soga (1829-1871), the first modern African intellectual in South Africa .

At the center of the New African Movement was the metamorphoses and phenomenology of the historical consciousness of the New African. That the ideology of New Africanism necessitated the creation and making of the New African Movement which in turn gave expression to the philosophy of 'New' African Nationalism is indicated by two journalistic pieces written by two important members of the New African intelligentsia. In "Leaders Of African National Congress Must Reconcile Differences", Pixley ka Isaka Seme notes: "The African National Congress is a new movement which is being implanted in the heart and blood of the Abantu people. All nations have national congresses of their own which help mould together the spirit and the good will of those nations. . . .

We want to be able clearly to express our free will as a nation like all other peoples of the world today." Two years later, in "European Students And Race Problems", appearing in a different New African newspaper of which he was editor, R. V. Selope Thema (1886-1955) observed: "There is a movement among Africans not only for the betterment of their economic conditions but for political freedom as well.

If this movement is barred from its natural road of advance and deprived of its liberty of thought, expression and action, it will become a menace to the security of the white race, and a brake in the wheels of the country's progress." Although political and intellectual adversaries at the time of the writing of these statements, both Pixley ka Isaka Seme and R. V. Selope Thema were in unison in theorizing that a New African Movement had come into being forging a dialetical unity of agency and structure, thought and life, theory and practice in the making of New African modernity.

It was within the historical parameters defined by the New African Movement during the historical period of modernity that written African literature in the African languages in South Africa realized its efflorescence. The brilliant journalism of R. V. Selope Thema had an incalculable inspiration on some of the third or fourth generation of the major exponents of this literature: the Xhosa novelist, poet and translator Guybon Bundlwana Sinxo (1902-1962); the Zulu historical novelist R. R. R. Dhlomo (1901-1971); the Zulu novelist, intellectual provocateur, political maverick Jordan K. Ngubane (1917-1985); the Southern Sotho short story writer Peter D. Segale (1901-1937), who died relatively young.

Thema published the extremely rare Zulu journalism of H. I. E. Dhlomo (1903- 1956), who viewed the language of Shakespeare as the 'authentic' language of modernity. These acolytes of Thema who apprenticed under his editorship on The Bantu World newspaper went on to exemplary journalistic careers as well as to writing major literary works in their 'vernacular' languages. H. I. E. Dhlomo was the exception in this as he was in many other things. In his intransigent belief in modernity against tradition, Selope Thema imparted a peculiar sense of historicity concerning the relation between the past, the present and the future, to this particular intellectual generation. It was R. V. Selope Thema also who made The Bantu World an intellectual forum for the last flowering period of the great Xhosa poet and biographer S. E. K. Mqhayi (1875-1945), arguably the greatest exponent of African literature in the African languages in South Africa .

It was a sense of historicity that enabled these New African intellectuals as well as their contemporaries to write some of the earliest and durable literary histories of African literature(s) in the African languages, though paradoxically all of them were written in English. To many of them S. E. K. Mqhayi was a transitional figure between tradition and modernity: Mqhayi as a demarcating point in South African literary history. Before S. E. K. Mqhayi there was Thomas Mofolo (1876-1948), and after the "Imbongi yesizwe Jikelele" (a. k. a. Mqhayi, national poet) there was Benedict Wallet Vilakazi (1906-1947). The following literary histories, in the form of pamphlets or essays, were written within the purview of this dialectical relation between tradition and modernity: D. D. T. Jabavu's (1880- 1959) Bantu Literature: Classification and Reviews (1921).

The Influence of English Literature on Bantu literature (1943), Benedict Wallet Vilakazi's "Some Aspects of Zulu Literature" (1942), and C. L. S. Nyembezi's (1919- ) A Review of Zulu literature (1961). Besides these preliminary mapping out of the topography of African literature(s) in the African languages, there were other more detailed investigations of the complex relationships between literary generic forms by other members of the New African Movement, two of which were written within the academic context: Benedict Vilakazi's doctoral dissertation 'The Oral and Written Literature in Nguni (1946), A. C. Jordan's (1906-1968) Towards an African Literature: The Emergence of Literary Form in Xhosa (1973, originally appeared as a series of essays in the 1950s in the journal Africa South ), and Mazisi Kunene's (1930- ) master's thesis An Analytical Survey of Zulu Poetry: Both Traditional and Modern (n. d., probably 1959).

The voluminous columns and various reflections on cultural and literary matters by H. I. E. Dhlomo which appeared in Ilanga lase Natal newspaper from 1943 to 1954 were part of this New African literary and cultural historiography. The foundational text of these New African literary histories was Isaac Bud-M'Belle's (1870-1947) Kafir Scholar's Companion (1903), which emphasized the central importance newspapers in making possible the emergence African literature(s) in the African languages.

It was the Christian missionaries who gave benediction to the making of modern and written African literature(s) in the African languages in South Africa , but not necessarily with the results they intended and anticipated. The missionaries revolutionized African cultural history by introducing the written word in opposition to, and in a Manicheaen struggle against, the oral word.

Through the written word the missionaries were able to control the ideological persuasion of many of the first few generations of New African intellectuals and writers. Principally, the missionaries were able to achieve this hegemonic control by initiating the schools in which the New African intelligentsia was educated, by controlling the newspapers in which the preliminary forms of written African literature(s) in the African languages initially appeared, and lastly by founding the publishing houses in which these literatures where assembled in a textual or book form. The missionaries altered in a fundamental way African cultural history by launching the Morija Press in Maseru , the Marianhill Press in Durban , and the Lovedale Press in Alice .

From the moment of the aforementioned Xhosa intellectuals of the 1880s to the Zulu intellectuals of the 1940s such as E. H. A. Made (?-?), Jordan Ngubane, R. R. R. Dhlomo, H. I. E. Dhlomo and others, the critical issue had become whether the written literary word would serve only Christianity or whether it would also be in the forefront of the struggle to invent African Nationalism.

The great Sotho novel Chaka by Thomas Mofolo was an indication of the monumentality of this struggle. Mofolo unequivocally condemned pre-modern and pre-colonial African history as essentially barbaric and backward, and 'Christian' modernity is represented as the very essence of enlightenment and progress. Without renouncing their Christian beliefs, the founding of 'independent' New African newspapers, John Tengo Jabavu's Imvo Zabantsundu (1884, African Opinion), Solomon T. Plaatje's Tsala ea Batho (1912, The People's Friend, originally known as Tsala ea Becoana [The Friend of the Bechuana] when launched in 1910), and John Dube's Ilanga lase Natal (1903, The Natal Sun) was part of the process of the secularization of the New African intellectual and literary imagination.

The matter of secularization was related to the contentious issue of origins: what was the founding moment of written African literature(s) in the African languages! Was the founding moment of these literatures signaled by missionaries when they translated the Bible into the many African languages, or was it indicated by Tiyo Soga, when he translated John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress (1678) into the Xhosa text uHambo lomhambi (1866), or was it shown by the same Tiyo Soga reducing into written form in Christian newspapers Xhosa oral forms of literary representation? What was the relationship between oral forms of representation and their written 'counterparts': is it one of continuity or is it one rupture and discontinuity? Is there a symmetry between a form of literary representation and the nature of historical periodization: in other words, are oral forms of literary representation synonymous with tradition and the written forms with modernity?

A historic conference held under the auspices of the Christian Council of South Africa, known as A Conference of African Authors, was convened on October 15, 1936 in the city of Florida, Transvaal, not necessarily to engage the aforementioned questions, but rather, to examine the status and crisis of African literature(s) in the African languages. Reporting on the conference in The Bantu World newspaper, J. D. Rheinallt Jones (1884-1953) named the following participants: D. D. T. Jabavu, Rueben T. Caluza (1895-1969), Benedict Wallet Vilakazi, Z. D. Mangoaela (1883-1950), R. V. Selope Thema, D. M. Ramoshoana (?-?), S. S. Mafoyane (?-?).

This is a stellar list of New African intellectuals (including a composer) who wrote in the African languages. Only H. I. E. Dhlomo participated as a representative of African literature in the English language. The invitees who could not make it to the conference were equally stellar: J. J. R. Jolobe (1902-1978), H. M. Ndawo (?-?), S. E. K. Mqhayi, Thomas Mofolo, H. Maimane (?-?), and R. R. R. Dhlomo. Among the Europeans who participated were the missionaries: R. H. W. Shepherd, Margaret Wrong, A. Sandilands; and the editors of the Bantu Studies scholarly journal, C. M. Doke (1893-1980) and J. D. Rheinallt Jones.

Let it be openly said that this unprecedented conference, which in all probability has never been subsequently surpassed in the brilliance of the minds gathered together, was sponsored by the missionaries. Several issues were at the center of the gathering: the obstacles to publication of the manuscripts in the African languages; the establishment of an endowment to assist in the publication of such manuscripts; the role of newspapers and magazines in facilitating such a literature; the instituting of literary criticism that would set the standards of excellence for this literature; and the contentious question of orthography which invariably resulted in bitter quarrels between the New African intelligentsia and the Christian missionaries.

The missionary turned academic C. M. Doke proposed to the conference participants the establishing of An Academy of African Arts; a proposal that was to be re-discovered anew in the 1940s by Jordan Ngubane and Anton Lembede (1914-1947) in Inkundla ya Bantu (Bantu Forum) newspaper, the intellectual forum of the African nationalism of the ANC Youth League. This innovative idea of the Academy was in all probability related to the extraordinary linguistic work Clement Martyn Doke had undertaken in the study of African languages in Southern Africa which he anticipated could inspire African literature(s) in the African languages into creating a renaissance or renascences.

His establishing of an imprint in 1935 called the Bantu Treasury Series, whose first volume was Benedict Vilakazi's book of poetry Inkondlo kaZulu , the first of thirteen volumes that were to appear into the 1940s, was part of the hoped for cultural revolution. The assembling of the great Zulu-English Dictionary (1948) by C. M. Doke and Benedict Vilakazi as well as the Sotho-English Dictionary by Doke and S. M. Mofokeng (1923-1957) was fundamental in cultivating the intellectual and cultural space of the New African Movement.

It would seem that the objectives and achievements of the conference were overshadowed by the controversial question that was posed by H. I. E. Dhlomo to the participants: would it not lead to the creation of 'tribal' cultures rather than a national culture if African writers persisted in writing African literature in the 'tribal' languages!

It was this question that led to the bitter intellectual quarrel between two great friends H. I. E. Dhlomo and Benedict Wallet Vilakazi that broke out two years after the conference on the pages of Bantu Studies (subsequently changed to African Studies ) and South African Outlook in 1938 and in 1939. The ostensible reason of the argument was about the nature of Zulu poetic form and its capacity to absorb and incorporate European rhymes and stanzas. But the real issue in contention was the role of African languages in not only creating a national literature but in facilitating the construction of a singular national culture: is it possible to constitute a unified national culture through multillinguality!

Conjuring Modernity and Traditional Literature

It is the complexity of the question posed and the vehemence of the response rendered that has made the Dhlomo/Vilakazi debate such a legendary event in South African intellectual history. H. I. E. Dhlomo, truly an enigma, for while absolutely demurring in writing creative work in the Zulu language, wrote many journalistic pieces in Ilanga lase Natal newspaper extolling the greatness of the Zulu language.

Is it surprising that Benedict Vilakazi never felt the necessity to extol the language in which he wrote his three novels, Noma Nini (1935), Udingiswayo ka Jobe (1939), Nje Nempela (1944), and his two books of poetry, Inkondlo kaZulu (1935), Amal' Ezulu (1945). The question posed by H. I. E. Dhlomo still seems not easily answerable even in our contemporary times.

The aforementioned literary histories of the major African literature(s) in the African languages are generally in agreement about certain fundamental issues pertaining to them. First, they concur in establishing that the foundational texts of Xhosa literature were Isaac Bud M'Belle's Kafir Scholar's Companion and Walter B. Rubusana's anthology Zemk' Inkomo Magwalandini (1906, The Cattle Are Departing You Cowards), and those of Sotho literature as being Azariel M. Sekese's (1849-1928) Mekhoa le maele a Basotho (1907, Basotho Customs and Proverbs) and Thomas Mofolo's Moeti oa Bochabela (1907, The Traveller to the World of Light, also translated as The Traveller to the East), and that of Zulu literature as Magema M. Fuze's (1845-1922) Abantu Abamnyama: Lapa Bavela Ngakona (1922, The Black People: And Whence They Came). Second, they are in synchrony in designating the canon of these literatures: in regard to Xhosa literature, in poetry it is S. E. K. Mqhayi, in the novel it is A. C. Jordan, in the short story form it is Guybon Bundlawa Sinxo, and in the essay form it is J. J. R. Jolobe (also a major poet); in so far as it relates to Zulu literature, in poetry it is Benedict Wallet Vilakazi, in the novel it is R. R. R. Dhlomo and C. L. S. Nyembezi, in the short story it is Violet Dube (?-?), in the essay form it is E. H. A. Made, and in drama it is Nimrod Ndebele (1913-2000); as for Sotho literature, in poetry it is Z. Mangoaela, in the novel it is undoubtedly Thomas Mofolo but there also other strong figures like A. M. Sekese and E. Segoete (1858-1923), and in poetry it is Ephraim Lesoro (?-?). Third, these literary histories imply that the historical conjuncture of tradition/modernity was a central preoccupation of African literature(s) in the African languages.

The last of these literary histories was C. L. S. Nyembezi's A Review of Zulu Literature which appeared in 1961, an appearance that coincided with the termination of the New African Movement marked by the Sharpeville Massacre of 1960. The Sophiatown Renaissance was the cultural expression of the Movement. Since that date of four decades ago many extraordinary things have happened to this literature. Arguably the most important has been the poetic voice of Mazisi Kunene, an achievement that can stand comparison with any African poetic achievement in the twentieth-century. Also impressive has been

African Prose And Poetry

the scholarly work devoted to African literature(s) in the African languages in South Africa: from Daniel Kunene's Heroic poetry of the Basotho (1971) to Jeff Opland's Xhosa Poets and Poetry (1998). In between these two publications, there has been the three remarkable essays on the three major streams of this literature by Harold Scheub that appeared in Literatures in African Languages: Theoretical Issues and Sample Surveys (1985).

The most exhilarating event of the last two decades of the twentieth-century in regard to this literature has been the re-discovery of two major women writers: Lydia Umkasetemba (?-?), the Zulu prose writer who wrote in the 1850s and in the 1860s; and Nontsizi Mgqwetto (?-?), a Xhosa poetess who published approximately ninety poems in Umteteli wa Bantu newspaper between 1920 and 1929, and seems to have been a younger contemporary of S. E. K. Mqhayi.

Their appearance has completely altered our understanding of the cultural and literary history of the New African Movement: it is with Lydia Umkasetemba that modern Zulu literature begins not with Magema M. Fuze as it had been presumed for decades and decades even by H. I. E. Dhlomo, among others; it is Nontsizi Mgqwetto who brings literary modernism through poetry to South Africa not Benedict Vilakazi or H. I. E. Dhlomo or S. E. K. Mqhayi as we had all supposed.

Further Reading

John L. Dube (1904) "Are Negroes Better Off in Africa? Conditions and Opportunities of Negroes in America and Africa Compared", The Missionary Review of the World , August 1904.

D. D. T. Jabavu (1921) Bantu Literature: Classification and Reviews , Lovedale: Lovedale Missionary Press.

(1943) The Influence of English Literature On Bantu Literature , Lovedale: Lovedale Missionary Press.

J. D. Rheinallt Jones (1936) "African Writers To Be Encouraged: African Authors' Conference", The Bantu World , November 14, 21.

A. C. Jordan (1973) Towards an African Literature , Berkeley: University of California Press.

Mazisi Kunene (1959) An Analytical Survey of Zulu Poetry , M. A. thesis, Durban: University of Natal.

D. McK. Malcolm (1949) "Zulu Literature", Africa 19, 1: 33-39.

C. L. S. Nyembezi (1961) A Review of Zulu Literature , Pietermaritzburg: The University of Natal Press.

Solomon T. Plaatje (1904) "Negro Question", Koranta ea Becoana , Loetse [September] 7, 1904.

Pixley ka Isaka Seme (1905-6) "The Regeneration of Africa", Royal African Society , 4: 75-81.

(1933) "Leaders Of African National Congress Must Reconcile Differences", Umteteli wa Bantu , December 16.

R. V. Selope Thema (1935) "European Students And Race Problems", The Bantu World , August 10.

B. W. Vilakazi (1942) "Some Aspects of Zulu Literature", African Studies 1, 4: 270-274.

(1946) The Oral and Written Literature in Nguni , D. Litt diss., Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand.

Linguistic Studies by Cheik Anta Diop

Foundations Of African Intellectual Culture

The recent passing away of Cheik Anta Diop has undoubtedly not only impoverished African historiography which he himself had assisted in establishing by clearing large sections of its landscape which had been hidden by the then dominant colonial historiography, but it has also in many ways weakened and debilitated the strong foundations of African intellectual culture. For Cheik Anta Diop belonged with, among many others, Frantz Fanon, Alioune Diop and Aime Cesaire, to that generation whose task it was to liberate Africa from imperial and colonial domination, and to define culturally and politically the historical uniqueness of Africa in a culture of nations.

The historical works of Diop, the political works of Fanon, the poetry of Cesaire and the founding of Presence Africaine by Alioune Diop belong together in the historical effort to recover the strong forces of the African genius whose expressiveness and originalness had been silenced and traumatized by three hundred years of colonial domination. Consequently, the contribution of Diop through his historical works should not be seen only in and of itself, in isolation from the contributions of other great and outstanding African intellectuals, but should be seen as part of a historical movement around the Negritude poetic school.

The colossal nature of the historical works of Diop demand their being situated within the comparative perspective of black historiography which has recently flourished in Africa and in the African diaspora. In short, the writings of Diop belong in the same temporal and cultural space as the writings of C.L.R. James, Joseph Ki-Zerbo and W.E.B. DuBois. Together they constitute the intellectual space of black historiography.

With the exception of Ki-Zerbo, the other historians have developed their historical enterprises within, or adjacent to, historical materialism. Cedric J. Robinson is seriously mistaken when he argues in his huge book of 500-pages, Black Marxism , that the structure of African historical experience is absolutely incompatible with the constructs of historical materialism. This view is held by major historical Master Teachers like Hendrik Clarke and Ben Joachanan etc.

What Is African History To You? What Is Africa To You?

(1) No matter how much Hugh Trevor-Roper may fulminate against the views expressed by E.H. Carr in What is History?, the fact is that Carr in many ways has assisted in establishing a consensus among historians as to what is the object of historical inquiry. According to Carr the essential task of a historian is to find the median ground between history as the objective compilation of facts and history as the subjective product of the mind of the historian.

(2) That is, centering history in the present or in the past. In many ways the historian has to establish the interconnection between fact and interpretation. As Carr writes: "... the historian is engaged on a continuous process of moulding his facts to his interpretation and his interpretation to his facts."

(3) Within this perspective then, history cannot be but an inquiry, which is a process, into the past of man in society.

(4) Carr concludes his theorization on the nature of history by observing that history is a science in which its subject and object reciprocally interact with each other. In short, history is not only an endless chain in which past, present and future are inter-linked, but it is also a process by which humanity progressively attains rationality with the aim of understanding and acting upon the environment.

(5) It is this lucidity of argumentation and presentation which has compelled assent from many historians representing diverse tendencies. Lucidness is one of the principal characteristics of his greatest work, the fourteen- volume study of the Russian Revolution, which parallels the multi-volume study of the Chinese science and society by Joseph Needham. Within the same intellectual space of English historiography, E.P. Thompson has argued that history as a tradition rather than science possesses its own logic, unique to itself because of the nature of its object and the method of its inquiry.

For Thompson history cannot be, and can never be, a science since by its very nature it always approximates, incapable of establishing definitive knowledge. E.P. Thompson taking as his point of departure Sartre's statement to the effect that history is a rational disorder which constructs a structure and in the process of its movement deconstructs it in order to establish it anew and so on; he sees historical logic embodied in the concepts or notions of causation, contradiction, mediation and systematic organisation of social, political, economic and intellectual life.

(6) It is the dialectical interaction of these concepts with empirical reality that establishes the nature of historical logic. Not necessarily disputing with the historical logic proposed by Thompson, Perry Anderson contests the view that history cannot be a science, or that historical materialism is not a theory and science of history.

In vigorous terms, Anderson indicates that although the object of history continually changes, it is by developing the systematicity of concepts proven by empirical reality in order to capture and fix the structure of invariance ("however much internal variation such a structure may allow"), that any historical discipline can constitute itself as a science of history.

(7) Correctly, for him historical materialism is the only science of history. In consequence, and from this perspective, the object of historical inquiry is the unity of structural changes and the infinity of human behaviour.

(8) For any historical discipline, deserving the designation as a scientific enterprise, has to explain as to how conflicting rational interests nonetheless support a coherent social order.)

(9) The tradition of black historiography was founded in the African diaspora by two exemplary texts published approximately at the same time: W.E.B. DuBois' Black Reconstruction in America and C.L.R. James' The Black Jacobins . If Edward W. Blyden's Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race could be designated as a moment in the pre-history of these texts, then undoubtedly Cheik Anta Diop's Nations negres et culture and Anteriorite des civilizations negres constitute their post-history.

It could be mentioned in passing that it was not accidental that at the World Festival of the Black Arts held in Dakar in 1966 Diop and DuBois shared an award as to the writer who had exerted the most profound influence on the development of African-Negro thought in the 20th century. It was an expression of the recognition of the complex interrelationships that these historical works constitute as different intellectual systems. DuBois, in a series of magnificent historical studies, which represent a small portion of his prodigious productivity, beginning with The Negro (1915) through Black Reconstruction in America (1935) to The World and Africa (1947), attempted to establish the fundamental historical and cultural patterns and forms of the symbiosis between Africa and the African diaspora.

That he succeeded beyond all expectations is attested to by the fact that in the literary sphere, as an example, the literary and cultural criticism of two African scholars, Lewis Nkosi and Ezekiel Mphahlele is involved in a literary discourse with the literary theoretical works of the Afro-American scholar, Houston A. Baker, Jr. Home and Exile and Other Selections , Voices in the Whirlwind and The Journey Back , by the above respective authors, have followed on the pathway opened by the writings of DuBois. That Black Reconstruction in America is one of the historical masterpieces produced by American historiography in the 20th century is beyond dispute. It is not accidental that C.L.R. James has said of it:"... it is likely to continue to be one of the finest history books every written.

(10) This is the authoritative judgement of one great historian on the work of another great historian. Among the new things that this book established was to trace at a conceptual level the morphological patterns of the American class structure in the 19th century. In chapters such as "The Black Worker", "The White Worker", "The Planter", and "The Transubstantiation of a Poor White", DuBois situates the phenemenological experiences of the white working class and the black plantation workers within the sociological coordinates of American history, the Civil War, the contradictory nature of the capitalist formation in America, -between the industrializing states of the North and the plantation states of the South, and the peculiar nature of American state institutions, which were then in the process of embryonic development.

Within this complex context, DuBois traces the political consciousness and cultural formation of both the black and white workers. The viccissitudes of this political consciousness is related to the differential tempo and form in the splay of the capitalist mode of production across the American landscape. The temporal and the geographical spaces of Slave revolts is cartographed.

This 700-page masterpiece ends with an examination of the politics of the Civil War and of the Reconstruction as they affected the fate and fortunes of the African peoples in America. What is even more remarkable, is that DuBois connects this complex American historical tableaux to the Paris Commune of 1871 and the formation of Marx's International Workingmen's Association. The counter-revolution that followed Reconstruction is interwoven into the nature of American property system. Black Reconstruction in America was truly innovative within American historiography in its wedding together of a brilliant theoretical structure, intuitive realism, empirical evidence and statistical data.

The stony silence it received upon its publication was partly because of its Marxist provenance. In it, the facts and their interpretation formed an exemplary unity. It is because of the absolute brilliance displayed in it, that the leading American Marxist historian today, Eugene Genovese, has said something to the effect that wherever he has been in his books in the study of the slave system in the antebellum South, DuBois was there before him. There could hardly be a greater tribute than this.

In a duo of booklets on Africa, which are not widely known and prefigure The World and Africa, DuBois deals with two central issues of African historiography which have found continuation in the historical works of Cheikh Anta Diop. These two nodes are: the contribution of Africa to world civilization and culture, and the reasons for Africa's cultural stagnation from the 16th century onwards. In these booklets of 1930, respectively Africa, Its Geography, People and Products , and Africa--Its Place in Modern History , he indicates the configuration of these issues. In one of the texts he writes: "Africa is an old and storied continent.

It is probable that out of Africa came the first civilization of the world, and certainly, in that continent the tragedy of the history of mankind has played its greatest part. To the Grecian world, to the Roman Empire, as well as to the American and modern European world, Africa has been of supreme importance, and it is well worth while to know something of its peculiar situation, history and meaning."

(11) In the other text he says: "It would be conservative, then, to say that the slave trade cost Negro Africa 1000,000 souls. And yet people ask today the cause of the stagnation of African culture since 1600! Such a large number of slaves could be supplied only by organized slave raiding in every corner of Africa. The African continent gradually became revolutionized. Whole regions were depopulated, whole tribes disappeared; villages were built in caves and on hills or in forest fastness; the character of peoples like those of Benin developed their worst excesses of cruelty instead of the already flourishing arts of peace. The dark, irresistible grasp of fetish took firmer hold on men's minds. Further advances toward civilization became impossible."

(12) DuBois in The World and Africa deepened this thesis by supporting it with irrefutable historical evidence and writing in part: "Despite this, it is one of the astonishing results of the written history of Africa, that almost unanimously in the nineteenth century Egypt was not regarded as part of Africa. Its history and culture were separated from that of the other inhabitants of Africa...

The Greeks looked upon Egypt as part of Africa not only geographically but culturally, and every fact of history and anthropology proves that the Egyptians were an African people... It is especially significant that the science of Egyptology arose and flourished at the very time that the cotton kingdom reached its greatest power on the foundation of American Negro slavery. We may then without further ado ignore this verdict of history, widespread as it is, and treat Egyptian history as an integral part of African history."

(13) Indeed, it would be interesting to investigate the parallels between Egyptology and Orientalism, the Orientalism which Edward W. Said in his impressive study Orientalism showed it falsifying in many ways the history and culture of the Near Eastern peoples as part of imperialist penetration in the early nineteenth century to the present. Of course, it does not follow that all scholars in the fields of Oreintalism and Egyptology are/were of this dubious calibre.

Continuing to elaborate on his argument, DuBois further writes: "We conclude, therefore, that the Egyptians were Negroids, and not only that, but by tradition they believed themselves descended not from the whites or the yellows, but from the black peoples of the south. Thence they traced their origin, and toward the south in earlier days they turned the faces of their buried corpses."

(14) Cheikh Anta Diop follows in this great tradition of black historiography. But before situating Diop within this tradition, it is necessary to say a few observations about another colossal figure who precedes him, and occupies a preeminent position in it: I refer to C.L.R. James. E.P. Thompson, the great English historian has said of James: "What an extraordinary man he is! It is not a question of whether one agrees with everything he has said or done: but everything has had the mark of originality, of his own flexible, sensitive and deeply cultured intelligence. That intelligence has always been matched by a warm and outgoing personality."

(15) It is this sharp intelligence that C.L.R. James has applied with tremendous vigour to the historical and cultural problems that have faced Africa and the African diaspora. Perhaps only a small coterie of people would dispute the view that James' book of 1938, The Black Jacobins, which is a historical masterpiece, is his greatest work. Though the book concerns itself with the events surrounding the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1803, the only successful slave revolt in human history, in an essay of 1976, "George Padmore: Black Marxist Revolutionary", James indicates that the real reason for writing the book was to show Africans what they would possibly have to do in order to liberate themselves from colonial and imperialist domination.

(16) Surely, this has to be the one supreme instance in which a particular past is seriously studied in order actively to influence and intervene in the present. The historical works of Cheikh Anta Diop follow this pattern of black historiography. For James history was an interlocked process of the dialectical unity of the past, present and future. It is not for nothing that one of his collection of essays is called, The Future in the Present .


The importance of the Haitian revolution within the Latin American context, was to indicate that colonial domination could be overthrown through force of arms. It was the ignitor or detonator of the liberation struggles in the early nineteenth century history of South America. Consequently, when Simon Bolivar was defeated in his first attempt to liberate Latin America from Spanish and Portuguese domination, it was in the newly liberated Haiti that he received material assistance in the form of arms, and from there that he launched the liberation struggle.

(17) The Haitian revolution requested of him that wherever he was successful in liberating a country, he should abolish slavery. Simon Bolivar never went back on his promise. Within the Pan-African context, as James makes clear in his book, A History of Pan-African Revolt , the revolution of Toussaint Louverture was an inspirer, of the slave revolts in the 1840's of the American South led by Nat Turner and Denmark Vesey, of the Kimbangu movement in the Congo of 1921, of Clement Kadalie's Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of South Africa in the early 1920's, and of the Mau Mau national uprising in the colonial Kenya of the 1950's.

(18) In other words, the Haitian revolution, its form and nature, and its subsequent tragic history, is a central element of any African historiography. The lessons of the Haitian revolution have not as yet exhausted themselves as we approach the looming revolution in South Africa [which has been derailed and delayed for the past 18-20 years, to date]. Hence, the perspective from which C.L.R. James wrote The Black Jacobins was to distill the lessons of the Haitian revolution for the African revolution. For James, undoubtedly also for Cheikh Anta Diop, one of the principal roles of African historiography is political and cultural demystification. This is in view of the pernicious role of colonial historiography which continues to the present, albeit in disguised forms.

Without necessarily entering into the complex structure of The Black Jacobins , one may observe that what makes it compelling reading is its tremendous narrative drive which places it next to Garrett Mattingly's Renaissance Diplomacy . In both works, it is the narration of individual lives and social forces which propels their structure, in contradistinction to Perry Anderson's Lineages of the Absolutist State , which has inaugurated a new era in modern historiography in examining the genealogy of the international State institution of Absolutism that emerged at the dusk of the Carolingian era and approximately traversed six centuries to collapse at the dawn of the socialist era signaled by the October revolution.

The Black Jacobins is a central emblem in contemporary historiography. But more of immediate relevance to us is its contemporareousness with Aime Cesaire's Cahier d'un retour au pays natal (Return to My Native Land), published within a year of each other in the middle 1930's. What James says of Cesaire's great hymn celebrating the wanderings of the black historical imagination equally applies to his historical works: that it connects the African sphere of existence with the Western sphere of existence; that the past of mankind and future of mankind are historically and logically interconnected; and that Africa and Africans should express their historical uniqueness in the process of integration into world culture.

(19) Need it be doubted that this great legacy is carried forth to our generation through the historical works of Cheikh Anta Diop! The intonation that needs repeating is this: "The foundation of all that we are doing, the intellectual foundation, is the work, for the most part, of a distinguished American scholar, Dr. W.E.B. DuBois."

(20) Its continuation takes different and complex forms, but its origins in him is incontrovertible. It has been Africa's great fortune to have had two great historians in Joseph Ki- Zerbo and Cheikh Anta Diop. Whereas the former's incomparable contribution is in broaching the complex methodological issues and problems in African history, the latter's unsurpassable contribution has been in demystifying a contentious zone of African history by giving it to the African peoples.

In three superlative essays in Unesco General History of Africa volume one, whose editor he was, Ki- Zerbo articulates the historical and philosophical principles that ought to critically guide the writing of African history. In the "General Introduction" to this particular volume, he writes the following statement: "The history of Africa, like the history of mankind as a whole, is really the story of an awakening. The history of Africa needs rewriting, for up till now it has often been masked, faked, distorted, mutilated, by `force of circumstance' - i.e. through ignorance or self- interest.

Crushed by centuries of oppression, Africa has seen generations of travellers, slave traders, explorers, missionaries, governors, and scholars of all kinds give out its image as one of nothing but poverty, barbarism, irresponsibility and chaos. And this image has been projected and extrapolated indefinitely in time, as a justification of both the present and the future."

(21) Joseph Ki-Zerbo indicates the severe difficulties attendant upon the writing of African history: the nature of the physical geography of the continent; the severe demographic drain caused by slave trade; and the very vastness of the continent itself.

(22) Nonetheless, he specifies the three main sources of historical knowledge of Africa: written documents, archaeology and oral tradition.

(23) It is in view of these complications and difficulties that he proposes four research principles that could possibly push African historiography towards new frontiers: African history should be undertaken in an interdisciplinary form or within such a structure; it must uncompromisingly be viewed from an inner perspective; and it must unquestionably be the history of the peoples of the African continent; and it must avoid being too narrative, its point of approach should be conceptual and systematic.

(24) Written in such a manner, or within such a perspective, African historiography would be able to show the great contributions of African history to world civilization, and the essential links between African history and world history. In such a form African history would become and constitute the fundamental right of the African peoples.

(25) The other two essays by Joseph Ki-Zerbo, "The Place of History in African Society" and "Africa's pre-historic Art" are part of the monumental edifice that he has contributed to the theorizing and constructing of African history. They are part of the many essays that Ki-Zerbo has written on our history, some of which appeared in the early 1960's issues of Presence Africaine and his great book, Die Geschichte Schwarz-Afrikas.

(26). Together these historiographical works of his have made African history, for the first time in modern times, to be African centered and not European centered, as it had been in the past. That is, when African history was acknowledged to exist at all. For it must be remembered that the great Hegel had contested the existence of African history, writing to the effect that Africa was not a historical continent because it lacked change and development. In the same book, Philosophy of History , he also said that the African people were not capable of development nor of being educated.

In many ways, Hegel was reinforcing the historical prejudices planted in the European mind against Africa by David Hume. In our time, the same Hugh Trevor-Roper, whom earlier we saw fulminating against Carr's brilliant exposition on the nature of the historical project, has written that Africa possesses no creditable history since it is an area of darkness, and darkness is not a subject of history.

(27) If there is any history at all, it is the history of Europeans in Africa. The congenital prejudice of some European scholars is amazing and breath-taking, perhaps not so amazing when it is remembered that it is a continuation of a tradition founded in modern times by Gobineau. But then, whatever doubts some of his constructions might bring to a mind of a scholar of African history, the writings of Fronbenius on African history, culture and civilization have irrefutably established its existence. It is not surprising that Frobenius had at one time a great influence on Aime Cesaire.

(28) ...perhaps indirectly also on Cheikh Anta Diop. The case of Hugh Trevor-Roper is puzzling for in his country, England, A. H.M. Jones, perhaps the foremost twentieth-century scholar on Roman history, had written a book called, A History of Ethiopia , in which he presented a short but comprehensive account of Ethiopian history.

(29) The political context of the writing of this book, which Jones himself does not mention, was in indirect to refute the absurd claims of Mussolini that Ethiopia was part of Italian soil. What A.H.M. Jones achieved here, was to integrally situate Ethiopia at the center of African history and to trace the longevity of its dynasticism. In other words, Jones had drawn the elementary forms of African history of a particular country a full three decades before Trevor-Roper made his asinine remarks.

An equally puzzling instance is that of J.D. Fage, whose essay "The Development of African Historiography" also forms part of volume one of Unesco General History of Africa , neglects to mention A.H.M. Jones' contribution to the emergence of African historiography. But then, there are many things Fage does not mention or does not seem to know, in spite of the fact that in some European liberal circles he is taunted as one of the leading scholars of African history.

In his vast survey, Sheikh Anta Diop is conspicuous by his absence. His work is passed over in silence, a silence that refuses to acknowledge its originality and greatness. J.D. Fage, in this same essay, insinuates darkly about the intellectual integrity of these outstanding sons of Africa, J.A.B. Horton, E.W. Blyden, J.M. Sarbah, J.E. Casely-Hayford and J.B. Danquah, for he feels that their writings on African history were merely propaganda.

(30) The absurdity of this charge does not deserve a response. This same Fage over the last six years, in the review pages of The Times Literary Supplement , reviewing practically each publication of the Unesco General History of Africa as they appeared, has been waging a furious battle against the contributions of Africans to African historiography.

He has lodged several unsupportable claims: that the historical writings of Cheikh Anta Diop were false and fabrications that the latest published volume of Unesco General History of Africa , covering the period approximately from the partitionings of Africa to the 1930's, was too much falsely influenced by the historiography written from the perspective of African nationalism; and lastly, that the recent Nobel Prize winner in Literature, Wole Soyinka, was unqualified to make a contribution to a volume concerned with historical matters, even though his essay was on the historical development of the arts in Africa.

Concerning the matter on Wole Soyinka, in a recent letter to the Editor of The Times Literary Supplement , Chinweizu has effectively put that charge to waste, even winning the accent of a later English contributor. Concerning the matter in relation to Diop, Fage has been unable to dislodge the historical finds of Cheikh Anta Diop, precisely because they are irrefutable scientific findings. One thing is absolutely certain, and that is, contemporary European liberal historiography on Africa, at least large portions of it, is merely a continuation, though subtle and hidden, of imperial colonial historiography on Africa.

The historical works of Cheikh Anta Diop have aroused violent responses against them in many European historical circles. Since these responses are hardly ever substantive and lack the most elementary forms of scientific procedures, they need not detain us here nor worry us unduly. They are manifestations of European intellectual uncertainties and premeditated ideological confusions.

The works of Diop demand a dispassionate evaluation and appraisal. In fact, he always requests this of his European colleagues, but to no avail. It should perhaps be stated here in passing that the historical works of Cheikh Anta Diop find supportive evidence in the work of the American black scholar, Frank Snowden's Blacks in Antiquity . Diop in the preface called "The Meaning of Our Work" to Myth or Reality (an integration of ten chapters from Nations negres et culture and three from Anteriorite des civilisations negres : mythe ou verite historique ?), writes that three factors form the collective personality of a people: the psychic factor, the historical and the linguistic factor.

(31) The last two factors have been at the center of his historical enterprise. The primary aim of Diop's historical project was to scientifically and historically prove that ancient Egypt was a Negro civilization. The rest of the book is dedicated to proving this thesis. That he succeeds is beyond a shadow of a doubt, that is, given our present state of historical knowledge. What is interesting is that in the middle of the book Diop states that this thesis was accepted as a self-evident truth for millenia stretching from classical antiquity to Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in Egypt in 1799.

(32) It was at this political and historical juncture that Egyptology emerged on the back of imperialism to retroactively deny that ancient Egypt was a Negro civilization. In its stead, a new thesis was formulated, to the effect that ancient Egypt has always been and will ever be a part of white civilization. The endeavour of Cheikh Anta Diop has been to dislodge this false thesis.

In an essay of bravura brilliance Diop displays for the benefit of the scientific community and public forum the nature of his scientific and historical procedures in formulating his thesis and proving that ancient Egypt was a Negro civilization. In this essay, "Origin of the Ancient Egyptians", in the second volume of Unesco General History of Africa , Diop gives reason and methods for establishing his thesis: melanin dosage test, osteological measurements, blood-groups, the Egyptian race according to the classical authors of Antiquity, the Egyptians as they saw themselves, the divine paths, witness the bible, cultural data and linguistic affinity.

(33) These procedures vary in their cogency and complexity, and it would not serve any particular purpose to tabulate the precedural structure for each of them. A few will suffice here. Concerning how the classical authors of Antiquity viewed the Egyptians, these two examples assembled by Cheikh Anta Diop are interesting in and of themselves. Herodotus, the father of history, has written: "It is in fact manifest that the Colchidians are Egyptian by race..... several Egyptians told me that in their opinion the Colchidians were descended from soldiers of Sesostris. I had conjectured as much myself from two pointers, firstly because they have black skins and kinky hair... and secondly and more reliably for the reason that alone among mankind the Egyptians and the Ethiopians have practised circumcision since time immemorial."

(34) Equally Aristotle in his book Physiognomy , has this: "Those who are too black are cowards, like for instance, the Egyptians and Ethiopians. But those who are excessively white are also cowards as we can see from the example of women, the complexion of courage is between the two."

(35) The prejudice of Aristotle against women and blacks should not detract us from the central point at issue here. It would be difficult to disagree with Georg Lukacs when he says that Aristotle with Marx and Hegel is one of the greatest philosophers known in human history. Diop also assembles the views of Lucian and Diogenes Laertius, among many others.

Concerning osteological measurements, Diop writes: "Among the criteria accepted in physical anthropology for classifying races, the osteological measurements are perhaps the least misleading (in contrast to craniometry) for distinguishing a black man from a white man. By this criterion, also, the Egyptians belong among the black races.".

And in relation to melanin dosage test, Diop says: "In practice it is possible to determine directly the skin color and hence the ethnic affiliations of the ancient Egyptians by microscopic analysis in the laboratory....Either way let us simply say that the evaluation of melanin level by microscopic examination is a laboratory method which enables to classify the ancient Egyptians unquestionably among the black races."

(36) Through a complex analysis of the Egyptian symbolic system, which is beyond the competence of our understanding, Diop shows that the Egyptians viewed themselves as Negroid. All in all, the historical findings of Diop are incontrovertible.

Nonetheless, given the fact that historical knowledge by its very nature is provisional and subject to constant revision, as E.P. Thompson has recently passionately and convincingly argued, the findings of Cheikh Anta Diop should be accepted with an element of caution. The carefully chosen words of the Egyptian historian Gamal Mokhtar, introducing the Unesco General History of Africa volume in which the above-mentioned Diop's essay appears, cannot be summarily dismissed out of hand, for he argues for the apparent lack of hard historical evidence in many matters concerning ancient Egyptian civilization.

(37) He argues further, that because of the absence of firm documentary, many scholars in this area of African history have to work with many suppositions. Then Gamal Mokhtar writes: "Nevertheless, it is highly doubtful whether the inhabitants that introduced civilization into the Nile valley ever belonged to one single, pure race. The very history of the people of the valley refutes such a possibility....If an Egyptian race ever existed - and this is open to doubt - it was the result of mixtures whose basic elements varied in time as well as in space."

(38) Now this disagreement with the views of Cheikh Anta Diop is legitimate within the climate of scholarly debate, however contentious the issue may be. What is curious about Mokhtar's exposition is that it lacks even minimum historical citations, very unusual in a controversial historical exposition.

That speaks volumes. But then, that is legitimate, as I said. However, what is not legitimate, and totally unacceptable, is for Mokhtar as an editor a volume in which Diop's essay appears, to pin at the end of Diop's exposition that the historical findings of Diop were found unacceptable by a commission of Unesco historians planning the form of Ancient Civilizations of Africa volume of the Unesco General History of Africa , which is questionable.

Here then, unquestionably, Gamal Mokhtar becomes an instrument of discord to sow bitterness among African historians, if not among African intellectuals. Does Gamal Mokhtar for an instant, suppose that Europeans historians who constituted a majority in such an assembly and for whom they appear as a court of appeal, are completely disinterested in the historical writings of Cheik Anta Diop?

If one can judge from J.D. Fage's tiresome fulminations against Diop, that does not seem to be the case. But it's pleasing to note that at the end of their respective essays, both Gamal Mokhtar and Cheikh Anta Diop agree on something. Mokhtar writes: "Despite the flaws in our knowledge of the Pharaonic civilization to which we have just drawn attention, that civilization nevertheless occupies a primordial place in the history of ancient Africa."

(39) Diop equally writes: "Egyptian antiquity is to African culture what Graeco-Roman antiquity is to Western culture. The building up of a corpus of African humanities should be based on this fact."

(40) One looks forward to that world when the great historical writings of Cheikh Anta Diop will no longer be necessary, that is a world beyond class oppression, free of all forms of oppression and racism. The works of Diop unquestionably bring that era much closer to us.

It is beyond doubting that the works of Diop will remain controversial for a long time to come, and some of its arguments will be definitely revised. In that sense, what E.P. Thompson says of historical materialism, would seem to hold true also for the historical writings of Cheikh Anta Diop: "The court has been sitting in judgement upon historical materialism for one hundred years, and it is continually being adjourned.

The adjournment is in effect a tribute to the robustness of the tradition; in that long interval the cases against a hundred other interpretive systems have been upheld, and the culprits have disappeared `downstairs'. That the court has not yet found decisively in favour of historical materialism is not only because of the ideological parti pris of certain judges (although there is plenty of that) but also because of the provisional nature of the explanatory concepts, the actual silence (or absent mediations) within them, the primitive and unreconstructed character of some of the categories, and the inconclusive determinacy of the evidence." ( The Poverty of Theory , p. 237)

Carving The Caverns Of The Historical Mind

"These are the stories that old men and old women tell to boys and girls sated with open mouths around the spark-wreathed fire in the center of the village in the dark forests and on the aloe-scented plains of Africa.

"Under the gaze of the laughing stars the Old One sits, his kaross wrapped around his age-blasted shoulders, staring with rheumy eyes at the semi-circle of eager expectant faces before him-faces of those who have taken but a few steps along the dark and uncertain footpath called Life-faces of the ones as yet oblivious to the pain of life's bitter scourges-faces as yet unmarked by furrows of bitterness, ill-health and anger-the fresh, pure, open faces of ... children.

The fire dances in the middle of the round clay fireplace like a virgin reveling in the simple joy of being alive. It devours the dry twigs and logs that a little girl constantly feeding it, leaving nothing but glowing ashes. It mocks the silent sky with a redly luminous column of smoke against its starry face and by sending up short-lived stars of its own.

Suddenly the Old One feels a great burden on his shoulders-a heavy responsibility towards the young one sitting so expectantly around him. suddenly there is a visible sag to his thin, aged shoulders. He sighs-a harsh, rasping sound-and clears his throat, spitting and blowing his nose into the fire, as his father and his father's father did before him. And he begins the story-the old. old story which he knows he must repeat exactly as he heard it so long ago, without changing, adding or subtracting a single word: "INDABA, MY CHILDREN", ........

It is through these stories that we are able to reconstruct the past of the African of Africa. It is through these stories that inter-clan friendship or hatred was kept alive and burning: that the young were told who their ancestors were, who their enemies were and who their friends were. In short, it is these stories that have shaped Africa as we know it-years and years ago.

True, the Black(African) man of Africa had no mighty scrolls on which to write the history of his land. True, the Black(Africans nations of Africa had no pyramids on which to carve the history of each and every crowned chief(King) and tyrant who ruled them-on which to carve the history of every battle lost and won. But this they did, and still do! This they did through retelling African Oral History and tradition. Which is in the ballpark of Ong's ruminations on Orality and Literacy/literature.

There are men and women, preferably with Black(African) birthmarks on their palm on the hands, with good memories and a great capacity to remember words and to repeat them exactly as they had heard them spoken. These people were told the history of the Clans, under oath never to alter, add or subtract any word. Anyone who so much as thought of changing any of the stories of his Clan that had been told fell immediately under a High Curse which covered him, his children and his children's children. These clan story-tellers wee called Guardians of the "Umlando" or Clan History.

And I, Vusamazulu the Outcast, am proud to be one of these, and here I shall tell these stories to you in the very words of the Guardians who told them to me.

INDABA-MY CHILDREN

By Credo Vusamazulu Mutwa f

BIKO WROTE "I WRITE WHAT I LIKE"; I, ON THE OTHER HAND, "I POST WHAT I LIKE'

I Detest Oppressive Authority --In Any from it Manifests Itself!

If Biko "Wrote What He Like[s]", and now given todays Technological Society and the Nature of the Web and Human Communication What It Is Today, as a Human being first, "I Write And Post What I Like, And I Like What I Post and Write"" and do not subscribe to being straight-jacketed nor told what to say and how to say it, and I am secondly an African. I believe that every "Human" being has the capacity to know what's right from wrong, and rapacious when it comes to issue of controlling others and grabbing the oppressed people's natural resources and labor.

I believe man should be given information and use that knowledge intelligently, and it be recognized that a liberated man is not a stooge of anyone, As we all know, even if whatever pleasures those who dictate thought and ideas, they can ever be successful in this effort, as history has shown. No one or One Individual "Owns" any perceived or actual revolution.

Peoples power and intelligence is the best weapon one can hope for in trying to "Help" change, not "control" change for nefarious objectives, carved out of the the History of the Oppressor which was concocted by the recesses of the minds of Big Capital, Mercenaries, cabals, fiefdoms, and "some form of "ownership of "ideas", and regarded themselves as being the "Guardian" of the enslaved by telling them what ought to be or not to be done.

By this I mean, opening ourselves to the world, in all aspects and facets, rather that closing in ranks-akin to the 'laager' mindset is what I think is more dovetailing with the New Times we live in-wherein we explore new and revolutionary ideas of Nation building and collective upgrading of African National Consciousness techniques and tactics.

I disliked authority in Apartheid time; I denounce in strong terms anyone who seeks to manipulate the mind of the masses, afraid to let loose the mass's own potential as a force of change and stability- I oppose; if only the masses were given a chance to apply their mass mind to the problems plaguing South Africa, things ight be different. I have written some material and blogged on various topics, which are there for all to see for free, only thing is that one must invest time in reading the tomes I am writing on various subjects- in a scholarly and ordinary-man-friendly reads.

I am first an African, and secondly I am a Human Being and lastly am part of the earthlings dwelling on top of the planet and trying to make sense of all the vast expanse of space and our daily concrete reality. When I first Joined FB three weeks ago, I was banned from ever asking anyone to be or consider me to be their Friend. I did not do that, but clicked on anyone I know or not to be Friends with. Some people did not waste time, but through their Ubuntu, they also overlooked the fact that they did not know me and made me their friends There is a Hub I just wrote about Facebook and posted it called: "Understanding Facebook Addiction On The Social Media: Murmurs from the Facebook Environment - The Case of Africa".

I respect that, for this shows that Africans in South Africa, despite all the horrors we faced, they took me in: Motho Ke Motho Ka Batho Ba Bang/Umuntu ngu Muntu Ngabanye Abantu.... Following that, FB banned me from the Chat Room- so that up to this point, I have not been able to Chat with anyone. I was made to put a check on some box promising that I will not ask anyone to be my friend, EVER!

So that, as we use this media which collates our information and sells it to the highest bidders to do as they please with our profiles, we cannot then allow ourselves to curtail our meagre freedoms to achieve narrow ends. The problem Facebook spooks had against me was that I was posting original articles written on and about African history from an African perspective. This did not endear me to the Facebook police and the very people I was writing the history for.

The New African: New Ways of Being

No, I do not believe in nor obey anyone who plays the role of Boss/Baas- Black, White Yellow or Red- I disdain that foisted upon me or anybody concerning the do's and don'ts of thoughts and ideas. I am not an ideologue, neither Marxist, nor Communist or anything. I do not spread false rumors nor ahistorical untruths- I believe in reading, research writing and giving free of any products thereof. I quote anybody of any race or creed so long as he or she makes human sense.

I read and familiarize myself with all sorts of ideas, writers, information as much as I can lay my hands and eyes on. I do not apologize to no one for being an African South African, and will continue not to... I do not apologize to any organization for not Following them or believing in their doctrine or philosophies and I will not become less of an African by not being aligned or joining any movement or organization- including no church- am self educated- And I hate "Bullies" of any and all Stripes...

I am saying all this to say to us, it is time now Africans in South Africa assert themselves "freely, confidently, righteously, with air of confidence and act like a people who know and understand themselves, know their story(History) and exercise, Fully" the Freedom of Speech within the dictates of their culture. So far in our lives every "Tom, Dick And Harry along with their lackeys and side-kicks have found it in their interests to tell Africans not to do anything- worst- not think or oppose the state of their imposed miserable existence.No!

We will "Write And Post What We like, Say What we like, Do what we like, and post what we like(on the FB), so long it serves the interests of our people and their advancement as a Nation. We will use Blogs, Books and whatever what we like without asking permission from anyone or any nation,race or creed- in the process of upgrading and uplifting our people. Just because it is not within our conscious consciousness which has been trampled and debased, and we ought to know better and act accordingly.

I believe that the new African who speaks his mind, his thoughts fearlessly and wears his culture on his or her sleeve, is within his human rights, civil rights- the right of being born to make his or her world as he or she sees fit, and this is what we Africans should realize, know, control and apply. When we speak our minds, we need not be vulgar nor attack any people to make our points-you can also make a point or put an issue into perspective by being factual, knowledgeable, informed, constructive, positive and forthrightly truthtruthful, without fear or intimidation from speaking "Truth to Power" or would be rulers... If we speak "Truth To Power" we are able to rally the armies of the poor; conversely, we should "Speak the Truth To Our People". If we listen to the words of Amilcar Cabral, we will see why...:

"There can be no doubt that it is our people who wage our struggle, through their children as militants, leaders, combatants. militia etc., The fundamental strength is our people, themselves. Our population, or rather, the population linked to the work of Cause, mobilized and organized, from the beginning fed the struggle, borne sacrifices for our struggle, and so has been the principal strength of our struggle. It would have been impossible for us to to wage the struggle, in the era of clandestinity, were it not that our people kept us alive among them like a fish in water. ...

We might say that our struggle has the more potential for victory, the more we can keep on our side the support of the mass of the people in our land. ... Our Struggle is for our People, because its objective, its purpose, is to satisfy the aspirations, dreams and desires of our people: to lead a decent and worthy life, as all the peoples in the world want, to have peace in order to build progress in 'their' land, to build happiness for their children. We want everything we win in this struggle to belong to our people and we have to do our utmost to form an organization such that even if some want to divert the conquests of the struggle to their own advantage,our people will not let them. This Is Very Important."

No one who underwent the Grind of Grand Apartheid does not know that Africans in South Africa as a people have undergone all what Cabral so clearly states. What went on for the Africans is that they know what happened to their struggle, . It is the duty of ALL South Africans to put san end to all injustices, miseries and suffering- If other ethnic groups are not willing to participate in clearing all wrongs under the umbrella of African 'Ubuntu', there is no reason why Africans should not do it for themselves. As a people we must put guarantees for the children born in our land today and tomorrow a certainty that no barrier or wall should be put in their way; As African people of South Africa, we must see to it that they go forward according to their capacities; Our children must no be encouraged to envy other peoples cultures morals and mores at the expense of their own homegrown culture, customs, traditions, languages, rites and practices. Africans in South Africa must and have to constantly improve the lot of their people and land, and this must serve the interests of the Africans in South Africa; and once these are secured, known, owned, controlled and disseminated by African's, as they see fit. The Struggle for Africans of South Africa today is how can they create a cohesive African collective to begin to fix the governance of their lot according to their will.

African Pan-African Revolution- Myth or Reality(Possibility)?

Theory and Practice in Flux:-

An African world Revolution might sometimes sound like a fantasy, but please bear in mind that sometime the fantasy of today is tomorrow's reality. In addition to a need for a total reconsideration of Pan-Africanism, a cultural revolution is needed within the whole of the African World. The most important aspect of this revolution will occur within the geography of the continent of Africa, which is about 12 million square miles, endowed by nature with some of the greatest mineral wealth in "ALL" the world .

I believe the technical and scientific aspects of this revolution will begin with the Africans living inside and outside Africa who have been exposed, through education, to the kind of technological education that Africa needs in order to renew its old societies and make them workable within the modern world. It is important for Africans to learn who their friends are and who our enemies are and how to make best use of both of them. The principal concepts of "Nation Structure", "Nation formation", and "Nation Building", have been taken away from us as well.

The ability to examine our adversaries, to move among them, and still to advance while learning something of their technique has also been taken away from us.. We have been rather naive in our interaction with people and we have overlooked too many items in relationship to our freedom. We have not developed a technique for dealing with our own traitors. But if we cannot do anything else, we can at least isolate them. Why do we let so many known traitors to the African cause walk among us, unharmed? One of those traitors advocated that Blacks(Africans) should join UNITA and South Africa against Angola..(Clarke) What about what is happening today in South africa-some well-off former Apartheid slaves are now cavorting with their former masters at the expense of their voting African polity

I ask, Why do we let anyone walk into our communities today and not be questioned or responsible for whatever they do to our people without making them accountable? Why do we say that our people, whenever they question first preference given to anyone, except them, as being Xenophobic? All Countries in the West and in Europe are Extremely and profusely Xenophobic- research bears this out, and I will post it in some not too distant future? Why if Africans raise their concerns about what is happening to them they are tagged as being unwelcoming and very mean to foreigners.

You never see the same people raise issues about the behaviors of all these people (foreigners of all races) who are aggravating and disrespecting the locals- it does not matter... because, in our present state of confusion and social dislocation, the enemies of African people have taken over, and we are just spectators in our land of our birth.We need to understand that we as South Africans as our birthright, we need to say what it is we want for ourselves and all those who are to ourselves and in the process make all our visitors in our land, what it will mean for them to sit under the South African African Tree in Mzantsi.

This, is our right that no one can dispute that...I believe I am a child and product of the African people of South Africa, and of the extended African people and their being of a dark hue and their experiences that go along with that in the Disapora.

Where and When Ignorance is Bliss, 'tis a Folly to be Wise

Just because Whites are racist that does not give me the go ahead to be like them. I will not be like Whites nor all the Africans who behave like White(Whether Uncle Toms of African demagogic ideologues). My philosophy and belief and culture is centered around and embedded within the concept of "Ubuntu" (Which I interpreted as the act of being and seeing others as Human beings. I am instructed by Sobukwe's belief that we all belong to the Human race(although there are those who live contrary to this mantra).

I am not inclined nor persuaded by the freaky idea that I have to prove that I am African. I do not really talk or try and explain my being African, I do not have to wear a badge that says I am An African or whatever. I am an african, and my being African shows itself in what I do think of when they see me in person, live-like and practice. Having been born amongst the Nguni/Bakone People already speaks to my Being Africa. If people today believe in "other ways of the lives of other people", that is their prerogative and they should be at liberty to do so and deal with the consequences. I have ample material from our peoples culture to keep me busy a lifetime trying to know, understand, know, and control and hit the reset button where possible.

I Have stripped myself of what Aime Cesaire write about in this way: I am talking of millions of men who have been skillfully injected with fear, inferiority complexes trepidation, servility, despair, abasement." I have since realized that in life one has to diagnose the illness and its symptoms in order to affect any change- be it revolutionary or change because it is the only alternative to the present existence- I am for it I taught myself how to get rid of that "Apartheid Setlamatlama(hangover).

I do not belong to any organized and fandangled disorganized blueprints and all its negative concomitants borne out of the colonized mind, reality, existence and that forms the basis of our organization attempts, which I think need to be critiqued. Our whole perception of ourselves need to be critiqued as it is right now. How we think, act, learn, talk, disseminate or try to organize, is through the existential reality of our colonized past and our post-colonial-Apartheid, and the present reality, here and now. Our present is still the past, and we need to figure out how we are where and who we are; how do we move froward with what we will have learned in a concrete and historically factual way. If we do, then in many ways we might come up with a new and different future from what we are presently given and are faced with.

Dealing With A Revolutionary Self and Mass Self

This point I am making above is addressed by Frantz Fanon whom I will cite from to make my point:

"My consciousness is not illuminated with ultimate radiances. Nevertheless, in complete composure, I think it would be good if certain things were said. ... These things I am going to say, So very long. ... Like Why write this book? No one has asked me for it. Especially those to whom it is directed. Well? Well, I reply quite calmly that there are too many idiots in this world. And having said it, I have the burden of proving it. ... Towards a new humanism. ... Understanding among men. ... Our Colored brothers. ... Mankind, I believe in you. ... Race prejudice. ... To understand and to love. ... From all side dozens and hundreds of pages assail me and try to impose their wills on me. But a single line would not be enough. Supply a single answer and the color problem would be stripped of all its importance.. ... What does a man want?. ... What does the Black(African) man want?' At risk of arousing the resentment of my colored brothers, I will say that a Black (African) Man is not a man. There is a zones of none-being, an extraordinarily sterile and arid region, and utterly naked declivity where an authentic upheaval can be born. In most cases, the Black(African) man lacks the advantage of being able to accomplish this descent into a real hell."

Fanon Continues: "Man is not merely a possibility of recapture or of negation. If it is true that consciousness is a process of transcendence, we have to see too that this transcendence is haunted by the problems of love and understanding. Man is a "yes" that vibrates to cosmic harmonies. Uprooted, pursued, baffled, doomed to watch the dissolution of the truths that he has worked out for himself one after another, he has to give up projecting onto the world an antimony that coexist with him."

"The Black(AFRICAN) is a Black(African) man; that is, as a result of a series of aberrations of affect, he is rooted at the core of a universe from which he must be extricated. The problem is important. I propose nothing short of liberation of the man of color from himself... We shall go very slowly, for there are two camps- the White and the Black(African). Stubbornly we shall investigate both metaphysics and we shall find that they are often quite fluid." We shall have no mercy for the former governors, the former missionaries. To us, the man who adores the Negro(African) is as "sick" as the man who abominates him. Conversely, "the Black(African) man who wants to turn his race White is as miserable as he who preaches hatred for the Whites. In the absolute, the Black(African) is no more to be loved than the Czech, and truly what is to be one is to set man free."(Fanon)

My point is simply then that we need to learn how teach our people how to be free, not what we think is freedom. Freedom to a people by the people is more potent than freedom to the masses prescribed and proscribed by their flunky and phony national leaders and the intellectual johnny-come -lately's and rulers wanna-be- playing money making games by abusing the lives of so many poor millions of African peoples.." Each One Teach One; Each One reach One...(African American Saying)

"To take part in the African Revolution, it is not enough to write a revolutionary song; you must fashion the revolution with the people. And if you fashion it with the people, the songs will come by themselves and of themselves. In order to achieve real action you must yourself be a living part of Africa and of her thought; you must be an element of that popular energy which is entirely called forth for the freeing, the progress and the happiness of Africa. There is no place outside that fight for the artist of for the intellectual who is not himself concerned with, and completely at one with the people in the great battle of Africa and her suffering humanity." (Sekou Toure)

Thus, in all fields, "Black(African) Consciousness" seeks to talk to the Black(African) man in a language that is his own.. It is only by recognizing the basic set-up in the Black(African) world that one will come to realize the urgent need for a re-awakening of the sleeping masses. Black(African) Consciousness seek to do this. Needless to say it shall have to be the Black(African) people themselves who shall take care of this program(Bantu)

Power From The People

Perhaps the greatest political mistake that has been made in Africa in relation to the independence Explosion is the European training of the African heads of state and their respective supporters, whose ideas of the State are negatively influenced by this very training. Whatever system the Africans use for themselves must be reshaped by the concept of Africans for Africa. Neither the communists more the capitalists have a master plan for African freedom. While there some strong ideological differences between the capitalist and the communist, their intention in Africa is the same.

Both of them would like to rule over african people and their resources by any means necessary.The salvation of Africa must be designed by the collective mind of the African World. The imitation European states now in existence throughout the African World have no long-range future. If Africans want capitalism, they will to develop their own concept and approach to it, and they will have to do the same thing in regard to communism and socialism.

Any african who thinks he can come to power in Africa, and share it with a European is extremely naive. Europeans did not come into Africa to share power with africans. They came to rule, and they intend to rule or ruin. There is nothing in Africa that Europeans need that they cannot obtain through honorable trade. Europe and the Western World in general have many things that Africans needs, while Africa has much of what they need.(Diop)

Diop was not simply concerned with pure abstract armchair issue, but had a political commitment to his people to try and reconstruct a history and culture, which has been subjected to nearly 1000 years of plunder by both the Arabs and the Europeans... Diop therefore argued that that which unites us is much more fundamental than our superficial differences, and that these differences are externally imposed. They derive from colonial heritage. This is a lesson that should be learned and applied amongst Africans of South Africa on their Path toward achieving a United Nation.

Ideas For The New Generation to Work on

Hence my critical outlook on our state of political modus operandi and modus vivendi- which we have to begin to wrap our heads around the fact that what we do and think now is based on our past experiences with Apartheid; in these contemporary times, we need to usurp the opening afforded us and try and work on importing books and other learning or pedagogical materials, controlled by us, some we choose, mostly by the reading public which they will end up requesting, that we have to assemble; we need to talk about, and help the Nation leap into the 21st century.

How do we restore Our African Historical consciousness? We shall have to Explore and take stock of Africa's Energy Sources; Reset and Restructure and Construct Industrialization of the Whole of Africa. Africans should also realize that they have to settle out their linguistic unity by setting out linguistic rules that would allow us to see the deep kinship uniting the various segments of the African South african population, and finally that of the whole of Africa. Europe created states that should fail in Africa as we see them today.

Nkrumah stated: "The essence of Colonialism is that the State which is subject to it is, in theory, independent and has the outward trappings of international sovereignty. In reality, its economic system and thus its political policy is directed from outside. If we know this, then we have to know more concrete fact about it, and from that knowledge, plan the way forward and so on.

Africa and its people are figuratively and symbolically knocking at the door of the of the twenty-first century. Africans caught in the crossfire of the struggle for world power are learning some painful lessons they should have learned long ago: Mainly, "Freedom" is not "Free". Freedom is something you take with your own hands. You maintain it with your own hands. Freedom is not handed down from one generation to another.

Each generation must assume the responsibility of securing their manhood, womanhood, the definition of their being on earth that in the final analysis is nationhood. In knocking at the front door of the twenty-first century, the Africans of the world are saying the progression of circumstances has changed us from being a people begging and pleading to a people insisting and demanding. It is futile for anyone to say that African people are not ready to rule themselves. They are ready as any people in the world" (Clarke).

As long as we do not read, research and expand and publish our present knowledge base and move on with the developing and changing world, African ideas of old will remain static and ineffective in rallying the masses. The masses should see those working on their behalf giving them enlightenment and information... No one Owns the Peoples Revolution- The people's revolution owns all revolutionary wanna-be's.

How to get that power to the people is a matter of tactics and strategies- No one has the right to tell the masses what and how to think; what and how to write down ideas- there should be a free flowing of ideas and the ideals of free speech should be maintained and practiced, literary. In the flow of information and its dissemination, we need to the very clear about why and how we are going to do that. People are not stupid, they are the most innovative, intelligent and, along with them, I dislike tyrants, people who know it all, and those who cite thought, action and lifestyle of other people to the masses-avoiding all about the masses and their historical information and material culture.

I believe in the reverse; the people have a lot to say, and the task of the revolutionary is to listen, learn and make that work for the masses, through the masses. I do not belong to any organization nor church nor school of thought. I know that as an African man, that much tells the world about me- what I say about myself is what I live and do as my culture(be it in speech or the media or Internet), dictates. I have a right to be an African because I was born one and lived from birth to until then to now, and are still living now and hopefully into the future... the main thrust of this piece is that we should work hard on educating, enlightening and informing people about a myriad issues than to dictate to them what they ought say and how to see about things.

African South African National Literacy Campaign should be the ideal- These social networks should be humming with that; we should open and fund Internet Cafes in the Poor Townships, have mobile libraries, utilize the Youth to distribute information- circulate all the information possible to awaken or help people have the information, and let them be freed and liberated by their newly acquired knowledge and information- that too is what I think is the one other better ways out for the poor and forgotten masses... Reading is and should be made fundamental, and no one "Owns" the Revolution" of the masses of the people of African descent in Mzantsi- People are the power- the power comes from the people... not individuals...

The Psychologizing of Oppression

Let's look at what has been said more closely and tightly. This society gets away by pretending that it is free and open, and it does provide tremendous amounts of information(but in the case of Africans in South Africa-they are being censored and given little-in any information), and yet the world is now overrun with information. So, we are in a situation, African people, where information is put right before our faces and we gain relatively little from it. It can only be put before our faces the way it is because we have been so mentally and motivationally structured that we will not send cannot take that information and transform it to our own advantage.

Therefore, this country talks about Freedom of Information! "See, we let them read anything." But this phrase and dictum goes back to the phrase: "The Best Way To Hide Anything from Africans Is To put it in writing." You hear most of our proud intellectuals repeat this mantra often and internalizing it to themselves, to their listeners/readers and the public at large. I challenge this as it is not true since we have our our well-renowned writers and Master teachers who debunk this reverse psychology(I have covered them above under the Literature discourse). We have to counter this by Implementing a National Literacy Drive from all corners on the country of Mzantsi.

Historiography may function as 'propaganda" - propaganda being an effort to persuade people to a point of view on an issue . History can be used be used to intimidate. European achievements are inflated and the next thing we know, we are asking ourselves "How we can fight this great people?" We're frightened! They talk about about the great discoveries they have made and we say to ourselves, "Hey, we'd better hang with these people because if we lose them we are going back to the Dark Ages.

We think this way because they've destroyed our confidence, our capacity to think for ourselves and to believe that we are capable of creating a world as great or greater than the present one we are existing in This has been done by foisting their civilization on us the European-centered style, the one that we barely exist in. In this way, European Historiography functions to maintain a social system, to "psychologize" and "create" a personality orientation in its readers or hearers.

Even if we forget every fact and detail of inflated Eurocentric history, its intimidatory impression stays with us even when the content is lost. That's the point of it, to leave the impression, because that impression will become a dynamic source of behavioral orientation toward the world. The European doesn't care whether or onto we remember the facts and the details as long we we just remember the impression, as long as our personalities have been impressed and transformed in a fashion compatible with European interest.

We have to know this, understand it and work towards transforming it to the advantage of our people by making them aware of the characteristic embedded in their individual and collective personality and core... we have to start somewhere, we have to write, read and disseminate articles that articulate our gripes, and come out with new and innovative solutions and progressive situations and ideas. Aricans of South Africa have to resuscitate their cultures, customs, traditions, practices, history and languages

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONSCIOUSNESS REVISITED

Culture and personality are not like old clothes that can an be taken off and thrown away. The ability of anyone to learn even the simplest thing is dependent upon utilizing the existing cultural apparatus. "New" Cultures emerge out of older cultures gradually and never completely lose all traces of the old and the past. Human society is a cumulative process process in which the past is never totally obliterated.

Even Revolutions do not destroy the past. Indeed, at their best, they liberate that which is alive from that which stifles human progress, growth, and development. Culture is a historical reality, not an ahistorical, static abstraction. Thus, the process whereby the African in the new World or Africa(from colonization in the latter), changed in order to meet his new environment was and still depended on his/her African culture.

Culture is a historical reality, not an ahistorical, static abstraction. Take for instance the fact that the Europeans, coming anywhere from Europe, they brought their churches with them. They brought their own foods with them and continue to get supplies of specific items from the old country if need be. They brought their own dress with them and could choose to wear it or abandon it as they saw fit. they brought their own marriage customs, their own rites of passage, their won kinship system. The Europeans preserved their old customs for as long as they were needed and gradually modified them as they moved into the main society. While some met opposition for being foreigners, they were not stripped of their foreignness overnight.

But the African slaves and those that were colonized in their homelands(countries) could do none of this.. Overnight they were transformed from merchants, or Arabic scholars and thriving civilizations, or craftsmen and iron-smiths or peasant farmers, or cattle herders into American slaves and colonized peoples.

They ate what they were given, not what they wanted. They dressed in the clothes that were given them, not those they had known in the past. African women were removed from stable social order which gave them a specific place and function, which protected them in a traditional way-and made commodities, unprotected by a traditional morality, without specific places and functions, and sexually exploited by the master and even deprived of a full relationship with their children.

The Africans had to give up their own languages and learn to express themselves through the Master's medium/media of communication. They had to give up their old kinship systems and create new ones; they had to give up almost all of their culture and become Colonized slaved in Africa , Europe or the Americas. That was demanded of them.

But, on the other side, the slaved/colonized Africans could not really do any of these things, for he still had his past. He had retained in him the content of his mind, his memory; he recognized as socially significant that which had been taught from childhood to see and comprehend as significant; he gestured, laughed, cried, and used his facial muscles in ways he had learned as a child. He valued that which his previous life had taught him to value; he feared that which he had feared in Africa of old before the coming of the Europeans; his very motions were those of his people and he passed all of this to his children..

We Are Better-off Knowing Our Past Than Not.. What We Do Not know Is Killing Us...

"Between the years 1834 and 1908, there occurred a revolution in academic thinking about Africa's place in the outlines of world geography and world history. And in the past 150 years, Europeans explorers and archeologists have found in the the valleys of the Niger, Benwezi, Limpopo and the Nile Rivers, in the basin of Lake Chad and the Sahara extensive remains of hundred of ruins which bear existence of former civilizations hundreds and thousands of years ago. this knowledge of the facts about the African past when combined with the known history of other continents reveal that these also are the stories of triumphs and failures of mankind, and from many chapters in the history of the human race." (Prof. W. Leo Hansberry)

Most Western historians have not been willing to admit that there is an African history to be written about, and that this history predate the emergence of Europe by thousands of years. It is not possible for the world to have waited in darkness for the European to bring the light because, for most of the early history of man, the Europeans themselves were darkness. When light of culture came for the first time to the people would later call themselves Europeans, it came from Africa and Middle Eastern Asia. Most history books tend to deny or ignore this fact.

It is too often forgotten that, when the Europeans emerged and began to extend themselves into the broader world of Africa and Asia during the 15th and 16th centuries, they went on to colonize most of mankind. Later, they would colonize world scholarship,mainly, the writing of history. History was then written and rewritten to show or imply that Europeans were the only creators of what could be called a civilization. In order to accomplish this, he Europeans had to forget, or pretend to forget, all they had previously knew about Africa. (Clarke)

In the words of Palmer and Colton:
"There was really no Europe in ancient times. In the roman empire we may see a Mediterranean world, or even a West and an East in the latin and Greek-speaking portions. but the West included parts of Africa as well a of Europe as we know it was divided by the Rhine-Danube frontier, south and west of which lay the civilized provinces of the Empire, and north and east the "barbarians" of whom the civilized world knew almost nothing."

There are still those Master Teachers have have brought the story(History) of the Africans to the forefront of World history, and Diop was such a man along with compatriot Obenga. The rage against Diop by White scholars and western self-interest has not abated. If anything, it is very often, these days, parroted by a particular class of Africans themselves, who are still under their tutelage, supervision and control, and are the copycats. As for African men, they feel contended to cite only those aspects of the work of the great thinkers to serve their purpose, especially the reclaiming of ancient Egyptian civilization or being erudite about African history..

In the most recent findings in Western search for human racial origins, a racist invention and concern of the West alone, Diop is being vindicated time and time again as the primary role of African mother, whether in the bequeathing of the gene or language to the human race continues to be "very scientifically proved". But racist appropriation continues, even in this era of deconstruction - if these youngest of our children do not call humanity's African Mother Lucy, they call her Eve! so we see again in this, the appropriation of the 19th century. To even scientists, it is unthinkable that the fossil of our African mother, found on the African continent, should retain an African name! Makes one wonder what the are saying about the oldest human remains [ever!] of a skeleton called the "Taung Child" found in Taung, South Africa(Mzantsi) classified under the Zinjathropus africanus...

So that, because of our history of colonialism, African intellectuals, if they are to be free from self negation, must deconstruct, invalidate and debunk all the history taught to them by their masters and detractors. The enforcement of a common currency and a common language above our local languages is imperative. In reconstructing our history and nation, a gender and class aware social history is a priority. The racist term anthropology, which really should have been social history, must be banned altogether. We must use and adopt the historiography of Diop, Clarke, Ben and many other African historians, sort of a multi-diciplinary approach to write an African social history and enforce the teaching of local history in our curriculum... Let the general commitment of intellectual activism lead to the liquidation of all colonial systems of imperialism. I have already thrown in my two cent in this struggle, and you can see all this on my Blogs at ixwa.hubpages.com/ We will be better-off promoting serious reading and literacy campaign and get the people to read and know, if it's the last thing we will do: Reading Is Fundamental in this case, effort and endeavor prime and essential...

South Africa Map today
South Africa Map today | Source

One Nation; One People: One Culture/Customs/Traditions and One African Nation of Mzantsi

One of the things that the Hub above was attempting to do was to bring some form of awareness to the People of South Africa that they are One Nation and One People. I have written within the article various issues to point out to that aspect of things: That the Africans of South Africa are not separate "Tribes" but One Nation with a very diverse Culture, Language, but that of One Nation and One People.The Africans of South africa have been told for many years by their colonizers and the Apartheidizers that they are not one monolithic group, but a group of different "Tribes" at odds or warring with one another. This may sound not much of a problem to those who read these lines here, but, this has had such an adverse effect and affect on the people of African descent in South Africa that Unity is very remote for them, and most of them still believe and live under this indoctrination that they are different and they they are Tribes.

Africans in South Africa still have to overcome the Hump that they are not different people, but one nation with a variegated and diverse culture. That is not as simple as I say it here on the Hb, and it is still going to take Africans in south Africa to realize this lie, and then begin to come together as a people. That is why Hubs like this one are written. There are Hubs here on Hub Pages written by the Whites of South Africa which still spread this myth of Africans of South Africa being "Tribal" people.

So, having written so much above in this above to try and make the point that Africans in South Africa are one nation, with one culture that is diverse, and various customs and traditions that are one, I will embark on using visuals and audio to make my point, at this juncture in the Hub.

If we are to rid ourselves of the Amnesia that is assailing us, we need to inject and reinvigorate the Nation with those images that are positively themselves and remind them who they are, and also help the Nation see itself as one, and not as disjointed "Tribes" as propagated by the detractors of Africans of Mzantsi. This section of this Hub is to destroy and debunk the imporsed fake Amnesia that is gripping our People. Our children will need to see themselves in the light of their own History, Culture, Customs, Tradition, Music and the whole bit.

Bapedi People

Pedi also known as Bapedi, Bamaroteng, Marota, Basotho, Northern Sotho, are group of related people in South Africa which share cultural and linguistic similarities known as Northern Sotho. The term Pedi was previously used to describe the entire set
Pedi also known as Bapedi, Bamaroteng, Marota, Basotho, Northern Sotho, are group of related people in South Africa which share cultural and linguistic similarities known as Northern Sotho. The term Pedi was previously used to describe the entire set
Bapedi Men
Bapedi Men
Bapedi Women at a gathering
Bapedi Women at a gathering
Bapedi men preparing for a celebration
Bapedi men preparing for a celebration

The Tswana Men,Women and Children

Batswana men
Batswana men
Tswana women at a wedding
Tswana women at a wedding
Tswana men and their musial instruments and ensnemble
Tswana men and their musial instruments and ensnemble
Tswana Children Dancing
Tswana Children Dancing
Shangaan women showing-off their swagg
Shangaan women showing-off their swagg
Shangaan Children
Shangaan Children
Shagaan woman dancing
Shagaan woman dancing
Shagaan Male dancers
Shagaan Male dancers
Shagaan dancers
Shagaan dancers
The Basotho nation emerged from the accomplished diplomacy of Moshoeshoe 1st, who gathered together disparate clans of Sotho-Tswana origin whom had dispersed across southern Africa in the early nineteenth century. Even so, the majority of  Sotho peop
The Basotho nation emerged from the accomplished diplomacy of Moshoeshoe 1st, who gathered together disparate clans of Sotho-Tswana origin whom had dispersed across southern Africa in the early nineteenth century. Even so, the majority of Sotho peop
Basotho men
Basotho men
Basotho Women at their parade
Basotho Women at their parade
Basotho men
Basotho men
Basotho Children in Blankets
Basotho Children in Blankets
A Mosotho Lass
A Mosotho Lass
Zulu Man Dancing
Zulu Man Dancing
Zulu girl dancing
Zulu girl dancing
Zulu boys showing-off stick fighting
Zulu boys showing-off stick fighting
Zulu girls
Zulu girls
Children of the Zulus
Children of the Zulus
Ndebele Girl In traditional Dress
Ndebele Girl In traditional Dress
Ndebele Women in Full traditional Gear
Ndebele Women in Full traditional Gear
Ndebele Woman in Tradiitonal dress
Ndebele Woman in Tradiitonal dress
Ndebele children and elders in dance mode
Ndebele children and elders in dance mode
BMW 525i Art Car by the Ndebele
BMW 525i Art Car by the Ndebele

The Swazi people

SSwazi girls at the Reed dance
SSwazi girls at the Reed dance
Swazi girls in bright traditional colors and cress
Swazi girls in bright traditional colors and cress
Swazi Traditional Wedding
Swazi Traditional Wedding
Child of the Swazi in traditional gear
Child of the Swazi in traditional gear
Swazi grils
Swazi grils

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Comments 8 comments

jxb7076 profile image

jxb7076 3 years ago from United States of America

Absolutely remarkable, intellectual, facinating, and briliantly written historical truth. I truly wish our people, and the world would return to the true facts of the origins of human history, and the beginnings of modern civilization. We have been brain washed by lies for so long that even we have accepted the darkness - although we know of the light that will set us free. Perhaps one day the people of color will rise and finally say "enough is enough - let's begin telling the real story!"

25 thumbs up - and thanks for sharing!


ixwa profile image

ixwa 3 years ago Author

jxb7076: Welcome to the Hub above and thank you very much for the very kind and motivating comments. You comments give me the courage to keep on researching knowing that there are readers like you who will tell it to me like it is.That, to me, is more important that you found the writing of our history and recalibrating it into the respectful commentary of World and human history, as being very important per your observations above. I will always cherish and remember these comments you posted above as I continue to try and present us in a very positive light and story.. Thanks, again, and this is very much appreciated...


eeefvltcxc 3 years ago

Comfortabl y, the post is actually the freshest on this precious topic. I concur with your conclusions and also definitely will eagerly look forward to your future updates. Saying thanks definitely will not simply just be acceptable, for the fantastic lucidity in your writing. I definitely will instantly grab your rss feed to stay abreast of any updates. Fabulous work and also much success in your business endeavors!


ixwa profile image

ixwa 3 years ago Author

eeefvitcxc: Welcome to the Hub above and thank you very much for the kid and very motivational comments and accolades regarding the contents. As you have realized when reading the Hub, I was trying to compose and resuscitate the History of Africans in South Arica. I hope that in a very near date, I will add and update this Hub further to give it a sense of completion, which is still some way down the road. Specifically, I am impressed that you saw and gathered something in it and that to me was the aim in writing this Hub. You are welcome anytime to checkout some of the works and hope to be hearing more from you.


deerlyeruntee 3 years ago

Hey! This post couldn't be written any better! Reading this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this post to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

Hoatlysoist


ixwa profile image

ixwa 2 years ago Author

deerlyeruntee: Thank you very much for responding to the Hub Above. I am humbled and very glad you liked it. It is also sad that I have had to reply to it four months later, and the amazing thing is that I just seen it today on the second day of April, 2014! Anyway, whatever happened when you posted this will never be known. But for now, I really and truly appreciate your accolades above, and please, pass or share it as much as you can or wish. It is still a work in progress, though, and some additions are on the way to make it even more to the point as a historical narrative, and to be made more cogent and much clearer as possible. Again, thank you....


Felix 16 months ago

I like to read more about African history.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 16 months ago Author

Thank you very much, Felix, for reading and commenting on the Hub above. If you find time, you can check out some of the articles I have already published here on HubPages on various Topics In African History.

I appreciate your input...

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