The Viking influence in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

Viking England

York or Jorvik as the Vikings named it, was possibly the most strategically vital settlement of the Dark Age Viking Kingdom's within England. To colonise and control the area it was vital that there was good access to the North Sea, this would help to re-build the City of Jorvik into a rich and vibrant trading centre. A great deal of the Danelaw area was heavily influenced by the Viking's, much if this is still evident today in the place names throughout the area of Danish settlement. The Danelaw region of England was the area that Viking's effectively annexed or were given under treaty by either the leaders of the Germanic tribes or the native Britons who had competed for the Kingdoms of England and Wales since the Romans departed these lands by the 5th century AD.

The Danelaw area consisted of Leicester, Nottingham, Lincoln, Derby and Stamford. All of these area's were accessible by the rivers of England which were easily navigated by the very manoeuvrable Viking longboats. The Vikings presence and influence in these fortified settlements was dependent on the Viking control of the rivers and the sea. To keep control of this territory the Vikings had to have safe passage through the mouth of the River Humber. The River Humber allowed access to the River Ouse, River Trent and River Foss which made keeping control of the River Humber essential.

Viking Influence
Viking Influence

Lost Village locations

The majority of the lost villages are along the eastern Yorkshire coast, all areas on the terrain map in the green colour are the area's the North sea reclaimed back from England. Ravenspurn and Ravenser Ood would have been situated to the east of modern day Spurn point. These settlements would have been the principal trading point for the agriculture of East Yorkshire

Settlement along the River Humber

The Lincolnshire coast line has a good degree of Scandinavian settlement and habitation, we know this due to the names that are still in use today. Lincolnshire has Grimsby ( Grimms village ) and Cleethorpes ( Clee's Farm ) on the strategic coastal points of the rivers path, looking further in land shows that the Danish invasion of the area took on a lot of the original Anglo-Saxon settlements and merged with them.

The North bank of the Humber does not show the same level of Viking colonization and influence, Kingston upon Hull is the biggest port along the north bank but shows no real Viking identity or Heritage, But Kingston upon Hull only came to prominence after the Vikings had lost their foothold in Yorkshire. The evidence at this moment in time indicates that the Vikings had no interest in the north bank of the River Humber.

The principal modern population centres on the East Yorkshire coasts are derived from Anglo-Saxon settlements such as Beverley and Hedon. Why is this so? we know that the Vikings took over this area as it was part of the kingdom of Northumbria which stretched from the River Humber up to the modern border with Scotland.

The Humber Bridge now links Lincolnshire with East Yorkshire.
The Humber Bridge now links Lincolnshire with East Yorkshire. | Source

Location of Ravenspurn

A markerSpurn head -
[get directions]

What remains of the former thriving port of Ravenspurn.

East Yorkshire coastal erosion

The reason why evidence of Viking settlement is so hard to find is due to two main geographical reasons. Firstly the entire Northern bank of the Humber at the time of the Danish colonization was low lying marshland, so there was no real settlement in the interior of the East riding of Yorkshire.It was not until the Holderness area was drained by a system of dykes similar to the drainage in the South Lincolnshire Fens, and more recently the installation of modern pumping stations that the interior became more than woodland and lakes. Secondly the area's that the Vikings did colonize at the strategically important area's of the River Humbers mouth have been lost due to coastal erosion over the last 700 years. Since the Roman times East Yorkshire has lost over 20 villages to abandonment and coastal erosion, the most prominent was Ravenspurn and Ravenser Odd.

Ravenspurn and Ravenser Odd were both prominent towns in the far east of the county of Yorkshire. Both these settlements are now covered by the tidal waters of the River Humber and the treacherous North Sea. The Raven prefix of these settlements likely comes from the shape of the headland that encroached into the sea. The Viking name for Ravenser was "Hrafn's Eyr" this roughly translated as "Ravens tongue". The only geographical evidence of these settlements is the site of the local lifeboat station Spurn point, this is also likely to succumb to the coastal erosion that claimed the two Viking settlements. The demise of Ravenser Odd allowed the port of Hull to become the regions premier industrial port.

Viking Age Long ship
Viking Age Long ship | Source

Lost Viking settlements

Other lost ports and settlements in the East riding of Yorkshire include the towns of Sisterkirche ( which translates as sister church), Tharlesthorp ( Tharles farm ) and Frismersk ( this settlement is more of a Frisian settlement but could have included settlers from the intermarried Dutch Vikings).

All of these settlements disappeared into the North Sea from the 12th Century onwards. There are some small hamlets in the East Riding which point to a Viking heritage, but not on the scale that Lincolnshire can support. The current Hamlets of Ellerby( Ella's village), Grimston ( Grimms town ) and Skeffling illustrate that some Viking heritage has survived in spite of the North Sea's relentless onslaught on the Yorkshire coast. The loss and records of so many Viking settlements has robbed us of further knowledge of the Viking age of England and ultimately we have lost a piece of the ancient history of the British peoples.

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Comments 8 comments

alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 2 years ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

Hello Asp52. Nice read this.

Much of the disappearance of settlements in East as well as North Yorkshire (my bit, further up past Staithes) can be blamed on William I's Harrying of the North in 1069-70 after the rising where Jorvik's Norman castles were burnt down. Jarl Osbeorn's fleet crossed and re-crossed the Humber from East Yorkshire to North Lincolnshire to get away from William's brother Robert of Mortain (they'd already destroyed the Normans' ships down on the Medway on the way north).

True, the erosion of the coast had an effect on settlements there, but the Normans inflicted the greatest damage.

Scarborough and Whitby were both Norse settlements, Scarborough being named after Icelander Thorgils 'Skarthi' ('harelip'). Probably most of the fishing settlements have Norse foundations all the way up from Hornsea to Redcar ('Redekarre', at the time a spit of sea deposits backed by marsh).

Asp52 profile image

Asp52 4 years ago from England Author

Very likely, The Nordic and Germanic settlers had Ginger/Red Hair. It is not just a Celtic trait. Parts of my family have strong links to the East Riding area and we display similar characteristics.

JOHN WITHILL 4 years ago

I come from Cottingham - but spent most of my childhood living in Aldbrough . We know that as a family we have lived in the East Riding for Centuries . WE have no idea of our 'Ethnicity' , we do however have a strong streak of GINGER / red hair down the generations and very fair complexions ... could we be of Nordic descent ?

Skeffling 5 years ago

Fascinating. I grew up in Skeffling and the history lesson in school where we learned the language of place names opened up a whole new world for me. There are so many Viking named villages in East Riding, and those names all mean something that evokes an image of times past!

Asp52 profile image

Asp52 6 years ago from England Author

thanks Rob your very welcome. Your right CMHyno although i maybe do too much on vikings at the moment! and SkeetyD thank you, glad others enjoy the subject as much as i do

SkeetyD profile image

SkeetyD 6 years ago from Barbados

Vikings have always been intriguing. Thanks for the posting

CMHypno profile image

CMHypno 6 years ago from Other Side of the Sun

Great information on the Vikings in Yorkshire, Asp 52, its refreshing to read about a history topic that isn't covered that much on HubPages

Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY

Vikings are always interesting to read about. Thanks for the info.

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