The Maya Civilization- Astronomy, Stars and Moon, Venus Cycle, and the Dresden Codex

A close-up of the Dresden Codex
A close-up of the Dresden Codex
The Extension of Maya Civilization
The Extension of Maya Civilization

The Maya civilization

As early as 200 A.D. the Maya had developed a sophisticated civilization that spread across modern Mexico, Guatemala, and northern Belize. They built complex stone palaces, temples, and pyramids, and developed hieroglyphic writing and precise astronomical methods.

Most of their work in astronomy focused on cycles, as they viewed the heavens as a repetitive machine that could offer them knowledge on their future.

The Dresden Codex, pg. 49
The Dresden Codex, pg. 49

The Maya Almanac

Much of their astronomical knowledge was recorded in the Dresden Codex, one of three surviving hieroglyphic books brought to Europe during the Spanish conquest. The Dresden codex is nearly four yards long, with 39 painted ficus leaves. It is basically an almanac that chronicles and predicts astronomical events such as solar and lunar eclipses.

The hieroglyphs depict the Mayan deities, such as the god of maize, the sun god, the merchant god, the moon goddess, and several who are associated with death. As a mix of astronomical and astrological information, the Dresden Codex was used to help farmers predict doughts, storms, or abundant crop yields.

A System for Measuring Time

The Maya had units for counting time that were comparable to months, years, decades and centuries, but that operated on an entirely different system.

The uinal consisted of 20 days, and is similar to a month, though sometimes 5 extra days were added.

A tun had 360 days, like a year, with twenty tuns making up a katun, and twenty katuns making a baktun.

They also had a designated year zero, after which these blocks of time were listed in their calendar.

A Maya representation of Venus, shown spearing the throne.
A Maya representation of Venus, shown spearing the throne.

Venus was more important to the Maya than the sun.

Venus was meticulously tracked. Its cycle started when it passed between Earth and the Sun. During this time, it cannot be seen for 8 days. Then, for 263 days it is visible in the morning until it passes behind the sun and disappears. Fifty days later it comes back as the “evening star”, and remains visible in the sky for another 263 days.

The Venus tables on six pages o the Dresden Codex tell the reader when Venus will appear and disappear in the morning and evening skies. Amazingly, the Maya recognized that this cycle was not a full 584 days, but 583.92 days, and they adjusted their calender for this minuscule difference. The Venus tables in the Dresden Codex use a different system than the previously mentioned one for counting months, years, decades, and centuries. Instead, each day is represented by a set of numbers and names. Five of the tables cover a period of 2,920 days, over which five of Venus’ cycles equal eight Earth years.

Venus, the Morning Star, next to the Moon. Venus is very bright just before sunrise.
Venus, the Morning Star, next to the Moon. Venus is very bright just before sunrise.

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Comments 6 comments

Lord De Cross profile image

Lord De Cross 5 years ago


Interesting chronology with proper illustration. Was wondering.. how did they learn all these Math and astronomical Sciences. Dec 21, 2012 is around the corner and still being a source of debate. And lastly, why did they vanish the way they did? Thanks for this well researched Hub again!


stephaniedas profile image

stephaniedas 5 years ago from Miami, US Author

Thanks for the nice comment. I'm no historian, but I can try to answer your questions with what I know/believe. I think they learned math and astronomical sciences the same way other civilizations did-- once they were advanced enough to have specialized occupations, certain people could devote all of their time to math and science.

I haven't researched the December 12, 2012 issue very thoroughly, but I don't think the Maya said the world would end. They saw time and universe in cycles, and 12/21/12 is just the end of a current cycle and the beginning of a new one. Perhaps I'll write a hub on this soon.

As far as their collapse...I guess no one really knows. Historians think that they were overpopulated and the environment couldn't support them anymore. I've also read that some scientists believe there was a long drought that led to their collapse, but they started rebuilding again shortly before the Spanish arrived.

But the Maya didn't disappear completely. Central America is full of indigenous groups that descended from the Maya and still carry important parts of Maya culture and language.

joejagodensky profile image

joejagodensky 5 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Beautifully presented about a beautiful culture. I was able to see the Mexican ruins and the whole day was enlightening. Thanks.

stephaniedas profile image

stephaniedas 5 years ago from Miami, US Author

Oh, so you were able relate to it personally. I haven't been to see the Mexican ruins, but its on my list. Maybe I'll get in touch with you to ask about it when I'm able to go.

Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 5 years ago from Fife, Scotland

This is an excellent piece of work and beautifully presented.

The whole article was fascinating, but what really took my attention was the fact that the Maya were so concentrated on the planet Venus? I had assumed, maybe like most people, that the Sun would have been the main focus as is the case with many old civilisations.

This was a fascinating article with quite a few new and intriguing surprises. Voted up + interesting.

stephaniedas profile image

stephaniedas 5 years ago from Miami, US Author

Thank you for the nice comment, Seeker. I too was surprised to learn that they were so focused on Venus...I guess it was one more mysterious cosmic cycle for them to study. They are really an intriguing civilization.

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