The Sutton Hoo ship burial, Suffolk, England

The Sutton Hoo helmet, on display in the British Museum
The Sutton Hoo helmet, on display in the British Museum

King Raedwald of East Anglia

After the recall of the Roman administration of England in 410 AD, the land became open to settlement by tribes from the near continent, notably from what is now Denmark and northern Germany. One of these tribes was the Angles, who originated from what is now the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, immediately south of the Danish peninsula.

The Angles settled mainly in what are now the English counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, and would have been well established in the area before the reign of King Raedwald, who was probably king from 599 to 624.

By this time, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms had come under the influence of Christian missionaries, most notably Augustine who had arrived in Kent in 597. Raedwald was the second English king to be baptized as a Christian, the ceremony taking place at the court of the first such convert, namely King Ethelbert of Kent, in about the year 605.

However, it would take a long time for the culture and practices of Christianity, as directed by bishops from Rome, to wholly replace those of the formerly pagan English monarchies, and this is evident from the burial customs that are revealed by the Sutton Hoo site, and others.

Raedwald was therefore buried in a manner that was consistent with the Norse tradition of laying the king’s body in one of his ships, together with many of his former possessions, and burying the ship under a raised mound of earth. There is no evidence that ships were ever set on fire and pushed out to sea, as Hollywood directors might fondly imagine, but the body was often cremated within the ship before it was buried.

A reconstruction of the site, with the burial chamber marked in white
A reconstruction of the site, with the burial chamber marked in white | Source

The Sutton Hoo burial

The site is close to the River Deben at Woodbridge, Suffolk. Visitors are able to walk round the site, which contains a total of 17 burial mounds that date back to prehistoric times, and view an exhibition that tells the story of King Raedwald and explains how the site was excavated, but the treasures that were found are now housed in London’s British Museum, with replicas being on view at the site itself.

It is evident that Raedwald acquired considerable power and wealth during his lifetime, because the items that were buried with him were of extremely high quality. It is clear that the Angles shared with the ancient Egyptians the belief that a monarch needed to be well provided for in the afterlife, hence the nature of the possessions that he was expected to take with him.

The excavation of the site began in 1939 when the owner of the land, Mrs Edith Pretty, decided to dig into the mounds on her land. She soon handed the task over to a local archaeologist, Basil Brown, who found that some of the burial mounds had been stripped of anything of interest by grave robbers, but that “Mound 1” seemed to have been untouched.

Within Mound 1 he found the famous ship burial, in the form of an impression in the sandy soil of a 27-metre long ship. Within the “ship” was an astonishing collection of grave goods.

Basil Brown contacted other archaeologists with a national reputation, and they continued to work on the site while keeping the knowledge of their finds secret from the general public. This was in any case wartime, when public attention was on more pressing matters.

The site continued to be excavated after the war, right up to the 1990s. It is now managed by the National Trust, although Mrs Pretty had decided at an early stage to donate all the finds to the British Museum. She died in 1942.

A replica of the burial chamber
A replica of the burial chamber | Source

The finds at Sutton Hoo

There was no sign of King Raedwald’s body, which would have been dissolved by the acidic soils of the burial mound, but it is clear from the position of the grave goods that he was not cremated.

It is also clear that his was a Christian burial, because close to the body were two silver spoons inscribed “Saulos” and “Paulos”, these being the names of St Paul before and after his conversion. There were also ten silver bowls from the Holy Land.

However, most attention has been focused on the items that indicate the Pagan traditions still recognised in East Anglia at the time of Raedwald’s death. There was, for example, a sword with a jewelled pommel and a purse containing coins to “pay the ferryman” who would take the dead king to his final reward of an afterlife among the gods and warriors of the past.

The coins in the purse, which was of an intricate design and would have hung from the king’s belt, came from different continental mints, thus indicating the extent of foreign trade that was carried out at the time.

Raedwald would have been buried in a fine cloak, the cloth of which has long since disappeared. However, the jewelled gold clasps and buckles from this cloak were of the highest quality and demonstrate an advanced degree of workmanship. The “great buckle” is particularly fine, being made of gold and inscribed with an intricate pattern. It contains a small secret compartment that might have been used to house a holy relic.

One very interesting find was a coat of chain-mail in which the links were alternately riveted and welded. Other clothing included leather shoes.

The grave contained fragments of textiles, of which a considerable amount had clearly been buried. From what has been preserved, it is clear that weavers of the time were skilled in design techniques and had access to a range of coloured threads. Some of the textiles may well have been imported.

The king had a quantity of household goods to accompany him, including drinking horns, cups, knives and plates.

Pride of place among the objects found at Sutton Hoo must go to the king’s helmet, which has become the symbol of Sutton Hoo. Intricately worked bronze and iron plaques were attached to an iron skullcap, but even more remarkable was the face mask that included eyebrows picked out in garnets and a full bronze moustache. One has to assume that this was intended to be a portrait of King Raedwald – if so he continues to look at us from a distance of 1400 years.

The gold belt buckle
The gold belt buckle

What Sutton Hoo teaches us

The main lesson of Sutton Hoo is that the term “Dark Ages” to describe the period of around 300 years after the departure of the Romans from Britain is hardly fair. This implies that civil society broke down completely and that the country was in a virtual state of anarchy.

However, the Sutton Hoo finds show that the early Anglo-Saxon kingdoms recognised the rule of law and were sufficiently peaceful for trade to flourish and craftsmen to develop a high degree of sophistication in the good they produced. At least as far as the upper strata of society were concerned, it was possible to live a secure life surrounded by the trappings of luxury.

The evidence of the spread of Christianity to the kingdoms of men such as Raedwald implies that literacy and education would have been encouraged, as would the social order that comes from the development of dioceses and parishes that Christian bureaucracy would have introduced.

As well as marvelling at the treasures of Sutton Hoo, one can also reflect on the fact that the so-called Dark Ages admitted a greater degree of light than had previously been thought.

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Comments 6 comments

alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 17 months ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

Hello John, some moot points here. Raedwald had earlier been converted through his links to the Kentish king Aethelbald, the first to be converted by Augustine of Hippo when he landed in Kent.

Northumbria and Mercia were also Aengle (Anglian) kingdoms, the reason for this country being known as Aengla Land or England as opposed to Seaxe-land or Saxon-land. You're right of course about the origins being at the base of the Jutland peninsula. This would have made communication fairly easy between Kent (Jutish) and the Anglian kingdoms within Britain.

I've given this a 'thumbs-up' and voted it interesting. It should pull a reasonably large amount of traffic (as I've found out with my own historical Hub-pages, see upper right).

Penda of Mercia tried hard to expand his kingdom eastward and found the Northumbrians had allied themselves with Mercia's eastern neighbour. Saeberht of the East Saxons had converted, although his sons fell back on their old beliefs and forced Mellitus, the Bishop of London to flee south. That made things hard for Raedwald for a while as well until his alliance with Oswald of Bernicia (Northumbria). Cerdic of Wessex expanded the Saxons' influence eastward into Kent, reducing East Anglia's allies.


The Indexer profile image

The Indexer 17 months ago from UK Author

Thanks for putting me straight on a few points! I ought to correct the point about the Angles - clearly the East Angles were so called because there were "west" and "north" Angles.

What is your take on the Jutes? I have seen doubts cast on whether they existed at all, given that it is only Bede who ever mentioned them.


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 17 months ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

The story has it that 'Vortigern' put out a distress call to the Continent for any mercenaries to help control the unruly neighbours of a group of 'Romanised' southern Celtic tribes. 'Vortigern' was not one man as thought onceover, but a council or collective leadership. The word is probably Jutish or sub-Norse (West Norse was Norwegian, East Norse was Danish and Swedish) meaning men in overall leadership.

Hengist and Horsa answered the plea, and came in long rowing ships as the Aengle and Seaxne did after them. The sailing ships we associate with the Vikings were a later development, don't forget. We're talking about the 5th Century AD here. Think about the 'Beowulf' saga, where the rowing ships of the Danes were mentioned.

Their reward was to be land, and the Celtic council went back on their word. A battle was fought somewhere in Kent or East Sussex where Horsa lost his life, and Hengist claimed the land now known as Kent. Bede was an authority on the migrants into the east of Britain (England), and although people have picked holes in his definitions of territorial claims he has been borne out. The Saxons came into Britain through the Thames corridor and South Coast regions and fanned out north, south and west. On aiming north they came against the 'Middil Aengle' who originally came into the Humber and the East Coast to Lindisse (Lindsey) and Kesteven before spreading west as far as the 'Welsh Marches', settling in Maegonsaete (south western Mercia) and the Hwicce (the last outpost of the Druids, and origins of the word 'witch', or sorcerer). The Northern Aengle settled Deira and Beornica (Bernicia), which came together at times to become Northanhymbra (Northumbria), the land north of the Humber in the east and the Mersey in the west. Take a look in the Osprey book in the Warrior series 'Anglo-Saxon Thegn AD449-1066 by Mark Harrison, ISBN 978-1-85532-349-0. On page 4 there's a map of the early territories and on p.5 a chronology from AD55-c.400 to 1066.

TTFN, ARL


Anne Harrison profile image

Anne Harrison 17 months ago from Australia

It is a fascinating period of history, augmented perhaps by the tantalisingly little we know of the time, a small glimpse as it were into what must have been a diverse and culturally rich society. (The language alone gives a hint to this)

An interesting hub, thank you. I hope one day to make it to the site. Voted up.


The Indexer profile image

The Indexer 17 months ago from UK Author

Alan, Thanks for the extra info. I have written about Vortigern on another site , and I agree that it is unlikely that "he" was a single individual.

I live in "Mercia" in a village with a name that indicates its former border status on the edge of the Danelaw - the name Barlestone has the Anglo-Saxon "tun" ending but a Danish name for the tun's owner. It is interesting to note the mixture round here of "tuns" and "bys", as the different communities settled cheek by jowl with each other.


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 17 months ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

My neck of the woods is full of 'by' (town), 'thorpe' (hamlet), 'thwaite' (clearing) and 'holm' (isle) endings plus others introduced when members of the 'Great Heathen Army' settled between the Tees at Yarm (Gearum) and the Orwell at Ipswich (Gipeswic, pron. 'Yipswich').

Have a look at the 'DANELAW YEARS' series on my profile. Takes you back to the agreement between Guthrum and Aelfred.

you probably know about the 'Five Boroughs' (Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham and Stamford), and the boundary between English Mercia and the Danelaw along Watling Street between the City of London and Chester.

TTFN again

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