World War 2 History: Admiral Graf Spee Deceived into Scuttling in the River Plate Estuary

German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. 1936.
German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. 1936. | Source

The Admiral Graf Spee

The Admiral Graf Spee (pronounced “grahf shpay”) was a German heavy cruiser built in the 1930s under the auspices of the Versailles Treaty, which forbade Germany from constructing warships greater than 10,000 tons. Despite this limitation, the Graf Spee, fully loaded, displaced 16,000 tons. With her six 11-inch (280 mm) main guns, she could outgun any cruiser capable of keeping up with her. Because of her armament, the British referred to the her and her sister ships, the Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, as “pocket battleships”. In comparison, the Bismarck, a true German battleship, displaced 55,000 tons.

Wartime recognition drawing of an Deutschland Scheer class cruiser, produced by the Office of Naval Intelligence in 1942.
Wartime recognition drawing of an Deutschland Scheer class cruiser, produced by the Office of Naval Intelligence in 1942. | Source

Preparation For War

In August of 1939, just before the start of World War II, the Admiral Graf Spee sailed for the South Atlantic under the command of Captain Hans Langsdorff, where she would operate as a surface raider, sinking and disrupting Allied merchant traffic. She was attended by the supply ship Altmark and they would rendezvous whenever the Graf Spee needed supplies and fuel. Fully fueled, she had a range of about 9,000 miles. The Altmark would also relieved her of any captured merchant crews. At this early stage of the war, Hitler had ordered strict accordance to the laws of war at sea. This meant giving crews the chance to abandon ship before being sunk and picking up survivors. Hitler still hoped for a settlement with Great Britain and, though they were at war, did not want to antagonize her.

WW2: Heavy cruiser HMS Exeter was put out of commission by the Graf Spee. All three of her 8" turrets had been knocked out along with other significant damage. 61 officers and ratings were KIA. Image shows HMS Exeter off the coast of Sumatra (Netherl
WW2: Heavy cruiser HMS Exeter was put out of commission by the Graf Spee. All three of her 8" turrets had been knocked out along with other significant damage. 61 officers and ratings were KIA. Image shows HMS Exeter off the coast of Sumatra (Netherl | Source
WW2: Leander class light cruiser HMS Achilles was a sister ship to HMS Ajax.
WW2: Leander class light cruiser HMS Achilles was a sister ship to HMS Ajax. | Source

Hunter Becomes Hunted

On September 26, 1939, Langsdorff was authorized to attack Allied merchant shipping. From then until December 13, she sank nine ships totaling 50,000 tons. During that period, the French and British formed eight hunter-groups of various warships, including aircraft carriers and battleships to search for the raider. One of these forces was commanded by Commodore Henry Harwood who, based on distress signals from the last two of Graf Spee's victims, concluded that the raider was headed for either Rio de Janeiro, Brazil or Montevideo, Uruguay, both neutral countries and therefore, temporarily at least, safe havens-- but the Graf Spee could easily turn toward the West Indies. His force was small: the heavy cruiser HMS Exeter and two light cruisers, HMS Ajax (from which he commanded) and HMS Achilles; he could not split them, since, even together, the Graf Spee was more than a match for them. He gambled that the enemy would head for Uruguay and positioned his ships in the River Plate Estuary and waited.

WW2: The cruiser HMS ACHILLES seen from HMS AJAX at the Battle of the River Plate.
WW2: The cruiser HMS ACHILLES seen from HMS AJAX at the Battle of the River Plate. | Source
Watercolor depicting the cruisers HMS Exeter (foreground) and HMNZS Achilles (right center background) in action with the German armored ship Admiral Graf Spee (right background).
Watercolor depicting the cruisers HMS Exeter (foreground) and HMNZS Achilles (right center background) in action with the German armored ship Admiral Graf Spee (right background). | Source

Battle of the River Plate

Although the British ships were faster, the Exeter only had six 8-inch guns with a range of 27,000 yards, while the Ajax and Achilles only had eight 6-inch guns with a range of 25,000 yards. The Graf Spee's six 11-inch guns had a range of 30,000 yards.

At 6:00 AM on December 13, the Graf Spee approached the River Plate Estuary and spotted the British ships. Captain Langsdorff decided to attack, thinking they were protecting a target-rich convoy of merchant ships, realizing too late that he was engaging three enemy cruisers. Harwood ordered the Ajax and Achilles to split away from Exeter, dividing his forces, but splitting the Graf Spee's firepower. The Graf Spee concentrated on the Exeter, in order to neutralize the biggest threat, and proceeded to inflict great damage on the heavy cruiser. Meanwhile, Ajax and Achilles closed in on the Graf Spee to get in range. By the time the two light cruisers got within 7500 yards, the Graf Spee broke off at 7:45 AM and headed for the harbor at Montevideo, arriving at 10:00 PM. Ajax and Achilles pursued her all day. Achilles' Captain Parry later wrote: “To this day I do not know why the Admiral Graf Spee did not dispose of us in the Ajax and the Achilles as soon as she had finished with the Exeter”.

All four ships suffered damage, but the Exeter's was severe. All her main guns were out of action and she had to make for Port Stanley in the Falklands for repairs. The Ajax and Achilles waited outside the 3 mile limit in case the raider tried to slip away, knowing full well they were no match for the Graf Spee. Their crews would call this the “death watch”.

Trapped

The laws of neutrality only allowed a belligerent vessel 72 hours before being impounded by the host country. The damage to the Graf Spee was estimated to take two weeks to repair. Langsdorff made sure his wounded were taken to hospitals and the dead buried, while he decided what to do. In the meantime, the British sent reinforcements, but only the heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland was close enough to lend support, arriving on December 14. Instead, the British, issuing fake communications in codes they knew the Germans had broken, deceived the Germans into believing a large armada, including aircraft carriers and battleships, awaited the Graf Spee. Captain Langsdorff was given two options by German High Command: attack or scuttle; internment was not an option. Langsdorff, thinking of his crew, chose the latter.

WW2: The German battleship Admiral Graf Spee in flames after being scuttled in the River Plate Estuary off Montevideo, Uruguay.
WW2: The German battleship Admiral Graf Spee in flames after being scuttled in the River Plate Estuary off Montevideo, Uruguay. | Source

Scuttling and Suicide

On December 17, 1939 the Admiral Graf Spee, with Langsdorff and a skeleton crew of 40 aboard, steamed out of Montevideo as 20,000 onlookers watched. The crew set the scuttling charges and and everyone was evacuated by an Argentinian tugboat. The explosions ripped through the ship and it sank at 08:55 PM.

On December 20, Captain Langsdorff, lying on the ship's flag and wearing his full dress uniform, shot and killed himself.

Bronze eagle from stern of Graf Spee (Nazi symbol covered)
Bronze eagle from stern of Graf Spee (Nazi symbol covered) | Source

Captain Langsdorff

During the 10 weeks the Admiral Graf Spee was loose in the Atlantic, nine British merchant ships, totalling more than 50,000 tons, were stopped and sunk. The Graf Spee's captain, Hans Wilhelm Langsdorff (1894 - 1939) adhered strictly to the Hague Conventions, making sure that no deaths resulted from any of the Spee's attacks. Not one. His humane treatment won the respect of the ships' officers detained as his prisoners.

Aftermath

The incident was a huge embarrassment for Hitler and a desperately-needed boost for British First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, who would become Prime Minister in a few months.

HMS Exeter was refitted and returned to action but was sunk by the Japanese on March 1, 1942 in the Second Battle of the Java Sea.

HMS Achilles and HMS Ajax both survived the war.

The Altmark, while in neutral Norwegian waters headed towards Germany, was discovered by the British who, on February 16, 1940, boarded her and released the almost 300 British merchant seamen, victims of the Admiral Graf Spee.

In 2010, the German government requested that the Admiral Graf Spee's giant bronze eagle with spread wings and swastika that adorned the stern of the ship and was recovered by a salvage team in 2006 be returned to Germany to keep it from being sold on the open market. The eagle is prized by Nazi-memorabilia fanatics and could fetch more than $15 million. As of 2012, the matter has not been resolved.

Approximate location of scuttled Admiral Graf Spee
Approximate location of scuttled Admiral Graf Spee | Source

Montevideo, Uruguay

Admiral Graf Spee Scuttled

More by this Author


Comments 14 comments

Wesman Todd Shaw profile image

Wesman Todd Shaw 4 years ago from Kaufman, Texas

Perfectly outstanding article on one of the many great stories to come from the human tragedy known as World War Two.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Thanks very much for your comment, Wesman. I appreciate the complement and glad you enjoyed it. It took longer than I thought but I enjoyed researching and writing it.


Larry Fields profile image

Larry Fields 4 years ago from Northern California

Voted up and interesting.

Larry's stoopid question of the day: Is there an inconsistency here? You state that Langsdorf shot himself three days after the scuttling. But the seventh picture shows him reading an Argentinian newspaper after the battle. Did he shoot himself after reading the newspaper? Or did he survive the suicide attempt, and then read the newspaper? What gives?


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Ah. Good comment, Larry-- not stoopid at all. I think I should have been clearer: Langsdorff committed suicide by shooting himself. I should have said right out he killed himself. He is reading the newspaper after the battle, when in port and deciding what to do. Then he scuttled and, three days after scuttling, he killed himself. I hope that helps clear things up.


dmop profile image

dmop 4 years ago from Cambridge City, IN

This is a great article, that covers a unique and important battle, thank you for taking the time to research and write it. Voted up and interesting.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Thanks for your comment, dmop. I appreciate you reading my hubs.


old albion profile image

old albion 4 years ago from Lancashire. England.

Hi UH. Brilliantly researched as usual. Although I knew the story your hub held me to the end. voted up.

Graham.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Hi, old albion. Thanks again for reading my hubs. I take it as a high compliment when someone reads information they are already aware of. I was banging my head on the wall, trying to think of a hub topic when I remembered that I'd put together a plastic model of the Graf Spee when I was young and how cool it looked.


aethelthryth profile image

aethelthryth 4 years ago from American Southwest

Unlike many of my family, I don't know or care much about military equipment or statistics. But here you have put a story together to interest both me and all those model-makers I know.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

aethelthryth, I told old albion what a compliment it was when a person reads an article, even when they know the subject. That applies even more when someone enjoys an article about a subject they're not particularly interested in. Thanks for reading and taking the time to comment.


Leroyworld profile image

Leroyworld 4 years ago from Texas, No place else

Cool history. I guess that is what is meant by the saying, the greatest weapon is your mind.


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Thanks for the comment Leroyworld. How true. The mind is a terrible thing... :)


joanveronica profile image

joanveronica 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

Great article! I also knew the story, being the daughter of a British family living in Chile during those years. I had never taken the time to discover some of the details, so it was really, really interesting for me. The more so because of my father's war work here in Chile. I hope you write many more like this! Be happy!


UnnamedHarald profile image

UnnamedHarald 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa Author

Will do, joan. Glad you liked it. I try to find under-reported items and then research them and, hopefully, turn them into hubs. Tanks again for the comment.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working