The Process of photosynthesis

The Process of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants produce food. Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves, stem, and other structures of the plant. However the leaf is the chief organ of the photosynthesis.

The Process of photosynthesis:

Photosynthesis starts in the upper surface of the leaf wherein the chlorophyll absorb the sun’s rays. The sun’s rays which are converted into heat supply the energy, necessary for manufacturing food. Below the upper epidermis are palisades cell composed of chlorophyll bodies. The sun rays after being absorbed by the upper epidermis reach the chlorophyll bodies in the palisade mesophyll layer.

The sun’s rays converted into energy is used to make sugar out of water and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide enters the palisade layer through the stomata, the tiny openings in the lower epidermis and the breathing organ of the plant.

Sugar is then changed to starch for storage or combines with the other  materials to build substances such as protein and vitamins. In the whole process of photosynthesis, a very important gas is produced. This gas given off by plants is called oxygen. This is the gas which we breathe in order to live.


Water from the soil is absorbed by plant through its root hairs. This process takes place by osmosis- the movement of water across a semi permeable membrane due to differences in solute concentration, pressure or both. Absorbed water in the roots is then carried up through the stem into the leaf and finally to the food making cells.


Photosynthesis takes place in the leaf where chlorophyll, the green coloring matter of plant is found.

1.       Chlorophyll A- it is yellow green in color found in all plants.

2.       Chlorophyll B- it is blue green. It is found in land chlorophyll is accompanied by carotenoid pigments. Carotenoid pigments absorb green, blue and violet colors and reflect red, yellow and light orange.


Chloroplast is an elongated organelle found in the leaf. In a corn leaf, there are at least 40 to 50 chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are organelles specializing in photosynthesis. They contain the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll  A and B and the carotenoids.

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