The Unheralded Charity of White toward Black in American History
Charitable Giving From 1865 to 1964
Throughout human history up until 1865, no people had ever freely given their time and their money for the sole purpose of trying to help another people better their lives. In 1865 in America that changed. Immediately following the Civil War, the Americans (White Christian people of America)1 embarked on a generosity and charity period that lasted for almost 100 years. The recipient of all this generosity and charity were the Negro people of America. Well, I thought it would be a good idea to acknowledge some examples of the White Christian males/ females generosity and charity directed toward the Black race in America, specifically between 1865 and 1964, and give credit where credit is richly due.
The Freedman's Bureau (1865 to 1872) :
The Freedman’s Bureau (officially known as ‘The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands’) was established by Americans to feed and provide other life necessities to the Negro population of the South after the Civil War ended in 1865. However, well before the end of the Civil War, Americans organized all over the North various organizations to feed, clothe, educate and provide many other necessities for the former slave population (according to W.E.B Du Bios, more than 50 organizations were active in relief capacity for the southern Negro by 1866).
The Tuskegee Institute:
This icon of Negro education was the brainchild of an Alabama prominent banker by the name of George W. Campbell (American). Another American, an Alabama state senator named W.F. Foster, spearheaded the necessary funding for the Institute through the state legislature. The result was a yearly appropriation of $2000.
The following Americans, all self-made millionaires, gave small fortunes - their own hard-earned money - to this Negro self-sufficiency school over their lifetime:
--John D. Rockefeller
--Henry Huttleston Rogers (Standard Oil) - Washington claimed he would give him $10,000 cash at times ...with the condition that his name never be mentioned and the money be used for Negro schools. source
--Anna T. Jeanes*
* Julius Rosenwald was an immigrant Jew and self-made millionaire.
* Anna T. Jeanes, an American female, was not a self-made millionaire, but inherited her money from her husband.
Howard University was chartered in 1867. It was championed by an American Civil War General, Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909), and the school hence bears his name. Howard University is also the ONLY higher education school ever to be directly funded by the US taxpayers (it still is).
Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) was an exclusive college for Negroes and was created in 1854 by an American named John Miller Dickey, who also became its first president. Lincoln University was originally named Ashmun Institute. The first Black president of the university was not elected until 1945.
Fisk University was an all-Negro college that was established by Americans (white males) Erastus Milo Cravath, John Ogden and Edward Parmelee Smith in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1866.
Wilberforce University, located near Xenia, in Ohio, was an all-Negro college created by Americans from the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1856.. It was named after a white male, William Wilberforce, who was an 18th century abolitionist.
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania was an all-Negro school established in 1837. An American named Richard Humphreys had bequeathed $10,000 in his will (10% of his estate) in 1832 for the sole purpose of creating a place of education for the Negro race.
Atlanta University was founded by Americans associated with the American Missionary Association, in 1865. Around 1866, its survival then shifted to, and depended upon, Americans males associated with the Freedman’s Bureau.
In 1910, according to the US census, 50% of Negroes (about 4.8 million) lived in urban centers (all created by American males). That means there were about 1.6 million Negro males of working age living in American-built cities in 1910. Of those 1.6 million Negro males in urban areas of America, 350,000 (almost 20%!) worked in a factory. All factory jobs for the Negro were supplied by American males . (source: Chronological History of The Negro pg. 358)
Naturally, with Americans being so generous supplying jobs to Negro males, more Negro males were encouraged to come to the American-built urban areas to look for similar paying jobs.
John D. Rockefeller
One of the wealthiest Americans ever, Mr. Rockefeller, donated almost $180 million dollars to the General Education Board, which was chartered by act of Congress in 1903. Much of this money was spent supplying educational aid for the Negro people, specifically in the southern states (Mr. Rockefeller‘s $180 million, adjusted for inflation, translates to almost 2 billion in 2008 dollars!).
George Peabody Education Fund for poor Southerners
George Peabody Education Fund was established by an American named George Peabody, and was designed to help Negro colleges in the South at the turn of the century.
The Slater Fund
The Slater Fund was established by an American, James Fox Slater, in 1882. Its primary purpose was to support southern Negro schools. Around 1915, this fund was worth about $1.75 million.
The Jeanes Fund (Jeanes Foundation)
An American female, Miss Anna T. Jeanes, a Quaker, created 'The Fund for Rudimentary Schools for Southern Negroes’ in 1907 from the monies left to her by her late husband. The purpose of the fund was to help Negroes create teachers for their people. It was endowed at one million dollars (a staggering sum at the time).
The Southern Education Board: In or around 1900, Americans created the The Southern Education Board. It's funding was initially provided by the Slater Fund and the Jeans Funds. Americans (White males), trained in the area of farming, would go to rural farms (Negro and American) and educate them on better farming techniques. The Southern Education Board was also very concerned with the high southern Negro illiteracy, which was, in 1900, almost 50% (for Americans in the South, around 11%).
Established in 1911,American philanthropist and self-made millionaire, Anson Phelps Stokes, created this fund for the purpose of improving Negro life through education. Its endowment was approximately $900,000.
This fund was established by an American female, Miss Myrtilla Minor, in 1851. Its purpose was to provide aid to schools that would teach Negro girls to be teachers for their people (Note: These types of schools were referred to as 'normal' schools back then).
Without question one of the most generous of the Euro race toward the Negro people was Julius Rosenwald (Jewish).
An American, Miss Emeline Cushing, established this fund in 1895 for the purpose of financially assisting colored schools.
Daniel Hand Fund
An American self-made millionaire, Daniel Hand, established the Daniel Hand Fund in 1888. It was endowed at $1 million dollars (two-thirds of Mr. Hand’s entire personal wealth). Mr. Hand stipulated that all of the Fund would be directed toward Negro education in the former slave states. When Mr. Hand died in 1893, he bequeathed the rest of his remaining wealth to this fund.
"Grambling State was founded in 1901 and accredited in 1949. The school became Grambling College in 1946 named after [an American] sawmill owner, P. G. Grambling, who donated a parcel of land for the school to be constructed." SOURCE
Mr. Carnegie, when he retired, was considered the richest man in the world. He also became the biggest philanthropist in America and gave generously to Negro educational causes, which included giving $600,000 to the Tuskegee Institute in 1903.
The New York City Harmon Foundation was established in 1922 by an American, William Harmon (1862-1928). Its purpose was to aid and assist Negro art, artists, businesses, education for Negroes, farming needs, music, and other causes for the Negro.
This White-male-established fund was used to help the NAACP through the Great Depression.
John D. Rockefeller Jr.
Mr. Rockefeller, Jr. built the Dunbar Apartments in New York City, a mammoth complex consisting of six buildings - 511 apartments - specifically to house low-income Negroes in Harlem. He also built and funded a bank in NYC solely for Negroes.
The United Negro College Fund
In 1944, the United Negro College Fund was created. Almost all of the funding for its initial operation was provided by the General Education Fund and the Rosenwald Fund.
Mr. William Trent, a Negro, in the course of his 20-year tenure as its first executive director, raised over $78 million for this fund, almost all of it coming from generous liberal Americans (Senator John F. Kennedy gave all of the profits from his book ‘Profiles in Courage' to this fund).
These examples above of American generosity and charity directed toward the people of African descent in America prior to the creation of Compulsory Inclusionism (1964), is by no means the complete list. Not even close.
Again, throughout human history, only African-Americans have been the beneficiary of continuous generosity and charity from another people (White Christians), and not just between 1865 to 1964, but even continuing to the present day.
1. American Jews also gave to the Negro people. Before 1950, it was mostly coming from the Rosenwald fund.
More by this Author
Below is the complete list of American (White male)-initiated riots that I could find from the beginning of the 20th century to the launching of Compulsory Inclusionism (1964). Note: I will only include those riots...
Mary White Ovington Before we begin here with the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), let's first dispel a few myths (created mainly by way of the Internet). Myth 1....
-------------------------------------------------- Between 1900 and 1964, there were 31 racially motivated riots initiated by white Americans and against Negroes (that's all I could find >>Link). One of those...