The Lake Bonneville Flood And Its Effects On Idaho Landscape

Shoshone Falls.  Can you imagine 300 times this much water over these falls?  Say goodbye to the generation plant on the left!
Shoshone Falls. Can you imagine 300 times this much water over these falls? Say goodbye to the generation plant on the left! | Source

Lake Bonneville

Lake Bonneville was an ancient body of water left by the ice age where the current "Great" Salt Lake now resides. Although located in the same general area as Salt Lake it was considerably larger.

The Great Salt Lake in northern Utah occupies about 1700 square miles, while Lake Bonneville was over 19,000 square miles in size. Nearly as large as Lake Michigan and much deeper at nearly 1,000 feet maximum depth.

Lake Bonneville came into existence around 32,000 years ago, just one of many ice age pluvial lakes in North America. The climate at that time was somewhat cooler and wetter than it is now, and several rivers and streams fed the lake. With no outlet (Lake Bonneville was a terminal lake, just as the Great Salt Lake is today) any water loss was by evaporation and the continual addition of water made possible the large size of the lake.

Some 14,500 years ago geological activity caused the Bear River to change its course and flow into Lake Bonneville, raising the level ever higher. Eventually it began to overflow the alluvial fan at Red Rock Pass in Idaho and as that happened the earth was quickly eroded away and the lake began to drain in a catastrophic flood into what is now the state of Idaho.

Eventually the level of the lake stabilized at a much lower level and as the climate changed, becoming warmer and dryer, Lake Bonneville evaporated. The small remnant left today is known as the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

The Lake Bonneville Flood

When Lake Bonneville began to overflow the alluvial fan at Red Rock Pass that was holding the water back it was the beginning of a truly catastrophic flood. Any engineer can tell us that when an earthen dam has water running over it that the end is near, and so it was with Lake Bonneville. It doesn't take very much water to wash out a portion of such a natural dam and once the process has begun it accelerates very quickly. Rapid water flow cuts away dirt and even rock very easily and Bonneville had a lot of water to contribute to the river now draining it.

As the water drained through Red Rock Pass it generally followed the Snake River Basin and canyons through the state of Idaho, eventually emptying into the Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and on to the Pacific Ocean. On its journey it changed the state of Idaho in ways that are readily discernible even today, 14,000 years later. The amount of water, even though only a portion of the entire lake, was far beyond what the Snake River had ever seen. At its peak, the flood was producing around 15 million cubic feet per second (cfs); more than any river in the world today carries. The chart below gives some comparison with current river flows and what the Snake River was carrying during the flood.

Modern River
Flow, in CFS
Snake River
74,000
Mississippi
700,000
Columbia
265,000
Amazon
7,000,000
Bonneville Flood Waters
15,000,000

As can be seen from the chart, the flow rate during the flood was 15 million CFS into a river bed that (before all the dams were built) had a maximum flow rate in 1894 of only 74 thousand CFS. Overall, it is thought that the flood released nearly 400 cubic miles of water from that ancient lake. That's nearly 60 trillion cubic feet!

Even though the flood lasted only a few days at it's maximum rate the result was inevitable. Water spread far beyond the normal river bed in flat lands, scouring topsoil as it went. In narrow, deep canyons the canyon was cut deeper than ever right through solid rock. Huge boulders were tumbled for miles, creating the smoothed "Melon gravel" so common through the area. In areas where eddies happened (perhaps where a side channel was cut through the land and then returned to the main river bed) large deposits of sand, silt and topsoil were deposited.

The map below shows the general flow along the Snake River Basin through southern Idaho, north to Lewiston, Idaho where the river turns west towards the Tri Cities in Washington state. It is here that the Snake River joins the Columbia and the great flood began it's final mad dash to the Pacific.

Path of the Bonneville Flood

show route and directions
A markerShoshone Falls -
Shoshone Falls, Idaho, USA
[get directions]

Beautiful waterfall created by the flood in Twin Falls, Idaho

B markerBruneau Dunes -
Bruneau Dunes State Park, Mountain Home, ID 83647, USA
[get directions]

It is believed that the Sand Dunes here were began by the flood.

C markerCelebration Park idaho -
Celebration County Park, Melba, ID 83641, USA
[get directions]

One of many areas with large deposits of melon gravel

D markerFarewell Bend, Oregon -
Farewell Bend, Oregon, USA
[get directions]

Large deposits of sand from the Bonneville flood

E markerHells Canyon -
Hells Canyon, Wallowa National Forest, Oregon 97842, USA
[get directions]

The deepest canyon in North America, much of it cut by the flood.

F markerLewiston, Idaho -
Lewiston, ID, USA
[get directions]

The Snake River turns West here, headed for the Pacific Ocean

G markerTri cities Washington -
Tri-Cities Airport (PSC), 3601 N 20th Ave, Pasco, WA 99301, USA
[get directions]

Where the Snake River joins the Columbia

H markerThe Dalles, Oregon -
The Dalles, OR 97058, USA
[get directions]

On the Columbia River.

I markerRed Rock Pass -
Downey, ID 83234, USA
[get directions]

The pass where it all began is near Downey, Idaho.

Red Rock Pass

Red Rock Pass is a low mountain pass in Eastern Idaho near Downey. It is notable as the point where the Bonneville Flood started.

At the time of the flood this pass was some 300 feet higher, above the level of Lake Bonneville, and was the natural dam holding back the lake waters. As the Bear River began filling the lake it eventually rose above the level of the dam and the resulting water flow cut through the paleozic shale, dolomite and limestone. The pass was eroded to it's present elevation, losing 300 feet in height.

The flood waters cut the pass through the resistant bedrock in a narrow canyon some two miles long where the water entered the Marsh Creek Valley, filling it wall to wall. From there it proceeded north towards Pocatello, Idaho, where it joined the Snake River and generally followed the river westward.

Red Rock Pass, where the flood waters left Lake Bonneville and began the long journey to the Pacific.
Red Rock Pass, where the flood waters left Lake Bonneville and began the long journey to the Pacific. | Source

Shoshone Falls Area

Shoshone Falls, located near the city of Twin Falls, Idaho, is a relic of the Bonneville Flood. It is difficult to imagine or understand the forces of the flood at that time as it cut the basalt rock away, creating the beautiful waterfall sometimes called the Niagara of the West.

Although Shoshone has had the Snake River passing over it for over 14,000 years that medium sized river hasn't produced even a shadow of the work done by the flood in the few days that it took to half empty Lake Bonneville. The forces of nature at work in those few days long before man walked the continent were beyond comprehension.

A little west of Shoshone Falls is the Perrine Bridge. Crossing the Snake River Canyon some 485 feet above the river, we can still see the original canyon depth before the flood. The marks are about halfway up the canyon wall; the flood cut the rest of that depth in the few days that it ran so fast and furious.

North, across the river from Twin Falls, lies a large area of scablands. This is where the flood escaped the canyon walls and spread over the surrounding valley floor, scouring it of all topsoil and dirt and to this day very little grows there. At the same time, just downstream from the bridge is an area inside the canyon that is extremely fertile, supporting two golf courses and a fish farm. It is where that water returned to the canyon and created a large eddy, dropping the accumulated silt and soil from the scabland area.

Floodwaters Create a Waterfall

Shoshone Falls, the "Niagara of the West".
Shoshone Falls, the "Niagara of the West". | Source
Perrine Bridge.  Half way up the far canyon wall is the original river bed.
Perrine Bridge. Half way up the far canyon wall is the original river bed. | Source
View from Perrine Bridge into the canyon with it's fertile area where the huge water eddy was.
View from Perrine Bridge into the canyon with it's fertile area where the huge water eddy was. | Source

Bruneau Sand Dunes

Bruneau Sand Dunes, a few miles south of Mountain Home, Idaho, is located near the Snake River. It is a popular attraction with the largest sand dunes in North America, two campgrounds and a national observatory that is opened to the public on weekends.

The sand dunes there are about 12,000 years old and are believed to have begun forming from the action of the Bonneville flood as it created the small basin the dunes sit in and likely deposited the first of the sand to collect there. Since that time the dunes have grown in size as prevailing winds blow first from the southeast and then the northwest and the dunes do not move as sand dunes normally do. Rather, they stay put in one spot and grow slowly, year by year.

Bruneau Sand Dunes, believed to have begun with the flood action.
Bruneau Sand Dunes, believed to have begun with the flood action. | Source

Celebration Park

Celebration Park is Idaho's only archaeological park and is located near Melba, Idaho, a few miles south of Boise. It is on the shore of the Snake River.

Celebration Park is home to large amounts of Melon Gravel. These are boulders ranging from a foot across to some six feet or more that have been rounded and smoothed by the abrasive action of water flow and being drug along the river bottom. The river could not possibly move these large boulders with the current flow rates; it took the Bonneville Flood to do that. Plus, of course, they are hundreds of feet from the river, and considerably higher than the river has been for thousands of years.

Many of the "melons" have petroglyphs carved into them thousands of years ago by the indigenous peoples of North America and it is this that makes it such an interesting place to visit. There is also a small campground available as well as lessons in using an atlatl - the spear throwing weapon from centuries past.

Melon Gravel at Celebration Park

Though cracked and broken from thousands of years of weathering, this melon rock has obviously been smoothed by water.
Though cracked and broken from thousands of years of weathering, this melon rock has obviously been smoothed by water. | Source
More melon gravel at celebration park.
More melon gravel at celebration park. | Source

Hells Canyon

Hells Canyon is arguably the wildest and certainly the deepest gorge in North America. Although the canyon existed long before the Bonneville Flood, it was not at it's current depth then.

The flood deepened the canyon considerably at many points, cutting through solid rock to do so. Even hundreds of miles from it's origin, the water of that great flood still had enormous power and force.

Some locations in Hells Canyon show gravel or sand bars deposited far above current river levels; an indication of the depth of water flowing through the canyon during that brief period 14,000 years ago.

Today Hells Canyon is a wonderful place to visit and rafting trips are at a premium. A float or jet boat trip through the canyon could be the highlight of the year; fishing is wonderful and the view and solitude is beyond compare. Jet boat day trips are available, but float trips generally take several days as access to the middle of the canyon is extremely limited. One must float most of the length in one trip.

The southern end of the canyon is dammed, with a large lake perfect for boating, swimming and fishing. Travelling north, a second dam is found within the canyon walls and this can be visited via car. Beyond that, though, there is virtually no access to the river itself for many, many miles although the road does approach the top of the canyon rim at times.

Note the sand deposits far above the current river level.  This is the result of the flood.
Note the sand deposits far above the current river level. This is the result of the flood. | Source
Some of the extreme depth of Hells Canyon is the result of the Bonneville Flood.
Some of the extreme depth of Hells Canyon is the result of the Bonneville Flood. | Source

Farewell Bend, Oregon

Farewell Bend is a tiny settlement on the banks of the Snake River in Eastern Oregon. It primarily consists of a truck stop and a very nice state campground, coupled with a few homes.

The area around the town clearly shows some of the effects of the Bonneville Flood. The river opens from a fairly narrow canyon into a river bed at least twice as wide and the canyon walls retreat considerably, forming a small valley. The entire valley would have undoubtedly been under water during the flood; it is not very large.

It was large enough, however, to let the flood waters spread and slow considerably. In addition, just as the river enters the area it makes a rather sharp bend, and the water would tend to travel the outside of the riverbed curve. The water on the inside of the curve, relieved from the massive pressure as the rest of the flood moved to the outside of the curve, over the river bank and into the valley, slowed and dropped large amounts of sand far above the present day river.

The photos below are of the Farewell Bend area of the river and the sandbar. They were taken from rather far up the "canyon" wall and detail is necessarily rather small in order to give an overall view.

Coming up on the first of the sand bars.  It is considerably higher than the current day river.
Coming up on the first of the sand bars. It is considerably higher than the current day river. | Source
The sand has been shaped by wind and weather for 1000's of years now.  The river curve is visible in the background.
The sand has been shaped by wind and weather for thousands of years now. The river curve is visible in the background. | Source
Looking downstream from the center of the sand bars.  The river bed is narrowing once more.
Looking downstream from the center of the sand bars. The river bed is narrowing once more. | Source
Looking across the river at Farewell Bend.  The river occupies only a small portion of the small valley, but water would have filled the area wall to wall during the flood.
Looking across the river at Farewell Bend. The river occupies only a small portion of the small valley, but water would have filled the area wall to wall during the flood. | Source
This train would have been like bowling pins for some of the huge boulders the flood moved so easily had it been there when the flood went through.  Or beach balls in the surf.
This train would have been like bowling pins for some of the huge boulders the flood moved so easily had it been there when the flood went through. Or beach balls in the surf. | Source

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Comments 19 comments

Judi Bee profile image

Judi Bee 4 years ago from UK

Very interesting hub, beautiful photos and video too. The sand dunes are fantastic, they look oddly out of place.

Voted up etc.


TToombs08 profile image

TToombs08 4 years ago from Somewhere between Heaven and Hell without a road map.

Fascinating information! My husband is from Parma, Idaho and every time we've gone to visit, he refuses to go and show me all these cool places! That's it, next time we visit his family, I'm *making* him take me to check out some of these places! Thank you for a wonderful hub filled with beautiful pictures. VUM.


wilderness profile image

wilderness 4 years ago from Boise, Idaho Author

@ Judi Bee: Yes, the sand at both Bruneau Dunes and Farewell IS out of place. There has to be other forces that created these deposits beyond what we see happening today.

@Ttoombs08: Take a trip to Celebration Park. It's only about a 1/2 hour trip from Parma and was very interesting. You can even learn to throw an atlatl there! The ancient petroglyphs were fascinating and seeing the results of that great flood were an indication of the awesome forces of nature.


Cardisa profile image

Cardisa 4 years ago from Jamaica

15 million cubic feet of water per second? Wow that is something. I can imagine the power of the flow of that water. I can also imagine the extant of the flood. Never been to the States so don't know the current lake, Salt Lake I believe but I sure wouldn't want the climate to change back to what it was back then for we might have the same flood on our hands. Some good came of the flooding though, like the water falls and other land formations. Beautiful photos. Love the info.


wilderness profile image

wilderness 4 years ago from Boise, Idaho Author

Thanks, Cardisa. I tried to put that number into something I can understand. A gas tank is about 2 cubic feet and a bathtub maybe 15 or 20. I've never seen the Amazon, so can't really visualize 2 Amazon rivers in the river bed designed for one small river. Nothing works for me - the number is too large.

Same thing with the size of the lake. I held more water than Lake Michigan, which I think is the largest fresh water lake in the world, but I've never been on that lake. Every lake I know I can see across and that means tiny in comparison to Lake Bonneville.

Yes, some good. Shoshone Falls and the rugged beauty of Hells Canyon are two great examples.


CWanamaker profile image

CWanamaker 4 years ago from Arizona

What a great history piece! The Lake Bonneville Flood definitely makes the Top 10 list of the largest floods ever known to occur.


wilderness profile image

wilderness 4 years ago from Boise, Idaho Author

It must have been a wondrous and frightening site at the time (at least had anyone been there to see it). It was fascinating visiting these places, seeing the results of that flood, and trying to imagine what it must have been like.


Heather Jacobs profile image

Heather Jacobs 4 years ago

Wow great hub! You must have done a lot of research. I have never been out west, but I have always wanted to go. Voted up, pinned, and shared!


GoodLady profile image

GoodLady 4 years ago from Rome, Italy

Thanks for such a wonderfully interesting and great looking Hub. So much information and history. Just great. Voting and thumbs up and sharing.


Natashalh profile image

Natashalh 4 years ago from Hawaii

I had no idea about any of this. I've never been west of the Mississippi, really. An aunt of mine used to live in Idaho, but I never visited her there. Thanks for the picture tour - it is really cool to see the former water levels. Thanks for pointing them out in the photos.


theraggededge profile image

theraggededge 4 years ago from Wales

Lovely photos and a really interesting account of this magnificent natural phenomenon.


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 4 years ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

Took my breath away! Although I only got 40% in your 'exam' I still think it's a great read. I'd have to read it again and ignore the pictures before I got 100%! Gives you a sense of scale! (Greetings from this li'l ol' country across the Pond)! Voted WELL up. Where's Bonneville Flats in all this?


denisemai profile image

denisemai 4 years ago from Idaho

Isn't the power of water fascinating? Although I have yet to see that darn Shoshone Falls actually "turned on" and running the area is geologically interesting nonetheless. Is Perrine the tall bridge nearby? The one with the bungee jumpers?

Hells Canyon is certainly a site everyone must see. Being a northern Idaho resident, I have only toured the part north of the dam. It's extreme white water running through a steep and rugged canyon and the jet boats run upriver with ease. Thanks for writing such an informative article on a portion of our beautiful state.


wilderness profile image

wilderness 4 years ago from Boise, Idaho Author

Yes, the Perrine bridge is nearby the falls; it crosses the Snake river as you come into town from the freeway. And yes, it's the one with bungee jumpers.

Funny that you should say that about Hell's canyon; I've only seen the southern end! And only the first few miles as well; never been up the river itself and the road doesn't go through the canyon, so boats are the only real way to get there.


jellygator profile image

jellygator 4 years ago from USA

It's astounding that a few days could wreak such changes, and equally amazing that Utah's Great Salt Lake is basically a leftover puddle!


denisemai profile image

denisemai 4 years ago from Idaho

There are no roads through Hells Canyon. The jet boat tour I took was also the mail and supplies deliverer for the few residents. An interesting life for them, for sure!


wilderness profile image

wilderness 4 years ago from Boise, Idaho Author

@ Jellygator - Yes, the Great Salt Lake is just a puddle now, a mere shadow of what it once was. Seeing the enormous boulders at Celebration Point that were rolled and tumbled until smooth gives an idea of the power of that water flow, but just a hint.

@ Denisemai - Right; no roads. I've seen where mail is by jet boat, too. Must be hardy souls that live in there; it's a long way out and weather and river conditions will certainly play a part in travel!


Janis Goad profile image

Janis Goad 4 years ago

I love the photographs. The place looks so desolate. You would have to be a do-it-yourselfer to live in a place this!


Peggy W profile image

Peggy W 3 years ago from Houston, Texas

The only part of Idaho that I have seen is from driving through it from the Grand Tetons into the western entrance of Yellowstone because of the southern entrance into Yellowstone National Park being closed due to raging fires the year of our visit. I remember endless fields of potatoes being grown and occasional farm houses and silos. Would love to see more of the state someday. Enjoyed your hub regarding the Lake Bonneville Flood and how it changed the Idaho landscape. Thanks for all of your excellent photos and descriptions. Up and interesting votes and will share.

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