The Miseducation of Africans: Savage Inequalities in Four Part Harmony
Decolonization Of How To Know: Deconstructing Apartheid's Past
Africa In General
It is now the 21 century, and no longer should anyone apologize for what they do for the good of the people. We are in a stage in human history when we should not be afraid to talk the truth about historical events that led us into the 21 century. Only the truth will liberate us. Again, only History will makes us noble about what we know and how we know it — how we use it and where we use our understanding of this history.
Unearthing debilitating facts and the truth is not a popular thing these days, and I aim to leave a legacy for all who care to know about the state of different nations around the world, and in my case, my focus is zeroed onto Africa, and why people of African are treated the way they are.
I will try and lay out historical reality about their humanity and how this has been shaped, formed, and made to be what we see Africans as being today. Usually I put much effort to begin by sticking to the topic whenever I write any hub. But, in this case, I wanted to preface my remarks by making note that the facts and the truth as they take over the hub, and my writing voice is overtaken by what the realities the topic is about, my task is to make sure that the thread is as close to the truth and riddled with facts as it can possibly be.
My Years as a person in the school of life and hard knocks, in life's education and other forms of education, compels me to write about a very hard and complicated subject, that is, how have Africans been Miseducated in a savagely unequal way in four main areas I will be discussing here. It is important to record history accurately and within that truth hope that people of all races will understand that there was a pattern here which persists to play itself out to this day, and hope that, we will know it intimately, thoroughly throughout and pick up whatever we can from it.
Of course, colonialism took care of that side of things, by designing an education they considered fit for their subjects, and what the final product of that effort was to be like for the colonists; and what they did was very well engineered indeed because it affects Africans in a myriad ways. It would only be proper in this day and age to take a very closer look at this phenomenon and know exactly what it is that went into it, and what those effects are like, and how this has affected those for whom it was designed and intended for.
Part One Movement of Disharmony
The task of this Hub is to root out the colonial imperialist miseducation and end cultural imperialism by systematically interrogating, deconstructing, destroying, debunking and exposing all encrustations of colonial and slave(Apartheid) mentality, so that we can clear the bushes and stake out new foundations by exposing these fallacies, for a new liberated African modernity.
This process must take place in all spheres of African life — primarily in Education which will inform and correct the problems in government, industry, family and social life, city planning, architecture, arts, entertainment, culture, customs and so on. This hub intends to contribute in that fashion and pattern when it interrogates the 'Miseducation of Africans.
Our freedom as a people is not secure without a firm economical foundation. Marcus Garvey understood this very well and he worked for its realization and finally, in the end, the shenanigans of the opposition and the vicissitudes of life took their toll on him. If in our study of History about African people is merely an exercise in feeling good about ourselves, when we will expire on this earth feeling good, but not having achieved much.
We need to look at the lessons that history teaches us. Africans must understand the tremendous value of the study of history for the regaining of their power. If African Education is not about gaining power, they are then being miseducated and misled they will die "miseducated into ignorance" and misled.
The study of history cannot be a mere celebration of those who struggled on our behalf. We need to be instructed by history and should transform history into concrete reality, into planning and development, into the construction of power and the ability to ensure our survival as a people. Every nation on earth pursues the same goals, ends and ideas about their own history and the study thereof. Africans then should look at and study history in a light that advances their interests, not inflates their egos and blinds them to reality.
History has a poor reputation; often it is looked upon by many as essentially a set of dates and events. Most people often wonder as to why they should study these dates and what is that they have to do with today? Some look at history as if to say it may be used to explain how things came about in today's world, and they also presume that we can live without it. Among African People there are those who see African history as irrelevant and unprofitable, nor is it going to get them a job, and wonder ever so loudly what can they do with it?
As historians, some of us do not see these statements as intelligent statements. Hearing them, one recognizes that the individual has not seen the connection between history, power and money. There is a direction connection between history and economics. If there were not a direct relationship between history and money, a direct relationship between history and power, history and rulership, history and domination, then, why is it that the European rewrote history?
Apparently, the rewriting, the distortion and the stealing of a people's history must serve vital economic, political and social functions for the Europeans, or else they would not bother to keep history form Africans and miseducate them in the process.
History being projected as irrelevant in the Western Culture is not an accident, but if it is made to look irrelevant, if it is made to look unprofitable, then making it appear so must serve some profitable purpose. When courses in college or university are apparently presented in the most "nonpolitical," "objective," "neutrally," they are actually presented in the most political way. So that, the culture of colonial imperialism presents so-called facts and information as if they have no connections or implications.
Education of Africans into Ignorance
Universities serve as finishing schools for those who have to lead and develop the traditions of a society. If, as we have seen, a modern African culture is developed, not within, but perforce outside Africa's universities, it requires a revolt against the Europhilia of these institution for artist who emerge from them to join in creating an African modernity, then all African nationalists question and want to know what's wrong with them.
Then they begin to see these African universities as conduits for dumping pro-European culture of higher learning into the African cultural stream. They also see them as nurseries designed to negate a liberated African consciousness, and nurseries of a vigorous neo-African culture.
They see this negativity in terms of how these African-Europeanized university are getting more national money poured into them , while the genuine pioneers of a modern African culture are neglected. These universities are seen, by African people, as transplants that do not have any connection with the university tradition of pre-genocide Africa.
The French Connection
These African universities do not draw any inspiration from Sankore, Timbuktu's vanished university, but they have strong links with London, Durham, Paris and Marseilles. For example, in 1947, the faculty of law at Aix-Marseilles established an outpost in Tananarive, Madagascar.
Or another example would be in 1950, both the universities of Paris and Bordeaux established a joint outpost in Dakar and they founded the Institute des Hautes Etudes, and the educational content was controlled by professor from Paris and Bordeaux. So, in 1955 control was at Tananarive, in 1958 at Abidjan, and in 1959 in Brazzaville.
In fact, the institute in Brazzaville was declared to be the eighteenth university of France, and it was governed by the statues which were used to govern the universities of France; its academic staff was part of a cadre of the French university system; its admissions, examinations and standards were the same as for universities in France. Other institutes followed suit and became French universities on the African Continent.
British Imperial Enlightenment
British universities on African soil have a similar history. Their founders created them as components of the imperial university system. In 1943, Oliver Stanley when he was setting up the Asquith Commission on Higher Education in the British colony, made this revealing remark: "His majesty's government is deeply committed to quickening the progress of Colonial peoples towards higher level of social well-being and towards the ultimate goal of self-government.
"It is essential to the success of this policy that the supply of leaders from the indigenous people themselves should be rapidly increased. There is, therefore, an urgent and fundamental need to enlarge our facilities for higher education without which these leaders cannot be created.
"The Universities of this country have in the past made their vast contributions to the successful growth of the overseas dependencies by themselves training and nourishing the administrators and specialists on whom their progress had depended.
"We are now entering on an era when this contribution may become more indirect, but no less vital by taking the form of assistance in the development of Colonial Universities which will rear the local leaders of the future ."[emphasis mine](Quoted from Sir Eric Ashby)
It is important to point out that these leaders have been reared and created not in an African but Anglo-Franco mold. African apprentices in these universities were taughtCeltic, Old English, British Empire History, British Empiricism and Atomism; they steadfastly refused to teach Hausa, Igbo, Swahili, Ewe, Zulu, Ndebele, Shona, or African History, African Religions, African Cultures and Customs and African Arts in their curricula.
It is interesting to note that after the independence of most African states, some of those minds brainwashed and miseducated by these universities have opposed any Africanization of the intellectual content of the African universities. This phenomena of Africans attacking and viciously condemning anything that has to do with the interests and development by other people of African descent, is not only limited to the Europeans, it is also found in the US and other countries with large African populations in them.
They were also opposed to opening these African universities to any intellectual currents that British might not approve. Until these universities are redesigned and made independent, they can be expected to continue reproducing similar men and minds.
Reconciling African Tradition with local Universities
Many demands have been made to Africanize these transplanted institutions and to make them serve African Needs. They were designed to the needs of the imperial industrialists and protect Britain's economic interests against African competition; these transplanted universities also emphasized the fine and liberal arts, the classics, the sciences and public administration, but they did not dare provide facilities for training Africans in entrepreneurial skills.
A case in point was when in 1954, the British University College of the Gold Coast was resisting pressure to establish facilities for training of bankers, accountants, managers and other scarce professionals, that is when Nkrumah said: "While I fully subscribe tot the vital principle of academic freedom, a University must relate its activities to the needs of the society in which it exists. We must in the development of our universities bear in mind that once it had been planted in the African soil, it must take root amidst African traditions and culture."
To create and manage this paucity of sound blueprints since the 19 century, three important African intellectuals offered a combined insights, J. E. Casely-Hayford, Edward Wilmot Blyden and James A. Horton, about how the make-up of genuine African Universities should be like. Horton called for the establishment of a university for British Africa in 1861, and he wanted it to be exclusively a place for scientific and technological education.
In 1872 Blyden wanted a West African university that would built the moral character and meet the cultural needs of Africans. He stressed that universities in Africa should completely have an African character. Casely-Hayford until his death in 1930 was advocating for a West African university, and he wanted it to emphasize African languages and customs.
He also wanted them to stress the Nile Valley's contribution to African history, and he wanted them insulated from unwanted western influences. These three intellectuals, although their visions overlapped, provided us with some ingredients that would fashion a truly African University
- It had to emphasize science and technology.
- It must directly absorb classical Mediterranean cultures and other civilization, but must avoid racism.
- It had, by any means necessary, promote African Studies, foster African consciousness, and be an incubator for African culture and nationalism.
The dormancy of African scientist and productivity is due to the lack of promotion of original science or creative technology amongst Africans by the colonialists. The African industrial bourgeoisie was discouraged in order to void competition against the European bourgeoisie. Little has been done to guide the fledgling minds of africans to be able to distinguish between the potentially beneficial achievements of the West and the mind retarding racism that exudes from Western culture transplanted into Africa.
African History and culture, although by now initiated by Africa's universities, they still have yet to occupy the center of their curricula. The Curricula written, designed and dictated to by the British and the French, remains the obstacle to an African centre curricula. As it is presented in these colleges under the weakened umbrella of African studies, i.e., the study of African languages, philosophies, religions, linguistics, written and oral literatures,ethics, economics, politics, aesthetics, social traditions, institutions and history is often inadequate and miseducating in its direction, orientation and application.
The study of Anthropological and Sociological studies in these transplanted universities was defined and designed for Western needs and Imperialist control of Africa, and are studies of African History from a pro-European perspective, and they are Imperialist studies of Africa, not African studies for Africa by conscious Africans, and at this point, it does not really matter what those African scholars engaged in this fare say about it.
To transform the present universities to serve as truly African universities, in the words of Dr. Ajayi, is to be aware that…: "... the failure to adapt African Universities from alien models into institutions where African tradition is reconciled with the innovative need of the moment owes a good deal to fault planning, the obstruction of interested individuals, the miseducation of university teachers or the confusion of political leaders."
Ajayi sees a more serious obstacle as the need for African societies to recover from the blitzkrieg of colonialism, they have to be decolonized both psychologically and mentally, and the application of perspectives from the colonial past used to rediscover a sense of direction in our present predicament. Ajayi goes on to add that: "This is a problem not only for the universities but for society as a whole."
But it is also at bottom an intellectual problem and society has every right to look to the universities to provide the theoretical framework for a breakthrough and the required new perspective. This view is not only held by Africans since this hub is solely focused on them. The importance is seen by many in the world who have or are suffering colonized miseducation.
I will like to digress and add a viewpoint which goes to the heart of the discourse in this hub, although in a different culture, country and people. Jose Marti in El Partido Liberal, January 1890, made these remarks:
"In nations composed of cultured and uncultured elements, the uncultured will govern, because of the habit of resolving doubts with their power wherever the cultured have failed to learn the art of governing. The uncultured masses are lazy and timid in matter of intelligence, and they want to be governed well. But if the government offends them, they are aroused, and then they are the ones who govern.
How are the rulers to be graduated from a university if there is no university in America where they teach the rudiments of the art of government, which is an analysis of the elements peculiar to the nations of America. Young people go out into the world wearing Yankee or French spectacles to solve problems, and aspire to rule a nation they do not know. Political careers should be denied to those who disregard the rudiments of politics.
Prizes in competition should not be for the best ode, but for the best study of the elements of the country in which one lives. In journalism, among the university faculty, and in the academies, the study of a country's true elements must be carried on. Just knowing them, in plain language and without beating about the bush, is enough, because anyone who lays aside part of the truth, either intentionally or due to forgetfulness, fails in the long run because of the truth he lacks, which thrives upon neglect and overthrows what is built without it.
To solve a problem after knowing its elements is easier than solving a problem without knowing them. The strong and indignant natural man comes and overthrows the justice accumulated from books, for that kind of justice is not administered in accord with a country's patent needs. To know is to solve. To know a country and govern it in conformity with knowledge is the only way to free it from tyranny. (My Italics)
The European university must yield to American university. The history of America, from the 'Incas' to the present, must be taught down to the fingertips, even if the history of the Greek archons[Archons were the chief magistrates in many ancient Greek city-states] is neglected. Our "Greece" is preferable to a Greece which is not ours.
We need it more. National politics must replace foreign politics. [Italics mine] The world must be grafted onto our republics, but our republics must be the trunk. and let the defeated pedant hold his peace, for there is no country in which a man takes more pride that our afflicted American republics."(from Mexico) This citation should be also read by the young and up and coming African South African Students.
Even though our universities are rushing pell-mell to stock our minds with every doctrine imported from the West, and also eager to import all manner of western practices into our body politic, the following comments taken from pre-conquest African rulers reveal a different mind-set from what we have seen or have been told about Africans: Dom Alfonso I, King (1505 -1543) of the Bakongo, is said of him: "He studied the Portuguese codified laws in the original bulky folios, and criticized the excessive penalties which were inflicted for even trivial offenses. He jokingly asked the Portuguese envoy one day: Castro, what is the penalty in Portugal for anyone who puts his feet on the ground?"(Boxer)
And of William Dappa Pepple, King (1835-1864) of the Niger Delta, city state of Bonny, his encounter with a European Christian evangelist was related: One discussion of the merits of Christianity has been preserved because of he eminence of the man concerned, King William Dappa Pepple of Bonny, an Island State of Ibo, Ijo and Andoni element. His would-be evangelist, a trader, began by asking the king what his beliefs were.
The questions were naïve enough: "Have you seen God?" — and were quickly snubbed "It no be your business, you come here for trade palaver." Nothing deterred, the trader began his own exposition of Christianity, the timbre of which can be judged from the King's objections: "He thought some people must have been fools to attempt to build a tower to heaven." The doctrine of atonement struck him as absurd.... When asked for proof, the trader could think of nothing better than the fact that "it was almost universal belief among white men" and that the Bible said so. the King's response was instant: "Does lie never live for book?"(Isichei)
Ignorance As A Weapon of Mass Destruction
The African Petit Bourgeoisie
"African people, even as they watch their irreplaceable resources being depleted, because they are the' bread-basket' of the western Imperial powers, dare not cast doubts to the zany recipes sold to them in the name of 'development,' 'modernization,' and 'progress.' Their mind remain dutifully handcuffed in pro-western abstraction and shenanigans of imperial categories of discourse, and in the process they pose wrong questions if they pose any at all; the problems they frame and proceed with all the intellectual energy they dare muster in trying to solve these problems.
What need to be paid attention to and applied is a healthy skepticism and an ever active nationalist consciousness which can open new perspectives that will be of lasting profit for Africa. No amount of personal wealth, athletic skill or intellectual achievement will help any black man escape the contempt westerners reserve for all, of any race whatever, we belong to groups which have become less powerful than their own.
To regain our dignity, we must make it impossible for any group to ever gain trample upon us. We must confront their intention to do so with a power they can neither trample upon nor ignore" (anonymous). According to Ajayi: "Leaders who plan for an African future but consider knowledge of the past irrelevant, can only be presumed to be harboring the colonialist view of the African Past.
It was the wisdom of our fathers to emphasize that each recent generation owes obligations and responsibilities to both the ancestors and the generations yet unborn. This is how Yambo Ouologuem put it: "Incidentally, there is no black people, there is a problem of class conflict to which the black man lends the color of the contempt inherent in his condition; one should remember his history and see the tensions of today with objectivity."
People who manipulate the past and present manipulate one's mentality, sanity, contact with reality and the ability to deal with reality. In other words, the manipulation of history creates real effects in the individual's personality. African history not being properly taught to African people ensures that African potential will be forever undeveloped as a people and that will not change those that rule over them. Being cut off from one past means that you have gained an alienated knowledge.
In school you are taught math and science and so on to the degree that you forget what and who you are — your history — and forget your connectedness with ones peoples. A lot of Africans educated in all the Western universities are CEOs of Mega-Multicorporations, yet they cannot build one.
When we become socially amnesic, our resources are pillaged and our creativity is retarded. A people who do not share history, who do not appreciate the shared experiences that their history represents, are a people who cannot utilize mutual trust, dependability, and so forth, upon which to build an economical social system. African people who forget their history are a people who forget that they had an economy before the Europeans came into existence. They are a people who forgot that their economy was developed and maintained before the imperial ascendancy.
History is not only written in books but that history is contained in every facet of life. We are interacting in the context of history right now at the writing of this hub. History is everywhere written in the streets that we walk down, in every building, every highway, in every yard, everywhere we go, it's there; it's shaping; it's transforming; it's creating; it's blocking; it's constructing. Even if Europeans would stop reading history, their history will still be operating everywhere we go, turn and reside. It is inextricably linked and wrapped into every situation, circumstances and events of life.
We study math and we would think it originated in Greece. It is usually introduced that way. We get the Pythagorean theories and Euclidean geometry and Boolean algebra and other European names spread throughout mathematics. The names and the concepts and who "first " discovered it is history; images are being projected historically; European history is embedded into their[images] study. In every discipline we study in the college/university/school we're going to run into European history: it is intimately intertwined with all disciplines.
As long as our own history is not intimately and inextricably entwined with everything we do, with every study we undertake, is not represented in our Universe, in our buildings and our walls, in our houses and streets, then we need to study history more consciously than do the Europeans. African people cannot always follow the route of European people. They build history in the books and then they build it into the world or the other way round. They might have reduced their attention to the world, but their history is still functioning out there in the world. By not doing things their way leads to injurious outcomes for African people in Africa and in the Diaspora.
A Poor Carbon Copy
Long before Africa's independence, the African Elite have proclaimed it their aim to foster economic and cultural development of Africa. This raises many question about the Loyalty to Africa and whether their education was for African interests or functionary modern slavers slaving for the interest of the West. They are presenting themselves as victims of voluntary cultural servitude and economic insecurity predisposing them to serve the West than Africa.
This is in lieu of the fact that they are also united in their political and economic interests that are in tandem with that of the masters, former master and the western bourgeoisie. They brashly brandish some form of liberalism in one form or another; they also act like agents of international liberal Imperialism and maintain the old political and economical order.
They do not necessarily receive orders directly from the former colonialists and European economical forces, but they are advertising themselves in such a way as they operate in environment with a mentality and conditioned attitude that they display overwhelmingly which yield policies that oppose African interest and directly serve European interests.
Conditioned by a pro-western miseducation, they see their class interest as tied to those of their former neocolonial masters, than those of Africans. In the end, they abandon their subjects' interest and protect those of their class and masters. One can just look at what is happening in South Africa, especially during the 2010 World Cup Tournament, and the past 16 years of ANC-led government.
When Nkrumah was dealt a devastating coup by his detractors, some of his enemies sought to justify his overthrow by eulogizing Colonel Afrifa's who overthrew Nkrumah in the preface of a book by the latter as follows "That Afrifa was a citizen with an impassioned faith in the value of democracy, and in the [British]Commonwealth. He has the courage, rare in these days of flaming African nationalism, to express his gratitude for the training he received at Sandhurst, and his admiration for the democratic institutions of Britain."(Afrifa) In his book, "The Ghana Coup," Afrifa goes on to proudly inform us: "I am a Christian. I am a Methodist by baptism, a Presbyterian by confirmation, and an Anglican by education and association."(Fitch)
This can be interpreted as follows: I am a Christian of an English non-conformists faction by baptism a member of the Church of Scotland by confirmation, and a member of the church of England by education and association. The very same person who is a communicant of state churches of England and Scotland, would have us believe that he is a true son of Ghana, is truly perplexing and unconscionable.
Afrifa continues with a panegyric to Sandhurst: "I entered Sandhust in the winter of 1958.... I was thrilled by Sandhurst, the beauty of its countryside, and the calm Wish Stream which separated Sandhurst from the rest of the world. Sandhurst so far was the best part of my life — learning to be soldier in wonderful and mysterious institution with traditions going back to 1802. One cannot appreciate its mystery unless one experiences Sandhurst...."(Fitch)
Afrifa is an African who tells us that he comes from a long line of chiefs who had served in positions of command in the Shanti Army. He tells us that his great-grandfather has been second-in-command of the Ashanti Army. If one studies the history of the Ashanti Army, the Ashanti have fought the British for nearly a century for intrusion into their sphere of influence.
Many of the British officers who suppressed the Ashanti came from Sandhurst. For instance, Major General Sir Garnet Wolsely, who occupied Kumasi for a brief period in 1874, looted art treasures and sent them off to Britain. Another soldier, Major Baden-Powell, one of the reconnaissance officers of the British expedition against the Ashanti in 1896 and later founded the Boy Scouts movement.
Afrifa continued to write: "Sandhurst gave us independent thinking, tolerance, and a liberal outlook. I entered Sandhurst as a 'boy' and left as a soldier. There was no discrimination, whatever. No one cared where one was a prince, lord, commoner, foreigner, muslim or black man.... I left Sandhurst, crossed the Wish Stream, looked back at my old school and was filled with boundless gratitude.... Now I look back on Sandhurst with nostalgia."
It would be worth noting at this point pointing out at how one wonders what amount of "boundless gratitude" played a role in the overthrow of Nkrumah. It is also important to note that he overthrew Nkrumah to benefit the British, which we might glean at how the indoctrination at Sandhurst was important in conditioning his mind and action as he confesses:
"The Army and the Police are the custodians of the nation's Constitution.... We will stand against anything undemocratic. I believe that all men are born free. Democracy based on the freedom of the individual is more acceptable than any form of totalitarianism. We are against fascism and communism... I am a great admirer of the British way of life, its legal system, the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the Bill of Rights.
These are the institutions on which civil liberties of the people are founded. The British Constitution safeguards, not only the rule of law, but also the freedom of the press, of thought, of action with the law, and of the individual. It is these things that make Britain the home of democracy. One of the reasons for my bitterness against Kwame Nkrumah's rule was that he paid only lip-service to our [i.e., Ghana's] membership of the [British Commonwealth] of Nations and proceeded to undermine the bonds that bind us in this great union of people of all races, colors and creeds; an institution which is one of the surest hopes for the attainment of world peace which we all desire in this age.
So far as this commonwealth is concerned,Ghana should not be different form Canada, Australia or New Zealand."(Afrifa) On wonders if he knew British imperialism and their lack of relationship with their kith and kin as opposed to others in the Commonwealth, like the Africans in "Rhodesia", now Zimbabwe, [even South Africa], were denied the vote or privileges of the Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights, ruled, at that time, by an entrenched minority white Rhodesians [or white South Africans]. Now he is sounding-off like a stooge and masquerading himself as a liberator of African Ghanaians, but was not capable of seeing that.
He continued further confessing: "Nkrumah made mockery of this organization [the Commonwealth], and under the mask of African Unity and non-alignment proceeded to discredit the Commonwealth and to put difficulties in its way.... African Unity is a glorious ideal, but I know that this is impossible to achieve within our life-time.... Organization of African Unity or no organization of African Unity, I will claim my citizenship of Ghana and of the British [Commonwealth] in any part of the world.
"I have been trained in the United Kingdom as a soldier, and I am ever prepared to fight alongside my friends in the United Kingdom in the same way as Canadians and Australian will do. How could we be friends belonging to the Commonwealth and stay out in time of commonwealth adversity, and when this great union is in danger?" Afrifa was accusing Nkrumah of lowering educational standards in Ghana, of sullying the minds of the children of Ghana, of planting havoc in a pattern of education that the colonialists have already designed.
"Nkrumah, with all his mistakes was simply trying to create an educational system that would prevent the colonial mentality from spreading among the children of Ghana. The mentality as thoroughly Anglophile, Afrophobe and neocolonial could exists in a colonel of an African army is a tribute to the lasting indoctrination of Africans carried-out by colonial miseducation."
Cheik Hamidou Kane remarked: "Better than the cannon it (the [colonial] school) makes conquest permanent. The cannon compels the body, the school bewitches the soul." Learning from the Afrifas of Africa, it is important that we must note that their thinking underlines the urgency of saving the younger generations of Africa from colonial miseducation. This is also a great lesson toe the people and their children in South Africa today.
There are strong similarities between the role of the African Slavers in the Euro-African connection of their time and the role today of the African petit bourgeoisie in the neocolonial Euro-African connection. And some features of the connection suggest that, as far as her ability to protect her sovereign is concerned, Africa is worse-off today than then.
The collaboration of Africa's present westernized elite with their foreign masters must be seen to be at least as horrible as that which took place in slavery days, they believe that coming out of colonialism it is correct that we pass through neo-colonialization. Neo-colonization is nothing but maldevelopment that subjects Africa to intensified exploitation.
It might be too late to save Africa because colonization is deeply and firmly entrenched. It would be left to historical progression and time if and whether Africa will be able to extricate and rid of itself of all the complexes drilled into them by colonial experience, maybe avoiding another form of genocide...
South Africa Specifically; Model C and Outcome Based education
Orchestrated Miseducation - Part Two
Bantu Education: Pedagogy for Mental Disorders
"As I have told the South African public time and again, race relation in this country have deteriorated to the extent that there will no longer be any possible reconciliation between black and white. What is happening is, in fact, a projection of black anger against the racist regime. This anger is directed at anything that is connected with the system of government.
"It is not a question of the insistence on the Afrikaans language as the mode of instruction for black school children. The burning of the office belonging to the government administration — the beer halls, administration offices, post offices, administration-run buses, and the like — should be enough for the people to realize this point. It has got nothing to do with vandalism... it is black anger against white domination"(Winnie Mandela,1976)
Education is the generator, the key. Without it life is restricted, the world remains closed. Today's world requires a highly developed system of education for the mastery of technology, for comprehension of the life around us, for participation. The advanced, industrialized countries are constantly expanding their education services, particularly university and higher technological education without which their manpower becomes obsolete.
With Bantu Education, South Africa had devised a unique system, 'the only education system in the world designed to restrict the productivity of its pupils in the national economy to lowly and subversive tasks, to render them non-competitive in that economy, to fix them in a 'tribal' world; to under-develop and miseducate them as much or completely as possible." This condition and situation, today in contemporary ANC-ruled South Africa, has not yet been ameliorated; instead, it has worsened, deteriorated and totally broken down.
The application of apartheid policies to education began seriously in 1953 with the passing of the Bantu Education Act. The Act removed education or Africans from provincial(Sate) and rather haphazard control and handed it to the Ministry of Bantu Affairs. Dr Verwoerd, who later became Prime Minister - became the arbiter and architect of education for all Africans. Although segregation and inequalities have always existed in South African schools, the present system with its enormous racial disparities was not simply the result of a colonial-type pattern of the past.
It was a system remolded to suit the ideology of the apartheid system, which was introduced in South Africa in 1948. There is no ideal of universal education, free and compulsory in the elementary stages, with higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of merit, as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The aim of education directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, the ideas that every child is the inheritor of world culture to the full extent of mankind's present attainments, and should have access to this common cultural heritage-this aim, this idea, ran completely counter to the system of Bantu Education imposed on the African people of south Africa.
In the 1940s a lot of criticism was coming forth from many quarters in South Africa about the schooling provided for Africans, and the missionaries were castigated for providing inferior education. The mission schools were poorly funded, facilities grossly inadequate and the teachers were poorly trained and badly paid. The curricula was dull and overloaded with moral instruction, teachers were unimaginative, learning by texts rote and repetitive recitation was not education.
Dr. O.D. Wollheim of the South African Institute of Race Relations found these following conditions he describes below, deplorable:
"Native Education has been in an appalling condition... Buildings in most cases consist of tin shelters or wattle daub huts into which are crammed two to three times the number of pupils which the room should hold. The equipment is correspondingly pitiful.
"The salaries paid to teachers are likewise appalling... The teacher will occasionally be found to be teaching from eight to a hundred pupils in two or three different standards all in the same room." (Wollheim) African communities were disgruntled with the school system and their extent of this dissatisfaction was given in an account by Muriel Horel: "... There was a growing antagonism among Africans to the mission control of schools.
Opponents of this system wanted their schools to be administered in the same way as were those of the whites, and felt that Departmental schools were better off in regard to fund and supplies. Of 2,000 mission schools in the Transvaal, 800 had been transferred to the Department (of Education) by about 1949. When one looks into the present state of education in South Africa, one can see that wishing to have our children be educated in White schools has been one terrible mistake Africans did.
The Afrikaner Nationalists saw the matter very differently. Not only did they claim that graduates of the schools were liberals and radicals, but they also contended that the doctrine of christianity, as taught, was suspect. The only Christianity that could be accepted, they proclaimed, was that which followed the creed of the three afrikaner churches(Christian National Education, Article I)
The reality behind Afrikaner aspirations was put succinctly by a school inspector in 1943 as follows: "The Afrikaner teacher will show Afrikanerdom what a power they possess in the Teachers Associations to build up the country's youth for the future Republic. I know of no more potent instrument.... A nation is born by having its youth impregnated at school in the traditions, custom, ways and ultimate destiny of its people." (J. Malherbe) Then the question remains, who is teaching the youth and children about their culture, custom and tradition.
Afrikaner Christian National Education.
In February 1948, a pamphlet was issued by prominent Afrikaner nationalists on Christian National Education(CNE). Ina set of 15 Articles,the authors of this work (after ten years of silent labor) laid down he ideological basis of education for the White youth of South Africa. The first thirteen of these articles were devoted to the problems of white education, and laid down the philosophical framework within which the authors were working. The Article stated:
"All White children should be educated according to the views of life of their parents. Consequently, all Afrikaans-speaking children should have a Christian-Nationalist education... The key subject in school should be religion... All teaching should also be nationalist... Owing to the Fall, all children are born sinful, but the children of believers have inherited God's promise, through Christ, of redemption ... the necessity for education lies in the fact that the child's soul is undeveloped.
Civics should teach the child to preserved the Christian and nationalist character at home, church, society and state. Every nation is rooted in a country allotted to it by God. Geography should aim at giving the pupil a through knowledge of his own country... he will love his own country, also when compared and contrasted with others, and be ready to defend it, preserve it from poverty and improve it for posterity. History should be seen as the fulfillment of God's plan for humanity.
Next to the mother tongue, the history of the fatherland is the best channel for cultivating the love of one's own which is nationalism. In normal circumstances, the church should not erect schools, but may be compelled to do so
(a) if the existing schools are unchristian and unnationalistic, and
(b) in the heathen world. Science should be expounded in a positively Christian light, and contrasted with non-Christian science. All authority in school is borrowed from God... Unless." (the teacher) is a Christian, he is a deadly danger to us. (Blueprintfor a Blackout- the statements above are taken from the first 13 Articles)
Articles 14 and 15 were devoted to the issues of 'colored ' and 'native' education. The Article on African Education stated:
"The White South African's duty to the 'native' is to Christianize him and help him on culturally. Native education should based on the principles of trusteeship, non-equality and segregation; 'its aim should be to inculcate the white man's way of life, especially that of the Boer nation, which is the senior trustee. The mother tongue should be the basis of native education,but the two official languages should be learned as keys to the cultures from which the native will have to borrow in oder to progress(English and Afrikaans languages').
"Owing to the cultural infancy of the 'native,' the state, in cooperation with the protestant churches should at present provide 'Native' education. But the 'native' should be fitted to undertake his own education as soon as possible, under control and guidance of the state(meaning Boers). 'Native' education should lead to the development of an independent, self supporting Christian Nationalist Native community. Native education should not be financed at the expense of the white."
(Blue Print for a Blackout) If we look at the state of education and the products of Bantu Education and the "Model C" students, we see a serious deterioration which has left many communities and families bamboozled and perplexed by the decrepit and the low-level, confused and discombobulated knowledge, and educational quality of the present-day youth seem to be displaying manifesting through them showing the type of pedagogy they have acquired.
In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act was passed by Parliament. The Act made provision for the establishment in the Reserves of 'tribal,' regional and territorial Authorities, and for the delegation of administrative and some executive powers to bodies composed of 'chiefs,' 'headmen' and 'tribal authorities'. In 1953 the Bantu Education Act was enacted, and the major provisions recommended by the Eislen Commission became law.
The two Acts were conceived as part of one overall plan, and Dr. Verwoerd, who replaced Dr. Jansen as Minister of "Native" Affairs, made this quite explicit:
'My department's policy is that education should stand with both feet in the Reserve and have its roots in the spirit and being of Bantu society... the basis of the provision and organization of Education in a Bantu community should, where possible, be the tribal organization.
"The Bantu Education Act of 1953 was an administrative rather than a substantive measure. The control of African education was vested in the Department of Native Affairs, and the drafting of all regulations governing the content of education was left to the Minister of Native Affairs. All Schools now came under the Minster's control, and no educational institution could be established or conducted without his permission."
In 1954, the state fixed the funding of african schools to 13 million Rands. Any expenditure in excess of this amount had to be met by African Taxpayers. It remained for Dr. Verwoerd to outline the philosophy that would guide his department in the conduct of the schools. Speaking in the Senate in June 1954, Verwoerd made his intentions clear: "When I have control of 'Native' Education, I will reform it so that the natives will be taught from childhood to realize that equality with Europeans is not for them .
People who believe in equality are not desirable teachers for "Natives" ... When my department controls "Native" education, it will know for what class of higher education a "Native" is fitted, and whether he will have a chance in life to use his knowledge... What is the use of teaching a Bantu child mathematics when it cannot use it in practice? This is quite absurd."(See the school children in the Photo Gallery to understand this point even more clearer)
The school was used as an instrument of social control. The child was going to be taught that equality was not for him or her — whether in society or in the work place: "The School must equip him to meet the demands which the economic life will impose on him ... There is no place for him [or her, presumably!] above the level of certain forms of labor ... For that reason, it is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim absorption in the European community."(Verwoerd)
In practice this meant that even technical training would be inferior. Speaking about the training of African building worker, the Minister of Labor said in 1950: "The standard of training is not the same as the standard given to the ordinary(sic) artisan who enrolls under the Apprenticeship Act ... 'Native' builders will therefore not be artisans in the full sense of the word.
They will only receive training which will enable them to erect houses and building for their own use."(Hansard, Vol. 5 1950). The children of South Africa a more linked to this mind-set by virtue of the fact that they have been educated in white institutions(See the Afrifa saga Above), and in the process have become de-africanized and apolitical; they lack cultural consciousness and knowledge of African History.
Bantu Education: Indoctrinating Young African Minds
Pedagogy Of the Oppressed
"The Struggle for the language was waged perhaps in its bitterest form around the school; because this was the nursery where the seeds had to be watered which were to spring up and form the future generation. The tactical objective of the fight was the winning over of the child, and it was to the child that the first rallying cry was addressed: 'German youth, do not forget that you are German' and 'Remember, little girl, that one day you must be a German mother." (Adolf Hitler in Mein Kampf).
[It is interesting to see today that in the advent of new and emerging technologies that the children have been hit hardest wen it come to the their speaking English as opposed to knowing and speaking their own "mother Tongues: Go Figure!]
Bantu Education Act: This Act transferred Bantu Education from the provinces((States) to the Department of Bantu Education. This was done in 1953, and the Act itself contained no details of the type of education to be purveyed but during the debate on the Bill, Minister of "Native" Affairs, Dr. Verwoerd stated: 'Racial relations cannot improve if the wrong type of education is given to the 'Natives'.
They cannot improve if the result of 'Native' education is the creation of a frustrated people who, as a result of the education they received, have expectations in life which circumstances in South Africa do not allow to be fulfilled immediately, when there are people who have received a form of cultural training which strengthens their desire for white-collar occupations to such an extent that there are more such people than openings available. Therefore, good race relations are spoilt when the correct education is not given.
Above all, good racial relations cannot exist when the education is given under the control of people who create wrong expectations on the part of the 'Native' himself, if such people believe in a policy of equality, if, let me say, for example, a Communist gives training to the 'Natives'. Such a person will, by the very nature of the education he gives, both as regards the content of that education and as regards its spirit, create expectations in the minds of the Bantu which clash with the possibilities of this country.
It is therefore necessary that 'Native' education should be controlled in such a way that it should be in accord with the policy of the state."(Hansard, 1953) This is evident in the Outcome Based education and Model C national education formats.
In 1954, Vewoerd revealed how far his was willing to go: "The general aims of the Bantu Education Act are to transform education for 'Natives' into Bantu Education. ... A Bantu pupil must obtain knowledge, skills and attitudes which will be useful and advantageous to him and at the same time beneficial to his community. ... The school must equip him to meet the demands the economic life of South Africa will impose on him. ..." (See Picture gallery to know how this was implemented)
Entropic Disharmonious Education
In the days of Grand Apartheid, all education was segregated and a special and inferior system was provided for Africans as pedagogy. Even more than the effects of economic policy of the Government toward the African and its far-reaching effects on his welfare and all the other circumstances relating to his impoverished financial condition — even more than the homelands policy which relegated the African to the rural, undeveloped, impoverished sections of the country — even more the legal position of the African who was required to carry a "Pass" at all times and subjected to harsh police-state laws and arbitrary authority.
It is the educational policy of the Government which is to be deprecated above all, because that system is the one which will have the most far-reaching and most pernicious effect on the children of 40 million Africans in South Africa. For this reason, the report includes a detailed a need for various literacy projects for various groups in South Africa and the support that they will receive from the resources present in the South African society which is African-ruled and led… As these various literacy projects got underway, Africans were subjected to the "Bantu Education" system of misinformation and miseducation.
The Bantu Education Act, No. 47 of 1953, centralized the education of the African in the central government. The Act provided that no school may be established or conducted for the education of Africans unless licensed by the state-controlled official Bantu Education. The Minister of Bantu Education was vested with comprehensive power over all aspects of education including the medium of instruction, the control of the admission, treatment and discharge of pupils from any school, religious instruction , the conditions for subsidizing and assisting schools, the conditions of appointment and service, and the rights, duties and privileges of teachers and other employees instruction.
There was 100 percent literacy for the Whites, although for the population as a whole the literacy rate was 55 percent. The rate for Africans was less than 22 percent. This meant that the literacy rate for Africans was essentially not greater than that for Africa as a whole, 20 percent. Africans in South Africa paid for tuition in order to attend public school and had to pay all other costs related to the schooling of their child, including text books, the cost of school buildings, whereas the state finances these costs for white and colored children.
Education was compulsory for the white child up to the age of 16. Education was also compulsory for colored children since 1953. The base upon which "Outcome-Based-Education" and Model C education is that it was built on the foundations of an already decapitated and short-changed educational system we know as Bantu Education. The present state of education is not only chaotic, but is made to whit, entropic.
Depressed, Repressed, Segregated and Oppressed Miseducation
Mr. Manouchehr Ganji, the Special Rapporteur to the Commission on Human rights he cited the 1953 Report of the UN Commission on "The Racial Situation in South Africa, in 1967, quoted: "It is the mission of the white race living in South Africa to protect that civilization "against attacks from outside and subversion from within." In other words, though representing a numerical minority, it must at any cost safeguard its position of domination over the colored races. The best service, therefore, that the whites can render to the non-whites is to separate them from the white population, to consider them as distinct social and economic groups, and to see that, as far as possible, they live in territories, zones, or locations assigned to them as their own.
The Education of Africans was not compulsory and this was the deliberate policy of the South Africa Reich:
... Which separates education into white education, colored education, Indian education, and Bantu Education. ... Which makes financing of African education depended upon taxes paid by Africans. Whereas white, colored and Indian education is financed from the General Revenue.
The inequity of this enormous, especially since Africans are the most economically disadvantaged group — again because of a deliberate government policy which is justified by the sophistry "their wages are less because their expenses are less! ... Which handicaps the African child from higher education by downgrading the substantive content (for example, mathematics), of the African primary curriculum and also by teaching in the medium of 'tribal' languages throughout primary school.
The African child is taught in his home (African) Language on the primary level, although he must begin the study of English and Afrikaans in his first year of school. In secondary school, the medium of instruction is abruptly changed from African language to two languages(English and Afrikaans) at once.
English for half of his subject and Afrikaans for the other half. ... which states in Parliament its philosophy "compulsory" education can be extended to Africans only when they themselves ask for it, when they can finance it themselves and when their economy can absorb the increased number of educated people. ... which spends fifteen times as much per capita on each white pupil as on the African pupil,or R14.48 per African pupil and R288 per white pupil.(SPRO-CAS 1969) Whose policy results in a pupil-teacher ration in the African schools is 60 to 1 as compared to nat of 21 to 1 in white schools.
The ratio for Colored is 31 to 1 and 27 to 1 for Indians(Horrell). ... Whose policy, because of lack of facilities, lack of teachers and lack of funds, results in double sessions for 80 percent of the African school children in school of only 31/2(three-and-a-half) or 4 hours for the first 2 years. Whose policy results in a dropout rate among African pupils so that only 4.2 percent reach high school(in contrast to the 7 per cent of Zambian pupils who reach high school), as compared with 32.53 percent of the white school population, 11.14 percent of the Colored and 23.89 percent of the Indian. Whose policy results in 19.9 percent of teachers in African schools being unqualified.
(In 1968, 6,500 African teachers had neither matriculation nor professional training and were paid R34 a month (Men)and R27 a month [for women] Whose policy results in the parents having to employ teachers and pay them privately - 17.2 percent of the teachers are employed by parents. Whose policy results in a per capita expenditure by the state on school book of R6.3 for whites, R2.4 for Coloreds, R2. For Indians and 46 cents for Africans.
(Pupils had to cut their writing books in half for use for half a year, and the other half for the rest of the year). ... whose policy results in gross disparities in teachers' salaries. ... whose policy, according to the 1960 census, results in 62 percent of the economically active African population(12 million), having no schooling at all, and many of the remainder being functionally illiterate." (SPRO-CAS, Education Beyond Apartheid", and SPRO-CAS, "South Africa's Minorities" 1971)
The proportion of State expenditure on education as a whole has been fairly consistent, but the proportion spent on African education fell from 0.57 percent in 1953 to 0.396 percent in 1966. (UN Document E/CN4/949, Geneva, 1967) Per capita expenditure on African education actually declined from R17.08 in 1953-54 to R11.50 in 1962-63, and remained static in money terms for the 1960s. Real per capita expenditure was therefore very much less than two years ago (Muriel Harrell)
The comparison of per capita expenditure on the different racial groups shows a close correlation with the distribution of total asset; this would indicate that the availability of education to Africans and other non-whites is not of a sufficient level to enable them to improve their social status as a group:
Expenditure On Education Per Capita
- Whites .................... South African Rands -- R114.1 US Dollars $159.74
- Colored/Indian ....... South African Rands -- R74.5 US Dollars $104.30
- Africans ................. South African Rands -- R13.5 US Dollars $18.90 (House of Assembly Debates, February 1968)
The distribution by primary, secondary, or university level of Africans in school, as compared with the distribution of whites and Colored pupils is that for Africans, 96 percent of pupils are on the primary level, 3.8 percent secondary level, and only 0.2 are on university level. For white, 63 percent are on primary level, 30 percent on secondary level, and 7 percent on university level; and 90 percent of Colored pupils are on primary level, 9.6 percent on secondary level, and 0.4 percent on university level. The failure rate of those in education is very high, indicating something basically wrong with the education system. The proportion of passes in the African colleges in 1967 was as follows:
Fort Hare Universities - First Year......... 18% ...........Second Year .....46%..... Third Yr. ...65%
University of Zululand - First Yr. .... 20.9% ....... Second Yr. ....... 42.8% ...... Third Yr. ....51.6
Turfloop University - First Yr. ..... 20.0% ....... Second Yr ..... 35.7% ...... Third Yr. ...... 64.7 (House of Assembly Debates, March 1968)
The relative educational expenditure and relative population shows a decline for Africans denoting the funds for education and the comparative amounts for the white, Colored and African children. African Children registered:
Matriculation Candidates 1968
Whites (1967) ............................39,637
Coloreds ...................................... 3,446
Africans ........................................ 2,289
Indians .......................................... 2,112 (Survey of Race Relations, SAIIR,1969)
Of the African matriculation candidates in 1968, only 24% passed University entrance, and another 15% got school leaving certificates — [no university acceptance] (The World, 1968)
In South Africa, there was not a single African Engineer, Dentist, quantity surveyor, architect or town planner. The inadequacy of higher education is only a fragment of the problem, however. An even more grave situation was created by the failure of elementary education to give any kind of basic training to the majority of African children. 55% of the African school population do not go to school long enough to become literate; these drop out by the end of Standard 2 [4th grade] (SPRO-CAS, 1971)
Approximately 95 percent of all African pupils drop out before they reach secondary school. Over half the pupils entering school in 1963 had dropped out by 1967. In the 15 years before apartheid, 1935-1950, the proportion of African school children in secondary schools had increased more than 500 percent from a minuscule 0.5 to 3.1 percent, whereas under apartheid from 1955 to 1959 the rate increase was dramatically decreased three-fold, down to 0.05 percent so that the 1955 percentage of 3.5 percent only rose to 4,2 percent(Unit on Apartheid Notes and Documents, No. 13 of 1969)
Out of the 12 million Africans "economically active" in the African population, only 13,000 have completed secondary education — that is, 0.12 percent, not even two out of every 1,000(Education Beyond Apartheid) It does not appear that the situation had gotten any better, even today, in the era of black rule. The number of African teacher trainees dropped sharply after 1954, the first year of "Bantu Education," and is only now creeping up to the numbers in training then, some 18 years ago.
African Teacher Trainees, 1954 to 1969
1954 ................... 6,863
1963 .................. 4,186
1969 .................. 6,281 (House of Assembly Debates, June 1965-Bantu Education Journal)
The teacher-pupil ration for all African schools deteriorated from 1 :41 in 1953 to 1 ;58 IN 1968. A large percentage of these teachers was unqualified. Only 1.28 percent had degrees and were professionally qualified, and another 0.34 percent had a degree only. Thus, less that 2 percent had any degree. A further 29.81 percent has passed junior certificate (a low grade examination normally taken at about 14) and had a professional qualification. All the rest had even lower educational attainment(1969 Survey of Race Relations) The effects that these statistics is the present state of education and learning that has afflicted the whole African population, even though the claim of freedom is holler from all unlikely and predictable quarters of society
Thou Shalt Not Teach the African
The deterioration in the quality of education is even more marked, although difficult to quantify. As indicated earlier, sources seem almost to be designed as an obstacle race: For example, elementary teaching was in the African vernacular; then some subjects are taught in Afrikaans up to junior certificate level, when the schools switch to English for matriculation(The Star 1968).
It is significant that one of the major demands of Chief Buthelezi of the Zulus is for all education to be in English; this not only gives some consistency to the educational curriculum, but also puts the people in touch with the necessary books, which do not exist in the African languages, and with the outside world generally. The South African Government seemed equally determined no to allow this broadening of the horizon.
As stated above by Verwoerd: "There is no place for him [the African] in society, beyond certain forms of labor." It has also been elaborated by Mr. J. N. le Roux in the House of Assembly: "We should not give the 'Natives' an academic education, as some people are too prone to do. If we do this, we shall later be burdened with a number of academically trained non-Europeans, and "who is going to do the manual labor in the country"?
I am in thorough agreement with the view that Africans should not conduct their schools so that the 'native' who attends these schools will know that to a great extent he must be the laborer [Italics Mine] (House of Assembly Debates, April 1945) The case of Dr. Hamilton Naki, who was employed and registered as a Gardner in Grooteschuur Hospital, and yet he was the one who performed the first open heart surgery, but the credit went to Dr. Chris Barnard. He, Barnard, stated the Dr. Naki was better than him, and he was the one who took out the heart and helped him put it back.
Apartheidized Bantu Colleges/Universities
The establishment of separate university colleges, respectively for Africans, Colored and Indians was required by the Extension of University Education Act of 1959. The councils and senate for each of the institutions were to be all white, although provision was made for non-white advisory councils and senates. African colleges were to be financed out of the Bantu Education Account, but Indian and Colored Colleges from the general revenue account. Fort Hare was required generally to limit admission to Xhosa students.
Other "tribal" colleges were established. The University of the North at Turfloop in the northeastern was established for the Sotho, Venda and Tsonga African South Africans. The University College of Zululand at Ngoye, was established for the Zulus and Swazi's. The University College of the Western Cape at Athlone, Cape town, was established for Colored students as well as the university of Durban-Westville for Indian student.
The respective Minister, that is, the Minster of Bantu Education, Minister of Colored Affairs, or the Minister of Indian Affairs, had broad powers with respect to these colleges, which were given full university status in 1969. Fort Hare had a total enrollment of only 496 students. This is slightly less that in had in 1959,before segregation took place. The enrollment at the University of the North was 428 and at the University of Zululand was 671. (SRPO-CAS)
South Africa used to be known for the quality of its higher education, and many African along with those from north of South Africa, ordinary and people and politicians studied in Fort Hare. There has been a regression in the quality of facilities available, however, and the three university colleges which Africans may attend offer courses of differing value: fort Hare, the University of Zululand and the University of the North.
These were located in remote rural sections in contrast to the 10 white universities which are situated in the accessible urban centers. They do not award their own degrees, but prepare students for examinations of the correspondence college, the University of /south Africa. Statistics of enrollment there are rising considerably, but this increase consists mainly of students taking correspondence courses and non-matriculated students pursuing diploma courses. Very few African teachers are employed: In the three colleges, there are 202 white teachers and 37 African teachers.
One of the oldest institutions of higher learning for African was Fort Hare. In 1959, The Bantu Education Act made it a Xhosa University and ended accessibility to all. Africans including students from other African countries attended there. Many of the officials of majority-ruled African Nations of Southern and East Africa are Fort Hare graduate — as in the BLS states, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia and Malawi, for example.
Fort Hare had by now an approximate enrollment of 850 students and faculties of law, liberal arts, and Bantu administration (public administration). Faculty salaries different on the basis of race because, the government said that the Africans had a lower standard of living! Students were marked down for political expressions...
Chaos in the African Schools and June 1976
Not only are thhe African academics paid worse, but their conditions of employment are worse. Where whites are employees of the University Councils, Africans were state employees subject to the many restrictions of the civil service regulations in addition to the disciplinary codes of the colleges. Any staff member was guilty of misconduct if he publicly criticized any section of the government or provincial administration, or propagated any idea or takes part in any activity calculated to cause sectional antagonism or impede the activities of the Government Department.
The Soweto revolution of 1976 convinced the Department of Education and Training (otherwise known as the Department of Bantu Education) of the need to improve the quality and morale of the Internationally visible Soweto Schools. The organization of the African schools in the wake of the changes governing secondary school entrance led to conditions bordering on chaos[entropy]. KwaMashu, the Township just north of Durban, Natal, had an official population of 22,000 families.
The entire area contained only one secondary school and it was already crowded. After examination results were announced in December 1974, parents were informed that: "... hundreds of standard six pupil who passed their final examinations in in 1974 were required to repeat the standard in 1975 because of the shortage of schools. Parents were also told that there would be confusion if only a small number entered From one(approximately grade nine). The students and the parents did not have time to demonstrate or suggest a boycott."(Black Review)
Of the six million African who started school between 1955 through1968, three million dropped out before reaching standard III, that is, they became illiterate, even in their mother-tongue. (One internationally accepted minimum criterion for achieving literacy is five years of schooling.) As a result, illiteracy was widespread in the African population - A South African educationalist, analyzing the result of the 1970 census, estimated that 48% of Africans over the age of 15 were illiterate in terms of the UN criterion for "functional literacy" of a minimum of four years' schooling. Such facts did not prevent Apartheid propagandists from making extravagant claims.
Dr. J. Andendorff, chairman of the Bantu investment Corporation, claimed in July 1975 that the level of education among the Bantu people of South Africa in the highest in the whole continent of Africa and approximately 80% of the population can read and write.
The instructions issued from the office of the Minister of Bantu Education that half the subjects taught in Standard five and in the first form be in Afrikaans was immediately opposed by parents, teachers and pupils. This opposition grew during the turbulent months of 1975, and by the early 1976, there were demonstrations in some schools against lessons to be introduced and taught in Afrikaans. As the protests increased, school after school, at least in the Soweto Region, joined forces and eventually marched together, and were headed to Orlando Stadium to discuss the issue of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction.
The march and demonstrations of June 16 led from a revolt, to a full-scale Revolution. In the end of it all, the very students who apartheid had introduced Bantu Education in 1954, were matriculating in 1975 and 1976, overthrew the Apartheid regime and paved a wide road to freeing Nelson Mandela, and facilitated for African rule in South from 1994.
America in Particular
The Third and Fourth Movement of the Four Part Harmony
Miseducation of the Negro and Savage Inequalities in America.
During his visit to the United States in the early 1930s, Alexis de Tocqueville noticed that in the North, the "same schools do not receive the children of black and European. In the theaters gold cannot procure a seat for the servile race beside their former matters; in the hospitals the lie apart; and although they are allowed to invoke the same God as whites, it must be at a different altar and in their own churches, with their own clergy. The gates of heaven are not closed against them, their inferiority is continued to the very confines of the other world. When the Negro dies, his bones are cast aside, and the distinction of condition prevails even in the equality of death."
Willie Lynch gave this speech in 1712 on how the plantation owners could have a firmer iron grip on slavery and slaves, and how to intensely shackle the spirits and psyches of African Americans to this present day. It is an appropriate negative preamble to this in-depth analysis of the idea of slavery and its effects on defining the nature of education that African Americans would receive in a free America. He gave his speech as follows:
"Gentlemen: I greet you on the bank of the James River in the year of our Lord one-thousand-seven-hundred-and-twelve(1712). First, I shall thank you, The Gentlemen of the colony of Virginia, for bringing me here. I am here to help you to solve your problems with slaves. Your invitation reached me on my modest plantation in the West Indies where I have experimented with some to the newest and still oldest the methods for control of slaves. Ancient Rome would envy us if my program is implemented.
"As our boat sailed south of the James River I saw, named for our illustrious King whose version of the Bible we cherish, I saw enough to know that your problem is not unique. While Rome used cords of wood as crosses for standing human bodies along its old highways in great numbers, you are here using the tree and the rope on occasion. I caught the whiff of a dead slave hanging from a tree a couple of miles back.
"You are not only losing valuable stock by hangings, you are having uprisings, slaves are running away, your crops are sometimes left in the fields too long for maximum profits, you suffer occasional fires, you animals are killed. Gentlemen, you know what our problems are; I do not need to elaborate I am not here to enumerate your problems, I am here to introduce you to a method of solving them."
Lynch continued to add: "In my bag here, I have a fool-proof method of controlling your black slaves. I guarantee every one of you that if installed correctly, it will control the slaves. My method is simple, any member of your family or overseer can use it. I have outlined a number of differences among the slaves and I take those differences and make them bigger. I use fear,distrust, and envy for the control purposes.
"These methods have worked on my modest plantation in the West Indies, and it will work throughout the South. Take the simple little list of differences and think about them. On top of my list is "Age", but it is there because it starts with an "A", the second is "Color" or Shade", there is "Intelligence","Size", "Sex", Size of Plantation", "Attitude of Owners", "whether slaves live in the valley", or on "the Hill", "East", "West", "North", "South", have "Fine Hair", or "Tall" or "Short". Now that you have a list of differences, I shall give you an outline of actions — but before that I shall assure you that distrust is stronger than adulation, respect or admiration.
"The black slave after receiving this indoctrination shall carry on and will become self refueling and 'self-generating' for hundreds of years, maybe thousands. Don't forget you must pitch the old vs. the young black male, and the young black male against the old male. You must use dark skin slaves vs. light skin slaves and the light skin slaves vs. the dark skinned slaves. You must use the females vs. the males, and the males v. the females.
"You must also have our white servants and overseers distrust all Blacks, but it is necessary that your slaves trust and depend on us. They must love, respect, respect and thrust only us. Gentlemen, these Kits are your keys to control. Use them. Have your wives and children use them, never mind opportunity. My plan is guaranteed, and the good thing about your plan is that if it is used intensely for one year,the slaves themselves will remain perpetually distrustful. Thank you, Gentlemen."
This was a foundation that was also set to overall affect black education too in the US against black slaves, they were being educated into ignorance.
Educated Into Ignorance
A rural African African Preacher said:
"My father [said he] was born and brought up as a slave. He never knew anything else until after I was born. He was taught his place and was content to keep it. But when he brought me up, he let some of the old customs slip by. But I know that there are certain things that I must do, and I do them, and it doesn't worry me. Yet in bringing up my son, I let some more of the old custom slip by.
"He has been through the eighth grade; he reads very easily. For a year I have been keeping him form going to Chicago; but he tells me that this is his last crop; that in the Fall he's going. He says: "When a young white man talk rough to me, I can't talk rough to him. You can stand that; I can't. I have some education, and inside I have feelings of a white man, I'm going." (Department of Labor, 'Negro Migration')"
The extent of residential and school segregation varied widely, for city to city. A study published in 1930 found the least segregation in Minneapolis, Buffalo and New York City, where over 100,000 Negroes lived outside Harlem. In Chicago, the city administration held office by grace of Negro Vote, so official racist policies were opposed at the highest level. Nevertheless Chicago's citizens proved adequate to the task of confining Negroes to certain slum areas, and keeping the better schools limited to white children.
In Philadelphia, twelve schools had 100 percent Negro student bodies. Other schools in the city contained separate entrances for Negroes. Chester, Pennsylvania, operated parallel school systems for Negroes and Whites through Junior High School. Segregationists also enjoyed wide success in such midwestern cities as Gary, Dayton and Indianapolis(Kennedy, The Negro Peasant Turns Cityward).
Nevertheless, schools in all the northern cities were far superior to those operated for Negroes in the South. This was an important reason why the harassment mentioned above, and even the race riots tended to stimulate withdrawal into Negro ghettoes and into Black Nationalist organizations, rather than a mass return to the South.
Every society values education because this transmission process serves several functions. One of these functions of education is to provide Identity. In addition to the cultivation of identity, education has the responsibility to transmit the legacy of Competency. In addition to the bringing forth of Identity, and transmitting the Legacy of Competence, education must also transmit many of the Acquired Immunities that have been learned by earlier generations and their exposure to a variety of intellectual and social diseases.
Another important ingredient that must emerge from education is a Vision that is shared by the collective. The education that African Americans receive must offer them a true and valid Identity, it must transmit a Legacy of Competence, a legacy of Acquired Immunities and ultimately, a Shared Community Vision.
Dr Woodson observed: "Starting after the Civil War, the opponents of freedom and social justice decided to work out a program which would enslave the Negroes' mind inasmuch as the freedom of body had to be conceded. It was well understood that if by teaching of history, the white man could be further assured of his superiority and the Negro could be made to feel that he had always been a failure and the subjection of his will to some other race is necessary the freedman, then, would still be a slave."
Education was both a sacred right and responsibility because without it, no one born in the world could become fully human. Our humanity is defined and distinguished by the development of knowledge and particularly self knowledge, therefore it is critically necessary for each generation to learn who and what they are. No civilized groups of people leave this process to chance.
If we respect and understand the origins of the term education, we understand it not as the transmission of a standard body of information, but the Educing or bringing forth that which is within and the process of facilitating a proper identity is where education must begin.
Education For Servitude
In order for us to understand the nature of Education in the United States. We will cull a lot of information form Jonathan Kozol's book, "Savage Inequalities"," in order to see how this has been done and what the effects of that type of education is to the black children of New York. Lord Acton wrote: "In a country where there is not distinction of class, a child is not born to the station of its parent, but with an indefinite claim to all the prizes that can be won by thought and labor.
It is in conformity with the theory of equality ... to give as near as possible to every youth an equal state in life. Americans are unwilling that any should b deprived in childhood of the means of competition. "Denial of "the means of competition" is perhaps the single most consistent outcome of the education offered to poor children in the schools of our large cities; and nowhere is this pattern of denial more explicit or more absolute than the public schools of New York.
Average expenditures per pupil in the City of New York in 1987 were some $5,500. In the highest spending suburbs of New York (Great Neck or Manhasset, for example, on Long Island) funding levels rose above $11,000 with the highest districts in the state at $15,000.(Kozol) The city's Board of Education asks ." Why should our students receive less than do 'similar students' who leave elsewhere? The inequity is clear."
New York's public schools are subdivided into 32 school districts. District 10 encompasses a large part of the Bronx. Riverdale, is in the Northwest section of the Bronx, which is home to the most sophisticated and well educated families, and their elementary schools have few low-income students. To the Southeast are the poor and the population is heavily nonwhite. At the Riverdale, where Public school 24 is at, the principal speaks enthusiastically about his teaching staff.
Whereas, Public school 79, which serves poor children in the South, the principal there says that he is best to take the "tenth-best" teachers, and remarked that he thanks God that they are still breathing. Some years ago District 10 received some allocation of computers. Although the school in Riverdale had fewer students and smaller classes, received twice the number of computers in proportion to their student population.
There is always plausible denial from the architects of inferior education doled-out to the poorest member and citizens of any city, country and race. Usually, the poor are blamed for being the victim, and the victimizers have no compunction about the woes and debilitating condition suffered by the oppressed and depressed, both socially and academically.
Sometimes a school principal, whatever his background, more especially those in poor and overcrowded schools, see their efforts, with good teachers, year in and year out see their efforts go to zero. Schools like Public School 261, are built next to a morticians office, next door to a former roller-skating rink, and it faces Jerome Avenue, with a flagpole without a flag, no sign identifying the school as a sign; next to the school there is an elevated public transit line; heavy traffic fills the street; the school is virtually concealed within this overcrowded city block. Inside the school there is a guard, and a long narrow lobby; the ceiling is low and there are no windows.
Most teachers are middle aged whites, and the principal says that the school's capacity is 900, but it has 1,300 students. The size of classes for fifth and sixth graders is capped at 32, but the class sizes goes up to 34 and as large as 37. Classes for young children are capped at 25, but this usually goes up and higher than that, to the extent that they cannot operate a kindergarten because of lack of space.(Kozol)
Text Books are scarce and children have to share their social studies books. There is one counselor for 930 students. In this particular school, four kindergarten children and a sixth grade Class of Spanish-speaking children were packed in a single room with no windows.
During their lunch, kids line-up to get their meals and eat it in ten minutes, and after that they wait to line up and go back to class, because they cannot play for lack of space. four other classes were held in the top floor of the building in a room that had a low ceiling, Filing Cabinets and movable blackboards, giving a small degree of isolation to each class, and there were no windows.
The library was in a tiny room with approximately 700 books, with no reference books, no Encyclopedias; the school had 26 computers for 1,300 children, and there's one gym room and children get one period or two each week. Recess was not possible because there was no playground and no space. This school was 90 percent Black and Hispanics, and 10 percent Asian, White and Middle Eastern. The social studies classes have bare walls without works or decorations. On the top floor of the school, 30 sixth grade students share a room with 29 bilingual second grader.
Due to the class size each class has one assistant each. This means that 59 children with four grown-ups, making it 63 in all. In a suburban school there would be no more than 20 kids with one teacher, with some windows and a room with a high ceiling. On the ground floor there was 120 children and adults, with pungent stale air and a low ceiling: 80 children in four kindergarten classes, 30 children in the sixth grade class, and the average class size in this school is supposed to be 30. The kindergarten children were sitting on a worn-out rug, which was patched with tape.
In winter it was 56 degrees, and in the summer it was up to F 90 degrees and sweltering. One of the teachers commented that the children see TV, and they know what suburban schools are like. Then they look around them at their school, and they understand that that their building was a roller-rink.(Kozol)
Then there is the case of P.S 79, another elementary school in the same district. James Carter says that the school was designed to hold 1000, but now it is so badly crowded that it holds 1,550. Some 60 kindergarten students have to be bussed elsewhere because of lack of space, and the following year, when the return, they will be no place to put them. There are no rooms for a science lab and library, and there are two gymnasium which cannot be used for sports, while in the suburbs there are 17 to 20 pupils in a classroom.
The school is 29 percent black and 70 percent Hispanic and few of these kids get Head Start. There is no space in the district, and of the 200 kindergarten children, 50 may get some kind of preschool. To explain how pre-school works, Ames Carter said: "There are five to seven levels in each grade and the highest level is the equivalent to 'gifted,' but it's not a full-scale gifted program because there are no funds and no science rooms. The Science teachers carry their equipment with them. In one classroom the window was broken and had two hole in the ceiling. About a quarter of the ceiling has been patched and covered with a plastic garbage bag.
James "carter made the following comment:
"Ideal class size for these kids would be 15 to 20. Will these children ever get what white kids in the suburbs take for granted? I don't think so. If you ask me why, I'd have to speak of race and social class. I don't think the powers that be in New York City understand, or want to understand, or want to understand, that if they do not give these children a sufficient education to lead healthy and productive lives, we will be their victims later on.
"We'll pay the price someday — in violence, in economic costs. I despair of making this appeal in any terms but these. You cannot issue n appeal to conscience in New York today. The fair-play argument won't be accepted. So you speak of violence and hope it will scare the city into action."
P.S. 24 in Riverdale had dogwoods and Magnolias on the lawn in the front lawn. To the left of the school is a playground for small children, with an innovative jungle gym, and slide and several climbing toys. There is a well-tended park across the street. Behind the school there are two playing fields for older kids. The grass around the school in well tended and neatly trimmed.
The neighborhood around the school is the richest part of Riverdale, very expensive and beautiful — some of which are large, free-standing houses, others condominiums in solid red-brick buildings — sell for prices around $400,000, but some of the larger Tudor houses on the winding and tree-shaded streets lose to the school can cost up to $1 million. The excellence of P.S. 24 according to the principal, adds to the value of these homes. Advertisements in the New York Times will frequently inform prospective buyers that a house is "in the neighborhood of P.S. 24".
The school is serves 825 children in the kindergarten through sixth grade. This is approximately half the student population crowded into P.S. 79, where 1,550 children fill a space intended for 1,000, and a great deal smaller than the 1,300 children packed into the former skating rink; but the principal of P.S. 24, David Rothstein, still regards it as excessive for an elementary.(Kozol)
The school is integrated because it houses the meddle-and upper-middle-class white children who occupy a building that contains some Asian and Hispanic and black children. There is little integration in the classroom because the majority of the hispanic and black children are assigned to "special" classes on the basis of evaluations that have classified them "EMR" — "Educable Mentally Retarded" — or else, in the worst cases, "TMR" - Trainable Mentally retarded.
The principal says that most of these kids are in the special classes and do not come from this neighborhood. The school therefore contains effectively two separate schools: one of the 130 children, most of whom are poor, Hispanic and black, are assigned to one of the 12 special classes; the other of some 700 mainstream students, almost all of whom are white and Asian. In their gifted class, they do logic and syllogism.
The room is fitted with a planetarium. At P.S. 261, there was a domelike space that had been built to hold a planetarium,but the planetarium had been removed to free up space for a small library collection. P.S. 24 has a spacious library that hold almost 8,000 books, with windows that were decorated with attractive and brightly colored curtains and flowering trees. The principal says the books are inadequate, but it looks spectacular compared to the cubicle that held 700 books within a former skating rink.
It is not only at the grade-school level that inequities like these are seen in the New York City. A teacher who has taught for 20 years said: "I do everything an inanimate object can do to keep children from being educated." Blackboards at the school are so badly cracked that teachers are afraid to let students rite on them for fear they'll cut themselves. Some mornings, according to the teachers, fallen chips of paint cover the classrooms like snow.
Teachers and students have come to see humor in the waterfall that courses down six flight of stairs after a heavy rain. One classroom was sealed-off because of a gaping hole in the floor. In may places plaster and ceramic tiles have peeled-off the walls, leaving the external brick wall of the school exposed,not leaving much between the students and the outdoors. Female students tell of having to wash after school because the paint falls onto their hair. It will cost as much as $50 million to restore the school to an acceptable condition.
The richer districts — those like Riverdale P.S. 24, which have property and houses are highly valued. — And they have more revenue, derived from taxing land and homes, to fund their public schools. The reputation of the schools adds and expands the tax base for their pubic schools. The fact that they can levy lower taxes than the poorer districts, but exact more money, raises values even more; and this, again, means further funds for smaller classes and for higher teacher salaries within their pubic schools.
Few of the kids in schools of Roosevelt or Mount Vernon will as a result, be likely to compete effectively with kids in Great Neck and Manhasset for admissions to better local colleges and universities of New York State. Even fewer will compete for more exclusive Ivy League admissions. And few of he graduates or dropouts of these poor systems, as a consequence, are likely ever to earn enough to buy a home in Great Neck or Manhasset.
All of these children say the Pledge of Allegiance every morning. Whether in the New York suburbs, Mississippi, or the South Bronx, they salute the flag. They place their hands across their hearts and join their voices in a tribute to "one nation indivisible" which promises liberty and justice to all people. What is the danger that the people in a town like Rye would face if they resolved to make this statement true? How much would it really harm their children to compete in a fair race? This are the questions that are still being asked today and few answers seem to be coming, and the more things stay the same: a large number of miseducated Blacks and Hispanics students.
Black Higher Education as Education for Servitude
The history of Black higher education essentially involves the origin and evolution of Black private college system, beginning from the Reconstruction era to World War II, this is the case because up to 1938 and for quite some time thereafter, when the United States Supreme court ordered the states to provide "substantially equal facilities" for Black and White State and land-grant colleges, the vast majority of black College students were enrolled in private institutions of Higher Learning.
And these institutions were controlled by and identified with Black church organizations, white missionary and industrial philanthropy. As late as 1930, Black church organizations controlled colleges which enrolled 14 percent of Black students. Missionary and industrial philanthropy controlled colleges which enrolled 61 percent of those students. The black state and land-grant colleges enrolled most of the remaining 25 percent.
The mission societies made their most important contribution to Black higher education from the 1860s to 1915. By then the mission societies had established over thirty colleges attended by the majority of Black Professional students. Many of these institutions were and remain the leading Black centers of Higher learning. (Wilson)
Equal rights was of little concern to northern businessmen. They did not have any interest in transforming the racial caste system in the South. They only wanted to stabilize and organize its industrial market, make farms prosperous for southern society in hope of gaining racial cooperation on southern White terms enabling them to educate southern black to be efficiency within the system.
"Negro industrial training" as philanthropy was recognized as the most appropriate form of education for blacks, who in turn were expected to maintain the racial order by "keeping to their assigned place" in order to maintain political stability and economical material advancement of the south, so long as blacks were playing their designated role in the social and economic slave.(meaning, being a slave and second class citizen) The place and role for blacks in the south as understood by the northern investors, was no different form their perception of the place and role of Blacks in the North and America in particular.
Higher Education for the Few
Big Northern Industrial funders like and including The Rockefeller-financed General Education, the Peabody, Slater, Jeanes, Phelp-Stokes, and Rosenwald, avoided giving support to Black higher education (in contrast to industrial education) during the late and early 20th centuries. they had no intention of making Black higher education broadly accessible to a college-age population of over 250,000 Black youths in the first two decades of the 1900s, these philanthropists did support the ideas of developing a smaller number — i.e., two high quality universities and three high bred colleges — of Black institutions of higher learning designed primarily to produce educated leaders whose role it was to inculcate White American values into the Black masses.
At it highest levels, Black Education was to be an education for "service," education designed to supplementary improve and support southern and American industrial efficiency. Black intellectuals were still expected to uncomplainingly accept the South's and American's racial hierarchy. From 1902 to 1960 the General Education Board expended slightly less than $41.5 million on Black Higher Education. Still, Black Higher Education was and still remains dreadfully underfunded.(Edward Greenberg)
The Industrial forces like the Ford,Sloan and Taconic Foundations, the Duke and Mellon Charities and other foundations which replaced the General Education Board after it was phased-out in the 1950s. The industrial foundations are still a powerful force in Black higher education as Backs must still ask them for gifts to aid them in their day-to-day struggles to survive. As a result, black colleges must retain conservative curricula, restrict themselves to preparing their students to serve White corporate interests, to work for White-owned and controlled companies and institutions, and to assist white supremacy in its domination and exploitations of African Peoples. T
The education of Black people in predominantly white colleges is the same. Education in these institutions under the mercenary-like influence of the corporate institutions and philanthropies as already discussed above. It is obviously no the intention of White industrial philanthropy and the White powers-that-be in education that Black higher education play a major role in liberating African peoples and nations from White politico-economic domination and in empowering those same peoples and nations to challenge the industrial-military-technological hegemony of White peoples and nations.
To be a subjugated collective, or a people dispersed and absorbed in a global collective controlled by other collectives, that is not going to work. In the vocabulary of separatism and integration,one must say to all universalists and integrationists (those for whom individualist universalism is but a respectable cloak for their yearnings to be white, to "pass") that genuine individual integration is only possible between the members of genuinely equal ethnic or racial groups.
Without their separate group equality, integration and universalism are liable to degenerate into subordination for some. And in the vocabulary of nationalism and internationalism, let it be said that without strong and balanced nationalisms, internationalism is liable to degenerate into, and become a respectable cover for, imperialism of the kind that pretends to be universalism.
Until Africans realize that their salvation is not an individual matter, that restoration of African dignity is not a matter of personal achievement and flamboyance, but rather a matter of collective power, of a highly productive economy that can hold its own in the world, of atomic power; until we realize that neither of these stepping stones to restored dignity is attainable under a cult of individualist eminence, and consumerism within a westernized global arena; until Africans fashion their lives under these recognitions, the quest for African dignity and true education will not make much headway.
African Unified Consciousness...
Writing Africa Into African History: Decolonization Of African History/Historiography
If one were to look into the history and rule of President Mabutu Sese Seko, one can easily glean what a rascal and turncoat that he was. We should also remember that it was during the Cold , with all these 'ideologies' filtering and permeating the 'real politick' of the day. The divisions between The West(Capitalist) and the Russian, Chinese, Cuban and so forth enclaves, that Africa was caught in the middle.
The middlemen like Mobutu served Western interest that in the end he acquired massive material gain. This opulence and his ignorance of wealth(now that he was president he was being exposed to it like he had never seen), goaded him into even putting a very exorbitantly priced Chandelier on his porch, that with many of his buffoon-like antics, too numerous to tabulate here, made him the charlatan and very backward of the generation of African leaders that came into power in the aforementioned historical timeline pointed to above.
So that, with his imperfection and glib and comic-like rule of his time, so were we, as African people, caught up in a cycle and the introduction of a system, up to thus far, we had never known. As we critique our leaders, great and dumb/murderous and disastrous to the development of African collective and polity, as we rewrite our African history, we must be cognizant of the fact that what we say we are writing anew, should be so from the way we begin to choose to name and reset out reality and future, that, we must constantly pick up on the good/aphorisms from anyone who will help us build the foundation of African history in the 21st Century.
I say all this in the sense that I am really following on Clarke's dictum:
"Let me explain what I am talking about. No mater where you are and no matter what religion you might belong to, and no matter what kind of schooling you have gone through, you are distinctly an African person. You are a supporter of some loyal feelings for every African person that walks this earth and if you have confusion about that, you have confusion that is detrimental to the freedom of your own people."
This is Key. We need to consciously relate to our History and be true to its dictates. That, be honest about what and how we want to achieve the collective unity all is seeking on these various Walls. There is no place for ignorance and envy-but all the space to recreate and, compose and tell our History in the light of the facts we can garner from all sources and disciplines.
Yes, we must read other people and cite that which upgrades us to meet our desired and stated historical goals. As Malcolm X said, "We need to talk 'Sharp' with one another". This is more directed to the people of African descent, specifically. Like, if we are to use English to talk to one another, we should do so with clear erudition and forthrightness-within a firm and well informed African historical perspective-in service of and for all people of African descent to discern easily and use it for their own rehabilitation from the 'hangovers' of Slavery, Colonialism, Imperialism, New World Order and Globalism.
These socialization processes have tainted our way to reaching down into our abilities(each one teaching one; each one reaching one")-with earnestness we dubbed here in South Africa to be "Ubuntu/Botho)-that is recognizing the humanity of others and developing the trust fro truth from those who have taught us in a myriad of ways throughout Africa and the Diaspora (This concept has been and is being abused and misunderstood by many inside South Africa and Africa/Diaspora), how to shape and form our environments, people, and the whole bit without aping or copy-catting other people, unashamedly.
This is why I opened with a bit about Sese Seko who, in his miserable and quisling existence averred:
"We should always have present in out minds the fact that the world is at a crossroads. It is no longer divided by ideology, nor even all that much by race or by political geography, but by economics, and this is the real essence of the question of relations among the people of the world today.
"It is not enough just to condemn colonialism, imperialism and racism, but it is important too to measure our strengths and weaknesses and to unify to fight the battle of development. ... That is why I utter a cry of alarm so that we may forget our small rivalries and our small sordid interests in order to constitute among ourselves, in unity, a great force, not a force against the East and the West, but a force which would enable us to sit down and talk as equal partners with both sides."
Those who know Mabutu, on reading this would be petrified, knowing what he is saying is what he has done against the interests of the Africans. But, I use him because what he is saying above, is the yarn spun by all here on the FB Walls and elsewhere. My point is that, in reconstructing and building a History of Africans, we will even take from the gendarme of the type of Mabutu, in order to affect our own Zeitgeist-and from our legendary revolutionary vanguardists; and, from that, form our own Paradigms, which, if we construct them according to the dictates of what we learn from our own African history, will serve as the solid building blogs of African people's Story (Historiography).
It important we cite our past in order to understand the present. What it is we understand about the past and how we come into ways of knowing about the present, will help us formulate, dictate and establish a much needed continuum as to the survival of Ourselves as a people, and be in a position to reclaim the whole continent of Africa for Africans-in the future-without having to apologize to no one or ask permission from our detractors to do so.
Chinewizu intones that we should investigate the Western Styles of Imperialism expansion into Africa during the past 500+ years:
"It is also an investigation, within the context of that expansion, into the man-made causes of Africa's backwardness. It is unnecessary to add any more to our mountains of lamentations. It is too late for us, the imperialized, to weep for sympathy upon the shoulders of those who have brought about our oppression and keep us in our plight. We need, rather, to understand our past defeats if we want to avoid the deadly shocks of our future seems to be holding in ambush for us.
"And to do so, it is imperative that we revise our understanding of the history of which we are products. This message and information and heads-up should be given to the the so-called Third World(to me, this means African people-but not exclusively-but specifically), and especially those who fancy themselves to be the African elite, pleading for a moment to listen closely and analyze the tunes being played to us by the Pied Pipers of progress from the West, before we decide whether and how we should march out after them."
I will write this short history of the intrusion of Western Imperialism in some forthcoming articles I have lined up. I want to pick up Chinweidzu wherein he informs us of his evolution in learning about Himself and his history when he writes:
"In my flight form their intellectual opium den, to discover Fanon, Cesaire and other was like bursting into a head-clearing gust of fresh, crisp air. It was refreshing and exhilarating to discover that others from the African World had left records of their escapes from the colonizers of our consciousness. And above all, quite, quite unlike the authoritative jargon from the official experts and embalmers, what Fanon and Company said made sense-powerful, moving and enlightening sense."
"With the title of his book 'Black Skin, White Masks, Frantz Fanon, in just one phrase, diagnosed the malady I shared in various degrees, with most others from our colonized backgrounds'
"And so, I began a journey of the mind; a journey by a mind thoroughly alienated upbringing; a mind seeking complete escape from the debilitating conditions produced by the narcotic of a colonized miseducation. And the purpose of this journey was first to seek out the roots of the Black(African) condition within which my mind suffered."
Now, in writing African History into the Historiography of African history, there are many variables that one has to deal with. Also, the interpretation, thereof, is depended upon our paying attention to the past Master Historians-who have already travelled the beaten path that informs us today. Many of us today, affected and infected and also effected by the burgeoning technologies and their gizmos, have been made into Pavlovian intellectual canines, who regurgitate what they imbibe uncritically, then turn around and present that mess as if it's legit and factual-to the unsuspecting African collective.
Yet, as we read and learn about African history, writing it and into it, spreading the memes and zines that are built-in into its form, we need to pay attention to the African perspective of yarns and information that we ingest and disseminate. We must also be cognizant of the informer and the information. This is critical. We have to understand, if one were to re-read Mabutu's desperate plea, that it is as much our duty and concern as Africans to begin to understand ourselves seriously, take all that seriously and apply it to test its merits and demerits- and then choose the appropriate modus operandi.
If we are to add consciousness into our historical meandering and attempts to make it serve us, we learn from those who have trodden the path, like Chinweizu, who stated it this way:
"And in two brief sentences, Hamidou Kane identified the source of the infection in my consciousness, namely, the colonial school:
"Better than the cannon, it makes conquest permanent. The cannon compels the body, the school bewitches the soul."
"CesaireAnd Aime Cesaire, with few remarkable sentences, showed how to deal with the enchanting lies of the colonial school, the habitual lies of the whole of colonial culture:
"... Let us go straight to the principal lie which is the source of all the others. Colonization and Civilization? In dealing with this subject, the commonest curse is to be the dupe in good faith of a collective hypocrisy that cleverly misrepresents problems, the better to legitimize the hateful solutions provided for them. In other words, the essential thing here is to see clearly, to think clearly - that is, dangerously - and to answer clearly the first innocent question: what, fundamentally, is colonization?"
Chinweizu teaches us that:
"I began a conscious effort to escape their prejudices; I began to strive instead for intellectual self-reliance, for my autonomy of perspective, choice and initiative. And I heard Amilcar Cabral's memorable admonition against falling for those universalist fantasies that might tempt me from the needed kind of hard work:
"On the political level, our own reality, however fine and attractive the reality of others may be, can only be transformed by detailed knowledge of it, by our own efforts, by our own sacrifices."
We learn, then from Chinweizu further that:
"That admonition surely applied to our mental reality, for was our consciousness or our reality not a vital part of our political reality? And as I applied myself to the task of understanding the origins of African Stasis and to the task of understanding the workings of the system which maintained the deplorable Black(African) Condition, I came across Pablo Neruda, the Nobel Prize poet from Chile."
Speaking out of a Latin American experience not essentially dissimilar from African experience today, with one sentence of a single poem; he made concrete and visible the essence of that imperialism which created and maintains our plight:
"If New York glitters like gold
and has buildings with 500 bars,
let me have it written that they were built
from the sweat of the cane fields:
the banana plantation is a green inferno
so that In New York they may drink and dance."
Just as this piece below carries a similar theme:
"Americas pets-cats and dogs-now consume $2 billion worth of resources annually, and eat much better than most of humanity, dining elegantly on shrimp cocktails and liver pate at such places as the Animal gourmet restaurants in New York City. Thus, it its most dramatic and obscene form, the question is whether the labor and resources of the Third World nations should continue to contribute more to the opulence of America's dogs and cats than to the elementary food health of the Third World"
Becoming conscious of African history and Africans around the world, we need to have a seriously holistic approach and some serious reading needs to be done. We need to know, concretely and clearly what went down in the past, what's happening now, and what are we going to do about it in shaping and formulating the Future and history of Africans around the Globe, and particularly, in Africa?
Whilst we are at it, I would like to add a perspective I have been working on in some of my blogs of Understanding The Media by McLuhan…
It is important that we begin to understand the media which is exploding in leaps and bounds so that we can also begin to learn how to manage our information gathering and information propagation. The medium(Internet) facilitates for the propagation of "Messages" and it ends up becoming the message. This postulation is from the way we interact and use the medium in these times. The messages in the media are so vast that we also need to carve a niche for ourselves in the table of the data sphere, by also swirling intensively and extensively in the powerful swirl in the Viral soup.
There are many disadvantage we seem to trip on every time we talk about the interest and liberation of Africans. This has been the case in many instances here o the Web on the FB and various Blogs. It is about that we Africans in Africa and the Diaspora should become part of the McLuhan Global Village when it comes to communication development and proliferation and along with its usage with its embedded techniques and automation/electricity. We learn this much from Rushkof who writes:
"Our society has reorientated itself to the present moment. Everything is live, real time, and always on. It's not mere speeding up, however much our lifestyles and technologies have accelerated the rate at which we attempt to do things. It's more of a diminishment of anything that isn't happening right now-and the onslaught of everything that supposedly is.
"It is why the world's leading search engine is evolving into a live, customized, and predictive flow of data branded 'Google Now' is why email is giving way to texting, and why blogs are being superseded by Twitter feeds. It is why kids in school can no longer follow linear arguments; why narrative structure collapsed into reality TV; and why we can't engage in meaningful dialogue about last month's books, and music, much less long-term global issues. It's why an economy once based on long-term is as the wisp of the post in various Walls on the FB.
Today here we are on the Web and communicating with each like never before. We all bring a baggage into this communication arena. We bring not only that, but dictated to and dedicated to the ways and means of using this social format.
We can remove the borders in the present independent African Flag States, but we have not even solved he present problems that exist in these economic proclivities coveted by big capital, and have been going to extremely inhuman means and ways to keep hold the ownership of information, which according to Professor Clarke, "Not only has the colonizers colonized information, they also colonized Information about the World. This too is one aspect of colonization that this article has been about: Decolonization Of the History Of Africans From The West."
This on my part is the reason why I will keep on stating and calling for us to write our own material, be as original about its ideas and information, and it should be written strictly and specifically from an African perspective, and by African historians.
For me, it is not only being 'edumacated' by the western masters that is my concern only here, but what scholarship that is coming from us be as original and intended for the people of African descent, globally. Learning from the past, because we were not there, means reading about it-to understand the present "presentism"..
If we ignore reading that, or reading-period! How are we going to manage the present here and now-let alone begin applying our mind-set to the future realities and problems and existence? That to me, as to who provides me with knowledge, is important, but it is also important that I should know what to do or who to deal with that acquired information, education and knowledge.
I think if there is anything to learn thus far, it is how and when and why we will be writing our own stories(Histories) and make sure that we are efficient and knowledgeable when doing that. Other people, of the West, have written so much stuff about us-Yes, we should use it, but we must write our own Stories and History it must serve our needs and purposes-and it must reflect in it our African Intellectual abilities and spirit and ingenuity… In an African centered perspective.
Afrikan Consciousness: Was African Really Decolonized: Mzatnsi(South Africa 1994.. Free?
On Pedagogy Of African Historiography: Learning About Us Learning About Ourselves As African People, From the Past, To Now Well Into The Future...
When it come to our education today in South Africa, we get caught up in the conundrum and doldrums of regurgitating what we have bee edumacated into, and this also depends where and by whom-but not by ourselves. But that is not the extent of the conundrum we face, what I find debilitating is the fact that many of us cannot think outside the box of our edumacation.
We follow protocol as foisted and instilled within us without question, and we would even lay our lives on the line, some of us, for there is no other enlightenment we know of, nor can contest against what we are now, into something new.
And yet, that which we need to do, is to create a new African Man, has been and is still with us; it is just that we have been indoctrinated to think as we cannot do that for ourselves, today.
We should re-think as to how we have been edumacated. We think like students of Oxford/Cambridge, Harvard and other elite Western Ivy leaguers and some mediocre college and universities. Some of us use theorists that were never known nor are recognized by our people, as a whole, things like Marxism, Capitalists Intellectuals and so forth.
In fact, since the advent of the Social Media, many are seeing many of the African writers books showcased or displayed on some Walls, but they never bother to buy nor read them, but pretend that they do.
We have become lazy to read and get to know more than we have been educed to by our detractors, that this is the reason for me penning this piece.
Many of our African peoples have had the opportunities to be edumacated overseas, only for many of those who came back into Mzantsi, showing-off how much they are edumacated into ignorance, by gloating for those who will never go to these countries and acquire their type learning. We are seeing many of our brothers and sisters who have become good at displaying their edumacated statuses, and to the extent of even molding and changing their accents to those acquired overseas to those who will never be able to have the same opportunities as they had.
This is real, happening in our midst, and distortion issues about our own pedagogy of our own stories, and Ancient African History-continues unabated.
Ancient African History or should I say, African historiography is now a very broad and vast field. There are many researchers and writers in this field that to try and talk about, will not be enough on this page. I will take it piecemeal, just to show what we need to know, how to pay attention to historical details/data and begin to stitch and rewrite our own stories and histories without being influenced nor affected by the Western-type of education plaguing many of us today.
Some of us do not even realize, nor are they conscious of nor know that as individuals in our ailing economy, we are not becoming enlightened for our individual selves, Only(See Number 5 below by Jose Marti). In this case, I would like to cite Jose Marti On Education:
1. Instruction is not the same as education: the former refers to thought, the latter principally to feelings. Nevertheless, there is no good education without instruction. Moral qualities rise in price when they are enhanced by qualities of intellect.
2. Popular Education does not mean education of the poorer classes exclusively, but rather that all classes in the nation, tantamount to saying the people-be well educated. Just as there is no reason why the rich are educated and not the poor, what reason is there for the poor to be educated and not the rich. They are all the same.
3. He who knows more is worth more. To know is to possess. Coins are minted, knowledge is not. Bonds or paper money are worth more, or less, or nothing; knowledge always has the same value, and it is always high. A rich man needs money with which to live, but he can lose it and then he no longer has the means of living. An instructed man lives from his knowledge, and since he carries it with him, he never loses it and his existence is easy and secure.
4. The happiest nation is the one whose sons/daughters have the best education, both in instruction of thought and the direction of feelings. An instructed people loves work and knows how to derive profit from it. A virtuous people will live a happier and richer life than another that is filled with vices, and will better defend itself from all attacks.
5. Every man, when he arrives upon this earth, has a right to be educated, and then, in payment, the duty to contribute to the education of others.
6. An ignorant people can be deceived by superstition and become servile. An instructed people will always be strong and free. An ignorant man is on his way to becoming a beast, and a man instructed in knowledge and conscience is on his way to being a god. One must not hesitate to choose between a nation of gods and a nation of beasts.
The best way to "defend our rights is to know them well"; in so doing one has faith and strength; every nation will be unhappy in proportion to how poorly educated are its inhabitants. "A Nation Of Educated Men Will Always Be A Nation Of Free Men". Education is the only means of being saved from slavery. "A Nation Enslaved To Men Of Another Nation Is As repugnant As Being Enslaved To The Men Of One's Own".
Jose Marti, Guatemala (Mexico) 1878
José Julián Martí Pérez is the Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature...
If we are going to talk about Education, we can learn from many people around the world. But, this is not cited here for people to take and boast about to their FB or Blog Friends. We should take these advises like Jose above is doling out for us, and implement them; teach them to others by reaching onto them with such talk, lesson and so on.
This mind-set that I want this for myself only, is in fact what is setting us back as a people. We have shallow minded people who are going for 'accolades' without being helpful. We cannot keep on behaving as we have been indoctrinated and make that a normal scene and reality for our people.
It is African history we must now talk about in this last part of the section concerning Pedagogy Of/On African History. We need to really understand what it is about African historiography that holds the key to our freedom.
Many do not think-quite obviously, that their Western Education only prepared many of us to be servant of those whose schools we have attended and graduated from. Those who have not gone to school do not know any better.
If we have been educed by our detractors, we need not follow them in their way of inserting the confusion we see. If we know how to become educated, it really means we can learn some more new ways of educating ourselves as we see fit.
If we are to learn anything from Jose above, it is how are we going to implement and apply these ideas amongst and with our people who are facing an Educational Kamikaze's from the China and The US and Western Europe. Are we only going to be educed to being hapless voyeurs of our oppression, destruction of our culture and education System, from a President who really does not understand what they are doing, and the Vultures in government looking at the fiscal gain and end of our destruction: meaning-what gains they would be making in Chinafication of our people, and the commission they will receive for Mandarizing us here in Mzantsi?
Many of us only speak about/of African History, but do not really know, understand or have studied it in its depth and breadth. This means, what we read, must be applied and resonate with the African collective. What we write, and what our people read, they should be able to see themselves in the Historical narratives. We should not read to show-off our know-how, but be adept at using what we know to better our peoples understanding of themselves and their history/story.
Our people should not first of all see how and where we have been edumacated, but they should appreciate and access from our knowledge a better and much more clearer and authentic recognition of themselves, as being part of the Story, History and Narrative we are disseminating amongst them.
We cannot act like our indoctrinators, because that simply means we have learnt nothing, instead, have become conduits for an Education which has made us, its carriers and teachers, poor copies of our Masters and detractors. Clarke writes:
"There is a real crisis facing African educators. This crisis began a long time ago with things we did not understand. I think in reading about a scene of an African being forced on a slave ship, and he reached back and puts a handful of African Dirt(Soil) in his mouth. I think he understood more about education more than most of us understand.
"He understood the basis of a nation: land. Until we understand the land basis of education, and the nation basis of education, we will miss the point. Now, where we have to go looking at education is to what extent our approach to education went wrong; and to when we stopped being innovators and became imitators.
"In the nineteenth century, we began to be 'those things most unlike ourselves.' When we had the golden opportunity to set a new tone in education, we tried to be 'like' our oppressors, instead of setting a new basis for eduction.
In fact, true education has one purpose, one purpose alone, that is to train the student to be a handler of power - If nothing more than handling power over him and herself. Everything else is a waste of time."
I would like to briefly qualify what Clarke is saying here, for some people, when I cited this piece, misunderstood Clarke. What Clarke is saying is that, if we are going to formulate our own African-Centered education system, its intention should be to educate our children to handle power of our own land and people-not the way we seeing it, today, and I have pointed out above, to being edumacated by our detractors, in order for them to rule effectively over us, without being involved, but deploying us, their indoctrinated students. This we better understand clearly.
To this, Clarke adds:
"The basis of [African] education for a new reality[millennium], is to pull us out of this five-hundred year room[of colonial educational and total oppression of African people]. For us to understand what went wrong with our education, we are going to have to study and understand the 19 century. It is at this time/era that we produced the finest minds that we had seen since the decline of Egypt and Nile Valley Civilization.
"We produced rebels like Frederick Douglass and Martin Delany. This was the century where we saw the likes of great ministers like Henry Highland Garnet, whose motto was "resistance, Resistance, Resistance." This was a century when there was a search for Africa; the century of African women, sojourner of Truth and Harriet Tubman, etc... We will not orient ourselves in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries until we go back to the 19 century… above, I am just talking about the United States.
"Going back to the Caribbean Islands, we find there a century of physical resistance. Going back to South America, and Brazil, Africans brought into being two African nations. This is where Africans arriving from Africa by-passed the auction block, went into the hinterlands and formed an African nation. Palmares lasted for 110. Bahai lasted almost as long. Where dimensions of African continuity produced the most successful slave revolts in the history of the world, mostly in Jamaica.
When we look at Jamaica and Haiti, you will wonder why, if Jamaica fought longer and harder, why is it that Haiti brought off an Independent sate and Jamaica did not?
"Haiti fought over a shorter period with a greater degree of consistency. But when the Jamaicans fought, too much time lapsed between their revolutions and the British, who were able to destabilize them. But when you look at the leadership in the Caribbean today, every one of them can be written off as lost. But it should be remembered that the revolutions in the Caribbean brought about the stimulation for the massive slave revolts in the United States.
"We must always remember that Caribbean intellectuals never fared well at home in the Caribbean theater. Most of these minds left home and the best of these minds went to the United States. It started with Prince Hall, who travelled to Africa, along with Robert Campbell and Martin Delany searching for more broader view of African history.
Peter Ogden was one of the founders of the Odd Fellows. Prince Hall founded the Masons. And these minds could not functions in their place of birth, and still cannot function now. You can trace it two hundred years through Garvey and those who went back were killed, including Walter Rodney.
The greatest of these was Wilmot Blyden, who said this about education at Liberia College:
"We will have to work for many years to come. Not only without the popular support that we must have, but inadequate resources. ... We strive to be those things most unlike ourselves, no matter what talent we have, we feed the grist into other people's mills ... and, of course, nothing comes out except what has been put in. And that is our great sorrow."
"That was in 1818, more than one hundred years ago. It was not only ahead of that time, it's ahead of this time. We're still doing it. He was one of the finest voices for an African course in the 19 century.
"Africa in the 19 century had massive colonial revolts. This was the century when the African world face reality as it has never faced reality before. In the first half of that century, Africans began a physical revolt, this was when the Zulu Wars had started in Southern Africa; the Ashanti wars in Ghana had already begun; there were the Islamic wars in the Sudan; the Maji Maji wars in Tanganyika and neighboring territories; the Riff was in north Africa were already afoot. And the wars in Nigeria led by Ousmane Dan Folio had already started.
"These physical confrontations diminished as the slave trade turned into colonialism[another form of slavery], and the Africans also noticed the missionary efforts, and saw those too as a form of slavery. The Europeans began to destroy the African images of God.
"One of the ways of enslaving Africans, was that, after they removed one set of chains and put the chains on them, is not only change your religion, but also make you change your dress and to laugh at your gods.
Once you change to their gods, their dress, their tastes, their music, their food, they do not need any prison walls after that. They've got prison walls more binding, because the prison wall is inside your mind."
Due to space, I will sum up this part of the article by stating that I had begun by pointing out to the futility of our education system. Clarke has put the meat on the bones and has given us an expanded history of the US, Caribbean and Africa-and in doing so, pointed to how we lost our initiative and our creative/inventive spirits and opted to be and try our darnest to be like our Masters.
Clarke shows/tells us that we had the initiative, but we let our guard down, and those who came before us in the 19 century did, is what most of us are doing, today, throughout Africa and the Diaspora-Aping our detractors.
Jose Marti advised us that:
"An ignorant people can be deceived by superstition and become servile. An instructed people will always be strong and free. An ignorant man is on his way to becoming a beast, and a man instructed in knowledge and conscience is on his way to being a god. One must not hesitate to choose between a nation of gods and a nation of beasts.
"The best way to 'defend our rights is to know them well', and in so doing. One has faith and strength; every nation will be unhappy in proportion to how poorly educated are its inhabitants.
"A Nation Of Educated Men Will Always Be Nation Of Free Men". Education is the only means of being saved from slavery. "A Nation Enslaved To Men Of Another Nation Is As repugnant As Being Enslaved To The Men Of One's Own."
When it comes to learning and knowing and disseminating our narrative of African History, we had better be prepared to learn it very well; know it from its Antiquity antecedents, and the timeline throughout the millennia up to today, fully and very well.
We can all try our best to show how much we know, but, it is from our own ideas, learned African-centered selves that we will not be misled by many of our detractors, and their agents in our midst as an African collective.
No Man Is Free Who Is Not Master Of Himself....
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