What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Drop Out?
By Roldens Paulynice, MBA - Doctoral Student in Higher Education Leadership at NOVA Southeastern University.
As most of us know, most people go to college with the hope of giving themselves the foundation that they need to be successful in life or the skill that they need to find a good job, especially college freshmen. "They increasingly see higher education as a ticket to being financially secured during uncertain economic times and better jobs, according to a UCLA-sponsored survey of first year students across the nation”(Rivera). Every year, more than one hundred thousand students, particularly freshmen, attend college, but many of them often fail or drop out within less than four years. For example, “Only thirty three percent of the freshmen who enter the University of Massachusetts, Boston graduate within six years, less than forty one percent graduate from the University of Montana, and forty four percent from the University of New Mexico”(Leonhardt).Quentin Fottrell, the author of the study titled This Is the Biggest Challenge Facing First-year College Students, also mentions some key facts about first-year college students, and these facts are about some challenges that they face while they are in college. “Students reported challenges during their freshman year that went far beyond academics, paying college expenses and making new friends. In fact, more than 75% of students felt that social media, television and movies made college seem a lot more fun than it actually was, and 45% said that ‘it seems like everyone has college figured out but me.’ Other concerns: 40% of first-year students cited pressures of paying for college expenses, while 30% said it was making new friends,”(Fottrell). Quentin Fottrell goes on to cite some key facts or statistics about the emotional problems that these students face. In the matter, he also talks about what John MacPhee, executive director at The JED Foundation, said. “Equally worrying, slightly more than half of these students (51%) found it difficult to get emotional support at college when they needed it, although only 1 in 10 said they did not turn to anyone for support. Men are more likely not to turn to anyone for support when feeling troubled (16% versus 6% for females). ‘College readiness requires far more than just a solid academic foundation,’ says John MacPhee, executive director at The JED Foundation,” (Fottrell). In addition to that, apart from academic foundation, those students are not emotionally ready to attend college. As a matter of fact, Quentin Fottrell, the author of the article, a personal finance reporter and The Moneyologist columnist for MarketWatch, found out that 50 percent of these students reported that they are really stressed. He also indicates, “Most students are not ready for the social and emotional demands of their first year of college, new research finds. A majority of first-year college students in the U.S. (60%) feel emotionally unprepared for college, and these students are more likely to report poor academic performance, regularly consume drugs or alcohol and rate their overall college experience as terrible/poor, according to the new study of more than 1,500 first-year college students.” Sometimes these students often involve in risky activities due to the emotional problems that they face, and those risky activities are not reasonable things to do, especially as college students, because they can hurt. According to Quentin Fottrell, the author of the study titled This Is the Biggest Challenge Facing First-year College Students, “While there’s been increased awareness of mental health issues and programs on college campuses, many turn to drugs and alcohol for relief. Regular users of drugs and alcohol were more likely than non-regular users to say they experienced stress and anxiety, the Harris Poll found. ‘Transitions are danger points for kids and stress and substance use,’ says Sean Clarkin, executive vice president of research and external relations at the Partnership for Drug-Free Kids.” In addition to these preceding facts and statistics, americangraduate.ninenet.org shows in the article titled PBS NewsHour: Why Students Who Underperform Drop Out of School that "in the U.S., one million students leave school early each year." Many researchers or experts have tried to determine why those students often fail or drop out, but they cannot find an exclusive reason. "According to the National Survey on Student Engagement, which was conducted by many experts, more than 150 different factors influence the chances that a student will drop out of college during the first semester or first year. Gender, ethnicity, and preparation for college are three factors that can impact the student's chances of dropping out. Males are more likely than females to drop out. Forty-three percent of college degrees are awarded to male students, according to the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Only 39 percent of African American and Native American students complete a four-year college degree, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Less than 20 percent of students who require remedial college courses graduate from college” (Casil). Furthermore, other experts or studies, in reality, found out that our education system seems to be a part of the problem, and President Sirleaf talks about it. As mentioned, “In 2013, over 25,000 students sitting state university exams failed, and President Sirleaf blamed the failure on the messy system. ‘The students' failure did not come from the university, but rather from the schools that prepared them. The result is alarming,’ said President Sirleaf. ‘It tells me that the educational system is a mess,’ she added,” according to Samwar S. Fallah of the article titled Liberia’s Messy Education: Gov’t Has Limited Time to Fix. Accordingly, additionally, as a matter of fact, some experts are capable of knowing how to calculate or analyze failure rate among first year or first semester college students or among certain type of institutions. “The percentage of students who fail during their first semester of college varies depending on the type of college they are attending. Most college failure rates are calculated based upon the entire first year, not just the first semester. At elite private universities like the University of Southern California, the first year failure rate is only 4 percent. Technical colleges may have much higher failure rates. The University of Phoenix-West Florida Campus has a first-year failure rate of 80 percent. First-year classes are large, and once students fall behind, it is difficult to catch up, according to Richard Hanzelka, former president of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.” (Casil). One might think that those students often fail or drop out only because they are not academically prepared to attend college, but that is not entirely true. As Neil Kokemuller states in the article titled What Causes Students to Fail Courses in College in Global Post, "College students fail classes for a variety of reasons, many of which are largely within the control of the students. In some cases, students aren't academically ready to succeed in college classes." These following statements represent many of the variety of reasons. Many college students often fail or drop out because either they have a lack of motivation ; they are the first persons from their families to attend college or lack parental involvement or come from low-income families; many of them are not confident or are overconfident; they often involve in smoking activities; they do not like school; many students or immigrant students experience trouble due to a language barrier; lack of sleep is negatively affecting them; they are caught cheating; they do not practice their homework due to cheating or copying, which can cause them the same troubles that lack of personal standard can also cause them; they have financial problems or do not interact that much with their instructors or are negatively affected by college costs; many of them drink under the age of twenty-one years or use drugs; students do not persevere when they face challenges; there are times that students are too perfectionist; students have families responsibility; they have a poor or bad study habit; they face discrimination in school; they spend less time studying due to the mentality that they understand the quantity of work required; students have low self-esteem; they choose inappropriate school or do not assume their responsibility or not ask question in class; they get married; stress or anxiety is negatively affecting them; they have difficulty paying attention in class due to excessive texting; they often expose to violent activities; many of them do not do their homework; lack of effort and poor or nonexistent work ethic cause students troubles;loneliness negatively impacts them; learning disabilities cause them problem; some teachers fail to assume some responsibilities or are not good; many students do not manage their time properly; romantic relation causes them difficulties; they get pregnant; large classes cause them or their instructors troubles; they get suspended in school; they choose inappropriate or wrong major; Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder causes them problem; they have bad eating habits; they procrastinate; laziness is negatively affecting them; they use social networks or social media; students get discouraged in their study or drop out of school when they see that many college graduates cannot find a college level job; fear of failure or frustration occurs among them; many students are not that much or are not strategically prepared for taking their test; they perform poorly in school; students get addicted to internet or computer; inadequate goal orientation or failure to set goals causes them difficulties; they lack organizational skills; risk of burnout or burnout, which has a relation with their GPA, causes them problem; students face troubles due to online classes; obesity is negatively affecting them; mental health problems or health problems in general cause many of them difficulties; many students are undisciplined or are not that much intelligent; they lack cognitive flexibility or have thinking problem; or they are at-risk students or enter college unprepared. Rarely, if ever, is the academic program that they choose challenging. Does race seem to be a factor in the problem?
Many college students often fail because they are unmotivated. "According to a survey that was conducted by the Higher Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles , 33 percent of students said they skipped class frequently, and 63 percent of students said they showed up late for class frequently" ( DiLallo). These statistics seem to indicate that frequent tardiness or absenteeism in class is an issue that exists among many college students. However, frequent absenteeism in class among college students, which can lead on to a negative impact in their academic performance, occurs when lack of motivation exists among them. As Dr. Ernest W. Brewer, a professor, says, "When college students are not motivated, a common outcome is a lost desire to attend class, followed by frequent absences and plummeting grades" (2).
According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, “In short, according to the students who participated in the 2011 study, motivation is the leading cause behind students’ failure or success in completing schoolwork. Motivation influences students’ attitudes, study habits, academic readiness, and so on.”
Additionally, Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014, say, “Respondents said failing students come to class late and/or do not show up at all. When they do show up, they send texts or play videos during class or otherwise do not pay attention. They do not read the material before class and do not complete their assignments. They do not care if they fail. They do not value education because they do not have to work to pay for it, or if they fail, they can always repeat the course.”
Students may not attend class due to many other factors. According to a study titled Why Do Foundation Year Students Fail to Attend Their Classes that was conducted by Manchester Metropolitan University, “In the general cohort, there were two top ranking categories – ‘family obligations’ and ‘laziness’ (16% each). However, when rankings are combined, ‘illness’ comes out top (14%), ‘family obligations’ falls to 4% overall, but ‘laziness’ remains high at 12%. ‘Time of lecture’ was the third most common reason (10%) when combined and fourth most common as a primary reason. Interestingly, ‘employment’ came third as a primary reason (9%) but second to bottom (2%) when rankings are combined.” Manchester Metropolitan University goes on to demonstrate that age seems to be a factor in the problem. As it is stated, "The students exhibiting the worst levels of attendance were actually in the 20 to 23 year old group” ( Manchester Metropolitan University).
How can absenteeism lead to a negative impact in students’ academic performance or cause them academic troubles? According to a study titled “The Effect of Different Attendance Policies on Student Attendance and Achievement”, which was conducted by Levine, Judith R, they found that absenteeism has a negative relationship with students’ academic achievement. Levine’s study tracked 401 students that enrolled in a child development courses under different assistance policies. In this study, as we can refer to the next table, 32 students had a final course average of 50-59 that is equivalent to an F with a mean number of absences of 5.4. 76 students had a final course average of 60-69 that equals to a D with a mean number of absences of 4.4. 140 students had a final course average of 70-79, which is equivalent to a C, with a mean number of absences of 3.6. 128 students had a final course average of 80-89, which is proportional to a B, with a mean number of absences of 2.7. Finally, 25 students had a final course average of 90-99 that is equivalent to an A with a mean number of absences of 1.6. This idea can make us ascertain that Levine's study also shows that students who had higher mean number of absences had lower final grades than students who had lesser mean number of absences, or those who had lesser mean number of absences had better final grade than those who had higher mean number of absences. Also, Davenport showed that correlation in Ernest’s research titled “Professor's Role in Motivating Students to Attend Class” by arguing that students who attend class well receive a minimum final grade of "A, B, or C", but those who attend class poorly receive a final grade of "D or F" in their course. Not only can absenteeism have a relation with students' academic performance or cause them to have lesser grade, but it can also be a factor that exposes them to other academic troubles. As Harry H. Harrison Jr., Best-Selling Parenting Author, shows in the article titled What Causes Students to Fail or Drop Out of College, "Students drop out because they do not go to class. This is, maybe the single biggest reason they fail out, because they do not go to class."
Source: Data From Levine, Judith R., The Effect of Different Attendance Student Attendance and Achievement (ERIC, Education Resources Information Center).(P.9)
Final Course Average
Number of Students
Mean Number of absences
401= Total Number Of Students
“Excessive student absenteeism can lead to an increasing disinterest in school and academics in general. Jason A. Schoeneberger’s ‘Longitudinal Attendance Patterns’ study shows that excessive absenteeism increases the chances of dropping out of school, which can lead to long term consequences, such as lower average incomes, higher incidences of unemployment, and a higher likelihood of incarceration," according to Malikah Walters in the article titled The Effects of Excessive Absenteeism in Schools.
Malikah Walters goes on to mention that "Schoeneberger asserts that the dropouts face a higher risk of poverty because of their inability to secure quality paying employment due to their lack of education and resources and are more likely to commit criminal activity leading to incarceration.”
As it is stated, absenteeism can negatively impact the budget of a school (Walters).
Tardiness negatively impacts students. According to a finding from the 2001-2002 of NFTE in two Boston Public Schools by Michael Nakkula, Claudia Pineda, Amy Dray, and Miranda Lutyens that was conducted by Harvard University Graduate School of Education, they compared the NFTE students and the COMP (comparison) students in terms of tardiness and average math grade by race as we can see on the next table. In this finding, as the table below shows, the NFTE African American Students had a mean number of days tardy of 34.4 with an average math grade of 1.45, but the COMP African American Students had a mean number of days tardy of 18.3 with an average math grade of 1.81. When they compared the NFTE White and COMP White Students, they found that the NFTE White Students had a mean number of days tardy of 28.5 with an average math grade of 1.29, but the COMP White Students had a mean number of days tardy of 18.3 with an average math grade of 1.35. When it comes to the Asian students, the NFTE had a mean number of days tardy of 8.3 with an average math grade of 2.01, but the COMP had a mean number of 0.25 with an average math grade of 3.18. However, the NFTE Latino Students had a mean number of days tardy of 22 with an average math grade of 1.85, and the COMP Latino Students had a mean number of days tardy of 24.6 with an average math grade of 1.48. This idea can make us realize that the COMP students had higher average math grade and lower mean number of days tardy in every race, except in terms of the Latino students, than the NFTE students. And students who had higher mean number of days tardy in every race had lesser math grade than those who had lesser mean number of days tardy, vice versa. So we may infer that tardiness does have a negative relationship with students’ academic performance, or it can be a factor that causes students to have lesser grade as Rachel Pancare, an elementary school teacher, shows in the article titled Effects of Tardiness on Your Child's Education that “frequent tardiness is associated with lower grades and lower scores on standardized tests.” Not only does tardiness have a negative relationship with students’ academic performance or represent a factor that may cause students to have lesser grade, but it causes other problems. "According to the National Center Statistics 2007 Indicators of School Crime and Safety, tardiness causes students to feel disconnected with school, leading to behavior problems and dropouts" (Zeiger). Also, many researchers argued in Weade's research titled "School and Work Tardiness in High School Students in Rural Wisconsin" that tardiness is a reason of students’ failure (10 & 11).
Source: Data From Michael Nakkula, Claudia Pineda, Amy Dray, and Miranda Lutyens EXPANDED EXPLORATIONS INTO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP:FINDINGS FROM THE
Tardiness (mean # of days tardy in 01-02)
Average Math Grade (A=4, F=0)
Why do students drop out of school? Video taking from Youtube jazz89KUVO
Additionally, “When a student continuously shows up late to class, attention is drawn away from the teacher or assignment and toward the child who has just arrived. Over time, classmates may begin to criticize this child, affecting how he feels about himself in school," according to Rachel Pancare in the article titled Effects of Tardiness on Your Child's Education in Global Post.
Rachel Pancare also mentions, "Students who are often late have trouble settling in and mastering routines.” They are more likely to experience academic difficulties, such as dropping out or failing in school (Pancare). "A late student may become a target or outcast over time, and negative peer interactions can hurt his ability to concentrate on learning," according to Rachel Pancare.
Even if college students do their best to demonstrate that they are motivated by attending class punctually and frequently, they may encounter other obstacles on their ways. Another issue that causes many college students to fail or drop out is that they are the first persons from their families to attend college. According to Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, John J, O’rourke, and Matthew, “Past research has determined that first generation college students work more hours and have more financial dependents (Inman & Mayes,1999; Nunez & Cuccaro-Alamin, 1998) and generally feel unprepared to attend college ( Rodriguez, 2003).” Conceivably, they go to college with more anxiety or more mental strain and have fewer ways to deal with it (Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, John J, O’rouke, and Matthew). Majority of them or 5.02 out of 10 of them spend their first two years of college in a two years college instead of a university (National Center for Education Statistics in Bui) because they are financially and academically unprepared to attend a four year college and because they want to have more time in order to work (Bui). Furthermore, they are unable to socially and to culturally adapt themselves in a positive way (Brooks-Terry in Williams & Buttler). After all, many of them come from homes where they are anticipated to begin supporting themselves and forming a family right after they finish their "high school" education because their mothers or their fathers miscomprehend the significance or the value of the amount of required industriousness and "time" that those students should "invest" in school in order for those students to end up with a positive achievement (Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, John J, O’rouke, and Matthew). They also come from parents who do not have high education or income, which makes them linger at a non-comparative deficit (Engle). During their first semester in college, they often expose to greater risk of having poorer grades than other students (Riehl in Murphy & Hicks).They are more likely to drop out (Inman, Mayes, & Riehl in Murphy &Hicks) or have higher risk of not graduating with a degree (Olsen). Also, first generation students get involved in less social activities and often experience nagging problems. Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, John J, O’rouke, and Matthew also reported as Harry H. Harrison Jr., Best-Selling Parenting Author, shows in the article titled What Causes Students to Fail or Drop out of College that "students" who do not partake or have friends or participate in college activities, such as study groups, may feel that they do not like the school that they attend or may have bad or decreasing grades or may drop out (1). “Additionally, first generation students also have been found to be more likely to live off campus, resulting in lower levels of on-campus participation” (Terenzini in Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, John J, O’rouke, and Matthew).
“Harry Frankenfeld, a 2001 graduate of Belmont University in Nashville who is now an audio engineer and videographer in Seattle says, ‘Living in the dorms helped me, as an only child, connect and learn how to live with other people. I think I’m more balanced because of my friendship with my roommate. I had to learn to work through conflict and learn how to celebrate someone else’s ‘wins,’” according to David R. Wheeler in the article titled The End of the College Roommate, More and more schools are letting students live in single dorm rooms in theatlantic.com.
Additionally, as stated in the article titled The End of the College Roommate, More and more schools are letting students live in single dorm rooms in theatlantic.com, “’Learning to interact effectively with others is a central element of success in adult life in both work and personal contexts,’ says Marcia Baxter Magolda, a professor at Miami University in Ohio who conducted a 27-year longitudinal study on young adult development. Establishing an ‘inner voice,’" according to David R. Wheeler.
David R. Wheeler goes on to mention that Marcia Baxter Magold also mentions that this type of learning interaction is crucial to live well in this actual complicated world, and in this world, as Marcia mention, one needs to have great critical thinking, great evaluated point of views, great reasonable decisions making skills, and great balancing skills.
Marcia goes on to say, "'But such growth isn’t automatic; it requires interaction. ‘Having a roommate in a residence hall system, where the staff members assist students in navigating the complexity of relationships, would contribute to such growth”’ (Wheeler).
“Mayor Martin J. Walsh of Boston wants to cut in half the number of college students living off campus by 2030 and is calling on Boston colleges to collectively add 18,500 new dormitory beds to make that possible.The plan, part of the mayor’s new housing initiative, would encourage colleges to work with private developers to build the new facilities,” according to the article titled Boston Offers a Plan to Help Colleges Add Dorms by Matt Rocheleau. Matt Rocheleau indicates that that would help many schools in terms of money. They would not have to spend money to build additional housings on campus, and they would also have the opportunities to rent the rooms (Rocheleau). Rocheleau goes on to demonstrate that “privately developed dorms can also be taxed, unlike dorms built solely by colleges, which are classified as nonprofits, city officials said.” Rocheleau mentions Devin Quirk in the matter. As he states, “Devin Quirk, director of operations at Boston’s Department of Neighborhood Development, said the city would facilitate partnerships between colleges and private developers to build new dorms, with one or more colleges agreeing to lease all or portions of the buildings.” Many college officials acknowledge that the plan would have a positive impact in many institutions (Rocheleau). “The proposal comes amid increasing concern over shoddy, dangerous conditions common in off-campus student housing. The additional dorm space would give colleges’ greater oversight of students and ease the rapid growth of the student rental market in many neighborhoods,” according to Rocheleau. Matt Rocheleau talks about the exceeding costs of building dorms because of this proposal. As he states, “The cost to build 18,500 new dorm beds in Boston would exceed $2.6 billion, according to the report. The city envisions 16,000 for undergraduates and 2,500 for graduate students.” Quirk is again mentioned in the matter. According to Rocheleau, “Quirk said that during a pair of recent meetings with city leaders, local college presidents supported the ideas outlined in the report. ‘The big change here is the commitment from the universities to work with us on this issue,’ he said. ‘It’s really a partnership.’” Matt also mentions John Nucci in the plan. “’It’s refreshing that [Walsh] has brought universities into the conversation,’ said John Nucci, a spokesman for Suffolk University, which houses 21 percent of its 5,800 undergraduates on its downtown campus. ‘He’s trying to establish a collaborative approach, and that’s a great idea, ’” Matt indicates. ‘“I think most universities will be on board with the general principles of the plan,’ Nucci added” (Matt).
“Boston College houses 80 percent of its 9,000 undergraduates on campus, the highest percentage in the city. The school has plans to add another 810 dorm beds soon, which would push its on-campus housing rate to nearly 90 percent. ‘We support Mayor Walsh’s housing plan and look forward to working with him to meet our common goals,’ campus spokesman Jack Dunn said,” according to Matt Rocheleau.
Matt also shows, “Creating more students housing would free up some of Boston’s existing housing stock for working adults and families, Walsh’s report said. The city estimates that 16,000 new dorm beds would open up about 5,000 units to nonstudent renters. City officials said they plan to work with neighborhood residents to establish, by 2015, a list of suitable locations and other criteria for new student housing.”
Matt Rocheleau goes on to indicate, “However, the city acknowledged it has yet to fulfill its promise to increase the number of inspectors. Some landlords and tenants have resisted efforts to follow city housing codes. Students say they are forced to share crowded apartments simply to afford the rent.” He also talks about the number of students enrolled in college in the preceding year in Boston in which many of them lived off campus. As he states, “Last year, of the 136,000 students enrolled at four-year colleges and universities in Boston, an estimated 36,300 lived off campus, while 36,500 lived on campus, the report said. The rest resided in a mix of on- and off-campus housing in other municipalities.” Matt Rocheleau goes on to mention Quirk again in the matter. He says, “Quirk, of the city’s Department of Neighborhood Development, said he believes that having data to support the dorm-construction plan is a key driver for the enthusiasm of school leaders. ‘It’s a very data-driven plan,’ he said. ‘We now have data we didn’t have before.’”
According to Matt Rocheleau, “After a fire at an off-campus apartment in Allston in April 2013 killed Binland Lee, a 22-year-old Boston University student, community activists called on colleges in Boston to release the addresses of their off-campus students to enable the city to detect overcrowded living conditions.”
Matt also indicates that “some area colleges have a head start on increasing undergraduate housing, as more than 7,000 new undergraduate dorm beds are currently under construction or have preliminary city approval, including at Boston University, Northeastern University, and the University of Massachusetts Boston.”
In returning back to first generation college students who are more likely to live off campus, Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, J, O'rouke, and Matthew goes on to prove in their article titled "Why Do First Generation College Students Fail?" that one of the major problems that "first generation college students" have is that they do not have a family member who can share some college experiences with them or who can tell them how to deal with problems or stress in "college" because their "parents" did not have chance to attend college; as a result, it is often arduous or difficult for them to know how to deal with college (2) (3) (4). As a matter of fact, Carla Rivera reports,"‘First-generation students do not want to create a financial burden for their families, who know less about the complex financial aid forms [and] details of loans and tax credit benefits, which do not ease the burden of initial out-of-pocket costs,’ according to Sylvia Hurtado, director of the research institute, said in a statement.” First-generation students may enter college or university with inadequate preparation, stress is more likely to overcome them , and they are unable to remain reasonable or rational when problems, such as having difficulties passing their classes or paying for their lives, take place in their lives while they are in school. As a matter of fact, as a faculty member explained, "As I teach students that are most likely first generation college students, I also would suggest that they do not have an idea of what being a college student involves. And it is at this point that they become ‘behind in the game,’ for they do not even know the steps to take, [or] the order to take, to succeed” (Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014).
Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, J, O'rouke, and Matthew also talk about what colleges and universities can do to help in the matter. “Most universities today have embraced the marketing concept. Therefore, both professors and administrators at institutions of higher education need to know their customers (students). Knowing the background of these students can be beneficial in designing programs that will best serve the students they are responsible for educating”( Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, J, O'rouke, and Matthew). Mehta, Sanjays, Newbold, J, O'rouke, and Matthew also talk about demographic and socioeconomic information on first generation college students. As they stated, “While demographic and socioeconomic information on these students is collected regularly, many universities rarely use this information to design programs that provide greater value.”
Carla Rivera also shows that “financial considerations were even more important for students who are the first in their family to attend college, with 60% citing financial aid as a ‘very important’ consideration in their college choice according to the survey of the nation's first-year students conducted by UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute.”
According to Publicagenda.org, “Education leaders across the nation have advocated for parents to be more engaged in their child's education. In a 2010 speech to parents, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan said, ‘It is well-documented—and plain common sense—that parental involvement in a child's education boosts student learning and improves both behavior and attendance.’”
What other problems inadequate parental involvement can cause? According to Jeri LaBahn in his article titled Education and Parental Involvement in Secondary Schools: Problems, Solutions, and Effects, “Parental involvement is a combination of commitment and active participation on the part of the parent to the school and to the student” (1).However, if many parents fail to do that, many students can face trouble. As WILL OKUN stated in the article titled “Parents Who Don’t Parent”, which has published at nytimes.com, “Students with poor academic skills who also suffer from a lack of parental involvement or support have virtually no chance of graduating from school.” Not only can lack of parental involvement expose students to the risk that has been stated in the preceding statement, but it can also cause other problems. According to Dr. J. Richard Gentry, the author of Raising Confident Readers, How to Teach Your Child to Read and Write--from Baby to Age 7, in Raising Readers, Writers, and Spellers in his article titled A Lack of Parent Engagement Helps Create Failing Schools, “Disengaged parents promote school failures and are helping create a generation of students who are less well educated than they are” (3).
“Lack of parental involvement is the biggest problem facing public schools,” according to the article titled WHAT RESEARCH SAYS ABOUT PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN CHILDREN’S EDUCATION In Relation to Academic Achievement by Michigan Department of Education.
“Three major factors of parental involvement in the education of their children: parents’ beliefs about what is important, necessary and permissible for them to do with and on behalf of their children, the extent to which parents believe that they can have a positive influence on their children’s education, and parents’ perceptions that their children and school want them to be involved,” according to the article titled WHAT RESEARCH SAYS ABOUT PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN CHILDREN’S EDUCATION In Relation to Academic Achievement by Michigan Department of Education.
Why parents do not participate in their children’s education? How do the teachers feel when the parents do not involve in their children's education? According to Peter McDermott and Julia Rothenberg in their study that was presented at the Twelfth Annual Conference on Ethnographic and Qualitative Research in Education at the State University of New York at Albany in 2000, “Data revealed that teachers are frustrated with a lack of parental involvement in literacy activities at home and at school. Parents, however, expressed distrust toward the local elementary school because they felt the faculty has been biased against African American and Latino children and their families. Consequently, the parents said they deliberately decided not to participate in school activities.” Peter McDermott and Julia Rothenberg go on to indicate that parents do not involve in their children’s education for many other causes in addition to the ones listed above. He shows that “certainly cultural and communication differences between teacher and families lie at the heart of the problem.”
"Parents explained they would only work with teachers who respected and valued their children," according to Peter McDermott and Julia Rothenberg.
As stated in the article titled WHAT RESEARCH SAYS ABOUT PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN CHILDREN’S EDUCATION In Relation to Academic Achievement by Michigan Department of Education, “Family participation in education was twice as predictive of students’ academic success as family socioeconomic status. The more intensely parents are involved, the more beneficial the achievement effects. The more parents participate in schooling, in a sustained way, at every level -- in advocacy, decision-making and oversight roles, as fund-raisers and boosters, as volunteers and para-professionals, and as home teachers -- the better for student achievement. 86% of the general public believes that support from parents is the most important way to improve the schools.”
Public Agenda: Parents Want to Be Involved in Children’s Education Yet Don’t Understand Key Factors Affecting Public Education Quality "N.D" January 7, 2014
parents surveyed who said they wished they could be doing more when it comes to involvement in their child's education
those who are satisfied with the way things are
those who said other parents they know are involved too little
those that can name a basic milestone that their child should have learned in school over the previous year -
Parents that said they would like their child to have more difficult classes
Parents that say Schools don’t need to make classes more difficult, that “my child works hard enough as is.”
Parents that say they know nothing at all about the qualifications of their child's principal
those that say they know nothing at all about what the superintendent is actually responsible for
Those that say they know a lot about the options to send their child to another area or public school
Parents who were best informed and most active in their children’s education
Parents who were the least knowledgeable and least involved
Knowledgeable and involved parents who said that they knew “a lot” about how their child’s school compares to other schools in the area
The least informed and involved parents who said the same thing
Parents who said that having conversations, via email, phone or in person, four times a year with their child's teachers about how their child is doing is a good way to enhance involvement.
Parents who said knowing more about what benchmarks and skills your child should be mastering at the end of every school year is a good way to enhance involvement
Parents who said offering morning, evening and weekend appointment hours with teachers and school officials for parents who work is a good way to enhance involvement
Parents who said requiring the parents of failing students to attend programs that teach them how to help their kids learn is a good way to enhance involvement
less than 22 percent
only 50 percent
In addition to Peter McDermott and Julia Rothenberg , Publicagenda.org shows, “When parents with children were asked about other possible reasons why some parents become less involved as their children got older, nearly half (47 percent) cited increasingly difficult schoolwork as a ‘major reason’. Additionally, 31 percent said problems communicating with their child were a ‘major reason’ (‘Parents don’t always know the right questions to ask their children about how they are doing in school’). Little more than 1 in 5 parents — 22 percent — said a major reason they became less involved was because ‘teachers don't really want parents interfering with their classes.’ Only 21 percent say, ‘there are so many teachers in later grades that it is hard to keep in contact with them.’ “
Data from Dr. Matthew Lynch in It’s Tough to Trailblaze: Challenges of First-Generation College Students, A 2010 study by the Department of Education January 2
Percentage of the college population that is made up of first-generation students
Minority groups who parents had a high school education or less
The parents of students of Asian with a high school diploma or less
Native Americans who parents with a high school diploma or less
First-generation students that identified themselves as Caucasian
48.5 percent of Latino and Hispanic students and 45 percent of Black or African-American students included
Data from Krista Ramsey and Cliff Peale, USA TODAY, “First-generation college students stay the course.” Mars 29, 2010. January 2011.
Entering freshmen in the USA are first-generation college students
Freshmen who are are both first-gens and low incom
First generation students who will leave college after their first year
Comparison of the dropout rate of low income first generation college students to the dropout rate of higher-income second-generation students.
Low-income first-gens who leave college within six years without a degree
More than 25%
Number & words
4 times higher than the dropout rate of higher-income second-generation students.
Does income have a relation with students’ academic performance? What troubles can low income students face? According to a study titled 10 Theories On The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Academic Achievement that was conducted by Grant Wiggins, he tried to find out the relationship between academic performance and socioeconomic status. In order to do so, Grant Wiggin analyzed many data, such as the PA PSSA data. One of the most interesting data was the 2012 SAT one. What this data showed was that students who came from a family where the family income was between 0$ – $20,000 scored 433 in critical reading and 461 in mathematics. Those who came from family where income was between $20,000 – $40,000 scored 463 in critical reading and 481 in mathematics. A score of 485 in reading or 500 in mathematics was for the ones who came from family where income was between $40,000 to $60,000. The students who came from family where income was between $60,000 – $80,000 scored 499 in critical reading and 512 in mathematics. Those who came from family where income was between $80,000 to $100,000 scored 511 in reading and 525 in mathematics. A score of 523 in reading and 539 in mathematics was for those who came from family where income was between $100,000 to $120,000. Students who came from family where income was between $120,000 to $140,000 scored 527 in critical reading and 543 in mathematics. Those who came from family where income was between $140,000 to $160,000 scored 534 in critical reading and 551 in mathematics. A score of 540 in reading and 557 in mathematics was for those who came from family where income was between $160,000 to $200,000. Lastly, students who came from family where income was more than $200,000 scored a 567 in critical reading and 589 in mathematics. This idea can make us realize that income has a relation with students’academic performance, or students who come from more money have better score or academic performance than those who come from less money. Also, Grant Wiggins goes on to show that “ever since the Coleman report in the 60s and the controversial book The Bell Curve by Herrnstein and Murray in the 1990’s, dozens of studies keep finding the same thing: socio-economic status is correlated with student achievement.” Among the data or studies that he analyzes, he finds out that students who come from family who have more money have better academic performance than those who come from less money. Not only can income have a relation with students’ academic performance, but it can also have a relation with their drop out rates or be an element that causes them trouble. According to Khara Sikhan, “Low-income students are six times more likely to drop out of school. Low-income students fail to graduate at five times the rate of middle-income families and six times that of higher-income youth, according to a recent study by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)."
Additionally, “Gary Berg uses both quantitative data and information gleaned from personal interviews with students and professors to show how students from poor families are shortchanged at every stage of their postsecondary education, from admissions practices that discriminate against them, to the numerous obstacles they face getting through college, to the lesser benefits they reap after graduation,” according to Serena Golden in the article titled low-Income Students and the Perpetuation of Inequality' in Inside Higher ED.
Gary also mentions that “George H.W. Bush further cut federal grants to low-income students during his period in office. Typically writing skills are where students from low-income families have the most trouble academically. The competition by universities to climb over each other in the U.S. News & Report rankings has had a negative impact on low-income students because the quality measures work against them.”
Low-income students also receive less financial aid or assistance from the government. According to Jon Marcus in the article titled Obama Seeking to Help Poor Students, But Policies Favor the Rich: Opinion in CNN, “Federal figures also show that students from families that earn at least $100,000 a year get an average of $10,200 in financial aid, significantly more than the $8,000 that goes to students from families that earn less than $20,000.” Marcus goes on to show that students who do not have money problems or who are not in need of money are more likely to receive more assistance than those who are in need.
“It’s a real issue: Only 30 percent of low-income students enroll in college right after high school, and only 9 percent earn a bachelor’s degree by age 25,” as Sara Martinez Tucker stated in the article titled Getting More Low-Income Students Into College Isn't About Money, It's About The Curriculum.
Jon Marcus also shows that “partly because the $1 billion a year in taxpayer money that goes to work-study is based on a 50-year-old formula that gives preference to high-priced private universities and colleges, nearly one work-study recipient out of four comes from a family that earns $80,000 a year or more, according to Education Department figures. That's a higher proportion than those that make less than $20,000. And fewer than half meet the federal definition of financial need.”
College costs rise more rapidly for poorer or low-income students. “At private universities, students in the lowest income group saw the biggest dollar increase over that period: about $1,700, after adjusting for inflation, according to the analysis by The Dallas Morning News, The Hechinger Report and the Education Writers Association. Higher-income students paid more overall, but their costs rose more slowly - an inflation-adjusted average of about $850 for middle-income families and $1,200 for those in the top income group. At private research universities, including many of the nation's most elite, the net price rose by an average of $2,700 for the poorest families - those with incomes under $30,000 a year - compared with $1,400 for their higher-income classmates,” according to JON MARCUS AND HOLLY K. HACKER. JON MARCUS AND HOLLY K. HACKER goes on to analyze some data regarding the University of Notre Dame, for example. They show that “the most recent data for the University of Notre Dame show that the poorest students, defined as coming from families with annual incomes below $30,000, paid an average net price of just over $15,000 per year. Students with family incomes between $48,000 and $75,000 paid more, around $18,500. And families that earn more than $110,000 paid the most, about $37,500. Over the four years the data were collected, however, the net price for Notre Dame's poorest freshmen more than doubled, from about $7,300 in 2008-09 to $15,100 in 2011-12, while it declined slightly for students in higher-income groups.”
According to Robert Morse and Diane Tolis in the article titled Measuring Colleges' Success Graduating Higher-Income Students in US News & World Report, an analysis shows graduation rates of higher-income students compared with the entire student body, “These different sets of graduation rates that the U.S News & World Reports' analysis shows indicate how well a college or university serves students of differing income levels. Both Pell Grants and subsidized Stafford loans – low-interest loans where the interest is paid by the government while a student is in school – are awarded to students based on financial need. Students with neither, then, can be assumed to be from families with relatively high income levels.”
Lack of confidence can cause students troubles. According to the study titled The Correlation between General Self-Confidence and Academic Achievement in the Oral Presentation Course by Safaa Mohammad Al-Hebaish at the Department of Curricula and Teaching Methods, Faculty of education, Taibah University, “A correlation design was employed to find out the relationship between general self-confidence and academic achievement. The descriptive design was employed to describe the current status of the subjects in the study. The correlation study, on the other hand, was carried out to investigate the existence, or nonexistence of the relationship between the variables of the study in order to make predictions or suggestions (Fook et al.,2011,p.33).” The study consists of 53 female college students between the ages of 20-22 at the university of Taibah who majored in English. The Department chose to put them in a preparation class in order to better their oral communication skills so that they could speak clearly because they have a communication barrier. They joined the English Department at the university without knowing those important skills that they need to succeed. They collected many information for the data.“The data consisted of 25 statements about GSC, and learners were asked to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The responses were scored on a five-point Likert scale response format, ranging from „No’ to „too much’. According to the rating system of the questionnaire, the minimum score was 25 points and the maximum score was 125 points” ( Mohammad Al-Hebaish)(62&63). After they calculated the data statistics so that they could understand the scores better, they came up with a result. The result was that students who participated in the study had a mean score of 81.84 in the presentation test, and they had a mean deviation score of 4.89. “To examine the correlation between general self-confidence and academic achievement scores, correlation analysis was conducted. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r (.707**). The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was also employed to determine the correlation between the two variables,” (Mohammad Al-Hebaish) (63). In one of the findings, they found that academic achievement was positively correlated with the grades that the students scored in their tests. After that, they continued to analyze the data. They tried to find out if confidence was correlated with students’ academic performance. What they found as results was that there was “a positive significant correlation between the two variables. The more self-confident learners were, the higher were their scores in the oral test. Highly self-confident learners were ready to try to speak in front of others. Lack of general self-confidence, on the other hand, resulted in lack of interest to strive for high quality oral performance. Less confident learners were not certain of their abilities. They tended to try less which in turn leaded to low levels of achievement” ( Mohammad Al-Hebaish)(64). In addition to that, in the article titled How to Survive the Third Year of Medical School: Common Pitfalls, Dr. Apollo aka L.Y. Leung shows that lack of confidence is a reason that causes many students to fail (2).
According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, a faculty said, “I think most students fail because of a lack in self-confidence. Often the students that I see are bright but make failing grades due to their not believing that they are smart enough to do the work. We try to work through this and if there is some improvement in self-confidence, grades improve.”
According to Erick Ravenscraft in the article titled Why Confidence Is So Important (and How to Improve Yours), “A pilot study at the University of Melbourne found some correlation between confidence levels as early as primary school and success in the workplace as adults. This doesn't just apply to the workplace, either."
Erick also mentions that "a study by the University of Texas showed that students who received some expression of confidence in their ability—even while receiving criticism—performed better later on than those who were simply told to aim for higher standards.P."
"The Univerisity of Edinburgh and the University of California-San Diego found that in a standoff over a particular resource, unless you were sure you'd lose the fight, and as long as what you're fighting for had value, confidence often result in success. Even if you weren't right, being confident can help you get what you want,” according to Erick Ravenscraft.
On the other hand, even if students are confident, other problems may stand up because being overconfident also causes many students trouble. According to a study titled I Thought I Got an A! Overconfidence across the Economics Curriculum by Clifford Nowell and Richard M. Alston, they tried to find out how confidence was correlated with students’ academic performance. “They also analyze the difference between a student’s expected and actual grade and how teacher pedagogies can influence student overconfidence” (Alston). They interviewed many students at a big university at the economics and quantitative courses. During the semester, they found from the professors that 191 students had an actual grade of A, 249 students had an actual grade of B, 213 students had an actual grade of C, 51 students had an actual grade of D, and 11 students had an actual grade of F in the class. “They analyzed two different types of overconfidence in the context of grade expectations. The first type of overconfidence reflected an inflated view of an ability to accurately predict future performance. They examined the ability of students to predict the grade they would earn in classes taught by faculty in the economics department during the fall semester of2002.” (Alston) (132). 221 students expected to have an A in the class, 328 students expected to have a B in the class, 150 students expected to have a C in the class, 13 students expected to have a D in the class, and 3 students expected to have an F in the class. “Although Gaultney and Cann (2001) reported that after the fact 71 percent of students reported getting the grade they expected, only 58 percent of students in our survey were able to correctly predict their grade. One-third of students in our survey exhibited a degree of overconfidence, and their predicted course grade was greater than the actual grade they ultimately received. A significant portion, 9 percent, actually under predicted their grade” (Alston) (134). During they analyzed the data, they found that many elements were correlated or were negatively correlated with overconfidence, but that did not stop them from doing further research or further tests to make sure that those relations were absolutely correct. After they put all the information together or finish analyzing the data, they found a piece of evidence or many correlations. What they found "was that students often exhibit overconfident grade expectations and tend to overestimate the actual course grade at the completion of a course…In addition to that, they found students in lower division classes have a greater tendency to be overconfident than those in upper division class. Male students and those with lower GPAs exhibit greater confidence” (Alston)(131). Not only can male students or students who are overconfident have lesser grade, but students who are overconfident can face another problem. In the article titled How to Survive the Third Year of Medical School: Common Pitfalls, Apollo aka L.Y. Leung, a medical doctor, shows that “many students fail due to overconfidence” (2).
According to GlobalCognition in the article titled Why Overconfidence Occurs and How to Overcome It, “Winston Sieck, Ed Merkle, and Trish Van Zandt of the Ohio State University studied overconfidence among college students using a test of financial knowledge. The researchers created a cognitive model that explains why overconfidence occurs. They also tested ways of overcoming overconfidence based on the model."
"The paper, ‘option fixation: a cognitive contributor to overconfidence’ was published in the journal Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. There are a couple of points in this cognitive process that lead to overconfidence: People tend to focus on that first guess. They mostly ignore the other alternative. This is called ‘option fixation’,” as stated in GlobalCognition.
GlobalCognition goes on to show in the article titled Why Overconfidence Occurs and How to Overcome it by supporting Winston Sieck, Ed Merkle, and Trish Van Zandt of the Ohio State University ideas that overconfidence can cause many other problems; it causes us to work less than we could or causes us to be certain too much about our capabilities, which can deceive us sometimes or cause us to realize that if we did apply our industriousness a little bit or were not certain at such a particular level, we would not be in a bad position or in a real problem that we should not be.
"Overconfident people are too easily satisfied with their explanations. When we keep them to ourselves, our explanations tend to be far shallower than we think they are," as stated in GlobalCognition.
Smoking causes students troubles. According to a study that was conducted by T W Hu, Z Lin, and T E Keeler, they tried to find out what was the relationship between academic performance and smoking. They interviewed in 1990 in California a lot of young students who smoked tobacco. What they found was that nonsmokers had a much better than average grade of 80.62; the former smokers had a much better than average grade of 13.92, but current smokers had a much better than average grade of 5.46. In terms of better than average grade, nonsmokers had a grade of 76.18 but a 16.41 for the former smokers and a 7.41 for the current smokers , and in terms of average, nonsmokers had a grade of 68.32 but a 19.37 for the former smokers and a 12.31 for the current smokers. In terms of below average, nonsmokers had a GPA of 47.31 but a 21.51 for the former smokers and a 31.18 for the current smokers. In terms of undefined status, nonsmokers had a 90.48 but a 4.76 for the former smokers and a 4.76 for the current smokers. These evidences can make us realize that students who smoke have lesser grades than those who do not smoke in all the terms, or smoking has a negative relation with student’s academic performance. Also, Jeremy Olson shows that correlation in his article titled Bad Habits Can Mean Bad Grades by stating that “the average GPA for nonsmokers was 3.28, while the average for daily smokers was 3.09. But even students who smoked once or twice a month had lower grades. Their average GPA was 3.16.” Not only can smoking have a negative relation with students’ academic performance or cause them to have lesser grade, but it can also cause them other problems. “According to London, students who smoke daily could experience serious effects in prefrontal cortex development and activation because of smoking ,” said Pia Bhathal in her article titled Smoking Can Affect Students’ Judgment. In addition to that, Jeremy Olson shows in his article titled Bad Habits Can Mean Bad Grades that smoking can be one of the bad habits that cause students to have bad grades.
Data from A Third of College Students Smoke by Melissa Schorr
Increasing percentage among number of U.S. college students who smoked cigarettes Between 1993 and 1997
Percentage of college students who said they had smoked a cigar in the last year
College students who reported that they were current cigar users
College students who said that they currently use chewing tobacco
College students who said that they currently smoke pipes
Total percentage of college students who smoke
22 percent to 28 percent
Why do students smoke in school? According to Greg Narayan in the article titled Why Do College Students Smoke, “Social pressure in a totally new environment is likely what leads to most college students to start smoking for the first time. Peer pressure is still a major part of the college life, and things like smoking and partying have become associated with the 'college experience'”. As a matter of fact, Carl Azuz shows in his article in CNN that many students reported that they smoke due to peer pressure and partying.
Students who do not like school often drop out. According to a study that was conducted by the University of California, Santa Barbara by Russell W. Rumberger, a professor of education and director of the California Dropout Research Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara who has written about dropouts for the past 30 years and is author of Dropping Out: Why Students Drop Out of School and What Can be Done About It(Harvard University Press, 2011), they interviewed some students in order to find out why students drop out of school. “About 29% of dropouts reported that they left school because they disliked school” (Rumberger). Among the students who said that they dropped out because they did not like school, approximately, 60% of them were males, and among the male students, 40% of them were white, 29% were Hispanic, and 31 % were black, but the remaining students were females; among the female students, approximately, 45% of them were white, 25 % were Hispanic, and 30 % were black. This idea can make us realize that male students are more likely to drop out because they dislike school as Mann's study implies. Even though white, black, and Hispanic students dropped out in school because they disliked school, clearly, both male and female white students had greater percentage of dropping out than black and Hispanic students in terms of gender; consequently, we may infer that this study seems to imply that male and female white students are more likely to drop out than black and Hispanic students because they dislike school as NCSET shows in the article titled Part I: What Do We Know About Dropout Prevention? , What Do We Know About Who Drops Out and Why?, Who Drops Out of School? , “66 percent of the actual dropouts are White, while just 17 percent are Black and 13 percent are Hispanic. Disliking school is one of the issues that those students report that causes them to drop out.” Not only do these studies above show that students drop out because they do not like school, but Morgan's 1984's study also shows that in Mann's study by stating that “51 % of the males but only 33% of female dropouts do so because they ‘dislike school’."
Why students do not like school? According to Peter Gray, Ph.D., who is a research professor at Boston College and the author of the recently published book Free to Learn (Basic Books, 2013) and Psychology (Worth Publishers, a college textbook now in its 6th edition) in the article titled “Why Don’t Students Like School?” Well, Duhhhh… in Psychological Today and in Freedom to Learn, “Willingham's thesis is that students do not like school because their teachers do not have a full understanding of certain cognitive principles and therefore do not teach as well as they could. They do not present material in ways that appeal best to students' minds. Ask any schoolchild why they do not like school and they willl tell you. ‘School is prison. They do not like school because they like freedom, and in school, they are not free.’" Dr. Peter Gray goes on to demonstrate in that same article by supporting other people’s perspectives by saying that students do not like school because they have to follow or exercise what their instructors say; as a result, they feel that they have difficulty learning about “the physical and social world in which they are developing;” in addition to that, “the wardens of school are not kind enough, or amusing enough, or smart enough to keep their minds occupied appropriately.”
Language barrier can cause students to fail or dropout. According to Stephany Elsworth, “Pinnock claims that students experience higher failure rates in school if the language they learn at school is different from the one spoken at home. In 2008, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) conducted research across 26 countries showing that over 50 percent of students who dropped out of school did not speak the language in which they were being educated. A 2012 report by the American Psychological Association noted that Latino students who spoke one language at home and another at school were at increased risk of graduating late or dropping out of high school.” As a matter of fact, 23,777 English learners and 1,978 immigrant students who fail or who have low grades or who drop out in the state of California report that that happens due to a language barrier according to the research titled ACLU Sues the State of California for Failing to Teach 20,000 Students English.
Stephany Elsworth goes on to show that Professor John Schumann shows that students who experience language barrier in school may feel frustrated to talk to others or to convey their ideas with their professors because they may feel that they are awkward or unintelligent to talk to others with a language that they do not fully understand or are not skilled in. That may lead them to have emotional problems or to have stress. In addition to that, “it is difficult for someone to succeed as a language minority student without having a solid foundation in his first language”( Elsworth).
Language barrier that many students from different cultures or countries have can cause many of them to communicate through body language that can have a correlation with cultural differences. In the article titled How Cultural Differences May Affect Student Performance , Karen McGee, M.A tried to show “how can an educator decide if a child from a culture different from her own has a learning disability?” He mentioned that with students from different culture, “in everyday conversation in class, spoken words are only one way to communicate. As little as 7 percent of a message may be expressed in words, the rest is through facial expression, voice tone, body gestures, and overall posture. When the verbal and nonverbal messages don't match up, people pay more attention to the nonverbal message. That's what's meant by the old saying, ‘A picture is worth a thousand words’." On the other hand, Karen McGee goes on to demonstrate that sometimes teachers or instructors misinterpret those body languages. They may think that the students try to harass them while they try to show respect toward them. They may feel that they cannot stand these types of behaviors. Sometimes students may also come really too close to the instructors to converse with them, but there are times that the instructors may feel uncomfortable around the students with a such behavior, which students already get used to because it is a cultural matter most of the time or is associated with their culture (1, 2, & 3).
Even if students are prepared for college by parents or like school or do not face a language barrier or not smoke, other issues may arise. Lack of sleep also negatively affects many college students or causes them to fail. “Lack of sleep makes it difficult for students to concentrate in school. Our ability to remember is related to our ability to learn, and there have been many studies about sleep and its effects on memory, and learning. These studies suggest that good sleep habits are essential to good study habits” (Fleming). This seems to show that good sleep habits are beneficial to students because they can help students to learn or to study effectively in school, but lack of sleep is detrimental to students because it can make it difficult for them to learn or to remember or to focus in school. It’s also evident that students who have a certain inability to learn, to focus, or to concentrate in school can fail their classes, or students who do not sleep adequately can fail or are more likely to fail in school because they can have trouble staying awake in class as Joe Smydo states that “sleeping difficulties were top-cited reasons for academic difficulties as the college health association's National College Health Assessment’s report shows." According to a survey that was conducted by the Army Research Laboratory Field Element, they interviewed some college students; “43 percent of failing students reported they were getting only 3 to 4 hours of sleep each night, as compared with 23 percent of the passing students... however, when they ask whether they get enough sleep, 33 percent of the falling students and 17 percent of the passing students report that they ‘always’ or ‘often’ have trouble staying awake in class” (Vilbiss, Rice, Laws, and Alfred) (see next figure). This idea can make us realize that even though lack of sleep is negatively affecting both failing and passing students, it is clear that failing students have a higher percentage of sleep deprivation or trouble staying awake in class, so we can make an inference that failing students are more likely not to sleep or have trouble focusing in class. Not only can inadequate sleep cause some students trouble staying awake in class, but another issue is that it can be a top factor that causes students to perform poorly in school. "In a recent study conducted by many authors, they found that poor sleep is among the most unexpected and definitive causes of poor academic achievement" (Taras).
Additionally, according to the article titled Sleep Habits: More Important Than You Think, Chronic Sleep Deprivation May Harm Health by Michael J. Breus, PhD that was reviewed by Stuart J. Meyers, MD in WebMD Feature, “In the short term, sleep deprivation decreases performance and alertness, stresses relationships, impairs memory and cognitive, or causes occupational Injury, automobile Injury, poor quality of life. In the long term, the clinical consequences of untreated sleep disorders are large indeed."
"The clinical consequences associated with numerous, serious medical illnesses, including: high blood pressure, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, obesity, psychiatric problems, including depression and other mood disorders, attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), mental impairment, fetal and childhood growth retardation, injury from accidents, disruption of bed partner's sleep quality, and poor quality of life,” according to the article titled Sleep Habits: More Important Than You Think, Chronic Sleep Deprivation May Harm Health by Michael J. Breus, PhD that was reviewed by Stuart J. Meyers, MD in WebMD Feature.
Source: Data from Dr. Carita De Vilbiss, Dr. Valerie J. Rice, Linda Laws, & Petra Alfred, If You Want to Know Why Students Fail, Just Ask Them ( EBSCO Database)
Type of Students
Percentage of Students who get 5 to 6 hours of sleep
Students who get 3-4 hours of sleep
Percentage of Students who often have trouble Staying awake in class
Source: Data From Erica Moss ,"The Effects of Sleep Deprivation" (Uloop.com),page 1. A Study published by the Journal of Adolescent.
College Students who received less than the recommended 8 hours of sleep per night
College students who received the recommended 8 hours of sleep or more than the recommended 8 hours of sleep per night
According to Alex Ondracek in the article titled Bad Sleeping Habits Affect Grades, Ability to Absorb Information in Class, “If you do not sleep well and are dozing off in class, that is obviously going to affect the acquisition of the material being presented to you."
Alex also mentions shows that recall works the same manner. Alex points out that "it is shown in popular culture all the time, when a student is dozing off in class, and the teacher calls on him and he has no idea how to answer because he wasn’t receiving any of the input that his brain needed to learn the material."
"Consolidation is a trickier business than these first two processes. There is nothing obvious to see how lack of sleep affects it,” according to Alex.
Alex Ondracek goes on to indicte in the article titled Bad Sleeping Habits Affect Grades, Ability to Absorb Information in Class , “Stickgold and Walker, two Ph.D.-level researchers, have done several studies over the connection of lack of sleep and consolidation and have found that when we learn information, the next night’s sleep is the most important to forming connections. In other words, when we learn something our brain makes all the connections, strengthening and stabilizing the memory during the next night of sleep.” Alex also analyzes what Dr. Stickgol and Walker seem to literally indicate. As he states in the article titled Bad Sleeping Habits Affect Grades, Ability to Absorb Information in Class, “This means that ‘all-nighters’ are not nearly as effective as studying during the day, and just sleeping and letting your mind do the consolidating that night. When you pull an all-nighter, your brain never gets a real chance of taking what you learned and making it more permanent in your brain.”
According to Alex, “A good balance requires discipline; for example, knowing when to say that it is time for bed despite how good of a conversation you are having with your buddies. If you want good grades then you have to be willing to make sacrifices, even if it means going to bed just a little bit earlier.”
Also, many college students often fail because they are caught cheating. Back in the days, the number of students cheating was less than 30 percent, but now-a-days, this number is drastically and substantially augmenting by more than 74.99 percent (Education-Portal).Using cell phones and using internet or computers are some strategies that many students often use to cheat (TVCC News-Journal). Also, some students often use electronic or technological device to exchange answers or ideas while they are taking test in class (TVCC News-Journal). For example, in "December" 2011, "A Houston-area school caught 60 students cheating on a test.The method they used to cheat: texting” (TVCC News-Journal). Also, at the University of Florida, Manuel Bermudez, an associate professor in the College of Engineering’s Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, caught "ninety seven of his students cheating" in one of his classes, and he strongly penalized them for doing that (Alcantara). Every year, at least 7.5 out of 10 college students report that they cheat at some point during their time in school (Education-Portal). Moreover, not only do many college students report that they cheat at some point during their time in school or use some strategies to cheat or get strongly penalized by some instructors because they are caught cheating , but another issue is that students who are caught cheating in a course may automatically face another trouble in the whole course simply for doing that. According to Kate Taylor, “If a student is caught cheating on a test or project, he may automatically fail. In colleges, students may even fail the entire course in which they cheated” (1).
“In May 2012, a teaching fellow for a government class at Harvard started noticing similarities between students' final exams that shouldn't have been there. The professor brought the case forward, and it was discovered that approximately 125 students -- nearly half the entire lecture class -- had been cheating. If students at Harvard -- the most prestigious school in the world -- can be caught cheating in large numbers, it's safe to assume that cheating happens on every campus much more often than we would like to think,” as stated in the article titled Cheating in College: Where It Happens, Why Students Do It and How to Stop It by Bryce Buchmann, Texas.
Source: Data from University expels 34 students for cheating By Hala Khalaf in the National.eenews, December 27, 2010. October 19, 2013.
Students have been expelled for cheating since Abu Dhabi University launched its campaign on academic integrity in April 2009, accroding to the university
Dr Jehan Zitawi
Students who got expelled from the Abu Dhabi campus
Students who got expelled from the Al Ain campus
Men who got expelled
Women who got expelled
Head of the university's Office of Academic Integrity (OAI) and dean of University College.
Why do students cheat? According to Jayme Gillen, “Students cheat when value is placed on grades instead of learning. They lack confidence with their ability. They feel pressure to do well. And when they perceive that the teacher does not care, they are more inclined to cheat.” In addition to that, David L. Jaffe and Professor Drew Nelson in Academic Cheating Fact Sheet show that students cheat because they want to academically perform well and because they think that even if they get caught, they will not get penalized severely. “Ralph Heibutzki put students' reasons for cheating in five different categories. These categories were ambiguous attitudes, competitive pressures, institutional apathy, lack of understanding, and self-interest. A student's decision to cheat could come from any one of these five sources or a combination of more than one,” according to Bryce Buchmann. David L. Jaffe and Professor Drew Nelson go on to indicate, “80% of the country's best students cheated to get to the top of their class. More than half of the students surveyed said that they cheat because they do not think cheating is a big deal and because they did not get caught” (Academic Cheating Fact Sheet in stanford.edu).
According to the article titled Cheating in College: Where It Happens, Why Students Do It and How to Stop It by Bryce Buchmann, Texas, “The University of Central Florida has a testing center designed to prevent, or at least limit, cheating on campus. Exam proctors record everything suspicious, measures are taken to prevent students from photographing a test, and students aren't even allowed to chew gum as it provides a way to hide that they're talking into a hidden microphone.”
College students also fail because they do not practice or evaluate their homework, which can cause them the same troubles that lack of personal standard can also cause them, due to cheating or copying from others. Jeffrey R. Young shows that many students cheat or copy their homework answers from their classmates or from online materials according to a study that was conducted by David E. Pritchard, a physics professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The students who participate in his study are in his physics class. In this study, David E. Prichard finds in four semesters that more than haft of the students who participate in the survey cheat or copy from their classmates and do not consider cheating or copying as wrong. One of the students, Drew Mondry, a junior, who participates in the study reports that “’the feeling about homework is that it's really just busywork. (He said he does not cheat on his homework and only signed up as a fan of the Course Hero site because some friends did.) ‘You just call your friend and say, 'Hey, do you know the answer?'" What Drew Mondry says seems to verify that many students do not practice or do not do their homework by themselves but do them by using technology or by copying from their classmates as it has been stated in the preceding sentences. Nonetheless, when students do not practice or do not do their work by themselves, especially their physic work, they may face trouble, which can lead on to other troubles that have been stated above that can also negatively affect their academic performance as lack of practice. As David E. Pritchard states in the article titled High-Tech Cheating Abounds, and Professors Bear Some Blame, “The most important part of learning physics comes by doing, and so students who outsource their homework learn little. His studies of his students prove his point. The cheaters generally perform far worse than other students come test time—students who frequently copied their homework scored two letter grades lower on comparable material on the exam” (Young) And when they do not pass their test due to cheating or copying, the professors got blamed (Pritchard in Young). In addition to what Professor David E. Pritchard says, Dr. Robert Pitcher of the Educational Development Center at The University of Alabama states that students often blame their professor when they do not succeed, but there are also times that they do not succeed due to lack of personal standards of quality, which occurs when they think that the professors should be the ones who should evaluate their works only. As a result, they do not take time to evaluate or value their own work. They just rely on their professors. As a consequence, they fail sometimes, and when they fail, they criticize or blame themselves or their professors or even have conflicts with their instructors.
According to Bryce Buchmann,“About 75 percent of college students admit to cheating, suggesting that probably even more than three quarters of college students have done something against the rules to improve their grades. With an increasingly competitive atmosphere and a culture that some say is more accepting of cheating than it was in past generations, cheating has sadly become a somewhat expected phenomenon at universities across the country, or as our culture changes, college campuses become more competitive, and internet gives cheating new forms.”
Source: Data from plagerism.org, Facts & Stats, Academic Integrity in College and Graduate School, http://www.plagiarism.org/resources/facts-and-stats/. A surve
Undergraduates and graduates who admit to “paraphrasing/copying few sentences from Internet source without footnoting it.”
Undergraduates and graduates who admit to “paraphrasing/copying few sentences from written source without footnoting it.”
Students who admit to “fabricating/falsifying a bibliography”
Students who self report copying materials “almost word for word from a written source without citation.”
Students who self report “turning in work done by another.”
Students who report “obtaining paper from term paper mill.”
% who admit cheating on tests:
% who admit cheating on written assignments:
% Total who admit written or test cheating:
Next is Additional survey data from McCabe
36 % for undergraduates & 24% for graduates
38% for undergraduates & 25% for graduates
14% undergraduates & 7% graduates
7% undergraduates & 4% graduates
7% undergraduates & 3% graduates
3% undergraduates & 2% graduates
17% undergraduate students &17% graduate students
40% undergraduate students &40% graduate students
43% undergraduate students & 43% graduate students
~71,300 undergraduate students &~17,000 graduate students
“Some students, often overwhelmed, found cheating to be a necessary evil against being assured of failing the class. These students did not want to cheat, but cheated out of necessity, feeling that if they did not cheat, they would have no chance at all. Most students tried to do the work themselves, making at least one pass through the assignment on their own before succumbing to the need, rather than the desire, to cheat,” according to Smith, William M. in Why Students Cheat in Journal of Education Studies.
Not only do many college students often fail or drop out because they are unmotivated , are the first persons from their families to attend college, are negatively affected by lack of sleep, or are caught cheating, but another dilemma is that they also fail or drop out due to financial problems. “Eighty four percent of college students need more than one source of cash to keep up. Two-third of them say they work part time or more to help pay for college...almost sixty percent of them rely on loans to help with college costs, nearly fifty percent of them say that they are uncomfortable with the debt, and majority of students at four year colleges say they routinely feel at least a little worried about having enough money to make it through the week” (Cass) (see next fig.) . These statistics can make us realize that most college students need a lot of money or have to work or have to take loans in order to support themselves or to pay for college. And loans or college costs are not the only characteristics that negatively affect many college students. Stress or anxiety from work or a lack of money also affects many of them by causing them serious problems. According to Professor Bernice Andrews, “The study that was conducted by some researchers from the Royal Holloway University shows that financial difficulties among students are having a direct impact on their mental health which then leads on to reductions in their academic performance” (qtd. in Hall).
According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014, “Economic Issues (primarily, lack of resources) was a category of reasons for student failure (cited 17 times, or 3% of responses). Several faculty members cited economic disability as a reason why students fail. One faculty respondent said, ‘I have had students who want to learn but can’t afford bus fare to get to school. When they don’t have a computer, can’t afford Internet access, and it takes them two hours to get to school on the bus, what are they supposed to do?’ A support system is necessary to succeed in college, and ‘support from family’ could be an important resource. This category is closely related to life issues.”
“Additionally, pressure should be brought to the federal work study program. If some students will always have to work to pay for school, the jobs available to them should increase the number of allowable hours while remaining flexible and continue to offer competitive pay. If students must work 30+ hours a week to support themselves, let it be in jobs provided to them by the system that forces them into that position,” according to the article titled Middle Class Students Left Out, UNIVERSITY AFFAIRS: Although much has been done to improve financial aid for the middle class, students need to better know their options by Senior Editorial Board | Staff in the Daily Carliforninian.
As it is also mentioned in the article, “The work-study program gives students real-world experience and good work habits, along with new skills. Students work five days a month and offset the bulk of their tuition” (Sullivan).
The need to work also affects dropout rates. As a matter of fact, “Seventy one percent of students who had quit college said that work was a factor in the decision, more than fifty percent said it was a major factor, and about thirty five percent of those who dropped out said that they tried to balance work and study and found it too stressful” (Ashburn). Silvia Gilardi and Chira Gugliemetti argue that it is evident that employment can serve as a barrier from prolonging education, and non-traditional students or students who are working do not have adequate time to work together with the faculty members; as a result, they may encounter serious obstacles on their ways (49).
As a matter of fact, additionally, “Inside the nation's colleges and universities, many undocumented students report not having a ‘safe zone’ or a resource center as well as administration officials whom they could talk to. The report recommends colleges and universities provide more information, support, financing and counseling. ‘These kids are American in every sense except they don't have papers, said Suarez-Orozco. They feel invisible, overwhelmed and stressed. It's an alarming picture’,” mentioned Sandra Lilley in the article titled New Report Looks at Nation's Undocumented College Students.
“About 57 percent gave themselves high marks for their financial literacy in a new survey commissioned by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, compared to just 12 percent who rated their money smarts as poor or terrible. That would be nice if it matched reality, given the $1.27 trillion outstanding in student loans. But unfortunately, the AICPA survey found that often students behave like financial illiterates,” according to Kelley Holland in the article titled College Students Consider Themselves Financially Savvy: Survey in NBC News.
Kelley Holland in the article titled College Students Consider Themselves Financially Savvy: Survey in NBC News goes on to indicate, “Almost half — 48 percent — reported having less than $100 in the bank at some point in the last year, the survey found. And 38 percent said they had borrowed money from family members or friends. Not surprisingly, another survey by GoBankingRates, out this week, found one in four Americans think about money more than anything else on a daily basis, and thoughts about money are most common among people aged 25 to 44.”
Kelley Holland in the article titled College Students Consider Themselves Financially Savvy: Survey in NBC News also talks about millennial students in the matter. ‘“Millennials and others ‘have been careless with either their money, their lack of knowledge, or putting wants before needs,’ said Ernie Almonte, chair of the AICPA's National CPA Financial Literacy Commission. ‘This is a great opportunity to teach the next generation how to handle their finances.’” Kelley Holland shows that studies have been showed that those students are financially illiterate somehow. Kelly compares them to other students in terms of how that they invest money and gives some specific example so that he can clearly explain how they lack knowledge or lack literacy in terms of finance. As Kelley Holland in the article titled College Students Consider Themselves Financially Savvy: Survey in NBC News indicates, “The millennials in that survey were more likely to go without bank accounts and spend more than their income. And while they were more likely to have rainy day funds than Gen Xers, they were less likely than older generations to do so. Some of that behavior is a function of their stage in life, but FINRA also found that theirs was the generation least likely to indicate high levels of financial literacy.”
What can be done to help the millennial students? “In Almonte's view, the new data point to opportunities for parents to convey simple lessons about money. ‘Budgeting is such a great thing to teach them at this age,’ he said. ‘If they mess up, it can be a small thing that can be fixed, ’" according to Kelley Holland. Almonte also gives more detailed example in the article, regarding how to help students with their financial illiteracy. Almonte talks about credit or credit card, needs, and wants as detailed example to support his point. According to Kelley Holland in the article titled College Students Consider Themselves Financially Savvy: Survey in NBC News, ““By the same token, he said, college can be a time for a student to learn to manage a credit card — provided the credit limit is low. It can be a tool to teach them the difference between needs and wants, and a low credit limit will cap the damage they can do to their finances. Almonte knows the hubris of college students from first-hand experience, he said. And it has driven home for him the importance of providing financial education in college, or sooner.”
"’I have five sons,’ he said. ‘I have had to live through them being confident in everything they did,’" according to Kelley Holland in the article titled College Students Consider Themselves Financially Savvy: Survey.
In a separate explainable note, "A millennial is a person reaching young adulthood around the year 2000; a Generation Yer," according to Google Dictionary.
What other studies reveal about students who work or who drop out or who have children and financial pressure? “The Pew Research Center's 2011 study discovered that 57 percent of students who dropped out preferred to work and earn money, while 48 percent could not afford college whether they were working or not. Some students are dropping out by choice, calculating that the degree they may have chosen won't help them secure a job or that student loans, which average more than $23,000 per borrower, are too high for the benefit”(Casil). The Community College Study of Student Engagement also reveals some key facts about those students. In the article titled What Percentage of College Students Fail Their First Semester, it shows that “students who work, have children or are not native English speakers are more likely to drop out. The Community College Study of Student Engagement found that 47 percent of students at surveyed colleges worked more than 20 hours a week, and 25 percent had children. More than 70 percent of students who start community college drop out, and they are much more likely to have children at home or an outside job”( Casil).
“Shaheen says: ‘It’s defeating the purpose if they have to work in order to pay their tuition. But they work, so they can’t get to their classes. It creates a catch-22’” (Selim).
According to David Schepp, “More than two-thirds of the nearly 4,500 non-traditional students surveyed by the Apollo Research Institute expressed concern about college-related expenses as a big contributor to dropping out.” He goes on to show that 58. 5% cited anxiety about not spending time with friends or loved ones. 51.8% cited worrying about intellectual ability to complete coursework. 49.1 percent said that they experience stress because classes interfere with normal routines. 42% said that they fear earning a degree is needed to prove competence to someone. 40.4 percent cited resentment over doing coursework instead of something more interesting. “These are also the top six most frequently experienced psychological issues of adults college students” ( Schepp).
Who are non-traditional students? What problems can they face? What percentage do they represent in college? According to Lila Selim in the article titled The New Majority US Colleges Are Failing Their Biggest Group of Students: Part-timers , “As many as 73% of US students enrolled in a degree program today are described as what we used to call 'non-traditional' students who are not bright-eyed coeds fresh from high school but rather adults, who are financially independent, working to support themselves, and often a child or relative. These students play many roles, some of which inevitably take precedence over their education, which is why most of them attend school part-time. Unfortunately, part-time attendees are set up for failure.” Lila Selim goes on to show that non-traditional students or part-time students are more likely to attend “for-profit institutions”, which can make them linger at some comparative deficits or expose them to troubles. “As a matter of fact, a 2012 Senate report that tracked students enrolled in these schools found that of the 1.1 million who enrolled in the 2008-09 academic year, more than half had withdrawn by 2010, and 22% had defaulted on their federal loans within three years”( Selim).
“David Scobey, Dean of New School for Public Engagement, says, ’ It’s true that students who are going to school part time have proportionally less success in completing degrees. That’s partly because we have done such a terrible job in higher education of understanding the majority of undergraduates who have to work, more than half of whom are enrolled part time,’” according to Lila Selim.
What can nontraditional students do to deal with those problems? “Caroline Molina-Ray, executive director of research at Apollo, which recently published a study that examined the factors that inhibit adult college students' ability to finish degrees, offers these tips for a nontraditional student planning to pursue an associate, bachelor's or other degree: recognize that going back to school is a major life decision and takes commitment, similar to losing weight or getting married or looking for a job, make a plan for all of their resources -- finances, time, energy, family and friends, engage their family and friends in their effort to return to school by making it meaningful and valuable for them, too, and learn which resources your college offers” (Schepp).She goes on to show that students have to interact with their faculties, friends, and co-workers who are in school like them (Schepp). “Look for tutorial services, online study aids and other resources, such as day care, that can help adult students better manage competing commitments to school, work and family”(Schepp in Molina-Ray).
“A recent survey showed that more than 8 million non-traditional students -- defined as those 23 and older -- are now enrolled in the nation's colleges,” according to David Schepp.
What are some advantages of interaction in education? What can happen when students less interact or do not interact with their faculty members? Does interaction have a relation with any element? According to a study titled BEYOND STUDENT PERCEPTIONS: ISSUES OF INTERACTION, PRESENCE, AND PERFORMANCE IN AN ONLINE COURSE that was conducted by Dr. Anthony G. Picciano , Professor at the school of education at Hunter College of the City University of New York, they tried to find out how interaction with teachers, faculties members, or classmates was correlated with students’ written assignment score. To do so, they interviewed a lot of students that enrolled in the graduate program at the Education Administration and Supervision at Hunter College who already had five years of experience in teaching and had an MA. “More than 80% are women. Approximately 25% are students from minority groups. Approximately 75% percent of these students work in New York City public schools, while the remaining 25% work in private schools or in public schools outside of New York City.” What they found was that the students who were in the low interaction group had a mean of written assignment score of 63.7. The students who were in the moderate interaction group had a mean of written assignment score of 64.4. Those who were in the high interaction group had a mean of written assignment score of 81.1. This idea can make us realize that students who interact more with their classmates, faculties members, or professors seem to have better writing score than those who less interact with them, or those who less interact with their faculty members seem to have lesser written score than those who more interact with their classmates, faculties members, or teachers or professors. Also, Anne Marie Delaney shows that in her paper titled Why Faculty-Student Interaction Matters in the First Year Experience that she presented to the 29th annual eair forum between august 20 to 26 in 2007 in Innsbruck, Austria by stating that “high academic achievers interacted more frequently and were more satisfied with their contact with faculty. Some 26 percent of those with an A average, compared with only 3 percent of those with a C average, interacted with faculty outside of office hours at least two or three times a week. Similarly, 41 percent with an A average, compared with only 12 percent or fewer with a C or lower average grade, were very satisfied with the amount of faculty contact” (10). In addition to that, students who interact more with their faculties can have better many other advantages than the ones who less interact with their instructors. Anne Marie Delaney goes on to indicate that “students with higher aspirations interacted more frequently; 38 percent planning to earn a doctorate, compared with only 17 percent planning to earn a bachelor’s degree, interacted with faculty outside of office hours at least once a week.” Not only can students who interact more with their faculties have better grade or have more inspiration than the students with less or low teacher interaction who can face another trouble , but they can also have many other advantages than them. “Teachers who experience close relationships with students reported that their students were less likely to avoid school, appeared more self-directed, more cooperative, and more engaged in learning (Birch & Ladd, 1997; Klem & Connell, 2004),” according to Dr. Sara Rimm-Kaufman in her article titled Improving Students' Relationships with Teachers to Provide Essential Supports for Learning, Positive relationships can also help a student develop socially. In addition to that, Boccanfuso, Christopher, the author of the article titled An Increase in Student-Teacher Interaction May Lower Dropout Rates, which is an unpublished thesis, “uses logistic regression models, using data from the Philadelphia Educational Longitudinal Study (PELS) to examine correlations between student teacher interaction and dropout. The quantitative results provide strong evidence that low student-teacher interaction predicts a higher probability of dropout”(dignityinschools.org).
According to the dissertation titled FACULTY AND STUDENT OUT-OF-CLASSROOM INTERACTION: STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF QUALITY OF INTERACTION by Rosalind Veronica Alderman, they tried to find out what students thought about the advantages of interacting with their faculty in the classroom. In order to do that, they surveyed many students from St. Mary’s University. Twenty-four students participated in this study. There were one freshman, two sophomores, six juniors, and ten seniors, or fifteen Hispanics and nine non-Hispanics. The non-Hispanic students consisted of three Asians, one African American, and five Caucasians. The students came from three schools: Bill Greehey School of Business, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, and School of Science, Engineering, and Technology. Eight students came from each school. One freshman, two sophomores, and height seniors reported that out-of-classroom interaction with faculty members increased comfort and confidence. Three sophomores, one junior, and seven seniors said that it helped them gaining recommendation letters and recommendation for Internships. One sophomore, three juniors, and six seniors said that it helped them by making their professors better knew them individually, and one sophomore, two juniors, and two seniors reported that it helped their grades because they found more help from their instructors. In addition to that, two juniors and one senior said that it helped them understanding their professors better and increased respect. Rosalind Veronica Alderman goes on to show that “overall, the NSSE and other researches have found that one thing is clear: ‘Student-faculty interaction matters most to learning when it encourages students to devote greater effort to other purposeful activities during college’ (Kuh, 2003, p .29)” (6).
How college costs or loans impact students? “One factor in the higher drop-out rates, according to the Harvard study, is the rising cost of a college education. The cost of college has nearly sextupled since 1985 and the total amount of student loan debt held by Americans surpassed $1 trillion in 2011. With as many as 25 percent of borrowers behind on their loans, the number of Americans seeking relief from student loan debt has increased substantially”(waldron). Mara Tylerb shows in the article titled Three Causes of Students Dropping Out of College that there are more than one reason why students drop out of college; among the reasons that she shows and analyzes, she cites college cost as one of them. She shows, “As college tuition rates increase, many students find themselves with two choices: finish school or pay the bills.” Many students choose to drop out due to college cost to pay their bills (tylerb).
“According to a Bloomberg Report, college tuition and fees have skyrocketed more than 1,120 percent since 1978,” as it is stated in the article titled Young & Free Michigan Helps Students Pay For College in Detroitcbslocal.
Additionally, according to Chris Denhart, a Forbes Staff, “It is easy to say that the cost of college is to blame for this difference. The average tuition at a private school is nearly four times greater than that of its public counterpart.Dr. Richard Vedder, the director of The Center for College Affordability and Productivity, points to the simple economic principle of supply and demand."
Chris Denhart vividly states what Dr. Richard Vedder merely says or means by the above statement. According to Chris, "‘When something costs more, consumers will conserve on that good,’ Richard says. ‘Because private schools cost more, parents are more concerned with their students getting through in four years. This establishes competition among private schools to have high graduation rates to attract students. A parent is much less likely to pay $34,000 each year for five years than for four.’”
See: Barack Obama Speech on Student Loans
Class of 2012, Average Debt Load, Source: Data from Kelsey Sheehy, an education reporter at U.S. News, covering high schools and college financing, 10 College
10 Colleges Where Graduates Have a Low Average Debt Load By Delece Smith-Barrow
10 Colleges Where Grads Have the Most Student Loan Debt By Kelsey Sheehy
Princeton University (NJ) ( $5,096), Alice Lloyd College (KY) ( $5,164), Berea College (KY) ($7,224)
Wheelock College (MA)($49,439), Anna Maria College (MA)($49,206), Southeastern University (FL) ($47,127)
Keystone College (PA)($8,675), College of the Ozarks (MO)( $8,915), Gallaudet University (DC)( $10,347 )
Becker College (MA)($44,596), Clark Atlanta University($43,727),Oral Roberts University (OK)( $43,457)
CUNY—Brooklyn College ($10,500)
Trinity University (TX)($42,987)
King University (TN)($10,892), University of Colorado—Colorado Springs($11,098), Louisiana State University—Alexandria($11,501)
Quinnipiac University (CT)( $42,730), St. Anselm College (NH)($42,631), Mount Ida College (MA)($42, 362)
“The findings in the AICPA survey bear out earlier findings on millennials' lack of financial literacy. In 2014, the Investor Education Foundation of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, released a study on the financial capability of young adults that found they "exhibit a number of problematic financial behaviors, display low levels of financial literacy and express concerns about their debt," according to Kelley Holland in the article titled College Students Consider Themselves Financially Savvy: Survey in NBC News.
“To get a student loan at Broward College, one of Florida's largest community colleges, you first have to sit through a two-hour financial lesson with Kent Dunston. It's a little like Scared Straight, the 1978 documentary designed to keep kids from ending up in prison”( O'Connor). John O'Connor of the article titled To Cut Student Debt, Florida College Cuts Off Some Student Borrowing talks about Dunston's , the perspective of Dunston’s, and his lesson. As John O’Connor states, “Dunston's lesson, though, is about scaring students into making good financial choices. Nationwide, student loans total more than $1.2 trillion. And schools now face punishment — even closure — by the federal government if the rate is too high. You're not going to borrow more than the amount of money you need to attend, Dunston tells the students. ‘You'll be offered more. You don't need it.’" John O’Connor also talks about how Broward College try to help its students or try to preclude them from taking too much loans. As he states, “Broward College, in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., launched this class six years ago, just one effort aimed at preventing students from taking on so much debt that default on their loans. And, starting this year, the school began trying something else: barring students from borrowing more than they need.”
According to John O’Connor, “The school stopped accepting unsubsidized loans — those are the more expensive federal loans that require students to begin making interest payments right away. (The federal government pays that interest on subsidized loans while a student is enrolled). Broward, along with 28 other community, four-year and online colleges around the country, is trying the subsidized-loan-only approach as part of an experiment with the federal government to cut down on student debt. Subsidized loans can wait until after a student graduates for payment.” Dunston who is one of the people who is in charge of assisting students with loans at the college talks in the matter. According to John O’Connor in the article titled To Cut Student Debt, Florida College Cuts Off Some Student Borrowing, "’We want to assure ourselves that they understand what the hooks are on the back end of these programs,’ Dunston explains.” John O’Connor also mentioned the story of a man who has trouble getting married due to student loans that Dunston explains to many students. As John states, “About 75 students were in his class on a recent day, listening as Dunston tells them the story of a young woman concerned about how her $137,000 student debt might affect her chances of getting married. ‘That can throw a lot of cold water on a relationship, unless the guy can say, 'Well, that's OK baby, I owe $87,000 myself. The Broward College admissions and financial aid staff ‘couldn't believe that I owed so much, and I only have an associate's degree,’ he says.”
“Cochrane fears that rejecting unsubsidized loans may force some students to turn to credit cards or other high-interest loans to pay for school and living expenses,” states John O’Connor in the article titled To Cut Student Debt, Florida College Cuts Off Some Student Borrowing.
John O’Connor goes on to indicate that “Broward student George Aleman thinks he owes about $60,000 in student loans. The middle-school dropout, who went on to complete his GED, came to Broward already owing that much in debt from a previous attempt at trade school.” John O’Connor also talks about the perspective of Broward College ‘s officials, especially Bob Robbins. John O’Connor indicates, “Broward officials say capping loans is not a barrier for most students. Bob Robbins, associate vice president of student affairs, says the school has not seen enrollment decline because students no longer have access to unsubsidized loans. ‘One of our big concerns is what the student impact would be, and we were really, really surprised at what happened — we didn't see many complaints,‘ Robbins says.”
According to John O’Connor, “That could be because Broward's tuition is only $2,400 a year, a sum that income-based federal Pell Grants can help cover. And community college students aren't the ones borrowing too much, says Debbie Cochrane with the student advocacy group The Institute for College Access and Success.”
As a final statement, John O’Connor of the article titled To Cut Student Debt, Florida College Cuts Off Some Student Borrowing states, “’The downside of limiting students' access to federal loans is that they will have to go these routes that are not nearly as preferable,’ Cochrane says. But Broward officials proudly cite their default rate, which has gone down in the last three years. The most recent numbers available, from 2011, show that 12 percent of Broward students default on their loans — lower than the national rate of 13.7 percent.”
Source: Data from Connie Cass, Pool: Money Problems Reason College Students Might Drop Out (CBS Boston.com, 2011), p. 1&2.
College students who rely on loan
College students who need more than one source of cash to keep up
College students who work part time or more
College students who feel uncomfortable with loan
(Why Students Drop Out) Video taking from Youtube
See: Data From Study: Nearly Half Of America's College Students Drop out Before Receiving a Degree By Travis Waldron on the Havard Study on Mars 28, 2013. Decem
Reasons that cause american students to drop out before receiving their degree at higher rates than in other developed country according to the Havard Study
Percentage of american college students who complete their degree withing six years
Percentage of students who enter in a two years programs who complete their degree in 3 years
Percentage of Students who complete their college degree once they started according to the Havard study that is supported by collected data by the Organization Of Economics Co-Operation and Development for its report education at a glance 2010
Percentage of college students who earn their degree after 6 years at for-profit institutions
The high cost of college and others
Only 56 percent
only 29 percent
United States (46 percent), Japan (89 percent), Former Soviet-bloc states such as SlovaKia (63 percent), and Poland (61 percent).
More than 75 percent
In separate note, the United States finished last among the 18 countries tracked by the OECD
In separate note, students at for-profit institutions are more likely to default on their loans than regular students according to the study.
“Student loan debt has crossed the $1 trillion threshold, according to Forbes.com.This means that 6 percent of the overall national debt is in student loans, according to the site. These loans are also only surpassed by mortgages as the number two form of debt in the nation. Student loan debt is also part of the reason for slow economic growth in the form of less spending and limited job recovery, according to Forbes,” according to Therresa Worthington in the article titled College Students Have Financial Aid Options in thespectrum.
“Recent reports say 41% of Washburn University students will take 6 years to graduate while only around 18% graduate in 4 years. At University of Kansas and K-State, around 60% of students are taking 6 years to graduate,” according to the article titled Kansas College Students Taking 6 Years To Graduate, which was published in Feb 18, 2014 by Ariana Cohen.
How can we compare private schools and public schools in terms of graduation or dropout rates? Why students at certain type of institutions are less likely to face certain type of troubles? According to Chris Denhart, a Forbes Staff, "Private schools do a better job, in general, with graduating students. The average 4-year graduation rate of our list of private schools was 59% while at publics it was 32%. Beyond that, the vast majority of those that do graduate from private schools do so in four years (over 80%), while almost half of graduating students at public schools take five or more. Arizona State University, the largest school in our list, graduates 57% of its students in 6 years according to 2011 U.S. Department of Education statistics. Of those that graduate, roughly 44% take longer than four years." Chris goes on to indicate that students at private institutions are less likely to drop out because their parents are more likely to assist them with college costs or pay for their education; as a result, they are less likely to work to pay for college and because "certainly, students at private schools take on internships, or due to small class size pressures, miss out on a course that they need."
According to Megan Slack in the article titled President Obama Explains His Plan to Combat Rising College Costs in The White House.Gov, “President Obama laid out three steps to ensure that college remains within reach for all young people: connect financial aid to school performance, support academic innovation and competition, and make college affordable."
"Obama said, ‘At a time when a higher education has never been more important or more expensive, too many students are facing a choice that they should never have to make: Either they say no to college and pay the price for not getting a degree -- and that's a price that lasts a lifetime -- or you do what it takes to go to college, but then you run the risk that you won’t be able to pay it off because you've got so much debt, ’” according to Megan Slack.
Source: Data from Connie Cass, Poll: College Students Get Hard Lessons in Finance (USATODAY.com, 2011), p 1 to 4.from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
College students who get help from parents
College students who expect to owe about $52,000 by the time they finish their associates’ degree
Borrowers who default within two years of beginning repayment on loans that can stretch for a decade or more according to the U.S Education Department
Average student loan debt tops
College students who expect to find a job in their field
students who say it’s worthwhile to switch programs if you’re not getting exactly what you want from a school.
students who say they added another major to increase their options after graduation.
college students who say cost was a big factor in determining where they applied and which school they ended up attending.
college students say it’s more important to take the time to get exactly what they want from their education than to finish within the traditional four years
Students who have finished within the traditional four years who took extra time
students who took college-credit courses in high school
students who earned credits at a community college before moving on to a more expensive bachelor’s degree program
College students surveyed, including Habbaba students, who hope to continue their educations beyond a four-year degree
college students who said that money was a big factor in choosing what career to pursue
college students who said that money was not a big factor in choosing what career to pursue
More than 50 percent
“Freshmen who indicated that education costs were a ‘very important’ factor in their college choice reached a record high of 46% -- up nearly 15 percentage points since 2004, according to the survey of the nation's first-year students conducted by UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute. Only 57% of students enrolled in their first-choice campus in 2013, the lowest level since the item was first measured in 1974. Meanwhile, nearly 49% of students said that a financial aid offer was ‘very important’ consideration in choosing their current campus -- up from 34% in 2004,” according to Carla Rivera in the article titled Cost, Financial Aid Becoming More Important in College Choice.
“Connecticut's elected officials and educators were enthusiastic Friday, January 09, 2015, about the proposal by President Barack Obama to provide two years of free community college tuition to millions of students who maintain good enough grades, with one educator saying that it could be a ‘game-changer’ for the state's students,” according to the article titled Obama's Free College Proposal Could Be 'Game-Changer' For State's Students by Kathleen Megane. Gov. Dannel P. Malloy also talks in the matter as it is also stated in the article. According to Kathleen Megane, "’If Congress is able to pass this important proposal to increase access to higher education, we will implement it …’ Gov. Dannel P. Malloy said. ‘Increasing access to Connecticut's community college programs will benefit all our citizens by attracting new employers and matching graduates with good jobs.’” Malloy goes on to talk about the advantages of the plan. “Malloy added that reducing the cost of community colleges, and allowing more residents to get college degrees, will make the state more economically competitive,” as stated by Kathleen Megane.
Megane also indicates in the article titled Obama's Free College Proposal Could Be 'Game-Changer' For State's Students that “U.S. Rep Elizabeth Esty, D-5th District, said that community colleges ‘play a critical role in providing high-quality, effective training programs that prepare students for jobs in high-demand sectors like manufacturing, information technology, and health services — without forcing students to take on years of student loan debt.’ She said she looks forward to working to advance the proposal.”
“The proposal, which the White House says would ‘make two years of college as free and universal as high school,’ would come with a price tag for the state. The federal government would pay 75 percent, while the state would pick up 25 percent,” mentioned Megan. U.S. Sen. Richard Blumenthal talks in the matter. “U.S. Sen. Richard Blumenthal said: ‘Having listened to students and their parents across the state — all of whom have implored me to do more to combat the prohibitive costs of higher education — I will work hard to assure prompt consideration of this promising and important proposal,’" according to Megan.
There are certain things that students have to do to qualify for this type of this tuition according to the plan. “To qualify for the tuition-free program, students would have to attend school at least half-time, maintain a 2.5 grade point average and make steady progress toward completing their program” (Megane). Additionally, students have to enroll in certain types of programs, not the ineligible ones, to qualify for tuitions. As Megan indicates in the article, “Students must be enrolled in academic programs that fully transfer to local public four-year colleges and universities or be enrolled in occupational training programs with high graduation rates that lead to degrees and certificates that are in demand among employers. Other types of programs would not be eligible, according to a statement from the White House” (Megane).
“If all states participate, federal officials estimate that 9 million students could benefit. Kozlowski, from the Board of Regents, said he thinks that the program would make a big difference, increase enrollment and be ‘helpful to the state in terms of its budgeting for higher education,’” Megane indicates.
"’I think there are a lot of people now who are thinking about college, but just can't afford it,’ Kozlowski said. ‘We don't think the issue out there is diligence, commitment or desire. It's financial,’" Megan went on to mention in the article. Megan mentions Rep. Roberta B. Willis, co-chairwoman of the General Assembly's higher education committee in the article. “Rep. Roberta B. Willis, co-chairwoman of the General Assembly's higher education committee, said: "It sounds wonderful. It's a real game-changer. Of course, the big question is, can he get it through Congress?"(Megane).
According to Megane, “The program, which could come at a cost of about $60 billion for the federal government, would have to pass muster with a Republican Congress that currently is not enthusiastic about implementing any new spending programs, according to a report in the Associated Press. White House spokesman Eric Schultz said that Obama would propose new programs to pay for the federal portion in his budget next month.”
What does Willis say? “Even with the government financial aid that is available for needy students, Willis, a Democrat from Salisbury, said, ‘There is tremendous unmet need’"(Megane). Megane goes on to indicate that “she does have a few questions about how it might work, though.’What would happen to the four-year institutions, if everybody did the first two years at a community college?’ Willis said. She also asked whether the state has the capacity to handle a large influx of students. ‘The devil is in the details,’ she said.”
As stated in the article titled Obama's Free College Proposal Could Be 'Game-Changer' For State's Students by Kathleen Megane, “David Levinson, who is president of Norwalk Community College and the Board of Regents' vice president for community colleges, said that at this point, it's not clear exactly ‘how this would change the equation for us. ’But, he said, Obama's proposal is ‘great because it brings a lot of attention to community colleges and [to] the importance of community colleges for achieving the American dream. It really highlights the importance of community colleges for workforce training and overall economic prosperity.’”
The president of Manchester Community College also put her voice in the subject. As indicated in the article, “Gena Glickman, president of Manchester Community College, said in an email that she's just starting to get a handle on the details of the president's proposal, but ‘I believe if new funding was available on both the federal and state level, offering free tuition for community college students would increase access to college and could be game-changer for many of our students,’"(Megane).
Megane goes on to indicate in the article that Gena mentions that “to analyze its potential impact, ‘it will be critical to learn more about the eligibility requirements.’"
Accroding to Megane of the article titled Obama's Free College Proposal Could Be 'Game-Changer' For State's Students by Kathleen Megane, “Obama is calling the idea America's College Promise, modeled after Tennessee Promise, which Republican Gov. Bill Haslam signed into law last year to provide free community and technical college tuition for two years. It has drawn 58,000 applicants, almost 90 percent of the state's high school seniors. Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, Obama's former White House chief of staff, has a similar program for students in his city.”
"’If a state with Republican leadership is doing this and a city with Democratic leadership is doing this, how about we all do it?’ Obama said,” according to Megane as a final statement in the article titled Obama's Free College Proposal Could Be 'Game-Changer' For State's Students.
Drinking or drugs use can have a negative correlation with underage college students’ academic performance or can cause them other academic troubles. According to a study titled THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: FINDINGS FROM THE 1999 LIFESTYLES SURVEY that was conducted by Patricia M. Fabiano, Gary R. McKinney, and Kristoffer Rhoads and the University of Western Washington, they tried to find out how drinking was related to students’ academic performance. In 1999, the students who did not drink at all have a 3.26 GPA. Those who drank once or twice a day had a 3.13 GPA, a 3.01 GPA for those who drank three to four times a day. Those who drank five to six times a day had a 2.85 GPA. When it came to the year of 1998, the students who did not drink at all have a 3.2 GPA. Those who drank once or twice a day had a 3.0 GPA, a 2.85 GPA for those who drank three to 4 times a day. Those who drank five to six times a day had a 2.83 GPA, a 2.75 GPA for those who drank seven times or more a day. This idea can make us realize that students who drink more have lesser GPA, or those who drink less have better GPA. Also, the Federal Trade Commission shows that correlation too in the article titled Dangers of Teen Drinking by stating that “a government study published in 2007 shows a relationship between drinking and grades. Approximately two-thirds of students with ‘mostly A’s’ are non-drinkers, while nearly half of the students with ‘mostly D’s and F’s’ report binge drinking” (Dangers of Teen Drinking). Not only can drinking have a negative relation with students’ academic performance, but it can also expose underage college students to other academic difficulties. According to U.S Department of Justice in their article titled Effect and Consequence of Underage Drinking, “Underage drinkers may miss classes, fall behind in their schoolwork, earn lower grades, and perform poorly on examinations and assignments (Wechsler et al., 2002; Johnson, 2004). They may also drop out, fail classes, or be expelled from school (Melodee) (7).” In addition to the U.S Department of Justice, Harry Harrison who is the New York Times best-selling author of some of the most well known parenting books in the world and who has appeared on television shows across the country, been interviewed on over 50 national radio programs including NPR, and is a regular contributor to websites like Dr. Laura.com, Sheknows.com, parentingpink.com, storknet.com, and sharecare.com (a collaboration between Dr. Oz and Dr. Phil) shows that too in the article titled What Causes Students to Fail or Drop out of College by stating that "drugs or alcohol is a reason that causes college students to fail or drop out. They are 18, and they have this freedom from their parents that they've never had before. Many kids just misuse it. They experiment with drugs and alcohol, and sometimes, it gets out of hand. Using and drinking become more important than studying. As a result, they fail."
"Previous research by Read and her colleagues in 2012 showed the first year of college is when students are most at risk to abuse alcohol," as stated in the article titled Heavy Alcohol Consumption Linked With Worsening PTSD Symptoms Among College Students in huffingtonpost.com. “Drinking remains one of the biggest health risks for college students, with 80 percent of students drinking alcohol and more than one-third binge drinking”( Singh).
See: Dangers of Teen Drinking
Minimum drinking age that has been established by law
“For example, 55 percent of students who misused pain medications said they did it to relieve pain, while 46 percent said they did it to get high. More than half who misused sedatives said their aim was to get to sleep, while 85 percent who misused stimulants wanted to improve grades or studying. Marijuana was the most common illicit drug replacing prescription medications, used by half of undergrads who misused controlled drugs, followed by cocaine and hallucinogens at 19 percent,” according to Jeff Grabmeier of he article titled College students say prescription stimulants easy to find on campus.
“Depression is one side effect, noted by 20 percent of those who used pain medications, 14 percent of those using sedatives and 9 percent of stimulant users.Nearly a third of sedative users experienced memory loss, as did 17 percent of those who misused pain medications. Between 7 and 19 percent of users said they did things they wish they hadn’t as a result of their prescription drug use. About two-thirds of students surveyed said stimulants had a positive effect on their academics, but that’s probably not true, Hale said,” according to Jeff Grabmeier of he article titled College students say prescription stimulants easy to find on campus.
See: Prevalence of Underage Drinking in Johns Hopkins
College students who drink at or above 21 Years of Age
College students who drink below 21 years of age or who are teenagers
“Ed Gogek, an addiction psychiatrist who has been practicing for more than 30 years, notes that many teens and young adults simply don’t understand the risks associated with marijuana use. He cites research performed at the University of Maryland showing that 'college students who use marijuana even occasionally do worse in school, do less homework, are less likely to finish college and are more likely to be unemployed at some time in their lives',” according to Naomi Schaefer Riley in Why do college kids have so much time to smoke pot.
According to Naomi Schaefer Riley,“A long-term study in New Zealand found that people who smoked heavily in their teens and continued into adulthood lost an average of eight IQ points by age 38. Medical authorities seem to agree that while the brain is developing until at least the age of 21, the effects of marijuana can be harmful and permanent.”
“’But in his book ‘The High Road,’ Samuel Vickovic, a doctoral student in criminal justice at Arizona State, found that two-thirds of news stories about medical marijuana were positive. And Gogek notes that marijuana use can fluctuate significantly depending on this coverage. ‘Adolescent use increases when perception of harm goes down and vice-versa,’” according to Naomi Schaefer Riley in Why do college kids have so much time to smoke pot.
Aso, can drinking negatively impact underage college studens’ mental health or cause them to have depressive moods? According to a study titled Liquor Control Board Seeks Comments about Draft Marijuana Market Rules that was conducted by Prevention WINS and released in Monday, May 20, 2013, they interviewed some underage drinkers. They tried to determine their level of substances use and their mental health status and if alcohol can cause them to have a depressive feeling. What they found was that among those who said that they had a depressive mood or a depressive feeling in the past year, 36 percent used alcohol, 30 percent used marijuana, 19 percent used Tobacco, and 12 percent used pain killers. When they questioned the ones who did not have a depressive feeling in the past year, they found that 18 percent used alcohol, 14 percent used marijuana, 8 percent used Tobacco, and 3 percent used pain killers. This idea can make us realize that even though both underage drinkers who had depressive moods in the past year and those who did not have one drink alcohol or use drug, it is clear that those who had depressive moods had higher percentage of using drug or drinking alcohol; as a result, we may infer that underage drinkers who are more likely to use drug or drink alcohol are more likely to have depressive moods or get affected in their mental health. Not only does this study show that, but The Institute of Alcohol and Study also shows in their article titled Alcohol and Mental Health that “mental health problems may be a cause of problem drinking , and sometimes heavy drinkers start to misuse prescribed drugs, or illegal drugs, causing harm to mental health”(3).
According to the article titled Heavy Alcohol Consumption Linked With Worsening PTSD Symptoms Among College Students in huffingtonpost.com, “Students with post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely drink large amounts of alcohol than those without the condition, a new study from the University at Buffalo concludes."
As it is also stated in the article, "‘We show that alcohol use and associated problems are linked over time to an exacerbation in PTSD symptoms, and that PTSD symptoms show a similar effect on alcohol consumption,’ associate psychology professor Jennifer P. Read said in a news release. ‘Each affects the other. As such, both PTSD and heavy drinking are risk factors for one another, each with implications for the other over the course of college.’”
See: Underage Drinking Statistics in Edgar Snyder & Associates
The percentage of alcohol that is consumed by underage or teenage students attending four-year colleges.
Underage college students who died from alcohol poisoning from 1999 to 2005.
Almost 50 percent
“COLUMBUS, Ohio – Seven out of 10 college students say it is somewhat or very easy to obtain controlled stimulants without a prescription, according to a new survey conducted on eight U.S. campuses. About 18 percent of undergraduates reported misusing prescription stimulants such as Adderall, the 2015 College Prescription Drug Study (CPDS) found. The great majority (83 percent) received them from friends and most said they used the drug to help them study or improve their grades,” according to Jeff Grabmeier of he article titled College students say prescription stimulants easy to find on campus.
Jeff goes on to indicate, “’Overall, one in four undergraduates reported that they used prescription pain medications, sedatives or stimulants for non-medical reasons in their lifetimes,’ said Anne McDaniel, author of the study and associate director of research and data management at The Ohio State University’s Center for the Study of Student Life. After stimulants, pain medications were the most misused prescription medications, used by 10 percent of undergraduates. About a third of students said it was easy or very easy to obtain pain medications. About 9 percent of undergrads used sedatives, with 44 percent saying it was easy or very easy to find them on campus.”
What are some other problems that underage or teenage drinking among college students can cause?
Many underage drinkers died from drinking alcohol, which may also affect their bodies “A new analysis of data released by MADD on April 17 revealed that 68 percent of teenage deaths attributable to underage drinking are not traffic-related, but due to other factors like alcohol poisoning, drowning or suicide” (Amanda). This seems to verify that traffic-related activities are not the factors that cause many underage drinkers or most teenagers to died, but suicide and alcohol poisoning are. Alcohol poisoning, which can cause underage drinkers troubles, can take place among them when they drink intentionally or unintentionally or drink too much. According to Mayo Clinic staff, “Alcohol poisoning can occur when you accidentally — or even intentionally — drink household products containing alcohol, alcohol poisoning generally results from drinking too many alcoholic beverages, especially in a short period of time” (1). In addition to that, College Drinking -Changing the Culture shows that alcohol poisoning can negatively affect the nerves that control some of our actions and can even stop our “gag reflex” or our breathing systems.
As stated in the article titled Police: Alcohol a Factor in College Student's Death in Pittman Center by WBIR Staff , “Investigators said they suspect alcohol was a factor in the death of a college student in Sevier County on Friday night, October 9, 2014. Officers responded to a cardiac arrest call at a rental cabin on Pinnacle Vista Road in Pittman Center shortly after 10 p.m. inside they found Thomas J. Marshall unresponsive. Paramedics took Marshall, who attended University of Dayton in Ohio, to LeConte Medical Center where officials pronounced him dead.” Pittman Police Chief Logan Carr talks in the matter. He states, “A preliminary autopsy found that Marshall didn't suffer any injuries that would have killed him. Investigations said alcohol was a factor in the 21-year-old's death but are still waiting for a full toxicology report” ( WBIR Staff).
WBIR Staff also mentions in the titled Police: Alcohol a Factor in College Student's Death in Pittman Center, “On Saturday, the University of Dayton's president emailed students about Marshall's death. The email said Marshall was finance major from Western Springs, Ill, according to WBIR's Gannett affiliate Cincinnati.com. The campus hosted a memorial prayer Monday evening. At the time of Marshall's death, students were on mid-term break, according to University of Dayton's calendar.”
“According to the Centers for Disease Control, 90 percent of alcohol consumed by people under 21 is in the form of binge drinking, defined as men consuming five or more drinks in two hours or women having four or more in the same time period,” as stated in the article titled Heavy Alcohol Consumption Linked With Worsening PTSD Symptoms Among College Students in huffingtonpost.com.
Underage drinkers are more likely to use illicit or other drugs. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, “In 2009, 69.9% of heavy alcohol users among those aged 12 to 17 were illicit drug users. This was over 13 times higher than non-alcohol users where 5.2% used illegal substances. In a 1996 study, those who started drinking before 15 were 101 times more likely to use cocaine than someone who abstained from alcohol. As well as this, in 1999 a review was done of the Adult Drug Court Program in Las Vegas, Nevada. Here, it was found that 27% of those who used harder drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamines and heroin, started off by using alcohol. In addition to this, 29% of these individuals began by using alcohol and then later on moved to harder substances” (alcoholrehab) as stated in the article titled Connection between Alcohol And Drugs. According to the article titled Effects of Teenage Drinking in the website named learn-about-alcoholism, drinking alcohol is considered by many underage drinkers as an entrance drug; they start drinking alcohol, and they move on to other more serious or more severe drugs or feel that other drugs will be okay for them to use beyond alcohol.
Many underage or teenage drinkers often involve in sexual intercourse, which can cause them trouble, or often expose to risky behavior due to alcohol. According to NBC News, People Magazine commission landmark national poll, “Nearly 3 in 10 (27%) thirteen to sixteen year-olds are sexually active and ‘have been with someone in an intimate or sexual way.’ Most of these sexually active teens have touched someone else’s genitals and almost half had oral sex and/or had sexual intercourse. Sexual activity is much more common among 15 to 16 year-olds (41%) than 13 to 14 year-olds (14%).” This seems to substantiate that many teens had already been in relationship or had already been active or had been already involved in sexual activities. However, sexual intercourse among teens, which can expose them to risky behavior, can occur due to underage drinking. According to the article titled Dangers of Teen Drinking, “Current teen drinkers are more than twice to have had sexual intercourse within the past three months than teens who do not drink. Higher drinking levels increase the likelihood of sexual activity. Adolescents who drink are more likely to engage in risky sexual activities, like having sex with someone they do not know or failing to use birth control.” In addition to that, they can also expose to risk of having sexual transmitted disease (Melodee in Effects and Consequences of Underage Drinking).
“Through a survey that had 170 undergraduate students keep weekly online diaries of their sexual experiences (hello Tumblr), the scientists found that ‘people really do use sex as a way to… get back at their ex-partner in the aftermath of a breakup,’ according to University of Missouri researcher Lynne Cooper. One-third of the students in the study who had recently experienced a breakup went on to have rebound sex within a month of the end of the relationship, which we probably could have guessed. But the experiment had other, more surprising results,” according to the article titled Congratulations! Science Confirms That Post-Breakup Revenge Sex Is a Real Phenomenon, Victims of Breakups Are Also More Likely To Rebound.
Also, drinking can cause sexual assault or sexual abuse among underage drinkers. According to Richard P. Campbell, “The data assembled by Secretary Califon’s Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse showed that at least 100,000 sexual assaults of women take place every year.” In addition to that, “In one survey, approximately, 10 percent of female high school students reported having been raped (5)” (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). This seems to verify that many females or teens have been sexually assaulted or abused. Unfortunately, sexual attack or sexual assault among women or teens, which can have a negative impact in their emotions or which can cause them to belittle themselves, can take place due to drinking. As stated in the article titled Underage Drinking and Sexual assaults, “The majority of sexual assaults occur when women are incapacitated, primarily by alcohol.‘The vast majority of incapacitated sexual assault victims (89%) reported drinking alcohol, and being drunk (82%), prior to their victimization.’ Some 60 percent of female victims were first raped before age 18. And 20 to 25 percent of female college students experience completed or attempted rape," according to Richard P. Campbell. In addition to that, sexual assault can cause them to be anxious, powerless, scared, frustrated, isolated, shamed, or guilty and can also cause them to hate the harasser, lose their self-esteems, or even try to kill themselves (Effects of Sexual Harassment by Women’s center).
“Heavy drinking is 'related to risk for sexual assault, interpersonal violence and serious injury, any of which may trigger PTSD,'" as stated in the article titled Heavy Alcohol Consumption Linked With Worsening PTSD Symptoms Among College Students in huffingtonpost.com. “Obama planned to sign a presidential memorandum Wednesday creating a task force to protect students from sexual assault, with a new White House report declaring that no one in America is more at risk of being raped or assaulted than college women”(THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS goes on to indicate in Daily News that “the report, ‘Rape and Sexual Assault: A Renewed Call to Action,’ says that 1 in 5 women have been sexually assaulted at college but that only 12 percent of student victims report the assault.”
Drinking, which can cause underage drinkers to be less likely to spend time or to have dinner with their families, can cause families problems. Suzukistacy states in her article titled Top 3 Reasons to Have Family Dinner (and tips to help you do it!) that according to a study that was conducted by the Utah Sharps report for 2011, they interviewed a lot of underage drinkers. Approximately, 50 % reported that they never had dinner with their parents. Less than 40% reported that they had dinner with their parents once a week. Approximately, 32 % of them said that they had dinner with their parents three times a week. 28 % reported that they had dinner with their parents four times a week. Approximately, 23% said that they had dinner with their families five times per week. Approximately, 17% said that they had dinner with their parents six times per week. Finally, 12 percent, approximately, said that they had dinner with their parents 7 times per week. This idea can make us realize as suzukistacy demonstrates in his article that “the more often the family eats dinner together, the less often teens report drinking”, or teens who are less likely to eat dinner with their families are more likely to engage in drinking activities, vice versa. In addition to that, teenage drinking can also cause other problems or other families issues. As stated in the article titled Effects of Teenage Drinking, “Teens that use alcohol may withdraw from the family and have difficulty with family relationships. They may demonstrate behavioral problems as well.”
Underage drinking can also cause drinkers to have brain problems. “Several studies have suggested that up to 15 percent of teenage football players suffer a mild traumatic brain injury during the season… (The odds are significantly worse for student athletes — the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that nearly 2 million brain injuries are suffered by teenage players every year.)… In 2002, a team of neurologists surveying several hundred school football players concluded that athletes who had suffered three or more concussions were nearly ten times more likely to exhibit multiple ‘abnormal’ responses to head injury, including loss of consciousness and persistent amnesia... A 2004 study, meanwhile, revealed that football players with multiple concussions were 7.7 times more likely to experience a ‘major drop in memory performance’,” according to Jonah Lehrer in his article titled The Fragile Teenage Brain. This statistic or those facts seem to heavily demonstrate that a lot of teenagers or students suffer from brain injuries, concussions, memory problems, or brain problems. However, brain injuries or memory problems or brain problem among underage students or teens can occur when they drink. As Melodee Hanes, Acting Administrator, shows in her article titled Effects and Consequences of Underage Drinking, which was conducted by U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, “The human brain continues to develop until a person is around age 25. Underage drinking may impair this neurological development, causing youth to make irresponsible decisions, encounter memory lapses, or process and send neural impulses more slowly” (1).
Drinking can cause underage drinkers to have other problems, such as sleeping difficulties. “A recent study at Drexel University of students aged 12 to 18 found that ‘20 percent of those studied got the recommended eight or more hours of sleep during school nights with the rest getting less than eight hours.’ A study of Rhode Island teenagers found that ‘85 percent were chronically sleep-deprived and accumulated a minimum 10-hour sleep deficit during the week. Forty percent went to bed after 11 p.m.; 26 percent said they usually got less than 6.5 hours on school nights’," according to Gisele Glosser in the article titled Teens, Sleep and School. These evidences seem to demonstrate that most study have found that teenagers fail to receive the recommended hour of sleep or go to bed late or do not sleep adequately. However, inadequate sleep or sleep deprivation among teens, which can cause them trouble or which can lead to many other health related issues, can take place due to using drug or decongestants or due to drinking. As stated in the article titled Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep that was prepared by Office of Communications and Public Liaison ,National Institute of Neurological ,Disorders and Stroke ,National Institutes of Health, and Dr.Bethesda and that was conducted by The National of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, “Drinks ,drugs, and decongestants can cause insomnia, or an inability to sleep….Sleep deprivation can actually cause depression, can lead to a seemingly psychotic state of paranoia and hallucinations in otherwise healthy people, or can trigger episodes of mania.”
In addition to all the problems listed above, underage drinking causes society a lot of troubles or deficits. According to Ted R. Miller, David T. Levy, Rebecca S. Spicer, Dexter M. Taylor in their article titled Societal Costs of Underage Drinking, “Underage drinking led to 3,170 deaths and 2.6 million other harmful events. The estimated $61.9 billion bill (relative SE = 18.5%) included $5.4 billion in medical costs, $14.9 billion in work loss and other resource costs, and $41.6 billion in lost quality of life. Quality-of-life costs, which accounted for 67% of total costs, required challenging indirect measurement.” In 2009, the cost or the deficit slightly increased. The expense or the money that the government spent due to underage drinking for young violence was $35,094 in total, for Youth Traffic Crashes was $9,955.9 in total, for High-Risk Sex, Ages 14-20 was $5,184.0 in total, for Youth Property Crime was $5,138.5 in total, for Youth Injury was $2,133.3 in total, for Poisonings and Psychoses was $657.0 million in total, for FAS Among Mothers Age 15-20 was $1,307.2 in total, and for Youth Alcohol Treatment was $2,574.9. The estimated cost was $62,045.2 million in total. In addition to that, Melodee Hanes, Acting Administrator, shows in her article titled Effects and Consequences of Underage Drinking, which was conducted by U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, “Underage drinking cost society $68 billion in 2007, or $1 for every drink consumed. This includes medical bills, income loss, and costs from pain and suffering” (1).
According to Robert Glatter, MD, “Recent data on college age drinking from NIH, specifically the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has brought to light the significant consequences of binge drinking among college students. This report importantly draws attention to the many serious consequences of binge drinking including blackouts, alcohol overdoses, motor vehicle accidents, poor academic performance, falls resulting in serious injuries, as well as the many lasting effects of sexual assaults (unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases), and even death.”
See: College Drinking by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Consequences of Abusive College Drinking
Number of college students between the ages of 18 and 24 who die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor vehicle crashes, every year.
Number of college students between the ages of 18 and 24 who are unintentionally injured under the influence of alcohol.
Number of college students between the ages of 18 and 24 who are assaulted by another student who has been drinking
students between the ages of 18 and 24 who are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape.
Number of college students between the ages of 18 and 24 who have unprotected sex
Percentage of college students who report having academic consequences because of their drinking,including missing class, falling behind, doingpoorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall due to drinking
1,825 college students
599,000 college students
696,000 college students
97,000 college students
400,000 college students
See: College Drinking by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Consequences of Abusive College Drinking
Percentage of college students between the ages of 18 and 24 who met the criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence and who sought treatment for alcohol problems in the year preceding the survey.
Number of students between the ages of 18 and 24 who drive under the influence of alcohol
Other consequences of drinking among college students
Some problems that may occur
suicide attempts, health problems,vandalism, property damage, and involvement withthe police.
19 percent met the criteria, and 5 percent of these students sought treatment
3,360,000 college students
"It’s hard to find middle-class professionals lighting up on a daily or even weekly basis even now that it’s legal. Among teens and college students, pot use may be spread more evenly across the economic spectrum, but it’s not usually the kids who are headed for graduate school and good careers who are being tripped up by it," according to Naomi Schaefer Riley in Why do college kids have so much time to smoke pot.
Why do students drink? What do they think about alcohol? According to the article titled Why Students Drink by the University of Minnesota, “Students sometimes drink because they think alcohol makes it easier to meet other people, relaxes their social inhibitions, and helps them have more fun. When asked whether they believe alcohol has the following effects, the following percentages indicate the rates of college students who answered ‘yes’ (CORE, 2011). 74.4% said it breaks the ice or enhances social activity. 71.7% said it is because it gives them something to do. 66.6% said that it gives them something to talk about. 63.1% said that it allows them to have more fun. 60.1% said it facilitates male bonding. 20.4% said that it makes me sexier. 61.7% said it facilitates a connection with peers. 22.7% said it makes food taste better. 53.0% said that it facilitates sexual opportunities. 28.8% said that it facilitates female bonding. 28.8% said it makes women sexier.19.9% said that it makes men sexier” (Alcohol Use on Campus). In addition to that, according to a survey of 1,600 undergraduates, many students report that drinking makes them feel happier in college (Agency staff).
“The less affluent students — those who want to be on the 'mobility pathway' — will often find themselves caught up in that party atmosphere and realize too late that no one’s there to save them. Of the lower-income students Armstrong and Hamilton follow, none graduates within five years,” according to Naomi Schaefer Riley in Why do college kids have so much time to smoke pot.
Naomi Schaefer Riley in Why do college kids have so much time to smoke pot goes on to indicate as a final statement, “The growth in pot use on campus may simply be a sign that students have too much time on their hands. If you’re only studying and going to class an average of 25 hours a week, what in God’s name are you going to do with the rest of your time? But for the kids who are actually on campus to improve their chances in life, the growing popularity of marijuana on campus is just one more obstacle in their way.”
Lack of perseverance has relation with many elements and can cause students to drop out of school. According to a study titled The Role of Moral and Performance Character Strengths in Predicting Achievement and Conduct among Urban Middle School Students by Scott Seider of Boston University, Jennifer K. Gilbert of Vanderbilt University, Sarah Novick of Boston University, and Jessica Gomez Of Boston University that was conduct by In Press, Teachers College Record, they interviewed 488 students from three schools, which were Classical Academy, Collegiate Bound, and Civitas Prep, in order to find out how GPA, demerits, perseverance, courage, integrity, and empathy were related to each other and how they ranked in terms of student achievement, student conduct, and character strengths. The study consisted of 148 students from Classical Academy, 175 students from Collegiate Bound, and 172 students from Civitas Prep. 51% of students (76 students) from Classical Academy were females, and 49% (72 students) were males. 57% of students (99 students) from college bound were females, and 43% (76 students) were males. In addition to that, 57% of students (98 students) from Civitas Prep were females, and 43 percent (74 students) were males. The students group from all three schools grouped into four categories: Black, White, Latino and Multiracial. They asked the students the following questions. For the study of integrity, they asked students “several statements regarding their willingness or their unwillingness to engage in cheating or dishonest behavior if other members of the class were cheating, the teacher was a poor instructor, to keep a friend from failing, or to earn a grade of ‘A.” For the study of perseverance, they asked them question about whether or not they worked hard in school, studied or did their homework, or paid attention in class when they faced some problems. They asked students other related questions about all the other following elements (demerits, courage, and empathy,) to find out their opinions. After they collected the answers from the students and collected all the data together, they calculated every school GPA or students’ academic performance by using the following formula: “Grade Point Averagei = B0 + B1Schooli + B2GradeLeveli + B3Genderi + B4Racei +B5Demeritsi + B6Meritsi + B7SchoolConnecti + B8Perseverancei + B9Couragei + B10Integrityi + B11Empathyi + B12SocialRespi + εi where B0 is the intercept parameter, B1-B7 represents the effects of control predictors on the outcome , and B8-B12 represents the effects of tested character strengths on the outcome.” After they calculated students GPA, total demerits, total courage, and total empathy, total integrity, and total perseverance, they came up with one reasoning. The reasoning was “that students across the three schools who reported the highest levels of academic achievement were also the students, on average, who felt highly connected to their school communities, received few demerits and demonstrated a weak commitment to academic integrity, and demonstrated high levels of perseverance,” but those who showed lowest level of achievement were those who showed low levels of perseverance or who lacked perseverance or who less connected to their school communities, and ect…. In a simple statement, this reasoning seems to indicate that perseverance has a proportional relationship with students’ academic performance or to their community. Also, Author Scott Seider showed that correlation by stating that “students with high levels of perseverance and grit have the highest GPAs and best attendance, and are more likely to be accepted to the most prestigious schools. And, students who feel highly connected to a community within their school are also more likely to be successful” according to the research titled Experts Say Building Skills like Grit and Perseverance Will Help Increase College Readiness in the U.S by Celia R. Baker. Not only do students who have lowest academic performance less persevere or lack perseverence, but another issue is that students who do not persevere face another problem. According to the research titled A Review of Literature Pertaining to Student Dropout from Instrumental Music Programs, “Many directors cite lack of perseverance as one of the issues that causes many students to drop out of school (7).”
According to Luzviminda “Luchie” B. Canlas, “Students who lack perseverance may have experienced many failures; success may seem impossible to attain.” Lack of perseverance may occur when they face difficult or strange “tasks” (Trimborn). It causes them to pay attention poorly in class (Pollitt in Malnutrition and infection in the classroom: Summary and conclusions). It “‘is often due fear to do something or face consequences’ ” (The Power of Perseverance). It is one of the generally cited factors of “underachieving gifted students” (Smutney in Van Tassel-Baska, 1992; Whitmore, 1986; Rimm, 1986; Baum, Owen & Dixon, 1991). As a matter of fact, Linda Bips, assistant professor at Muhlenberg College, shows that "many of today’s college students lack resilience or perseverance."
“Perseverance describes a person whose manner of conduct is to continue at whatever he is doing indefinitely. He keeps at it to the very end. He is on a particular path to reach his Goal, and he stays on that one path, not deviating to right or left, and not varying his speed, keeping on going, relentlessly, with his energy directed unremittingly toward arriving at the end of the path,” according to Shepherd Hoodwin from Michael On Modes in the article titled The Perseverance Mode in michaelteachings.com.
What is perfectionism? What problems that perfectionism can cause students? “Perfectionism can be defined many different ways and looked at in many different perspectives. It can either be looked at as being obsessive compulsive or just wanting to do well in everyday life and setting high standards for oneself. Being a perfectionist can also lead to the destruction of a person’s psychological well-being. Events related to this are suicide, depression, and illness,” according to Marilyn E. Gawlik. Marilyn also mentions in the article the academic problems that perfectionism can cause. According to Marilyn E. Gawlik in the article titled Variables Related to Perfectionism, “Flett and Hewitt (1998) researched perfectionism in relation to attributions for success or failure. The purpose of this research was to examine ‘the link between dimensions of perfectionism and attributional tendencies for negative and positive outcomes’ (Flett, Hewitt, 1998).” The participants who partake in the study of Gawlik were both men and women, and instruments were used in the study to evaluate the elements and the results. Many other factors were found to be positively related to perfectionism. As it is stated, “The study consisted of 124 student, 84 being women and 40 being men from York University with an average age of 22.46 years. The instruments that were used were the MPS and the Multidimensional-Multiattributional Causality Scale the represents achievement and affiliation outcomes. Through the findings there was a positive ‘association between socially prescribed perfectionism and external attribution to such factors as luck and the situational context’ (Flett, Hewitt, 1998)” (Gawlik). After all data have been analyzed, Gawlik came up with a final reasoning. The reasoning was that “it was also found that there was a link between socially prescribed perfectionism and the context attributions that may have a tendency to blame others’ for the individual’s problems. Other findings in the study indicated ‘that socially prescribed perfectionism is also associated with a tendency to make external attributions for positive outcomes, in both the achievement and affiliation domains’ (Flett, Hewitt, 1998). In the end, the study indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism ‘was associated with a tendency to make external attributions’” (Flett, Hewitt, 1998).
According to Gawlik, “Erozkan, Karakas, Ata, and Ayberk (2011) researched the relationship between perfectionism and depression among students from Turkey. In previous research, it had been found that depression and socially prescribed perfectionism were related with one another. The study was conducted to ‘determine the relationship between perfectionism and depression level’ (Erozkan et al., 2011).”
Gawlik goes on to indicate that “Rice and Pence (2006) researched perfectionism as it is related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. ‘Obsessive-Compulsive Cognitions Working Group identified perfectionism as being one of six specific cognitive domains believed to play a role in both the development and maintenance of OCD’ (OCCWG, 1997).”
Fear of negative evaluation also relates to perfectionism. The goal of the study titled The Relationship of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Perfectionism in College Students by Wayne Stephan, Amber Stephan, & Rosealee Palmer of Huntington University “was to investigate the relationship between the fear of negative evaluation and perfectionism. The population for the study consisted of 786 undergraduate college students who were conveniently selected into a sample size of 34 students. Most of the students were Caucasian, and the mean age for the sample size was 20. The fear of negative evaluation was measured by the FNE scale, and perfectionism was measured by the FMPS." The study also analyzed students in terms of FMPS and FNE. As it is stated, "The study found that scores for students on the FMPS had a strong positive linear correlation with the scores for the same students on the FNE. The Pearson r correlation for the two variables was .618, with a critical level of .349.” There are also some elements that are related to fear of negative evaluation that are also related to perfectionism. “Cowden (2005) found that there were strong relationships between the fear of negative evaluation, shyness, and worry, all of which played a part in determining whether one would become a perfectionist”( Wayne Stephan, Amber Stephan, & Rosealee Palmer).
As stated in the article titled The Relationship of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Perfectionism in College Students, “Perfectionism was found to be associated with the fear of negative evaluation in a number of studies. Blatt, Quinlin, Pilkonis, and Shea (1995) found that perfectionism led to feelings of depression that seemed to be initiated by feeling inadequate and having a fear that one was never meeting certain social standards that one had set for his/herself."
"A similar study also found that perfectionism was associated with shame and that it could be understood that this is because perfectionists fear that they are letting others down if they are not perfect in their actions (Ashby, Rice, & Martin, 2006),” the authors of the article titled The Relationship of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Perfectionism in College Students goes on to argue.
According to the article titled The Relationship of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Perfectionism in College Students by Wayne Stephan, Amber Stephan, & Rosealee Palmer of Huntington University, “As different studies suggested, the fear of negative evaluation may not be mentioned directly but many studies seemed to assume that different personality traits such as shame, worry, and shyness could be closely related to fear of negative evaluation. The fear of negative evaluation seemed to be the backbone of some of these other personality traits and thus also played a part in the perfectionism that was exhibited.”
“Carleton, McCreary, Norton, and Asmundson (2006) defined the fear of negative evaluation as ‘the apprehension and distress arising from concerns about being judged despairingly or hostilely by others’ (p. 297). The same study also stated that the fear of negative evaluation is one of three major types of fears that may give rise to other anxieties, fears, and pathologies,” according to the article titled The Relationship of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Perfectionism in College Students by Wayne Stephan, Amber Stephan, & Rosealee Palmer of Huntington University.
“Tozzi, Aggen, Neale, Anderson, Mazzeo, Neale et al. (2004) made a connection between fear of negative evaluation and perfectionism, suggesting that concern over making mistakes is one of the core features of perfectionism. Concern over mistakes can be viewed as a form of fear of negative evaluation in that you worry that you have to be perfect in order to be accepted. In short, mistakes are synonymous with failure and disapproval,” according to Wayne Stephan, Amber Stephan, & Rosealee Palmer.
Families responsibilities negatively impact students or cause them to drop out. According to a study by Russell W. Rumberger, which was conducted by the University of California, Santa Barbara, they interviewed some students in order to find out why they dropped out in school. “About 20% of dropouts report that they left school because they had to help out their families’ responsibility” (Rumberger). Among the students who said that they dropped out due to their families’ responsibility, approximately, 59 % of them were males, and among the male students, 16% of them were white, 47 % were Hispanic, and 37 % were black, but the remaining students were females; among the female students, approximately, 20% of them were white, 60 % were Hispanic, and 30 % were black (Rumberger in p.109). This study can make us realize that male students are more likely to drop out due to their families’ responsibility as Roderick (1993) argues in the article titled Why Students Drop Out: Perceptions of Educators, Parents, and Students in SEDL. Even though white, black , and Hispanic students drop out due to families responsibilities, it is clear that Hispanic male students had higher percentage of dropping out in school than black or white male students, and black or Hispanic female students had higher percentage of dropping out than white students. Consequently, we may infer that this study seems to imply that Hispanic male students are more likely to drop out of school due to their families’ responsibilities than black or white male students as Elizabeth J. Glennie, Ph.D., and Elizabeth Stearns, Ph.D. show that “Hispanic boys are more likely to drop out because they are tending to family” responsibility according to a study that was conducted by Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University and Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy., or white female students are less likely to drop out of school because of their families’ responsibility than black or Hispanic female students as Elizabeth J. Glennie, Ph.D., and Elizabeth Stearns, Ph.D., also show that “Hispanic girls are more likely to drop out because they are tending to family” responsibilities according to a study that was conducted by Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University and Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy. Not only can families responsibilities cause students to drop out of school, but another problem is that families responsibilities can make it hard for most college students to come back to school after they drop out. “According to a recent study, 53 percent of college students who drop out cite family responsibilities as a reason that they cannot return to school” (clasp.)
According to the book titled Nursing Student’s Retention, Understanding the Process And Making a Difference by Marianne R. Jeffreys, “Inability to meet family responsibility may result in decreases ability to concentrate on school responsibilities … Students with children frequently feel overburdened with family and domestic responsibilities. Combined with other family responsibilities, child care creates further challenges for student’s success and persistence. “
Data from: CLAPS. “College Students with Children,” “Sources: Johnson, Jean et al. With their Whole Lives Ahead of them: Myths and Realities about why so many S
College students who have a dependent child
College students who cannot return to school due to families responsibilities
US NEWS, Freshman Retention Rate, National Universities from fall 2008 to fall 2011. December 31, 2013.
Freshman Retention Rate
Freshman Retention Rate
Reasons that cause them to drop out
California Institute of Technology
"As many as one in three first-year students doesn't make it back for sophomore year. The reasons run the gamut from family problems and loneliness to academic struggles and a lack of money," according to U.S news and World Report.
University of Chicago
University of Notre Dame
University of Pennsylvania
Johns Hopkins University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
University of California–Berkeley
University of California–Los Angeles
University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill
University of Southern California
University of Virginia
Washington University in St. Louis
Carnegie Mellon University
According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, “On the most part, the students are unrealistic about the time it will require to do the assignments, readings, and problems. They work full time, have family responsibilities, take a full course load, and do not set aside enough time to concentrate on the problem at hand. They are over committed in terms of their time.”
Students also face troubles or fail or drop out because they have a poor or bad study habit. “The key reason most college students find themselves in this position is because they do not understand how to study. Students often do very little reading if any, and they do a poor job of taking notes. How well you take notes will save you from the problems caused by last minute studying. Students who do a good job of taking notes could see a one or two letter grade improvement in most of their classes,” according to Richard J. Frederick in the article titled Note Taking Will Make You a Better Student. This seems to verify that many college students have bad or poor study habits or are poor note takers while knowing how to take note can help them in many ways or in many problems that they experience. Inability to take note properly among college students can be a cause of bad or poor study habit. However, bad or poor study habits among college students can have a negative relation with their academic performance or can take place due to many factors. According to Evie Sellers, bad study habits can occur when students have poor note taking skills, do not manage their time properly, procrastinate, or do not complete their assignment. In addition to that, Shabbir Ahmad Rana Rukhsana Kausar shows in his article titled Comparison of Study Habits and Academic Performance of Pakistani British and White British Students that consisted of 200 students that students who have a score of study habit of 54.70 have a GPA of 3.02, but those with a study habit score of 61.30 have a GPA of 3.26. Also, they have a study habit standard deviation of 23.24 with a value of .95 for their academic performance or a standard deviation of 22.22 with an academic performance of .91. This evidence can make us realize that students who have better study habits score or standard deviation perform academically better than those who have lesser study habits score, or students who have lesser study habit score or standard deviation have lesser GPA or academic performance than those with better study habits score or standard deviation. Not only can students who have lesser study habit score or standard deviation have lesser GPA, but students who have poor study habit can also face other troubles. According to Graham Hurlburt, Randy Kroeker, and Eldon Gade in the article titled STUDY ORIENTATION, PERSISTENCE AND RETENTION OF NATIVE STUDENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONFLUENT EDUCATION “Previous literature has suggested that the high dropout rate of Native students may be at least partially attributed to poor study habits.” Also, JUSTIN KASTORY shows in his article titled The SOLUTIONS TO ACADEMIC PROBLEMS IN COLLEGE that “incorrect study methods is one of the problems that cause students to fail test or quiz, fail to complete assignment, skip classes, resort to drugs or alcohol, and consider dropping out of school” (1 & 2).
“In taking notes, students frequently overuse direct quotation, and as a result, they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably, only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes,” according to Lester, James D.
Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014 indicate in the 2011 study, “Respondents saw insufficient academic skills as closely related to lack of time management skills, often mentioning the two in the same sentence."
"Faculty respondents said too many students do not know how to study or learn, do not know how to organize their time and set priorities, do not ask for help from their instructors or advisors, and do not use available resources, such as the library and tutors. They most likely lack critical thinking skills and other higher-level learning skills so necessary in college. In short, many of them come from high school not yet ready for college-level work and learning,” as mentioned in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014 indicate in the 2011 study.
One faculty respondent explained that many college students do not read to learn in the study of Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission. The faculty said, “In my opinion, students fail because they do not put in the effort needed to succeed. They only read in order to answer a question or to pass a test, instead of reading the entire assigned chapters. I have some students who never read the lectures in the online classes.”
What are some bad study habits? In the article titled Most Common Bad Study Habits in BookRags, 10 bad study habits have mentioned. One of them is when students study with their friends. ”While fun, sometimes you may lose out on quality study time by socializing”(BookRags). Another one is when students study while they are listening to music. “Noise and music can interfere with the brain's ability to comprehend new information” (BookRags). There are also times that students choose an inappropriate environment to study. “A poor study environment can ruin all quality time. If you are uncomfortable at a chair, desk, room, the temperature is too cold or too hot, you will be unsuccessful studying” (BookRags). A fourth one that is mentioned by BookRags is “last minute cramming. While many people swear by the cramming method, it is ultimately terrible at long term knowledge retention and can cause undue stress.” Another one is when they eat while studying. “Eating too much food during studying can disrupt retention of material. It can also take too much time away.” Drinking also represents a part of the problem. “Drinking is a double-edged sword. Never drink alcohol while studying” (BookRags) BookRags also mentions “working in your bed” as one of the bad study habits. “While it may be comfortable, your bed can also sooth you to sleep instead of study”(BookRags). The eighth study habit mentioned by BookRags is “multi-tasking. Many people are able to multi-task, meaning they can do several different things at once. When it comes to studying, you may not retain as much material as if you were to focus purely on one task.” Students also study when they are in a commute. That is a bad study habit as BookRags mentions. “Many people enjoy reading on a train, bus, or car to work and school. These environments are not necessarily for intense studying.” The last one that is mentioned is the “outside stress”. “It is inevitable to allow outside problems into your study world.” (BookRags).
Students drop out of school due to discrimination. According to the article titled The Causes of Poverty (15): Gender Discrimination in filipspagnoli.wordpress, they showed that many students drop out of school due to discrimination. 22.4 millions boys and 24.4 millions girls in sub-Saharan Africa drop out due to discrimination. In addition to that, 19.1 millions boys and 23.7 millions girls are out of school due to discrimination. In each East Asia/ Pacific 4.1 millions boys and 3.9 million girls are out of school due to discrimination. In Middle East/ North Africa, 4.4 millions boys and 5.3 millions girls are out of school. In Latin America/ Caribbean, 1.9 millions boys and 2.2 millions girls drop out of school due to discrimination. In Central and Eastern Europe, CIS, 1.4 millions girls and 1.4 millions boys are out of school due to discrimination. 1.5 millions girls and 1.5 millions boys are out of school in industrialized countries due to discrimination. In total, 54. 8 millions boys and 62.4 girls are out of school due to discrimination. In addition to that, Rachel Chase shows in peruthisweek news that “Gender discrimination causes many young people to miss or drop out of school.”
According to lawstuff.org in the article titled Discrimination at School, “Discrimination in school can be when a student is treated worse than others because of a characteristic that he or she has. For example, when a teacher picks on a student disability and treats him or her differently to his or her classmates or when a rule seems fair to everyone but is unfair to the student. For example, if there is a school rule that all students must wear a hat during sports, but it is against a student' religion to wear hats, then this student is being treated unfairly.” Lawstuff goes on to indicate that discrimination in school can take place due to many other forms. Those forms can be: “race, religion, age, sexual preference, disability, mental illness or infectious disease, pregnancy or breastfeeding, status as a parent, family responsibilities, relationship or marital status, political beliefs and activities, and relationship with someone, like a parent or family member, with one of the above characteristics”( lawstuff).
As a matter of fact, as an example, according to Dan Mangan, author of the article titled Texas College Rejects Nigerian Applicants, Cites Ebola Cases Kamorudeen Abidogun, “A Texas Man Originally from Nigeria, said he received two letters from Navarro College, a two-year community college with a campus about 58 miles from Dallas."
"Abidogun has five relatives in Nigeria who were applying to the school and who were using his home in Richmond, Texas, as a U.S. mailing address, he told CNBC.The College rejected the applications, citing confirmed Ebola cases in the country as the reason for the admissions decision,” Dan said.
Dan Mangan goes on to mention what Abidogun exactly states, and how that he feels. "’I received, last weekend, two rejection letters...saying the reason why they were not giving admission was...Ebola,’ said Abidogun, who is a mechanical engineer. He said he was ‘disappointed’ in the school's stated policy.’” The author also indicates what specifically states in the letter. “The letter begins: ‘With sincere regret, I must report that Navarro College is not able to offer you acceptance for the Spring 2015 term. Unfortunately, Navarro College is not accepting international students from countries with confirmed Ebola cases,’" according to Dan Mangan.
Navarro's vice president for Access and Accountability, Dewayne Gragg, mentioned in an email that he sent to CNBC.com certain things about the college. "’Our college values its diverse population of international students. This fall we have almost 100 students from Africa. Unfortunately, some students received incorrect information regarding their applications to the institution,’" Gragg wrote.
Gratt goes on to indicate that "’as part of our new honor's program, the college restructured the international department to include focused recruitment from certain countries each year. Our focus for 2014-15 is on China and Indonesia"(Mangan).
Gratt says, "Other countries will be identified and recruitment efforts put in place once we launch our new honors program fall 2015. We apologize for any misinformation that may have been shared with students. Additional information regarding our progress with this new initiative will be posted on our website,’" according to Dan Mangan.
“Navarro College talks about the Ebola virus on the section of its website devoted to admissions information for international students, but it does not mention any policy to not admit people from countries with cases of Ebola,” Dan goes on to mention.
What Gragg said when they asked him question about the college policies while certain cases about Ebola did not mention? What problem can Ebola cause? As Dan Mangan states, “When asked for further clarification, and to answer whether in fact there is or had been a policy to reject students based on the presence of Ebola in their countries, Gragg said in an email, ‘The prior email speaks for the college.’" Dan Mangan goes on to talk about what happen in September 8, 2014. He adds in the article titled Texas College Rejects Nigerian Applicants, Cites Ebola CasesKamorudeen Abidogun, “There have been no new reported cases of Ebola in Nigeria since Sept. 8. Out of 20 people reported infected as a result of a Liberian man traveling there with the virus, eight died. But the virus was contained in the port city of Lagos.”
College students also fail because they spend less time studying due to the mentality that they understand the quantity of work required.“Business professors expect students to study 15 hours a week, but instead of hitting the books for an additional hour, they are working 19 hours a week. Social science professors expect students to put in a minimum of 18 hours per week, but they are only studying 14 hours” (Dwyer). This seems to show that many college students prefer to work instead of spending more time studying or spend less time studying than what their instructors anticipate them to study as Robert Leamnson shows in the article titled Getting Students to Read, Thinking about Teaching and Learning: Developing Habits of Learning with First Year College and University Students (p. 31) In UMBC, “In the faculty survey (FSSE) which complements the NSSE, results show that ‘faculty members expect students to study about twice as much as students actually reported, ’but that if asked to guess how much students actually do study out of class, faculty perceptions are fairly accurate. (p. 5.)”. However, spending less time studying among college students occurs or takes place when they think that they understand the amount of work required, which can cause them troubles. According to Dr. Robert Pitcher of the University of Alabama Educational Development Center, students enter college with the mentality that they have an “understanding “about “the amount of work required”, which is different comparing to “high school” than what they think; as a result, this mentality causes them to “spend less time studying” and then causes them to fail (The University of Alabama Center for Academic Success).
Robert Leamnson shows in the article titled Getting Students to Read, Thinking about Teaching and Learning: Developing Habits of Learning with First Year College and University Students (p. 31) In UMBC that “a common complaint among students in the mid-semester evaluations I conduct is that their professors' reading requirements are unrealistic--that the texts are too hard, that there's too much to read, or that the books or articles are irrelevant and never reviewed in class.”
“Nearly two-thirds of college students participating in a recent survey say they decided not to buy a new textbook because of its cost, and more than 90 percent said they were concerned that not buying a book would negatively affect their grade according to the report, titled ‘Fixing the Broken Textbook Market: How Students Respond to High Textbook Costs and Demand Alternatives,’ presents the results of a survey of 2,039 students on more than 150 college campuses conducted in September and October by The Student Public Interest Research Groups, or Student PIRGs, a consortium of student consumer advocacy groups,” according to the article tilted Survey: Majority of College Students Elect Not to Buy New Textbooks by DAVID KRECHEVSKY in REPUBLICAN-AMERICAN.
“According to a study by the U.S. Public Interest Research Group (USPIRG), as of Jan. 27, 2014, the average American college student spends $1,200 per year on books and supplies, which is equivalent to 39% of tuition and fees at a community college and 14% tuition and fees at a four-year university,” according to Oona Goodin-Smith, Oakland University and Daniel Rader, Ohio University of the article titled Students Break the Bank to Buy Their Books.
Oona Goodin-Smith, Oakland University and Daniel Rader, Ohio University goes on to indicate that “by these numbers, it is estimated that the average student will spend $4,800 on textbooks and supplies by the end of his or her undergraduate stay—even more if the program requires five or six years of education.”
“The study asserts that ‘publishers keep costs high by pumping out new editions and selling books bundled with software.’ This is something Rona Jin, a junior studying psychology at the University of Michigan, faced firsthand when she was forced to fork over $244 for the newest edition of a cognitive psychology book software bundle for a class,” Oona Goodin-Smith, Oakland University and Daniel Rader mention in the article titled Students Break the Bank to Buy Their Books.
Students with low self-esteem experience troubles. According to a study titled “Student Self-Esteem and the School System: Perceptions and Implications”that was conducted by Cynthia G Schott of the University of Florida and Gerald C. Murray, Carol Mertens, E Richard Dustin of the University of Iowa, they tried to find out what teachers, counselors, and school administrators think about students with low self-esteem. 69 percent of teachers, as compared with 58 percent of school administrators and 59 percent of counselors, thought that students with low self-esteem have undeveloped social skills. In addition to that, 43 percent of them said that they often expose to high risky behaviors, 40 percent of administrators thought that they are rebellious and aggressive, and 42 percent of teachers reported that they are peer dependent. After all, 60 percent of administrators, 63 percent of counselors, and 59 percent of teachers said that low-self-esteem students perform poorly in school. Not only can low self-esteem expose students to high risky behaviors or to poor academic performance, but low self-esteem among students can also lead to other problems or another academic problem. According to Dr. Randy Brown and Dr. Maria Chairez, “Low self-esteem among students leads to a frustration with school and eventually to dropping out.”
Data From: Tristan Watson."Low self-esteem affects college students"certified professional empowerment coach Cherrie Bautista" The University Star.
College Students Who Drink Alcohol Everyday Due to Low self -esteem
College Students Who Smoke Everyday Due to Low self -esteem
More Than 29 percent
According to Richard D. Lavoie, MA, M.Ed. in the article titled Self-esteem: The Cause and Effect of Success for the Child with Learning Differences, “Students with low self-esteem communicate self-derogatory statements, exhibit learned helplessness, do not volunteer, practice perfectionism, are overly dependent, demonstrate an excessive need for acceptance: a great desire to please authority figures, have difficulty making decisions, exhibit low frustration tolerance, become easily defensive, and have little faith in their own judgment and be highly vulnerable to peer pressure.” In addition to that, Theravive shows that low self-esteem can make us feel that we worth nothing or that we do not have any power to help others or make us lose our confidence and devalue ourselves. "Some of its signs are: consistent anxiety and emotional turmoil, always accentuating the negative, unable to accept compliments, overly concerned about what others think, don’t trust one’s own opinions, constantly depressed, socially withdraw, self-neglect, eating disorders, unable to take on challenges, always quitting and resigning, controlling, needy, success driven, arrogant, extremely self-defensive (someone who retaliates far worse than what would normally be expected), exaggerated perfectionism, and a constant need for validation and recognition," as stated in the article about Self-esteem by Theravive.
College students also fail because they choose inappropriate school or do not assume their responsibility. In the article titled Why Some College Athletes Do Not Succeed, Dave Galehouse illustrates a lot of points that cause many students to fail or to not succeed in college. These following points represent a list of points that he illustrates in his article. He says that many students fail “because they choose the wrong school socially for them. Some schools are too big, other are too small. Some schools are too far away from home, others are too close. Some schools have a diverse student-body; others have students that are all the same. Some schools are in big cities, others are in the middle of nowhere etc... In addition to that, some students do not take their academic studies seriously or simply do not assume responsibility. When it comes to student-athletes, many of them are not student-athletes, but rather athletes who are inconvenienced by going to classes. If a student is not committed academically to a school, he or she will not succeed.” In addition to what Dave Galehouse shows, Dr. Robert Pitcher of the Educational Development Center shows a lot of reasons that causes many students to fail in college. Among those reasons, he shows that “Failure to assume responsibility” is one of the reasons that cause many students to fail. He says that students do not attend class. They prefer to get involved in social activities or to do their personal stuff but do not do their assignment or their homework. That causes them to fail in college. He goes on to show that students also fail because they do not choose a school that is appropriate to them. “Students may find themselves at a college for which they are unprepared. The campus climate and/or size may not be personally suitable” (Pitcher).
As Brigham Young University, Center for Teaching & Learning, states, in order to help students take responsibility for learning, “students should know how to ask and find answers to questions, anytime and anywhere, acquire good study skills matched to their learning style, such as how to read a textbook, take notes, practice, and do research, find and evaluate supplementary learning resource materials, take advantage of a professor’s office hours, find and collaborate with other students, find professionals who are willing to mentor them, manage their time effectively, or overcome inertia (laziness).”
What is another example of responsibility that students may fail to assume that can cause them difficulties? According to Student Safety Net Home in pleasval in the article titled Personal Responsibility (for Students), it is the personal responsibility of students to “ask questions when they are confused or do not understand.” If students fail to assume this responsibility, they may face trouble. According to Peter Alfeld, Department of Mathematics, university of Utah, “Students who do not ask question are so utterly lost that they do not even know where to start asking questions.” Not only can students who do not ask question face this problem that has been stated in the preceding sentence, but they can also face another problem. According to demolistic in the article titled Top Reasons Students Fail, as it is also stated in A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS STUDYING ACCOUNTING, “Students who fail are those who are not ready to say that they need help or those who do not ask question.”
According to SciEduDes in the article titled Why Don’t Students Ask Questions? , “Students generally aren’t comfortable giving direct performance feedback to the teacher, especially during class; they want to do it privately and anonymously to save face for themselves and the teacher. Students are more comfortable asking questions if they know that others have the same question or if they know the other students personally. It’s hard to speak up during a lecture for two reasons - classroom culture, and size / anonymity,” according to a survey by Bertrand and Daniel. ScieduDes goes on to show that the survey also indicates that students do not ask question in class because they feel intimidated around their classmates, and they do not want to consume time when asking question in class.
Many students drop out due to marriage. According to a study by Russell W. Rumberger, which was conducted by the University of California, Santa Barbara, they interviewed some students. “About 9% of dropouts reported that they left school due to marriage” (Rumberger). Among the students who said that they dropped out because they get married, approximately, 14% of them were males, and 86% of them were females; among the female students, approximately, 47% of them were white, 42 % were Hispanic, and 11 % were black. This idea can make us realize that female students are more likely to drop out of school due to marriage as Roderick (1993) argues in the article titled Why Students Drop Out: Perceptions of Educators, Parents, and Students in SEDL. Even though white, black, and Hispanic students dropped out in school because of marriage, clearly, female white students had greater percentage of dropping out than black and Hispanic female students; as a consequence, we may make an inference that this study seems to imply that female white or white students are more likely to drop out than black and Hispanic students due to marriage as “66 percent of the actual dropouts are White, while just 17 percent are Black and 13 percent are Hispanic,” according to the NCSET in the article titled Part I: What Do We Know About Dropout Prevention? , What Do We Know About Who Drops Out and Why?, Who Drops Out of School? "As a matter of fact, these students cited marriage as one of the issues that causes them to drop out?" (SEDL). Not only do some students or the studies above show that students dropped out because of marriage, but Bharat Inder Fozdar, Lalita S. Kumar, and S. Kannan's study also show that in the article titled “A Survey of a Study on the Reasons Responsible for Student Dropout from the Bachelor of Science Program at Indira Gandhi National Open University” by stating that marriage is one of the twenty reasons that causes some college students to drop out.
Why students get married? Is it beneficial for students to get married in college? When should they get married? According to the article titled Should College Students Get Married , “A group of sociology students were recently asked the following question in class: ‘From what you know about marriage and divorce, would you discourage a fellow Calvin College student from getting married before s/he graduates? Would it make any difference if it were you or your daughter/son? ’What follows are two representative student responses: serious choices, consequences and one cannot serve two institutions.” Students report in the article that students should not get married in college because college requires a lot of hard work and time by itself. When students get married in college, they face troubles. Their parents do not assist them anymore because they become independent or adult. As a result, they are the ones who have to work to support their families, which double their responsibilities, and to pay for college. There are also times that students take breaks from school to work to support the family or a child. The idea of trying to balance work, family obligations, and study at the same time makes it hard for students to succeed in college because college by itself requires a lot of committed effort and time. “By getting married, students think, they will solve their personality conflicts with one another, or they will get away from home, or they will fulfill their physical and emotional needs. It is because of this common disillusion in a critical developmental stage that it is wise to advise waiting for marriage until a person is at least out of college” (Should college students get married?).
Even if many college students choose not to cheat in school, are financially prepared to attend college, do not have families responsibilities, are not married, or persevere when facing challenges, other problems may stand up. Stress or anxiety also negatively affects many college students or causes them to fail or drop out. The survey that was conducted by The AP-mtvU , a television channel, shows that 80 percent of college students experience stress, and 40 percent of them are negatively affected by it ( Fram& Tompson). In addition to that, 30.2 percent of first year college students say that they experience stress by all the things that they perform according to a report at UCLA (Slabosh). A 2006 U.S survey shows that 4.4 out of 10 college students are stressed , and anxiety is negatively affecting their functionality (Messenger). 3.3 out of 10 college students reported that stress leads on to a negative impact in their grades ( Smydo). And stress exposes many college students to risk of dropping out in school (Singhal). According to Guirol, when many college students are stressed, they choose to drop out in college with the mentality that once they drop out, they can find an appropriate way or strategy to cope with this stress (1).
“All that stress can be grueling, and it can lead to emotional and mental health problems. A 2012 study by the American College Counseling Association found that 37.4 percent of college students seeking help have severe psychological problems, up from 16 percent in 2000. Of the 228 counselors surveyed, more than three out of four reported an increase in crises in the past five years requiring immediate response, 42 percent noted an increase in self-injury, and 24 percent have seen an increase in eating disorders,” according to Francesca Di Meglio in the article titled Stress Takes Its Toll on College Students in businessweek.
“The quarter million undocumented college students in the U.S. navigate a stressful educational landscape due to current immigration laws, uneven state and university policies, and few campus resources, according to the first national survey of its kind,” mentioned Sandra Lilley in the article titled New Report Looks at Nation's Undocumented College Students.
Sandra Lilley in the article titled New Report Looks At Nation's Undocumented College Students goes on to indicate that “the report, which examined over 900 students from 55 countries across colleges in 34 states, found a group of students that is highly motivated and determined to participate in the American college experience but is constantly challenged by stress and worries over family members' deportations, financial difficulties and feelings of isolation regarding the campus experience.”
What actions have been taking for undocumented students? What trouble that those students have faced even if those actions have been taking? According to Sandra, "Deferred action from deportation (DACA) has had a positive impact on undocumented college students; almost 66 percent of those surveyed had applied and received DACA status. The valid ID and work permit has enabled students to get better part-time work, more internship opportunities, easier transportation to school through driver's licenses and better housing opportunities." Undocumented students still face a lot of barrier while they have those permits. As Sandra indicates, “But the main barriers for many undocumented students - even with DACA - involve the variations among states and institutions regarding in-state tuition, enrollment and financial assistance. Only 19 states have in-state tuition equity for undocumented students, and 9 states have specifically restricted access to in-state tuition for undocumented students. While federal loans are unavailable for undocumented students, there are variations within states and institutions regarding financial aid.”
According to lilley of the article, "’The federal government should provide clear guidelines for ways the higher education community could better serve DACA students regarding work authorization, internships and access to scholarships,’ states the report.”
What are some key statistics about those students that the report found? “Three quarters of the students were constantly worried about family members' possible deportations, even though 64 percent had at least one family member who was a U.S. citizen. Almost 37 percent of the young women and 29 percent of men reported elevated anxiety levels, in contrast to 9 percent and 4 percent of normal population,” mentioned Sandra Lilley in the article titled New Report Looks at Nation's Undocumented College Students. Sandra goes on to add some additional findings about those students regarding the report. Sandra Lilley of the article titled New Report Looks at Nation's Undocumented College Students cites, “Most students have been in the U.S. almost all of their lives, on average about 15 years or more. Over seven-in-ten were working while in college. Nine-in-ten students said they would become American citizens if they could. Almost one-third of the students were majoring in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) fields and almost 10 percent in public service fields such as education, nursing and social work.”
Sandra Lilley of the article titled New Report Looks at Nation's Undocumented College Students goes on to indicate, "’What we're doing now is recruiting scientists and engineers overseas,’ said Suarez-Orozco. ‘These kids are here, they're not going anywhere...These kids are ready, they want to serve.’"
Many college students can fail because they have difficulty paying attention in class due to excessive texting. According to a study that they interviewed some college students, “95 percent of those surveyed say they bring their phones to class every day. Ninety-one percent admitted to using their phones to text during class, 10 percent said they sent a text during an exam, and a quarter of those surveyed said that texting presents a major distraction during class,” (Hawley). This seems to verify that many college students often bring their cell phones or text during exam or use their cell phones to text in class. And texting in class among college students represent a problem. Nevertheless, texting in class among them, which can cause them distraction or difficulty or trouble, can occur when they experience a certain thing in class. According to Leanne Smith, “College students who text during class have hard time paying attention.” As a matter of fact, not only can many students have difficulty paying attention in class due to texting, but another issue is that college students who have trouble paying attention in class can face some other accademic problems. According to a research that was conducted by Intervention Central, “Students who have difficulties paying attention in class face the risk of poor grades and even school failure.”
Violence causes many troubles. “Between 2001 and 2002, 17 school age victims died in school related deaths, (including accidents and suicide) as opposed to the 1999-2000 school year, in which 32 violent school-related deaths occurred. Sadly, student reports of being bullied increased from 5% to 8% in 2001 as reported in Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2002,”(The National Center for students expose to violence). School violence can take place in many forms, such as buying, sexual offence, and etc. (The National Center for students expose to violence). The National Center for students to violence School violence goes on to show that school violence causes societies a lot of troubles; it can cause students to become criminals, or students who suffer from school violence often have low self-esteem; they can be depressed or stressed or commit suicide or other ferocious crimes. As a matter of fact, violence, which has relation with many elements, takes place in many college dorms and causes students many troubles. In the article titled The Role of Comprehensive School Health Education Programs in the Link between Health in Academic Performance: A literature review in the Health of Learning Project, the author indicates, “Many studies have shown a link between participation in high-risk and unhealthy behaviors and school performance problems. Drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use, and violence are all related to diminished school performance. These studies suggest that students will not be able to learn and achieve to their highest potential if they expose to those problems. There is a wide range of school performance problems that have been linked to high-risk behaviors. Dropping out, truancy, and delinquency are related to such behaviors.” As a matter of fact, according to the article titled College Campus Violence in Youth violence project by curry school of education, “A study by Sloan, Fisher, and Cullen (1997) found that only 35% of violent crimes on college campuses were reported to authorities.”
Violence in school is getting worse. According to the constitutional rights foundation in the article titled Causes of School Violence," A 2006 study by the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Justice reveals that public schools experiencing violent incidents increased from 71 to 81 percent over a five-year period (1999-2004). The same study reports that the percentage of students who reported gang presence at school increased from 21 percent in 2003 to 24 percent in 2005. During the late 1980's and early 1990's, teen gun violence increased dramatically in the United States. More teens began to acquire and carry guns, leading to a sharp increase in gun deaths and injuries. A survey conducted by the Children's Institute International revealed that almost 50 percent of all teenagers, regardless of their settings--rural, suburban, or urban--believe that their schools are becoming more violent.” In addition to that, the constitutional rights foundation goes on to show that violent activities are becoming more common in school according to many studies.
Where school violence is more likely to take place or come from. According to the constitutional rights foundation in the article titled Causes of School Violence, “Researchers at the National Center for Education Statistics found that discipline problems are often related to school enrollment size. Large schools tended to yield more discipline problems than small schools. Thirty-four percent of schools with 1,000 or more students reported student disrespect for or assaults on teachers at least once per week, compared with 21 percent of those at schools with 500-999 students, 17 percent of those at schools with 300-499 students, and 14 percent of those at schools with less than 300 students. Middle school students are more than twice as likely as high school students to be affected by school violence.” The constitutional rights foundation also shows that students who come from a family where their parents have bad behaviors are more likely to involve in school violence, and a child bad behavior in school can have a relation with his or her community environment.
The constitutional rights foundation goes on to indicate, “In two recent academic years, a total of 85 young people died violently in U.S. schools. Seventy-five percent of these incidents involved firearms. The NYVPC shows that many teens still illegally carry guns and harm others and themselves. A National Institute of Health study recently interviewed 1,219 seventh and 10th graders in Boston and Milwaukee. Forty-two percent of students claimed 'they could get a gun if they wanted, 28 percent have handled a gun without adult knowledge or supervision, and 17 percent have carried a concealed gun.' According to a report issued by the University Of Southern California School Of Medicine, approximately 35% of U.S. homes with children under age 18 have at least one firearm, meaning that roughly 11 million children live in homes with firearms. Since the 1990s, the Internet, blogging, e-mail, and cell-phone text messaging have grown to play significant roles in the erosion of school safety. Violent, Internet-based video games have also grown in popularity as cyber technology becomes more sophisticated.” This idea seems to make us realize that it is proven that many teenage students have access to guns, which causes a lot of trouble or violence, or violence over the internet or technology devices seems to be increased among students as Etsaia shows in the article titled “Internet Banging” – Co-opting Social Media for Gang-Related Violent Activities in Michigan Young violence prevention, “It is increasingly recognized phenomenon that is now being labeled as “internet banging”… The adoption of it has led to a definitive increase in violent crime rates.” Also, L. Rowell Huesmann shows that in the article titled The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research in the National Institute of Health Public Access Policy by stating that “since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the internet increases the risk of violent behavior just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence that increases the risk of violent behaviors. The psychological theory explains that exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short run and long run is elaborated.”
In addition to these reasons listed above, many college students also fail because they do not do their homework. “Surveys have been shown that 20 percent of college students do not do their homework" (Phelps). They frequently go to “class”, but they do not even read or do their "required" homework (Phelps). They interviewed some college students at the University of Michigan; 1/2 of them reported that homework is something that they never did (U.S Students And Homework). These evidences or surveys seem to demonstrate that many college students fail to do or do not do their assignment or their homework. However, college students who do not do their homework can fail because of that, or college students who are more likely not to do their assignment or their homework can have lower grade or GPA than those who are more likely to do their homework. According to a study that was conducted by Janine Bempechat, Jin Li, Shelby M. Neier, Caroline A. Gillis, and Susan D. Holloway, they interviewed some students. They classified these students in two categories: higher achievers and lower achievers. The higher achievers were students who had a 2.3 GPA or more, but the lower achievers were those who had less than 2.3 GPA. The study consisted of 51 higher achievers and 41 lower achievers. 75% of the higher achievers said that they usually completed all their homework, as compared with 19% of the lower achievers. However, when they asked whether their homework used to be incomplete or whether they did not do their homework, 4% of the higher achievers and 69% of the lower achievers reported that their homework used to be incomplete, they did not do them, or they would offer excuse to their teachers. This idea can make us realize that even though both higher and lower achievers did or did not do their homework or offered excuses to their instructors for not doing homework, it is clear that lower achievers, students with lower GPA, had higher percentage of offering excuses to their instructors or higher percentage of not doing homework. And higher achievers, students with higher GPA, had higher percentage of doing homework regularly; as a result, we may infer that students who are more likely to offer excuses to their instructors for not doing their homework or students who are more likely not to do their homework have lower grades or GPA than those who are more likely to do their homework and vice versa. Not only can not doing homework cause students to have lower grade or GPA, but it can cause another problem. According to educationrealist, “Students who do not do their homework often fail simply for not doing their homework."
Is homework a necessary part of education? According to Alfie Kohn, “Closely related to the notion that more time yields more learning is the belief, widely held by both parents and teachers, that homework is useful because it affords an opportunity for students to practice the skills they’ve been taught. Giving students homework that involves drill and practice is often said to 'reinforce' the skills they’ve been taught in class. Mathematics is the subject in which practice homework seems to be most commonly prescribed, so this is as good a place as any to understand the limits of the whole idea.” In a simplistic way, Alfie Kohn assumes that homework is important in school (9).
Lack of effort and Poor or nonexistent work ethic cause students troubles. According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014, “Lack of Effort repeated 72 times or 12 percent of responses. This category included both Lack of effort and Poor or nonexistent work ethic as subcategories. Many faculty members were disturbed by how many students are satisfied with a grade of C or D instead of working harder to get better grades. A few faculty members stated that even when they give students opportunities to improve their grades by redoing homework, lab reports, or writing assignments, many students do not bother. Some participants stated that students do not exert enough effort and do not bother to find out, either from the instructor or fellow students, how much work is really needed to pass a given class.” Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014 also mentions certain things in terms of Poor and nonexistent work ethic. They mention that they are some reasons that cause students to fail. They said, “Under the subcategory of Poor or nonexistent work ethic, some respondents said that students do not complete assignments but then expect teachers to let them make it up with extra-credit work. Some students expect to pass just because they attend class, and others think that doing ungraded homework is unimportant. Many believe that an open-book exam means they can learn the material while taking the exam. One respondent blamed more than the student: ‘Work ethic (strengthened by peer behavior AND administration acquiescence) was summarized by the notion, ‘do just enough to get by,’ which is rarely enough to just get by.’”
Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014 goes on to indicate, “Another said that students expect teachers to excuse multiple missed assignments and absences ‘based on a student’s circumstances,’ which demonstrated a ‘diminished sense of personal responsibility.’ Still another cited a much more serious problem: ‘They [students] may be collecting financial aid money for living expenses and have no intention of completing a course once they have received all the funds.’”
Loneliness can negatively impact college students or can cause them to fail. In the article titled “Loneliness among College Students”, James J. Ponzetti shows that college students who experience loneliness characterize and think about “themselves” negatively. They feel that they cannot help "themselves", and they have a negative view about relationship (Ponzetti). They are more likely to stay lonely and think that it is difficult for them “to make friends”(Jones, 1981; Russell, 1982 in Ponzetti). They are more likely not to be happy (Pozentti). College students who are lonely often use hostile verbal avowal or statement to express themselves and are less socially involved (Ponzetti). They often experience anxious, shy, or depressed feeling (Hays & DiMatteo, 1987; Perlman & Peplau, 1981 &Anderson, Horowitz, & French, 1983; Cheek & Busch, 1981 in Ponzetti). Loneliness may cause them to have "sleeping" troubles or can negatively impact them (Farooqi). Also, college students are most likely to experience loneliness and often experience nagging problems. Saif Farooqi argues that loneliness may cause students to have a feeling of helplessness or think that doing homework or studying is not valuable, which can lead to a negative impact or a deduction in their academic performance. As a matter of fact, “College students are one of the groups most likely to suffer from loneliness” (Peplau).
According to UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN in the article titled Loneliness, “Lonely students may become highly critical of themselves, overly sensitive or self-pitying, or they may become critical of others, blaming others for their situations, doing things, which perpetuate their loneliness. Some students, for example, become discouraged, lose their sense of desire and motivation to get involved in new situations, and isolate themselves from people and activities.”
Depression, which can directly have a negative relation with students' academic performance and dropout rates, is negatively affecting many college students. According to a study titled “Loneliness and Depression Levels of Students Usıng a University Counseling Center” by Esra Ceyhan and A. Aycut, Ceyhan. They tried to investigate the level of depression among college students. Among the depressed students, 65% of them were females, and 25% of them were males. Among the female students, 39% of them were freshman, 26% were sophomore, 20% were junior, and 15% were senior, and among the male students, 49% of them were freshman, 18% were sophomore, 19% were junior, and 14% were senior. This idea can make us realize that even though male and female college students or freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior college students are depressed, it is clear that female or freshman students have a higher percentage of being depressed; as a result, we may infer that this study seems to imply that female or freshman college students are more likely to be depressed as Nick Collins, Science Correspondent, shows in his article titled Women More Than Twice As Likely to Be Depressed in The Telegraph. Not only do many college students experience depression, which the NIH describes in the article titled Depression and College Students as "a common but serious mental illness typically marked by sad or anxious feelings" and "The Anxiety and Depression Association of America defines as a condition in which a person feels discouraged, sad, hopeless, unmotivated or disinterested in life in general" according to Rana Moustafa, but college students who experience depression encounter troubles. “According to the 2009 American College Health Association Survey, nearly 30 percent of college students reported feeling 'so depressed that it was difficult to function' ” (National Institute of Mental of Health). In addition to that, “Scientists have learned,” according to Lisa Watson, “that depression directly relates to lower grades and higher dropout rates.”
According to Joe Smydon, “Depression, relationship issues, colds, flu, and concern for troubled friends or family members are top-cited reasons for academic difficulties according to the college health association's National College Health Assessment’s report.”
According to the article titled Depression Weighs Heavily on College Students by Rana Moustafa and Linh Ta, “Eight percent of the 930 UI students who took the survey reported that factors such as anxiety, depression, and stress impeded their academic performance within the past year. The rate was 11 percent for the 561 UNI students who took the survey."
"Eight percent of the 878 ISU students who took the survey in 2012 said they had been diagnosed or treated for depression within the past year. Three of every 10 undergraduate and graduate students among the 1,788 seeking help from the UI Student Counseling Services during the 2012-2013 school year were diagnosed with depression, according to Paula Keeton, assistant clinical director of the UI’s Student Counseling Services,” according to Rana and Linh.
What are some other possible problems that students who experience depression may face? “According to the DSM-IV, a manual used to diagnose mental disorders, depression occurs when you have at least five of the following symptoms at the same time: a depressed mood during most of the day, particularly in the morning, fatigue or loss of energy almost every day, feelings of worthlessness or guilt almost every day, impaired concentration, indecisiveness, insomnia (an inability to sleep) or hypersomnia (excessive sleeping) almost every day, markedly diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities nearly every day, recurring thoughts of death or suicide (not just fearing death), a sense of restlessness or being slowed down, or significant weight loss or weight gain,”( Goldberg in WebMD Medical Reference in What Is Depression?). Dr. Joseph Goldberg goes on to indicate in WebMD in the article titled What Is Depression that the National Institute of Mental Health showed that depression can cause us to have eating troubles or have trouble focusing; it can cause us to be tired and have low self-esteem and can make things, such as "sex" , to be unpleasant to us. “It can cause us to have persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment or persistent sad, anxious, or ‘empty’ feelings and can cause us to have thoughts of suicide or to commit suicide attempts” ( Goldberg in WebMD Medical Reference in What Is Depression?).
According to the article titled Depression Weighs Heavily on College Students by Rana Moustafa and Linh Ta, “College students with depression often run into more difficulties than the typical student. Sometimes their disease is invisible because many don’t feel comfortable informing their instructors or friends about their condition, and their symptoms often are misread as poor classroom or social performance. Depression is a biological disease just like high blood pressure, Weckmann said, but it can trigger precipitating life events in one’s life related to work, classes and sports as well as alcohol use.”
Learning disabilities cause students troubles. According to Neil Sturomski, “Students with learning disabilities often find learning a difficult and painful process. The presence of their learning disability can make learning to read, write, and do math especially challenging” (nichcy & news digest). In addition to that, they often experience damage in process related to language, phonological, or visual spatial processing, processing speed, memory, attention, or planning or decision making (Walcot-Gayda). “Learning disabilities range in severity and may affect any or several areas of life; they are life long, neurobiological, genetic in origin, or distinct from global intellectual deficiency and result from impairments in one or more processes related to perceiving, thinking, or remembering or learning” (Walcot-Gayda). Those students frequently experience problems during their time in college (Norlander, Shaw, McGuire, Bloomer, & Czajkowski, 1986 in). They often have social difficulties or troubles working together with their instructors when it comes to demanding or asking them for assistance, and obviously, they have trouble being autonomous (ldonline.org-ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children (1997)). In addition to that, they “are more likely than normally achieving peers to fail in school and develop a negative self-image, which, in turn, leads to school dropout and involvement in delinquent activity according to the school failure hypothesis” (Hawkins & Lishner, 1987 in Gale M. Morrison and Merith A. Cosden (1997).
According to Sheryl M. Handler, M.D. in the article titled What Parents Need to Know About Dyslexia (Reading Disability) in American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, “Dyslexia is one type of learning disability. Dyslexia is often an unexpected reading difficulty in a child or adult who otherwise has adequate intelligence, motivation, and schooling or a cluster of difficulties with language skills resulting in problems with decoding, word recognition, reading fluency, pronouncing words, spelling and writing or problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Reading difficulties are the most common cause of underachievement and academic failure.”
Data from: Jason Kane. "Five Misconceptions About Learning Disabilities," PS News Hours. March 16, 2012. November 11. 2012.
Percentage Of US Students identified as having a learning disability
Percentage Of US Students identified as having a learning disability who will drop out
“The school drop-out rate of dyslexics can be a high as 35%, twice as the national average school drop-out rate of many countries;4,5,13 in the United States, 27% of the high school drop-outs have learning disabilities.14 It has been estimated that barely 2% of dyslexics enrolled in undergraduate programmes in the USA complete the requisite 4 years of study,” according to the article titled Dyslexia, Its impact on the Individual, Parents and Society by Lamk Al-Lamkim in NCBI.
Source: Data from Lynn O'Shaughnessy from the federal education database, IPEDS , 25 Universities With the Worst Graduation Rates, February 2, 2011 & Top 25 Sta
25 State Universities With the Worst Graduation Rates
25 Public Universities with Best Four-Year Grad Rates
1.Great Basin College, NV 0%, 2.Institute of Amer. Indian & Alaska Native Culture, NM 0%,3.Oklahoma State University Inst. of Technology, Okmulgee 0%, 4.San Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 0%, 5.Texas A&M University, Commerce 0%
According to Lynn O'Shaughnessy, “Private colleges and universities have better, but not great four-year grad rates. Nearly 48% of students graduate in four years from private schools. The vast majority of students in this country, however, attend public institutions where the average four-year grad is a measly 27% according to federal statistics.”
1.United States Naval Academy 86%, 2.University of Virginia 85%,3.College of William and Mary 82%,4.United Air Force Academy 79%, 5.United State Military Academy 76%
6.Texas A&M International University, Laredo 0%, 7.Alabama State University, Montgomery 0%, 8.Macon State College, Macon, GA 0%,9.Dalton State College, Dover, DE 0%,10.Delaware State College, Dover 0%,
6.United State Coast Guard Academy 75%, 7.University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 73%, 8.University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 70%, 9.University of Mary Washington 70%,10.James Madison University 68%
11.Harris-Stowe State University, St. Louis 0%, 12.Southern University at New Orleans 0%,13.Louisiana State University, Shreveport 0%, 14.Haskell Indian Nations University, Lawrence, KS 1%, 15.Oglala Lakota College, Kyle, SD 2%
11.Miami University (OH) 68%, 12.The College of New Jersey 68%, 13.St. Mary's College of Maryland 67%, 14.University of Delaware 67%, 15.UCLA 65%
16.University of Houston-Downtown, TX 2%, 17.Purdue University-North Central Campus, Westville, IN 3%,18.Nevada State College, Henderson 3%,19.Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago 3%,20.University of the District of Columbia 3%
16.University of California, Berkeley 64%, 17.University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 64%, 18.SUNY at Binghamton, NY 64%, 19.United State Merchant Marines 64%,20.University of Maryland-College Park 63%
21.Chicago State University, IL 3%, 22.University of Texas at Brownsville 3%, 23.West Virginia University, Parkersburg 3%, 24.University of Texas at El Paso 4%,25.Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 4%
21.University of California, Irvine 60%, Penn State University-Main Campus 60%,23.Citadel Military College of South Carolina 59%,24.Virginia Military Institute 59%, 25.SUNY at Geneseo, NY 58%
Also, students fail because some teachers are unable to assume some responsibilities or are not good. A teacher has the responsibility "to be ready to adjust teaching styles to meet individual needs or to understand the weaknesses of students,” according to Loveleena Rajeev in her article titled “Responsibilities of a Teacher.” Also, “A teacher must speak clearly enough” (Mollman). Nevertheless, if a teacher is unable to assume these responsibilities or is not good, that can cause students to fail. According to a research by Kanere in the article titled “What is at the Root of Poor Primary School Performance?”, which was conducted by Kakuma News reflector – A Refugee Free Press, “In 2008, 1215 students sat for KCPE exams from all schools in the camp.” More than sixty percent of these students failed the test; when they asked why these students fail, some students reported that they fail because some of their teachers or their instrustors are not that much good. They have a certain inability to talk well, which makes it difficult for them to comprehend the materials (Kanere). Also, one parent reported that it is because that some teachers cannot independently help their students, or it is hard for them to exclusively or uniquely determine the “weaknesses” of "their students" (Kanere). Not only does teachers are not good cause students to fail, but another issue is that it is also an uppermost characteristic that causes students trouble. According to Demolistic, “teachers” are not good is one of “the top reasons of students’ ” failure.
Some teachers do not use the required text book for class. Kavanaugh says. "‘A lot of times we don’t actually even use the book, so I usually wait after the first week of class to buy anything to see if we’ll actually need it’,” as stated in the article titled Students Break the Bank to Buy Their Books by Oona Goodin-Smith, Oakland University and Daniel Rader, Ohio University.
According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, “Students who have a good understanding of the content being taught are generally more motivated and have a more positive attitude and thus have a greater chance of doing well in their schoolwork. Students know it is their responsibility to do well, but many students need extra support from their college and instructors to keep them interested and on track.”
Source: Data from Lynn O'Shaughnessy, “25 colleges with the worst professors”in CBS news.com. December 1, 2010. December 30. 2010. List came from RateMyprofesso
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy NY----U.S. Coast Guard Academy, CT
St. Cloud State University, MN
Seton Hall University, NJ---Seton Hall University, NJ
Tuskegee University, AL---Michigan Technological University
St. Cloud State University, MN
Seton Hall University, NJ---Drexel University, PA
New Jersey Institute of Technology---Milwaukee School of Engineering, WI
Minnesota State University, Mankato
University of Toledo, OH---Howard University, Wash. DC
Bryant University, RI---Bentley University, MA
Western Michigan University
St. John Fisher College, NY---University of North Dakota
Widener University, PA---Worcester Polytechnic Institute MA
Worcester Polytechnic Institute MA
Truman State University, MO---Mount Union College, OH
What do students think about their instructors? According to Jason Kane, in the My Voice Student Aspirations Survey that was released by Pearson, 40 % to 25 % of students report that the instructors seem not to have an impact when the students ask questions. 33 % of students say that their instructors or their teachers do not anticipate them to be successful. 30% say that their instructors do not think that they can be successful. 36 percent of students think that learning is not fun, and they realized that their teachers do not do a good job. They go on to report that 28 percent of teachers present their lessons in only one style. They do not have a variety of techniques to make the students understand the materials or to present the materials in class. 44 percent do not feel relaxed to ask question in class. 61 percent of students report that they do not respect their professors, and 46 percent report that their teachers do not respect them in return. 50 percent of students surveyed felt their teachers didn’t measure up in the Not-So Positive category. 55 percent of students say that their instructors do not care if they attend class or not. 51 percent report that their teachers do not care about the problems in class. 72 percent of students think that their instructors do not have fun in school. 44% report that the teachers do not like to interact with their students. In addition to all those statistics listed above, 69 percent of students report that their instructors do not make school an interesting place to be.
Source: Data from Jill Hare, “Survey Reveals What Students Really Think of Teachers,” in Teaching.monster.com “ND”. October 07, 2013.
Students who report that the instructors seem not to have an impact when the students ask questions
Students who say that their instructors or their teachers do not anticipate them to be successful
Students who say that their instructors do not think that they can be successful
Students who think that learning is not fun their teachers do not do a good job
Teachers who present their lessons in only one style
Sudents who report that their teachers do not respect them in return
Students who felt their teachers didn’t measure up in the Not-So Positive category
Students who say that their instructors do not care if they attend class or not
Students that their teachers do not care about the problems in class
Students who think that their instructors do not have fun in school
Students who report that the teachers do not like to interact with their students
Students who report that their instructors do not make school an interesting place to be
40 % to 25 %
Philip Zimbardo ：The demise of guys (2011) (Youtube) By TED
According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, “Many of the faculty respondents (28) blamed either the instructors or the teaching style for student failure. They thought that some faculty members do not put enough effort into engaging the underprepared students in the subject or only help those students who ask for help."
Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission also menions that "one faculty member was quite passionate about this failure: Faculty members have to take the students from where they are to where they ought to be—not from where they think they should be to start, but from where they are. Many students are behind through no fault of their own—the faculty members have to build up student confidence, not tear down student confidence.”
Students experience problems because they do not manage their time properly. According to a study titled A Study of Time Management: The Correlation between Video Game Usage and Academic Performance Markers by Anand, Vivek, they try to find out how time management is correlated with students’ academic performance by using students’ GPA and the number of hours that they spend playing video game. What they find is that students who do not play video game at all have a 3.25 GPA, but those who spend an hour have a GPA that was less than 3.25 but higher than 3.2. Those who spend two hours playing video game have an approximate GPA of 3.2, but those who spend three hours playing video game have an approximate GPA between 3.17 to 3.18. Students who spend four hours playing video game have a GPA of 3.1. There is an approximate GPA of 3.09 for those who spend five hours playing video game, but those who spend six hours playing video game have an approximate GPA between 3.07 to 3.08. Students who spend seven hours playing video game have a 3.0 GPA. Those who spend 8 hours have a GPA of 2.9, but an approximate GPA of 2.7 to 2.8 is for those who spend 9 hours and etc.…This idea can make us realize that students who spend more hours playing video game have lesser GPA than students who spend less time playing video game, or those who spend less time playing video game have better GPA than those who spend more time playing ; as a result, we can make an inference that video game usage has a negative relation with students’ academic performance, or we can infer as the author of this study stated that “as video game usage increases, GPA decrease”( Anand). In addition to that, Bruce K. Britton and Abraham Tesser shows that “the relationship between time management and grade point average is that students who happen to do well in school somehow come to develop planning skills and positive attitudes toward time”(409). But those who do not do well come to develop the contrary (Britton & Tesser). Not only that, poor time management can also cause other problems. According to Therese Hoff Macan, Comila Shahani, Robert L. Dipboye, Amanda Peek Phillips in their article titled College Students’ Time Management: Correlations With Academic Performance and Stress, “Poor time management behaviors, such as not allocating time properly or last-minute cramming for exams, have been frequently discussed as a source of stress or poor academic performance.”(1&2). Also, JUSTIN KASTORY shows in his article titled The SOLUTIONS TO ACADEMIC PROBLEMS IN COLLEGE that “poor time management skills is one of the problems that cause students to fail test or quiz, fail to complete assignment, skip classes, resort to drugs or alcohol, and consider dropping out of school” (1 & 2).
According to the article titled Why Poor Time Management Could Be a Huge Enemy in a College Relationship by Examiner, “The stress of having to balance so many issues, classes, projects, and etc., causes a student to be irritated and frazzled, possibly even burnt out. If that student is in a relationship, this sour attitude caused by poor time management skills can put a serious strain on the relationship… Poor time management can make a student irritable.” College students have trouble managing their time because they have to “balance” too many things at the same time (Examiner in Why Poor Time Management Could Be a Huge Enemy in a College Relationship).
“According to Richard Hanzelka, former president of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Time-management pressures affect up to 33 percent of students, according to the American College Health Association,” as stated in the article titled What Percentage of College Students Fail Their First Semester by Amy Sterling Casil.
Romantic relation causes students academic troubles. According to a study that was conducted by Muhammad Luqman at the department of psychology at Bahauddin Zakriya University Multan, they tried to find out if romantic relation was correlated with students’ academic performance or if students who were not in a relationship have better GPA than those who were in a committed relationship. In order to do that, they interviewed many high school and college students. The total of students participated in this study was 200 students. 98 students were women, and 101 were men. One of the students had an unknown gender. Some of the students were single, but some weren’t or were in a committed relationship. “All subjects were treated according to the Ethical Principals of the American Psychological Association. Academic performance is measure by just asking a question what was your CGPA in last exam. Intensity of the relationships was assessed via the \’The Relationship Involvement Scale\’ [c] 2004 by Mark Whatley, Ph.D”( Luqman). After they asked the students question, they analyzed their responses. What they found was that the single students had a mean number of GPA of 3.29 and a standard deviation of 0.570. 103 students were single, but 97 students were in committed relationship. There was a mean number of GPA of 2.78 or a standard deviation of 0.480 for the students who were in a committed relation. Based on the data that they found, they realized that “there is a significant difference between the mean grade point of single students and committed students. So they realized that their hypothesis is true, and they can say persons having romantic relationship could not perform academically in undergraduate and school course work. As degree of relationship increase, mean grade point decrease. ” ( Luqman). In addition to that, “Being in an abusive committed relationship can negatively impact a person’s academic performance,” according to Tania Jimenez and Ashley Tatem in their article titled The Relationship between being in a Committed Relationship and Academic Performance in College Females (2)."Having problems with boyfriends or girlfriends have shown to also have a negative effect on academic performance (Hatcher & Prus, 1991)" (Womble) (5).
According to Hana M. Vujeva, M.A. and Wyndol Furman, Ph.D. in the article titled Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences in the National Institute of Health Public Access Policy , “Most theorized mechanisms have assumed a temporal ordering that implicates romantic experiences, including either degree of romantic involvement or qualitative features of romantic relationships, as a cause of depression (Davila, 2008)."
Hana M. Vujeva and Dr. Wyndol Furman mention that "the challenging nature of romantic relationships puts youth at risk for depression (Davila, Stroud, & Starr, 2009), or that time spent in romantic relationships detracts from the development of other important areas of functioning, resulting an increased risk (Joyner & Udry, 2000).” Hana M. Vujeva and Dr. Wyndol Furman goes on to show that romantic relation can have a relation with many symptoms, which can negatively impact or change relationship qualities.
According to the article titled Congratulations! Science Confirms That Post-Breakup Revenge Sex Is a Real Phenomenon, Victims of Breakups Are Also More Likely To Rebound, “The victim of a breakup also has a higher chance of rebound sex. ‘Those who were dumped by their partners were more distressed… and more likely to have sex to cope and to get back at or get over their ex-partner,’ according to a report by University of Missouri researcher Lynne Cooper.”
Kyle Chayka goes on to show, ‘”Having sex to cope with distress and to get over or get back at the ex-partner were elevated immediately following the breakup and then declined over time, as did the probability of having sex with a new partner,’ the report explains. In other words, rebound sex is a time-sensitive issue—the chance is high that you’ll get some right after the end of a relationship, but after that you’re increasingly less likely to be sleeping with someone different as you move on.”
Pregnancy causes many students to drop out. According to a study by Russell W. Rumberger, which was conducted by the University of California, Santa Barbara, they interviewed some students in order to find out why they dropped out in school. “About 17% of dropouts reported that they left school because they were pregnant.” Among women who said that they dropped out due to pregnancy, 20% of them were white, 59% were black, and 21% were Hispanic (109). This idea can make us realize that many students dropped out due to pregnancy. Even though white, black, or Hispanic women left school because of pregnancy, it is clear that black women had higher percentage of dropping out; consequently, we may infer that this study seems to imply that black women are more likely to drop out of school due to pregnancy than white or Hispanic women as Karabo Mhele shows in the article titled Timing of First Birth And Its Impact on School Attainment Among Black Women in South Africa that "evidence from different studies indicates that childbearing is relatively higher among black and lowest among Whites and Indians (Zibandaand Zuberi, 2005). For example, the drop out rate observed among the black population due to childbearing was 71 in 2001, far above the rate of 14 observed among the whites population (Moultrie and McGrath, 2007)" (3). Not only do some students or the studies above show that students dropped out of school due to pregnancy, but the study titled The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy also shows that by stating that “pregnancies increase the risk of dropping out or stopping out of college.”
According to Jessica Pieklo in the article titled Pregnant Students Left Behind As School Starts ,“A report finds that schools still bar pregnant students from activities, kick them out of school, push them into alternative programs and penalize them for pregnancy-related absences, all of which violate Title IX—the federal law that prohibits sex discrimination in education—and increase the risk that they will drop out of school."
"Recently, we were outraged over a Louisiana school’s policy of forcing students suspected of being pregnant to take a pregnancy test or get kicked out of school should they either refuse or are pregnant,” according to Jessica.
Large classes cause troubles in school. According to Jason Caravaggio in the article titled Effects of Overcrowded Classrooms, “Large class sizes mean that less focus can be given to those students who truly need help. Teachers often don’t have time to accommodate for special needs students that are struggling to keep up with the curriculum. Large class size is that having more students increases the likelihood of distractions. Students begin to raise their voices in order to be heard over one another, and this can cause teachers to feel extremely frustrated. Eventually, they may find themselves putting more of a focus into lowering classroom noise than into teaching.” Peter Blizard shows in the article titled Causes Student Failure — Why Do Students Fail University Courses that students face trouble at university courses for many reasons. Among those reasons, he shows that “It has been argued that the ‘disstance’ between lecturer and student at the university acts against the interests of ‘education’, in the widest sense in which that term is used. Large classes are often mentioned as ‘evidence’ for such an assertion. There is probably much truth in such a view” (Blizard). He goes on to implies that large classes seem to be a factor that causes students to fail university courses.
According to the article titled The Benefits of Smaller Classes by by Leonie Haimson, Executive Director, “The Institute of Education Sciences, the research arm of the US Department of Education, concludes that class size reduction is one of only four, evidence-based reforms that have been proven to increase student achievement through rigorous, randomized experiments – the ‘gold standard’ of research."
According to Leonie Haimson, "Studies from Tennessee, Wisconsin, and elsewhere demonstrate that students who are assigned to smaller classes do better in every way that can be measured: they score higher on tests, receive better grades, and exhibit improved attendance. Alan Krueger of Princeton has estimated that reducing class size shrinks the achievement gap by about 38%.3.”
School suspension, which Ohio legal services describes in the article titled Students & Schools : School Discipline - Suspension and Expulsion as “the temporary removal of a child from school for a violation of school policies or rules", has relation with many elements and causes students trouble. According to Science Leadership Academy in the study of Suspensions vs. Graduation rates, they tried to find out the relationship between school suspensions and graduation rates. What they found was that schools where they are 400 numbers of suspensions have a graduation rate of o percent. Those where they are 300 number of suspensions have a graduation rate of 20 percent, but schools where there are 200 number of suspensions have an approximate graduation rate of 55 percent to 58 percent. There is a graduation rate of 80 percent for those who have a number of suspensions of 100 and etc…This idea can make us realize that as the number of suspensions goes up, graduation rate goes down, or as the number of graduation rate goes up, suspensions go down. In addition to this correlation, “Researcher Robert Balfanz found that students who were suspended once dropped out of school twice as often as their peers who were not suspended,” according to the article titled The Link between Suspension and Dropout in edutopia. “They drop out because they have been suspended and have fallen behind in their work and see little purpose of returning to school” (Schargel).
Even if college students do their homework or overcome loneliness or are single or not pregnant or teachers assume responsibilities and are good, other issues may arise. Choosing inappropriate or wrong major also causes many college students to fail or drop out. More than 8 out of 10 students are confused about what they want to study or choosing a “major” in “college” (Purdue University). “It is little wondered that 50 percent of those who do declare a major change majors during their college years, according to Grupe” (Ronan). These evidences seem to verify that confusion about choosing a major or changing major is an issue that occurs or exists among many college students during their time in college. Nonetheless, confusion about choosing a major or changing major among many college students, which can cause them trouble, can take place when they do not make a good academic choice. According to Barbara Cooke, “Students who choose the ‘wrong’ major often confuse choosing a major with choosing a first career.” In addition to that, they realize that the subject that they try to “major” in at first doesn’t match them, which causes them to change it (Setterfield). Additionally, not only do some college students who choose inappropriate major face the problems that are listed above, but college students who choose inappropriate or wrong major also face other troubles because of that. According to the University of Alabama Center for Academic Success, Dr. Robert Pitcher shows that “inappropriate choice of a major”is one of the reasons of "college" students’ “failure”. Also, it leads to “dropout” (Go College).
“’If I change my major two or three times, it's going to take longer to get my degree,’ said Kappler, citing studies by ACT researchers. ‘A significant number don't complete, for a variety of reasons.’ College consultant Lynn O'Shaughnessy said she frequently hears from families who are dead set on a college major that doesn't match the student's interests or abilities," according to Liz Weston Reuters in the article titled Picking the Wrong College Major Can Be an Expensive Error in NBC News.
"One student, for example, planned to major in engineering even though he wasn't great at math. Another was told by her parents that her education would be paid for only if she majored in accounting. She did, O'Shaughnessy said, and she's employed - but she's miserable,” according to Liz Weston Reuters in the article titled Picking the Wrong College Major Can Be an Expensive Error in NBC News.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) causes students troubles. According to Webmaster in SAC in the article titled The College Student with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), college students with ADHD may experience these following problems: “disinhibition, impaired attention and effort, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, mood swings, low tolerance for frustration, and difficulty falling asleep at night. They may daydream, have difficulty completing tasks or self-regulating behaviors, and others may be disorganized and forgetful, and may find it difficult to concentrate on reading. They may be tardy to class and easily become bored. They have depression-like tendencies. They may be quiet and have a shy personality/behavior. They have difficulty following directions and completing tasks or projects after starting them and have extreme untidiness or neatness.” In addition to that, Doris M. Iarovici, MD, in Medscape Multispecialty shows in the article titled Adolescent ADHD that Advokat CD, Guidry D, Martino L in the article titled Licit and Illicit Use of Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Undergraduate College Students in Journal of the American College of Health and Wilens TE, Adler LA, Adams J, et al in the article titled Misuse and Diversion of Stimulants Prescribed for ADHD: A Systematic Review of the Literature in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry shows that students with attention ADD often have lower grade than those who do not have one as Scheffler RM, Brown TT, Fulton BD, Hinshaw SP, Levine P, and Stone Show in their article titled Positive association between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use and Academic Achievement during Elementary School in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health in Pub Met.gov. Not only do students with ADHP experience the problems that have been stated above, but they also expose to another problem. According to Sandra L. Campbell who is a writer, actor, and corporate language trainer, who writes A Practical Guide to Learning American English in 2010 and screenplays, articles, and poetry and has performed in film and theater productions, and who has taught ESL courses for adults and children and was honored with language trainer of the year in 2006 in the article titled ADHD & Failing in School, “ADHD has relation with failing grades.”
Students who do not eat well face troubles. According to August McLaughlin, a certified nutritionist and health writer with more than 10 years of professional experience, Demand Media, bad eating habits cause poor brain function or poor memory, insulin resistance and weight gain, poor exercise capabilities, mood problems, poor sleep, and indigestion and heartburn . After all, they negatively affect students’ health, cause them distractions in class, and may even consume some of their instructors time (Mubarak). Also, college students do not eat well and often experience other nagging problems. Erika Wilhite argues in the article titled College Students Eating Habits that “A student with bad eating habits has trouble focusing in class, has a harder time studying, and performs poorly” in school. Additionally, college students have been found to have bad eating habits in a recent study by Agencia De Noticiasum that was conducted by the universidad Nacional De Colombia; “79 percent of those surveyed say they only eat snack type foods without any cereals, fruits, or natural fruit juice,” said Henao. “For lunch, majority of them eat a plateful dinner type meals” (Palmira).
"Studies have linked food insecurity to depression and poor academic performance," according to the article titled New Worry for College Students: Food Insecurity, It's Not Just The Freshman 15: College Students' Eating Issues Also Include Malnutrition by Alexandra Sifferlin. “The research, published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior found that 59% of college students at a university in Oregon were classified as food insecure at some point during the last school year. That means they were not able to eat nutritious, safe foods consistently"(Sifferlin).
According to Sifferlin, "A 2012 USDA study found that about 14.5% of American households were food insecure at some point during 2012, so the rate among the college students was nearly four times higher.”
Why students do not eat well? According to the article titled Why Some College Students May Not Be Getting Enough to Eat by Alexandra Sifferlin, college students do not eat well because “the rising cost of tuition at many schools and the high cost of living expenses certainly put a burden on students’ finances. Even with one or more jobs, these demands may mean that students put a low priority on healthy foods. They may also be inexperienced at budgeting for their basic needs.” In addition to that, most of them do not receive food stamp, which makes them linger at a comparative disadvantage (Sifferlin). Many of them are immigrant students or come from low-income families, so they experience trouble buying healthy foods due to financial problems (Sifferlin).
“Having fair to poor health, a lower grade point average, and low income were among the factors associated with food concerns among the college students. Having a job did not eliminate the risk. Students who reported food concerns worked an average of 18 hours a week -- some worked as many as 42 hours a week -- but their financial demands more than consumed that income,” according to the article titled Many College Students Fear Going Hungry at Some Point: Survey by Robert Preidt.
Many college students also face trouble or fail or drop out because they procrastinate. According to a study by Virginia Commonwealth University that was conducted by Neal Thakkar, “80 to 95% of college students have admitted to procrastinating (Ellis and Knaus, 1977) while 50% of college students chronically procrastinate (Day et al. 2000)” (Thakkar). This seems to verify that procrastination is a characteristic that exists among most college students. Nevertheless, procrastination among students can take place due to many factors or can negatively impact them , or students who extreme procrastination exists among them can have lower GPA than those who moderate or slight procrastination occurs among them. As the University of Cambridge shows, “Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task which needs to be done - postponing until tomorrow what can be done today. Procrastination not only affects a student's work, but also commonly involves feelings such as guilt, inadequacy, self-disgust, stress and depression” (University counseling service & students & staffs counselling by University of Cambridge). Bruce shows in his study that students who are extremely procrastinating have a “2.9” GPA but a “3.6” or “3.4” GPA for those who are moderately or slightly procrastinating (Dutt). In addition to that, when asking students how “procrastination” negatively affects their joy, “46% said ‘quite a bit’ or ‘very much,’ 18% reported an ‘extreme negative effect',” according to a Procrastination Research Group at Carleton University in Canada (Letham). These ideas can make us realize that even though both moderate and extreme procrastinators have good grades or GPA, it is evident that extreme procrastinators have lower GPA than moderate or slight procrastinators, and many students reported that procrastination does quitely or very much or extremely affects their happiness; as a result, we may infer that procrastination does have negative consequences in students’ happiness, or students who are extremely procrastinating have lesser GPA than those who are moderately or slightly procrastinating. Not only can extreme procrastination cause students to have lesser GPA, but procrastination can also cause students other problems. In the article titled “The Top Five Reasons Why Students Fail to Succeed in School”, Jen Thames argues that procrastination is a reason of students’ failure (2). In addition to that, “it is one of the problems that cause students to fail to complete assignment, skip classes, resort to drugs or alcohol, and consider dropping out of school” (KASTORY ) (1 & 2).
According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, “Several faculty members mentioned procrastination as a problem, ‘waiting until the one before the last to give ‘the best shot,’ forgetting grades are accumulative.’ Students start asking for extra-credit assignments, what they can do to make up what they missed, and so on. In short, most respondents mentioned three major problems under this category: overcommitment (jobs, family, and school), unrealistic expectations about the time necessary to do well in college, and the inability to organize their time effectively. Once they get behind, they can no longer catch up.”
Why do students procrastinate? According to the article titled Time Management for College Students by VGCC, “Students can procrastinate because they are overwhelmed by too many things to do, and they know that they cannot get them all done. They do not think that they have the skills or knowledge to handle the task or are not clear about what is expected. The task seems irrelevant or has no meaning to them. They are not interested in the task. They are afraid of getting a low grade or of failing or give themselves unreachable goals or are perfectionists. They are not clear about what is expected or have problems outside of school that they are having trouble dealing with”(2&3). The VGCC goes on to indicate in the article titled Time Management for College Students that in addition to these reasons listed above, students can procrastinate due to many other elements(2&3).
According to Dr. Maryellen Weimer ,“A wide array of studies link procrastination to a lack of motivation, deficiencies in self-regulation, external locus of control, perfectionism, trait and state anxiety, fear of failure, low self-efficacy, and low self-confidence.“ Students who have less interest in the assignment, who possess less skill variety, who are less clarified about the instructions, and who know less about how to “break large assignments down into interdependent parts and require completion of those parts” are more likely to procrastinate or to not do their homework earlier; “students in this study, which was conducted by many faculty researchers, get started earlier when there were rewards and incentives for doing so, and these can include points, or simply encouraging written comments on work in progress”(Weimer). In addition to that, Dr. Maryellen Weimer goes on to show in that same article titled Why Students Procrastinate and What You Can Do About It, “If the teacher and other students set the norm for promptness and timely completion, those likely to procrastinate were less likely to do so. If norms that validate procrastination were established, they influenced even those not prone to.”
Source: Data From Caitlin Lenker and Dan McAndrew in The MinstrelThe Procrastination Epidemic: An Investigative Report, “ND”. Oct. 7, 2013.
students who said that procrastination is a problem for a majority of college students in a recent survey of 101 DeSales.
students who believe procrastination is a problem for students at DSU among those that said procrastination is a problem for a majority of college students in a recent survey of 101 DeSales.
Students who said that they feel a mix of liking procrastination because it gives them a rush and disliking it because it makes them feel stressed
Students at the DSU surveyed who admit that they procrastinate because they’ve done it so long that it’s become second nature to them.
Students who procrastinate more for papers than for other assignments
Students that say they procrastinate more for gen-ed classes than other classes
Laziness is negatively affecting college students or causes them to fail or drop out. Laziness is not something that an individual is and inherently or naturally born with, but it is a choice; it can be “temporary” and “permanent” (MotivotionalWellBeing). It can “prompt students to cheat” or may cause them to plagiarize (Arsht, McGoldrick, Sims, & Williams). Also, it makes it hard for students to discover an appropriate “study place” to “study”, so they prefer to study somewhere that causes them a lot of “distractions” or trouble (Panasci). Lazy students often underestimate the importance of studying, which causes them not to do it (MotivotionalWellBeing). They have a certain dissatisfaction to do their “homework” or their assignment (parenting-train-discipline-love-child). They may come to class unprepared the day of a test and try to beg their instructors by saying that “there is no test today” (Sabir). They often drop out (Wistrom). Also, college students are lazy and often experience troublesome problems. A student who is lazy is inactive, and that inaction is caused by “lack of goal and purposes” and may cause “failure” (MotivotionalWellBeing). And "failure" occurs when students are lazy (Buskis & Howard). As a matter of fact, “Data suggests that college students are lazy” (Panasci).
Also, using social networks or social media causes many college students to fail. According to a survey that was conducted by Whitmore School of Business and Economics and by the University of New Hampshire, they interviewed 1,127 college students. Among these students, “96%” of them use “Facebook”, 8.4 out of 10 use “YouTube”, “20 %” use “blog”, 1.4 out of 10 of them use “Twitter”, “12 %” use “MySpace”, and 1 out of 10 of them use “LinkedIn”. Also, “81%” of college students “use social sites” (oclc.org). These statistics seem to verify that many college students often use social networks or social media, or most of them use social sites. However, it is evident that college students who use social media heavily have lower maximum grade than those who use them lightly. According to the Research Team of the University of New Hampshire that was conducted the study of social networking and grades, college students who use socials media lightly have a maximum grade of “65” percent , but those who heavily use it have a maximum grade of “63” percent. Not only can heavy use of social media cause students to have lower grades, but using social media or social networks can also cause students another trouble. According to Joel Postman, using "social" media or “social network causes students to fail.”
Additionally, according to Carole Murphy in the article titled Use of social Media Sites Linked to Lower GPA in Statepress, “Study at Ohio State University in which they surveyed 219 students at Ohio State University, including 102 undergraduate students and 117 graduate students found that college students who use Facebook get lower grades and spend less time studying."
"The study found that on average, Facebook users had GPAs between 3.0 and 3.5, while non-users had GPAs between 3.5 and 4.0. Non-users also spent an average of 11 to 15 hours studying per week, while those who used Facebook spent one to five hours per week studying.” In addition to that, the use of social media sites has been found to be one of the top elements that distract students in school" (Murphy).
According to Murphy, "Aryn Karpinski, co-author of the study and a doctoral student in education at Ohio State University said that lower GPAs could actually be a result of students spending too much time socializing online."
Students get discouraged in their study or drop out of school because college is a waste of time or because they see that many college graduates cannot find a college level job. According to Nelson David Bassey, one of the co-founders of Leader Tomorrow, a club that aims at nurturing, molding, and equipping young leader to become whole, in his new book titled The New Generation of Leadership that he released in August 22, 2013 with his co-authors Dr. Rajasvaran Logeswaran, an experienced educator and Dean at Nilai University, and Sarah Michel, a certified speaking professional (CSB) and a networking expert who helps people increase their network by investing in their network, in the section titled A Wake up Call for Young People, “While there are millions of graduates leaving colleges and universities with debt every year, major statistics show that more than 53 percent of these graduates are either unemployed or underemployed.” For example, as stated in the article titled Recent college grads face 36% 'mal-employment' rate by Tami Luhby in CNN.com, 27.4 percent of college graduates in the class of 2007 have been mal-employed. In the class of 2008, the mal-employed rate for college graduates goes up by 30.3 percent. It continued to increase from 2009 to 2012. In 2009, the mal-employed rate for college graduates was 31.4 percent and 32.0 percent in 2010. “According to a report on the study, ‘Why Are Recent College Graduates Underemployed? University Enrollments and Labor Market Realities,’ out of 41.7 million working college graduates in 2010, 48 percent—more than 20 million people—held jobs that required less than a bachelor's degree. Thirty-seven percent held jobs that required no more than a high-school diploma,” (Bidwell).Tami Luhby goes on to show that the mal-employed rate for college students was 34.3 percent in 2011 and 37.0 percent in 2012. It slightly decreased in 2013 by 0.3 percent. It was 36.7 percent. “Jacob Mincer of the National Bureau of Economic Research and Columbia University states flatly that of ‘20 to 30 percent of students at any level, the additional schooling has been a waste, at least in terms of earnings.’ College fails to work its income-raising magic for almost a third of those who go,” according to Caroline Bird in the article titled College is a Waste of Time and Money. “Students see college graduates driving cabs; as a result, they decide that college is not worth going and drop out.”
According to Martha C. Whit, “The Real Reason New College Grads Can’t Get Hired is because college kids today can’t do math, one line of reasoning goes. Or they don’t know science. Or they’re clueless about technology, aside from their myriad social-media profiles. These are all good theories, but the problem with the employability of these young adults goes way beyond a lack of STEM skills."
Martha goes on to mention, "As it turns out, they can’t even show up on time in a button-down shirt and organize a team project. The technical term for navigating a workplace effectively might be soft skills, but employers are facing some hard facts: the entry-level candidates who are on tap to join the ranks of full-time work are clueless about the fundamentals of office life.”
Martha C. Whit indicates that "none of the students think they’re entirely prepared for the workforce, but they’re a lot more confident than the managers surveyed. There’s a 22-percentage-point difference between the two groups’ assessment of the students’ financial skills, which Inside Higher Ed calls ‘alarming,’ in an article about the research."
According to the article, "Managers also take a much dimmer view of students’ abilities to communicate with authority figures, prioritize and organize their work, manage projects, work in teams and with diverse groups. It’s just harder to teach these skills, experts say. ‘It is hard to correct a lifetime of bad habits in a short period of time,’ Roderick Nunn, vice chancellor for economic development and workforce solutions at St. Louis Community College, tells the St. Louis Beacon," as Martha points out.
Frustration or fear of failure affects many college students or causes them troubles. “More than 40 percent of students in the Netherlands suffer from extreme frustration or fear of failure,” according to a study by Rob Ramaker, Guy Ackermans, and Pascal Tieman in which they interviewed 5,200 university students (Ressource for Wageningen Students and employee) . This seems to substantiate that many college students are frustrated or often fear to fail. However, college students who experience fear of failure but who are highly competent can have higher chance that their fear of failure may directly lead to autonomy in terms of unstandardized estimate and standardized estimate than low competent college students, or college students who are less competent can have higher risk that their fear of failure, which can occur due to many factors or which can cause them troubles, may directly lead to procrastination in terms of unstandardized of estimate, higher standard error of estimate, and higher standardized estimate than high competent college students. As Maastricht University shows in the article titled fear of failure, “Fear of failure (atychiphobia) is a paralysing feeling which we experience in a situation where performance really counts or when there is great pressure to do well. There are many triggers for this feeling; common are perfectionism (too high expectations from us or our environment), clinging on too long to old habits (which were successful in the past) or simply because we believe that failure was unthinkable (the unexpected and sudden notion paralyzes us).” In addition to that, according to a study that was led by Mohsen Haghbin, Adam McCaffrey, and Timothy A. Pychyl, they interviewed 293 undergraduate students: 219 female and 74 male students or 154 low competent students and 139 high competent students. They tried to determine or measure the direct impacts of fear of failure among college students. In terms of direct effects from fear of failure to autonomy, what they found is that low competent students had an unstandardized estimate of -33 and a standardized estimate of -51, but the high competent students had an unstandardized estimate of -.11 and a standardized estimate of -25. However, in terms of direct effects from fear of failure to procrastination, they found that the low competent students had an unstandardized estimate of .30, a standard error of estimate of .08, and a standardized estimate of 35, but the high competent students had an unstandardized estimate of -17, a standard error of estimate of.06, and a standardized estimate of -24. This study can make us realize that in terms of direct effects from fear of failure to autonomy , high competent college student had higher value of unstandardized estimate and standardized estimate than low competent students, but in terms of direct effects from fear of failure to procrastination, the low competent students had higher value of unstandardized of estimate, higher standard error of estimate, and higher standardized estimate than high competent students ; consequently, we may infer that this study seems to imply that high competent college students who experience fear of failure have lower risk that their fear of failure may directly lead to procrastination in terms of unstandardized estimate, standard error of estimate, and standardized estimate than low competent college students, or college students who fear to fail but are less competent have lower chance that their fear of failure may directly lead to autonomy in terms of unstandardized of estimate and standardized estimate than high competent college students. Not only that, fear of failure can also cause another problem. According to Jen Thames, “fear of failure” causes “students to fail in school”.
Dr. Timothy A. Pychyl shows in psychology today that “Adam was interested in fear of failure - that irrational fear that we will not succeed. Adam collected data from a large sample of undergraduate students. His results are so strong and indicate that scores on the measures of autonomy, competence, relatedness and vitality, were strongly related to lower scores on two different measures of procrastination. And, not surprisingly, higher scores on the fear of failure measure predicted higher scores on procrastination.” In addition to that, a new study published by the American Psychological Association shows that fear of failure can negatively affect students’ memories and can cause them to have trouble learning new materials; as a result, students may not persevere when they face difficult challenges while “difficulty is inherent to most academic tasks” according to Mikaela Conley in the article titled Kids Fail Less When They Know Failure Is Part of Learning, Study Finds in ABC news.
“Fear of failure at school can negatively affect a student's motivation and attitude to learn, according to a study led by the Bilkent University (Turkey). For the study, the researchers asked more than 1,000 students (606 high school student and 435 university students) to complete questionnaires relating to their motivation to learn and strategies employed. The researchers found that those who had developed a fear of failure at an early age were also less likely to use effective learning strategies and more likely to cheat,” as stated in the article titled Fear of Failure Can Affect Student’s Motivation and Attitude to Learn, Study in University Herald, which its finding was published in the British Journal of Educational Psychology, that was done by Dr. Vansteenkiste (Ghent University, Belgium), Dr. Mouratidis (Hacettepe University, Turkey) and Dr. Lens (University of Leuven, Belgium).
As it is also stated in the article, "’These findings suggest two important points for children's optimal learning. First, teachers and parents have to be more sensitive on how they evaluate young children's competence. Very high standards and criticism result in increased levels of fear of failure,' Dr. Michou from Bilkent University said in a press release.’”
"’Second, teachers and parents have to be more sensitive to the rational they provide to children to adopt a goal or engage in an activity. Suggesting children to improve their skills for their own enjoyment and development is much more beneficial than suggesting them to improve their skills in order to prove themselves. Future research would benefit from examining these ideas through longitudinal and experimental studies,’" according to the article.
Frustration among college students, which can cause them difficulties, can be caused by many factors. According to a study that was conducted by Elizabethtown College, they interviewed 2000 college students. They tried to determine why these students were frustrated in the laboratory sessions. What they found was that trouble with “equipment and troubleshooting, difficulties with concepts from theory, confusing documents, lack of support from instructor, difficulty with partner, outside distractions”, and other elements were some characteristics that caused frustration among these students; however, trouble with “equipment and troubleshooting” was the uppermost issue that caused these students to be frustrated in laboratory sessions (Estrada &Atwood). Brandi Myers argues that students can be frustrated due to tardiness or “tardy sweep” (Myers). They can also be frustrated due to their inability to achieve something that they want to accomplish (Juutinen in Saariluoma &Pertti). When the “efforts” that students put out “are producing fewer results” compared to their expectations, students can be frustrated (Scoot H Young). Students who are frustrated are not active (Saariluoma & Pertti). That “frustration can cause them to fail and dislike their studies, and therefore their willingness to learn diminishes” (Juutinen and Saariluoma 2006 in Saariluoma & Pertti). Additionally, many students report that they drop out because of frustration according to Kate Convissor.
“Frustrated students may become irritable and lash out at their parents and teachers, while others will withdraw and make only minimal efforts to fulfill their obligations, explains Joyce Walker of the University of Minnesota Extension. When driven by social rejection or failure, they might change their socialization habits or give up sports or other extracurricular activities. When frustration causes intense stress, they might get sick more often or report stomach aches, headaches or other physical complaints,” according to R.A. Anderson, a self-employed legal writer before becoming a therapist for children and adolescents.
Does test taking strategy or test-wiseness, which "Thorndike (1951) first conceptualized as a variable that can affect test scores or as a general and lasting characteristic of the individual and a prominent source of score variance on cognitive tests second in its influence only to individual cognitive ability as Millman, Bishop, and Ebel ( 1965 , p. 707) defined it as the 'subject's capacity to utilize the characteristics and formats of the test and/or the test taking situation or strategy to receive a high score"(psychology.wikia.com), have a relation with students’ academic performance? What troubles that students who are less strategically prepared or who are not strategically prepared for their test may face? According to a study titled Research-Based Test Preparation Instruction Better Test Scores that was conducted by Perfection Learning corporation, they tried to find out the relationship between test taking strategies and grade. In order to do so, they analyzed Berliner research. In that research, they found that students who got trained for 5 hours about test taking strategies have a percentile points of +10. A percentile points of +14 was for those who got trained for 10 hours. In addition to that, students who spent 20 hours of getting training have a +17 percentile points in their test, but those who spent 30 hours of getting training have a +19 percentile points in their test. This idea can make us realize that Berliner’s study seems to show that students who spend more hours of getting training about test taking strategies have better additional test points than those who spend less hours of getting training, or those who spend less hours have lesser additional test points than those who spend more hours of getting training about test taking strategies. Also, Perfection Learning corporation went on to show that correlation by supporting the 1992 assumption of Scruggs & Mastropieri by stating that “students who are test wise can outperform students of equal ability but lacking test-wiseness’”(1). Not only can students who have less test taking strategies skills or who lack test-wiseness perform less than those who have strong test –wiseness or test taking strategies, but students who lack or have less test taking strategies can face another problem. According to the article titled Why Do Students Fail or Get Less Marks in Exam? – Causes in studyandexam.com , “Students fail or get less marks in exam because they are weak in test taking strategies. “
Psychology.wikia.com goes on to show that "testwiseness arises from the practice effect of taking many tests, and this may confer an advantage over naïve subjects. Sometimes people may organize test coaching in order to gain this advantage." Millman, Bishop, and Ebel ( 1965 , p. 707) show that it is measured by the ability of the person who takes the test, and it is not independent(Psychology.wikia.com)
Many students drop out due to poor academic performance. According to a study by Russell W. Rumberger, which was conducted by the University of California, Santa Barbara, they interviewed some students in order to determine why these students dropped out of school. Among the students who said that they dropped out due to poor academic performance, approximately, 61 % of them were males, and among the male students, 41 % of them were white, 18 % were Hispanic, and 41 % were black, but the remaining students were females. Among the female students, approximately, 36% of them were white, 28 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were black (p.109). This study can make us realize that although both male and female students reported that they dropped out in school because they performed poorly or even though both male and female Hispanic, white, or black students dropped out in school due to poor academic performance, which can be an“unsatisfactory performance, that is, a failure to perform the duties of or to perform them to the standard required, a disruptive or negative behaviour that impacts others, or a non-compliance with policies, rules, or procedures”(Fair Work Ombudsman)(1), it is clear that male students had a higher percentage of dropping out in school due to poor academic performance, or both black and white female or male students had higher percentage of dropping out of school than Hispanic male or female students because they performed poorly ; accordingly, we may infer that this study seems to imply that male students are more likely to drop out of school because they perform poorly as "a 2005 study on gender differences in school performance found that boys who disrupt class and do not feel academically engaged may be more likely to do poorly in school, or boys who disrupt class, are lower achievers, may be more likely to drop out of school." (What Challenges Are Boys Facing, and What Opportunities Exist To Address Those Challenges? in Some Facts About Boys and Education in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,Fact Sheet: Education) , or black or white students are more likely to drop out of school than Hispanic students in terms of gender due to poor academic performance as stated in the article titled 11 Facts About Education and Poverty in America in dosomething,"The nation’s lowest-performing schools students produce 58 percent of all African-American dropouts, as compared with 50 percent of all Hispanic dropouts." Not only do the studies above show that some students dropped out in school due to poor academic performance , but there is another study that shows that too. According to Caralee Adams, “The study, ‘Learning about Academic Ability and the College Drop-Out Decision’, found that 40 % of low-income U.S. college students who left college did so because of poor academic performance.”
According to Blai, Boris, Jr. in the article titled Poor Academic Performance--Why? In ERIC, “In an effort to identify problem areas related to poor academic performance at Harcum Junior College (Pennsylvania), faculties considered the inability to synthesize and apply conceptual principles to be the most prevalent characteristic of the academically poor student. They considered negative attitudes toward the teacher or course content to be the least prevalent characteristic."
"The second part of the survey asked respondents to select from a list of four characteristics the most common cause of poor academic performance: 30.5 percent selected poor study habits; 29.2 percent selected lack of knowledge and skills; 22.2 percent selected lack of motivation; and 18.1 percent selected poor classroom participation,” according to Blai, Boris, Jr. in the article titled Poor Academic Performance--Why? In ERIC.
College students who get addicted to internet or computer face a lot of troubles. According to Prof. Daniel T. L. Shek, Dr. Rachel C. F. Sun, and Dr. Lu Yu in their article titled Internet addiction, which was edited by Donald W. Pfaff, Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, New York, USA, in springerreference, “Research findings have shown that excessive use of Internet or Internet addiction, which is commonly refers to an individual's inability to control his or her use of the internet (including any online-related, compulsive behavior) which eventually causes one's marked distress and functional impairment in daily life, adversely affects one's physical health, family life, and academic performance. Concerning the negative consequences of Internet addiction on one's physical health, persistence of sleep deprivation may harm one's immune system, thus increasing one's vulnerability to assorted diseases.” Internet addiction can negatively affect the way that students study, causing them to be depressed or to not attend class; it can lower their academic performance or cause them to less participate in social events (Daniel T. Shek, Sun, and Lu Yu). “They often suffer from severe psychological distress, such as depression; anxiety; compulsivity; feeling of self-effacement; fear that life without Internet would be boring, empty, and joyless; as well as feeling of loneliness and social isolation” (Daniel T. Shek, Sun, and Lu Yu). Also, college students seem to be addicted to Internet, which their counselors have trouble dealing with or are not fully skilled to overcome among them, and often experience other nagging problems. According to Philstar in the article titled Fighting computer addiction in kids, students who get addicted to computer may come to class late, have “wrist injury and back and neck aches”, or not eat well or may have relationship troubles or trouble paying attention in class. As a matter of fact, “Eighty-four percent of college counselors agree that Internet Addiction Disorder is legitimate, but at the same time, 93% of them have not been fully trained to diagnose Internet addiction among college students, and 94% have insufficient training for Internet addiction treatment. The results are falling grades, physical problems, and even clinical addiction,” according to accredited online colleges in the article titled Internet Addiction Among College Students: 10 Startling Trends.
Accredited Online Colleges goes on to show in the article titled Internet Addiction Among College Students: 10 Startling Trends , “Ninety-eight percent of students own a digital device. This prevalence throws gasoline on a spark: students who are already susceptible to Internet addiction have access online in computer labs, their dorm, and other places around campus, and on top of that, they have the Internet in their pocket at all times."
"Knowing this, it’s not surprising to find out that 38% of students say they can’t go more than 10 minutes without using a digital device, contributing to an ever-present existence of the Internet on campus” (Accredited Online Colleges). Many students also report that internet addiction causes them to have a lot of other behaviors (Accredited Online Colleges). And many studies including the accredited Online Colleges one show that those behaviors can “diminish the social capacity of college students, leaving them unprepared for the development of real world relationships”(Accredited Online Colleges).
As stated in the article titled Study Says College Students Addicted toTechnology,“Researchers surveyed more than 150 college students, and 60 percent of them said they are addicted to their cell phones and spend on average eight to 10 hours a day on it. Even without a smartphone, Matt Thompson said he's been in social settings where people are easily distracted. He's not afraid to speak up if those distractions get out of hand.” Thompson, Augustana senior Ryan Turnquist, was mentioned in the article. As indicates in the article,” ‘You kind of have to set boundaries if you want to maintain respect to other people,’ Thompson said. ‘I will only point it out to someone who I am really good friends with and if they are doing it chronically. I usually just tease them and ask them which girlfriend are they texting or something.’" In addition to Thompson, Turnquist talks in the matter. As stated in the article,” ‘Always checking it periodically to see if I get a text or a notification or something,’ Turnquist said. ‘I am usually on it a lot before I go to bed, and I will text someone, put it down, and then fall asleep, and then wake up and the first thing I do when I wake up is grab it.’" The author of the article titled Study Says College Students Addicted to Technology mentions Rachael Anderson, a licensed professional counselor and a coordinator of Augustana Student Counseling Services, in the matter. As the author states, "’It's not anything formal according to psychology,’ Anderson said. ‘You can't get diagnosed with a cell phone addiction, but I can kind of get what they are saying; which is that this is something that I need and I feel really lost without it.’"
“In addition to looking up from your phone during the day, Anderson suggests keeping it off of your night stand," mentioned the author of the article.
‘Studies have consistently shown that (cell phones) will completely wreck your sleep patterns,’ Anderson said. ‘So you really need to find a time where you put down the cell phone before you go to bed, ’" as mentioned in the article.
Can goal or goal orientation have a relation with student academic achievement? What can happen if students do not have a goal? According to a study titled The Relationship between Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement- The Mediation Role of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies- A Path Analysis that was conducted by Majid Barzegar, they tried to find out how goal orientation was related with students ‘ academic performance. In order to do so, they interviewed 260 first-year psychology students. For finding that relation, they used mastery-approach goals as type of goal in the study and Pearson product-moment correlations between variables. What they found was that students who have a .21 mastery-approach goals score have a -.18 academic achievement score and a -.27 academic achievement score for those who have a mastery-approach goals score of .05. In addition to that, those who have a mastery-approach goals score of 1 have an achievement score of 17. This idea can make us realize as stated in the study that “Mastery-approach goals were positively correlated with students’ academic achievement”, or students who have less mastery goal or goals, which "students typically are more committed to attempt when they are specific, proximal, and moderately difficult, than when they are general, distant, and either overly easy or difficult" according to Dale Schunk, or who have less goal orientation score have lesser academic achievement score than those who have higher mastery goal score or goal orientation score, vice versa. Not only can students with lesser mastery-approach goal or goal orientation score have lesser academic achievement score, but another issue is that those who do not have or set mastery -approach goal or goal orientation or goal in general, which Dale Schunk describes as "an important component of students' motivation, self-regulation, and achievement in academic settings, a behavior or outcome that one is consciously trying to perform or attain, or the process of establishing that behavior or outcome to serve as the aim of one's actions", may also face many other troubles. As JUSTIN KASTORY shows in his article titled The SOLUTIONS TO ACADEMIC PROBLEMS IN COLLEGE, “One of the problems that causes students to fail test or quiz, skip classes , fail to complete assignment, resort to drugs or alcohol, and consider dropping out of school is failure to set or have goals” (1 & 2).
Dale Schunk goes on to indicate that “goals can exert positive effects in achievement settings by directing learners' attention to important activities and away from distractions and by mobilizing their effort and persistence directed toward goal attainment. Given the centrality of goals to classroom learning, it is important that students set goals that are likely to have desirable effects.”
“Goals can be distinguished by what students ultimately are trying to accomplish. Another way to differentiate goals is according to students' level of commitment to attain them. Goals also can be distinguished according to the specificity of their performance standards or to how far they extend into the future,” according to Dale Schunk.
Students encounter troubles because they lack organizational skills, which can take place due to many factors. “Some college students do not know when to study for a test that is coming up and instead they will know when to hang out with their friends or to do other things. When students do not know when to study for a test, they will more likely to end up messing up on the test”(Haro). According to JUSTIN KASTORY in his article titled The SOLUTIONS TO ACADEMIC PROBLEMS IN COLLEGE, many college students lack organizational skills, which is an element that leads to many common problems, such as failing grade, skipping class, resorting to drug or alcohol, and leaving school. “It occurs when students may have a hard time organizing what assignments to do and at what time to do them or to study,” (kastory).
Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014 indicate in the 2011 study, “It was very hard to separate lack of organizational skills from academic preparedness as a reason for student failure. As a separate subcategory, poor time management and organizational skills ranked second as a major roadblock to student success. Faculty respondents said that students could not organize their priorities. They have work, home, social, and school obligations and cannot organize their time to accommodate all of these conflicting time demands.” Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014, also mention certain things that may happen when students lack organizational skills.”They do not make a plan that enables them to spend the necessary time reading, studying, attending class, completing assignments, and learning. They do not have “contingency plans” in case of illness, child care, work schedule changes, and so forth. As a result, they develop unrealistic expectations and overcommit themselves.”
Risk of burnout or burnout causes students trouble or has a relation with their GPA. According to a study titled Academic Burnout Among Students at Faculty of Organizational Sciences by Management Journal for Theory and Practice Management that was conducted by Ana Nikodijević, Jelena Anđelković Labrović, and Aleksandar Đoković at the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Organizational Sciences, they tried to find out about the relation between burnout and students’ academic performance. In order to do that, they analyzed 252 students. They found out that 46.3% of the students who participated in the study were at risk of burnout, as compared with 20.7% of students who were at high risk of burnout. 50.9% of male students were at risk at burnout, as compared with 42.9% of female students. 23.3% of male were at high risk of burnout, as compared with 18.9% of female students. 54.4% of students with low GPA were at risk of burnout, as compared with 39.6% of students with high GPA. 26.6% of students with low GPA were at high risk of burnout, as compared with 15.9% of students with high GPA. After they analyzed or studied all the data, they found out that “detailed examinations of student GPAs found that students in risk of burnout have GPA of 8.11, and those that are not at risk have a GPA of 8.35. Therefore, there is a significant difference in GPAs between two groups of students (t (374) = 2, 385, p = 0,005). The GPA of students with high risk of burnout is 8.04, while those who are not in this group have a GPA of 8.29. There is a significant difference between these two groups as well (t (374) = 2, 426, p = 0.016).” These detailed examinations can make us realize that students who are not at risk of burnout or who are not at high risk of burnout have better GPA than those who are, or students who are at risk or who are at high risk of burnout have lesser grade than those who do not. Not only can risk of burnout cause students to have lesser GPA, but another issue is that burnout among college students, which can occur when students experience certain things in their lives, can cause other troubles. According to JUSTIN KASTORY in his article titled The SOLUTIONS TO ACADEMIC PROBLEMS IN COLLEGE, “Burnout, which occurs when students overwork themselves and become stressed out resulting in a breakdown or motivation to do work, causes students to fail test or quiz, fail to complete assignment, skip classes, resort to drugs or alcohol, and consider dropping out of school” (1 & 2).
According to Linda Emma in the article titled How to Avoid Burnout in College, “While student burnout is sometimes equated with college stress, UC Berkeley psychology professor Christina Maslach says that it’s actually much more serious than mere stress. According to Maslach, burnout is ‘a combination of exhaustion, depression and negative feelings about oneself.’ Avoiding the pitfalls that can turn into burnout can be like navigating a minefield. However, the same strategies that ward against burnout can also help students find success in college.”
As stated in the article titled 3 Ways to Avoid the Consequences of Pre-Fall Break Burnout by Luis Ruuska, Editor-at-large, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, “Although burnout is more commonly used in the workplace to refer to those who find that their current career no longer resonates with them, experts say that students experience burnout, albeit on a smaller and less dramatic scale. In students, burnout can be associated with feelings of lethargy and demotivation or the feeling that doing work is meaningless.”
How can students deal with burnout? Luis Ruuska shows that there are many ways that students can deal with burnout. First, they can come up with a new routine. “A daily routine that has become so predictable that you could do it in your sleep is a surefire way to succumb to burnout. When there's nothing new to look forward to in your day then the days start to blur together and feel empty” (Ruuska). What does it mean when students change their routine or come up with new routine? “Changing up your routine doesn't have to be dramatic or intimidating, it can be as simple as changing where you study or eat lunch every day. If you don't have the time to commit to an extracurricular activity such as a club or intramural sports team, consider looking at your school's events calendar and attending an event every once in a while. When you have new and different things to look forward to during the week, it can take your mind off of the things that you have to do (but may not want to do) and ultimately it can make time fly by faster.”(Ruuska). Secondly, students can try to schedule some time to exercise. As stated in the article titled 3 Ways to Avoid the Consequences of Pre-Fall Break Burnout by Luis Ruuska, Editor-at-large, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, “Although it can be difficult to start exercising and although you can convince yourself of a million reasons why you don't have the time, the benefits of exercise may be just what you need to keep yourself from burning out. From reducing stress and releasing more endorphins to creating new brain cells, exercise has been shown to do wonders for the mind in addition to the body.” The author also argues that getting exercise more is not like we literally interpret it. As he shows, “It doesn't have to mean becoming a gym rat either. Making healthy decisions like taking the stairs instead of the elevator or choosing to walk to campus or class instead of driving or taking the college shuttle service can add exercise to your day where it wasn't before.” The author also mentions thinking long-term as one of the way that students can cope with burnout. He states, “The ‘what's the worst that could happen?’ mentality is a trap that many students fall victim to while experiencing burnout. The fact of the matter is, the decisions you make while experiencing burnout can affect you for the rest of the semester and beyond.” The author also indicates what students may do when they have burnout. “Skipping class because of burnout might mean that you use up those allotted absences that you could really use later in the semester when you catch that flu that's been going around. Giving in to your lack of motivation to study for a test (that you subsequently do poor on) could make the difference between the grade you needed in a class and the grade you receive; no matter how much you try to make up for it later in the semester” (Ruuska). The author goes on to reaffirm how those strategies can really help overcome burnout among students. As he mentions as a final statements in the article, “Although burnout can be a difficult thing to overcome, doing so through strategies like these can be rewarding and allow you to enjoy your break and the rest of your semester without any regrets.”
Students who take online classes face troubles. “In a newly released study of 51,000 Washington State community college students, Columbia University researchers found that students who took online courses were more likely to fail or drop out of the course than students who took the same course in person. Moreover, those students with the most Web credits were the least likely to graduate” (clong & Ellen). In addition to this study, Amelia Turner argues that many students who take online classes are not prepared for that experience, or they think that just because it is online education, it would be easy or are not proficient in computer; as a result, they fail.
“Community college students fail online courses at a higher rate than traditionally-taught, face-to-face courses, a new study out of California has found. The results underscore the findings of a similar study in Washington two years ago. But educators at Washington’s community colleges have been working to try to close the gaps,” according to Katherine Long in the article titled Community colleges Work to Lower Failure Rate in Online Courses.
Katherine Long of the article titled Community colleges Work to Lower Failure Rate in Online Courses Goes on to Indicate, “The latest study, from researchers at the University of California-Davis, reveals that California community college students were 11 percent less likely to finish and pass an online course than students who took the course in person. Two years ago, a study of Washington’s community colleges found that completion rates for online courses were 6 to 10 percentage points lower than courses taught face-to-face.”
What have done to deal with this such problem? “Since that study came out, Washington’s community colleges have done training for faculty members throughout the system to improve the quality of online courses, said Laura McDowell, spokeswoman for the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC)”( Long). SBCTC also come up with a plan to combat the problem that can help both faculties and students. According to Katherine Long in the article titled Community Colleges Work to Lower Failure Rate in Online Courses, “SBCTC has adopted a learning management system called Canvas that more effectively delivers online education, McDowell said. The program allows faculty to present course materials, a calendar, grade book, email, discussion boards and online quizzes, and it makes it easier to manage conversations between faculty and students, McDowell said.” Other colleges, apart from Washington’s community colleges, involve in the matter to improve online classes. “For example, Seattle Central College’s Center for Extended Learning works to make sure students who sign up understand what they’re getting into before they register for an online class. Highline College has created a faculty learning community to figure out how to infuse technology into basic education classes. And Shoreline Community College has hired people for two new positions that support online students,” according to Katherine Long in the article titled Community Colleges Work to Lower Failure Rate in Online Courses.
Katherine Long goes on to indicate that “this fall and winter, several community colleges in the Washington system will begin offering an online, competency-based associate degree in business, with all credits transferable to a Washington public four-year college. Some of the lessons learned from that program are likely to help the colleges improve all online courses, McDowell said.”
Carla Rivera shows, “Nearly 42% of students said they used online instruction for a class in their final year of high school, but mostly to learn something on their own. Only 6.5% of students said they were likely to enroll in an online course will attending their college institution.”
“Online students can get lost in the impersonal online environment, lose interest or fall behind, and drop out before their absence is even noticed. This problem is only going to increase in today’s virtual learning world. The length of courses was also cited by a few faculty members as a root cause for some students. A few faculty respondents thought that some courses are very heavy in content, but the instructors do not have time to cover the material in depth” (Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014). Faculties think that students do not have enough time to memorize and understand the courses matter in the allotted time.(Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014). “One said that by the time students were just starting to understand, he had to move on to the next subject: The ten-week quarter ‘is not enough time for students to absorb all class material and not enough for professors to go into the depth of the material.’ So the quality of the education was being compromised by time restraints”(Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014).
According to Kim Clark in U.S News & World Report, “Online students make 8 big mistakes. They do not check out the school, sign up for a course without budgeting at least 10 hours a week of study every week the course is in session—with no vacations, are unrealistic about their learning style, commit to an online course without first ensuring their technology matches the school's, do not check out the teacher, take on too much too soon, think that since it is an online course, it is OK to ‘copy and paste’ while Smith says most of the reputable online schools and teachers use anticheating software such as Turnitin.com and can easily catch cheaters, or are unprepared or unwilling to cooperate with a virtual team.”
“Online degrees continue to gain acceptance among prospective students and higher education leadership. More and more colleges and universities have initiated and now offer online programs in greater numbers of subject areas and across multiple degree levels. Online learning has become mainstream. It is estimated that 3.4 million college students were engaged in fully online programs in 2014 – representing almost 17 percent of all college students,” as stated in Online College Student 2015 in New Data About Online College Students Available.
It goes on to state in the article that “While growth cannot be expected to persist forever at the rapid rate of recent years, the number of students seeking online education continues to increase from year to year. Some project that online enrollment will make up close to 25 percent of all students by 2020. And, of course, the competition among providers of online education has become more intense. “
What have Online College Students 2015: Comprehensive Data on Demands and Preferences found about online students? The Online College Students 2015: Comprehensive Data on Demands and Preferences has conducted a survey. They interviewed 1,500 current, prospective, and recently graduated fully online students. What they found was that diversity plays a key world among online students. “Online students, like the rest of the higher education population, are not a monolith. Understanding different preferences and using a variety of strategies to reach them both in the classroom and through marketing is essential” (Online College Student 2015 in New Data about Online College Students Available). Additionally, they found that they raised the bar for online students. Things become tough and complicated for them. “As students have become more adept with learning online, they expect processes and policies tailored toward their needs. Policies that once were considered nice to have, such as generous transfer policies and streamlined admissions policies, are now necessities” (Online College Student 2015 in New Data about Online College Students Available). In addition to diversity, online students mention affordability resonates in the matter. “Students report that affordable tuition is a critical decision-making factor, with 45 percent choosing the most inexpensive institution to attend. Marketing messages that stress the theme of affordability appear to be effective” (Online College Student 2015 in New Data about Online College Students Available). Online College Student 2015 comes up with the reasoning from the study that the local is global for online students. That is, according to Online College Student 2015 in New Data about Online College Students Available, “Despite the touted benefits of learning anywhere, online learners tend to stay close to home, with 65 percent living within 100 miles of their online institution.” Lastly, not at all, the study found that many institutions, such as blended institutions, are obtained traction from online students. “Typically, learning has been divided into fully on campus or fully online. A significant number of online students, however, expressed interest in learning online but having on-campus opportunities, such as internships. This new model may be a good way to expand the online student population” (Online College Student 2015 in New Data about Online College Students Available).
Obesity causes students troubles. According to a study titled In Defense of Schools: It’s a Fact Healthy Students are Successful Students by RMC health, they tried to find out what was the correlation between obesity and students’ academic performance. In order to do so, the 2009 CDC’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey compared a lot of students in terms of their engagement in obesity-related health risk behaviors in the previous seven days by the type of grades that they earned. They classified these types of activities or behaviors that the students involved in three categories: watching television three or more hours per day, being physically active at least 60 minutes per day on fewer than five days, and drinking a can, bottle, or glass of soda or pop once per day. Among the students who were physically active at least 60 minutes per day on fewer than five days, 76% of the students had mostly A’s, 68 percent had mostly C’s, 63 percent had mostly B’s, and 56 percent of them had mostly D’s and F’s. When they compared the ones who washed television three or more hours per day, they found that students with mostly A’s represented 49 percent in this category. 39 percent of the students had mostly C’s. 32 percent had mostly B’s, and 24 percent had mostly D’s and F’s. In terms of the ones who drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda or pop once per day, 47 percent of them had mostly A, 36 percent had mostly C’s, 29 percent had mostly B’s, and 22 percent had mostly D’s and F’s. After they collected all these statistics, the 2009 CDC’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey found a true statement. The statement was “that students who reported D’s and F’s were far more likely to engage in health risk behaviors than the students who reported A’s and B’s. Some of these health risk behaviors are associated with obesity. For example, in the seven days before completing the survey, students who earned lower grades in school were also less likely to have been physically active, more likely to have watched several hours of television, and more likely to have consumed non-diet soda or pop daily” (RMC in In Defense of Schools: It’s a Fact. Healthy Students are Successful Students). Not only does obesity have an association with students’ academic performance, but it also causes students many troubles. According to Hurt, Bobby L in the article titled Childhood Obesity Intervention Strategies: How Do Schools Weigh In, which was a 30 pages research paper that he submitted for a partial fulfillment of the requirements of his MS in school counseling with his research advisor Dr. Carol L. Johnson in The Graduate School of University of Wisconsin-Stout Menomonie, WI in May2011,“Obese students are often the target of bullying and other degrading and demeaning forms of harassment in school thus impacting their attention span and their ability to perform academic task.” (2). In addition to that, he goes on to show that “obese students appear to have higher rates of absenteeism, lower grade point averages, and lower graduation rates as compared to their normal weight classmates”(2).
“Another problem is that obesity is an emotionally charged issue surrounded by prejudices and misconceptions. We are prone to judge obesity as a personal failing or a sign of insufficient will power — perceptions that are almost always incorrect. Students do not choose to be obese. Many paths lead to obesity, and each is shaped by a unique combination of intertwined biological, psychosocial, environmental, and cultural influences,” according to the article titled Obesity on Campus by Phillip B Sparling, EdD, Professor of Applied Physiologycorresponding author in ncbi, Public Health Research, Practice, And Policy.
Data from Obesity on Campus by Phillip B Sparling, EdD, Professor of Applied Physiology,Prev Chronic Dis. 2007 July; 4(3): A72. Published online 2007 June 15. F
college students who are overweight
college students who are obese
students who eat fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day
students who participate fewer than 3 days per week in vigorous-intensity (20 minutes or more) or moderate-intensity (30 minutes or more) physical activity
A maximum of 30 percent
A maximum of 30 percent
BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2
Source :Data fromAcademically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses By Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, Thought
undergraduates at 24 institutions who demonstrated no significant improvement in a range of skills -- including critical thinking, complex reasoning and writing -- during their first two years of college."
Time that students devote each week to academic pursuits
Time that students devote each week to socializing or in extracurricular activities.
85 hours a week
Less than 20 percent of their time
51 percent of their time
The Real Reason New College Grads Can’t Get Hired By Martha C. White Time Business & Money: Nov. 10, 2013. January 11, 2014.
employers who say applicants lack “communication and interpersonal skills” — a jump of about 10 percentage points in just two years.
Respondents who cited soft skills, such as communication, critical thinking, creativity and collaboration, as the area with the biggest gap.”
Those who say a lack of technical skills is the pain point
Employers who say they want candidates who are team players, problem solvers and can plan, organize and prioritize their work, or technical and computer-related know-how placed much further down the list.
How many employers worldwide the annual global Talent Shortage Survey from ManpowerGroup finds that can’t fill positions because they can’t find people with soft skills.
Employers who want new grads they hire to have completed a formal internship
Students who say interning in a field related to their major is something they spend a lot of time doing
College grads who say they’re prepared for the workplace
the number of bosses who think they’re prepared
Among students who don’t intern, % who consider themselves ready for the job market
Those who say they are prepared for the workplace
Students who complete paid internships
More than 80 percent
1 out of 5
“Prioritization of financial aid and cost over other historical considerations such as academic reputation and graduates' job prospects has been growing, said Seth Allen, vice president and dean of admissions and financial aid at Pomona. ‘The idea of investment has moved from the education experience and thinking and problem-solving skills to a more practical orientation of what career will this prepare me for, Allen said',” according to Carla Rivera in the article titled Cost, Financial Aid Becoming More Important in College Choice.
Mental health problems or health problems in general cause many students troubles. According to Jack Grove in the article titled Students’ Mental Health Problems Highlighted, “Research by the National Union of Students also found that 20 percent of students consider themselves to have a mental health problem. 91% of the 1,200 students said that they had feelings of mental distress, such as feeling down, stressed or demotivated. 50% said they have had trouble sleeping, 38 % suffered feelings of panic and 14 % had considered self-harming, according to the study. 65 % of those polled saying Hitting deadlines had led to problems. 54% said worries about exams had causes mental distress while a quarter of students said finding a part-time job had caused them anguish. 74% experience feelings of mental distress once a month or more, and 1/3 suffered mental distress every week.” In the article titled The Role of Comprehensive School Health Education Programs in the Link between Health in Academic Performance: A literature review in the Health of Learning Project, the author indicates that the American School Health Association and the United States Department of Health and Human Services shows in 1998 that health problems can cause students to have trouble learning and concentrating in school; many studies demonstrate that health problems cause students to engage in risky activities, causing them to have memory problems or to pay attention little or not pay attention in class(1). He goes on to show that health problems have relations with many elements that can cause students troubles in their academic performance; in addition to that, students can fail or drop out of school due to health problems (1 &2). “Health problems affect dropout rates indirectly by forcing young people, especially young women, to cope with family physical or mental illness, often imposing on their responsibilities that can lead to their leaving school (32). The few researchers who examined the impact of addiction, mental illness, chronic diseases, or mortality among parents on students’ school achievement suggest it has a substantial effect (33,34),” according to Dr. Nicholas Freudenberg and Jessica Ruglis in the article titled Reframing School Dropout as a Public Health Issue.
Hayley Fowler mentions, “According to the 2013 National Survey Section One 4-yr Directors (Final).pdf of College Counseling Centers, an average of 1,800 students sought individual or group counseling for mental health related issues at universities with more than 15,000 students."
"While most university campuses offer resources to help students cope, some of those students ultimately withdraw from school. Mental illness on college campuses has regained national attention after a University of Pennsylvania freshman committed suicide in January after struggling with the stress of classes and playing a varsity sport, her father told reporters,” according to Hayley Fowler in the article titled College Students Face Mental Health Issues Nationwide.
Does academic achievement have a relation with intelligence or IQ score and discipline or behavior? How can lack of discipline or bad behavior and little or lack of intelligence affect students? According to a study titled Teacher Perceptions of the Relationships between Intelligence, Student Behavior, and Academic Performance by Anthony Imbrosciano and Richard Berlach, they tried to find out how academic performance was correlated with intelligence and behavior. “This study, conducted in 2001, involved 87 students, across four schools. Forty of the students in the study came from schools in the lower SES bracket, 47 from schools in the higher bracket. Forty-four students came from the two government schools and 43 from the two non-government schools. Forty-five students were male and 42 female.” The first part of this study was that all the students took the IQ score. Secondly, in all the school listed above, they asked the instructors to rank their students according to how they knew their students were intelligent and how they performed in their classes. “For general behaviour, the teachers were asked to complete a Likert-type ranking for each child in their class” (Imbrosciano & Berlach). They classified the schools in the followings ways: a government school in a lower SES area, a non-government/Catholic school in the same lower SES area, a government school in a higher SES area, and a non-government/Catholic school in the same higher SES area. For the IQ result, they found that the government school in a lower SES area has a mean IQ score for total sample of 96, the non-government/Catholic school in the same lower SES area has a mean IQ score for total sample of 90, the government school in a higher SES area has a mean IQ score for total sample of 110, and the non-government/Catholic school in the same higher SES area has a mean IQ score for total sample of 111. In addition to that, the government school in a lower SES area has a teacher's APR (academic performance) of 0.378 with a teacher's GBR(general behavior rate) of 0.098, the non-government/Catholic school in the same lower SES area has a teacher's APR of 0.226 and a teacher’s GBR of -0.138, the government school in a higher SES area has a teacher's APR of 0.636 with a teacher’s GBR of 0.491, and the non-government/Catholic school in the same higher SES area has a teacher's APR of 0.503 and a teacher’s GBR of 0.287. This idea can make us realize as stated in the study that “It is clear from the results that IQ showed a correlation with APR “(Imbrosciano & Berlach). However, it does not have an absolute relationship with student’s behavior in every school but almost or mostly have a relationship with it because the one exception was the non-government school in a high SES area. Also, we can infer from this study that schools where students have a better IQ score have better academic performance than those where students have lesser IQ scores, or schools where students have better IQ scores do not have but mostly have better general behavior rate than those where students do not have a better academic performance. In addition to that relation, students with higher IQ score or with better academic performance can be more intelligent than those with lower IQ score. As Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall shows in the article titled IQ and School Achievement, “Modern intelligence tests have been designed with Binet’s original purpose in mind: to predict how well individual students are likely to perform in the classroom and similar situations. Studies repeatedly show that performance on intelligence tests is correlated with school achievement (N. Brody, 1997; Gustafsson & Undheim, 1996; Sattler, 2001). Students with higher IQ scores do better on standardized achievement tests, have higher school grades, and complete more years of education.” In addition to that, not only can students who are not very or who are less intelligent have lesser grade or come from schools that mostly have lesser general behavior rate, but they can expose to other problems. According to Richard Millsap in his article titled Why Do Some Students Succeed And Others Fail to Achieve Desired Class Grades, And Academic Goals & Objectives, students fail sometimes because they are not that much intelligent or are undisciplined. In addition to that , Tori Walston reported that she drop out of school in the article titled DISCUSS: How Do We Best Prevent Dropouts due to being undisciplined.
According to the article titled Discipline And Causes of Indiscipline by Mohammed Rhalmi, “There are many causes of indiscipline in school. A few of them are unenforced rules, lack of communication, teacher-student relationship, lack of leadership, lack of motivation, and bad habit.”
Students' Intelligence can be measured by IQ score.“The impact of IQ level on educational achievement can be understood in terms of a useful statistic called a correlation (r) -a measure from 0 to 1.0 of the ‘link’ or strength of a relationship between two variables – e.g. IQ level and combined SAT score. A correlation of r = 0 means there is no link. If the correlation between IQ and SAT was zero, it would mean that knowing someone’s IQ would give you no clue as to how well they will do on their SATs – the one doesn’t predict the other. This scenario can be seen in the left plot below. Each point in this imaginary case is an individual’s scores on IQ and SAT combined. A correlation of >.50 is considered a moderate to strong link. A correlation of r > .70 is considered very strong. Knowing a person’s IQ with a correlation this strong would strongly predict how they will do on their SATs. This kind of relationship is shown on the right plot below” … (IQ Predicts Academic Achievement). Additionally, scientists have tried to find out what is the correlation between IQ and GPA scores and SAT scores. The recent study by Treena Rohde and Lee Anne Thompson shows a correlation. Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall shows in the article titled IQ and School Achievement, “Modern intelligence tests have been designed with Binet’s original purpose in mind: to predict how well individual students are likely to perform in the classroom and similar situations. Studies repeatedly show that performance on intelligence tests is correlated with school achievement (N. Brody, 1997; Gustafsson&Undheim, 1996; Sattler, 2001). Students with higher IQ scores do better on standardized achievement tests, have higher school grades, and complete more years of education.”Treena Rohde and Lee Anne Thompson show in their study: “While the link between crystallized intelligence and SAT combined scores is obviously very striking, crystallized intelligence is not significantly linked to GPA. And we are more interested here in the link between fluid intelligence and SAT and GPA, since our HighIQPro training causes fluid intelligence to improve substantially. The correlation of SAT combined performance and fluid intelligence is close to 0.40 for both SAT combined and GPA. Here is a plot that shows what this degree of correlation looks like – you can see there is quite a close link. If you know that someone has a certain Gf score, you know they are likely to do better in their SAT score and their GPA…”
“Data strongly suggest that if you can improve your fluid intelligence by40% or more, the effect will translate directly into higher SAT scores,” according to Treena Rohde and Lee Anne Thompson.
Does intelligence have a relation with behavior, communication, and life satisfaction? As it is stated in the article titled The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction and Determining their Communication Skill Test Effectiveness, ShohrehGhorbanshiroudi, JavadKhalatbari, Mohammad Salehi, SonaBahari, Mohammad MojtabaKeikhayfarzaneh try to determine how emotional intelligence and life satisfaction and communication skill test effectiveness are correlated. In order to do the studies, ShohrehGhorbanshiroudi, JavadKhalatbari, Mohammad Salehi, SonaBahari, Mohammad MojtabaKeikhayfarzaneh survey many students at Islamic Azad University, Sarab branch in the years of 2008 to 2009. “The statistical sample consists of 40 students who had a low score in life satisfaction and emotional intelligence and are randomly involved in a two groups including 20 people of test and control. Communication skills training program has been conducted for the test group in 1-5 hours 8 sessions and post-test is done on both groups after training. The Bar-On emotional intelligence and life satisfaction questionnaire were used.” Ghorbanshiroudi, JavadKhalatbari, Mohammad Salehi, SonaBahari, and Mohammad MojtabaKeikhayfarzanehalso used the Pearson test. They used the T test. They analyzed the results in a covariant manner. “The results have shown that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Communication skill training significantly enhanced the emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Thus, this study confirms the effectiveness of communication skills in increasing emotional intelligence and life satisfaction” (Ghorbanshiroudi, JavadKhalatbari, Mohammad Salehi, SonaBahari, and Mohammad MojtabaKeikhayfarzaneh).
“Intelligence is a term that is difficult to define, and it can mean many different things to different people. In fact, it has divided the scientific community for decades and controversies still rage over its exact definition and form of measurement,” according to Hsin-Yi Cohen, BSc, MA, Mst. There are different types of intelligence. As a result, it is possibly hard to measure intelligence in general in an exclusive way. To measure intelligence, it is crucial that we use a concept that is appropriate to the type of intelligence. As Hsin-Yi Cohen, BSc, MA, Mst states, “Like the definitions of intelligence, the measurement of intelligence is dogged by controversy and disagreement. While there are a number of different methods for measuring intelligence, the standard and most widely accepted method is by measuring a person’s ‘intelligence quotient’ or IQ. Based on a series of tests which assess various types of abilities, such a mathematical, spatial, verbal, logic, and memory, the results from such tests done on a group that is representative of the wider popular shows the classic ‘bell-shape’ distribution, meaning that most people are of average intelligence with a few at the extreme ends of the scale…”(Cohen). There are two main types of intelligences according to Hsin-Yi Cohen. The two paramount types of intelligence are multiple Intelligences and general Intelligence. “The concept of intelligence as a single entity was first put forth by an English psychologist named Charles Spearmen in the early 20th century. Spearman coined the term ‘General Intelligence’ or ‘g’ which was based on measure of people’s performance across a variety of mental tests”(Cohen). Cohen goes on to indicate how scientists contradict with other scientists, regarding single intelligence belief, for example. He shows that “more recently, scientist dissatisfied with the traditional idea of a single intelligence have postulated alternate theories of ‘multiple intelligences’ – that is, intelligence is the result of several independent abilities which combine to contribute to the total performance of an individual.” Cohen talks about Howard Gardner’s theory and Robert Sternberg’s theory. He shows that “Psychologist Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences states that intelligence can be broken down into 8 distinct components: logical, spatial, linguistic, interpersonal, naturalist, kinaesthetic, musical, and intrapersonal. Thus he believes that standard IQ tests and psychometric tests focus on certain components, such as logical and linguistic, while completely ignoring other components which may be equally important.” Cohen argues that intelligence has more than one aspects. To substantiate his idea, he mentions Robert Sternberg. He says that “Robert Sternberg, proposes that there are 3 fundamental aspects to intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative. Like Gardener, he also believes that traditional intelligence tests only focus one aspect – analytical – and does not address the necessary balance from the other two aspects.” Chohen goes on to indicate that there is another type of intelligence, but it is not a main one but is alternative because the two paramount ones are multiple intelligence and single intelligence. He mentions, “One alternate type of intelligence often mentioned in popular media is ‘emotional intelligence’, developed by Daniel Goleman and several other researchers. This refers to an individual’s ability to understand and be aware of your own emotions, as well as those of people around you. This ability enables you to handle social interactions and relationships better.” Chohen also illustrates many ways that we can measure intelligence. He indicates, “Researchers asked about the aspects of intelligence felt that factors like problem-solving ability, mental speed, general knowledge, creativity, abstract thinking, and memory all played important roles in the measure and standard of intelligence. Most agree that intelligence is an umbrella term which covers a variety of related mental abilities.”
“Scientists generally agree that intelligence can be captured by psychometric tests. But the study of intelligence is dogged by questions of just how much IQ contributes to an individual's success and well-being, how genes and environment interact to generate smarts and why the average IQ score rose throughout the world during the twentieth century,” as stated in the article titled What Is Intelligence in Psychology today. As a matter of fact, there are many possible ways that intelligence can be measured, and there are many different disciplines in intelligence. For example, as stated in the free dictionary, “Intelligence discipline is a well-defined area of intelligence collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting using a specific category of technical or human resources. There are seven major disciplines: human intelligence, imagery intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, open-source intelligence, technical intelligence, and counterintelligence.” Scientists have been analyzed some tests that can help measuring intelligence. “Intelligence tests are one of the most popular types of psychological tests in use today. On the majority of modern IQ tests, the average (or mean) score is set at 100 with a standard deviation of 15 so that scores conform to a normal distribution curve. This means that 68 percent of scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean (that is, between 85 and 115), and 95 percent of scores fall within two standard deviations (between 70 and 130)”(Cherry). Additionally, as a matter of fact, those scientists have been substantiated or found why the average score of the test is 100 by using the standardization process. As it is explained by the scientists, “Psychometritians utilize a process known as standardization in order to make it possible to compare and interpret the meaning of IQ scores. This process is accomplished by administering the test to a representative sample and using these scores to establish standards, usually referred to as norms, by which all individual scores can be compared. Since the average score is 100, experts can quickly assess individual test scores against the average to determine where these scores fall on the normal distribution,”as stated in the article titled What Is the Average IQ by Kendra Cherry. Intelligence can also be measured by the way that someone performs in school or based on his or her memory. “Intelligence is a person's capacity to acquire knowledge (i.e. learn and understand), apply knowledge (solve problems), and engage in abstract reasoning. It is the power of one's intellect, and as such is clearly a very important aspect of one's overall well-being. Its quotient (IQ) is the score you get on an intelligence test. Originally, it was a quotient (a ratio): IQ= MA/CA x 100 [MA is mental age, CA is chronological age],” according to Dr. C. George Boeree.
Intelligence has a relation with cognitive flexibility. According to the article titled Intelligence And Cognitive Flexibility: Fluid Intelligence Correlates with Feature "Unbinding" Across Perception And Action by Colzato LS1, van Wouwe NC, Lavender TJ,and Hommel B, “People integrate the features of perceived events and of action plans, as well as of episodic stimulus-response relations, into event files. We investigated whether the management of event files, and particularly the speed of updating the binding between the task-relevant stimulus feature and the response, correlates with fluid intelligence. Indeed, the performance of participants scoring high on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices test was less impaired by a mismatch between the stimulus-response relation in the current and the previous trial.” The study substantiates that the more intelligent that someone is is the more flexible that he or she is cognitively. Not only this study shows that correlation, but other experts also conceivably show that correlation in the study titled Sub-threshold Autism Traits: The role of Trait Emotional Intelligence And Cognitive Flexibility. As it is stated, “The present research first investigated the relationship of autism traits with trait emotional intelligence and empathy in a sample of 163 adults aged between 18 and 51 years (44% male). It then examined performance on a set of tasks assessing social cognition and cognitive flexibility in 69 participants with either high or low scores on ASD traits. Results confirm that there is pronounced variation within the general population relating to ASD traits, which reflect similar (though less severe) social-cognitive and emotional features to those observed in ASDs” (ElifGökçen, Konstantinos V. Petrides, KristelleHudry, Norah Frederickson, and Luke D. Smillie).
As a matter of fact, students can face troubles if they lack cognitive flexibility. “Cognitive flexibility is defined as the ability to generate and shift response based on the changing demands of different situations,” according to the article titled The Role of Affective Flexibility and Cognitive Flexibility in Effective Antecedent-Focused and Online Reappraisal by Ashley M. Malooly at the University of Miami. However, if students do not have this type of ability or this type of flexibility, they can expose to trouble. As Wayne State University shows in the article titled Why Intelligent Students Sometimes Failed, college students fail sometimes because they have an “inability to apply concepts to different situations.” As a matter of fact, not only can college students fail sometimes because they have this type of inability, but students who lack this type of ability or this type of flexibility can also face another problem. According to the Theses, Dissertations, and Capstone Projects titled Cognitive Flexibility In A Forensic Population by Deborah M. Feichtinger at Pacific University at the School of Professional Psychology, “Lack of cognitive flexibility leads to dysfunctional problem solving actions that violate others' rights.”
According to the article titled Aspergers Checklist: Cognitive Issues in myaspergerschild.com, a student who lacks cognitive flexibility can experience the followings problems: “difficulty with organizational skills, sequencing, task initiation,incorporating new information with previously acquired information, transitions, task completion, or direction following or difficulty when novel material is presented without visual support."
"The student may also engage in competing behaviors, display rigidity in thoughts and actions, show a strong desire to control the environment, engage in repetitive/stereotypical behaviors, display inflexible thinking, not learning from past mistakes, not asking for help with a problem, or not asking a peer or adult for needed materials, continue to engage in an ineffective behavior rather than thinking of alternatives, or be unable to focus on group goals when he is a member of the group,” according to the article titled Aspergers Checklist: Cognitive Issues.
Even if all students are intelligent or have cognitive flexibility, other problems may stand up. Many college students also fail because they are unable to well adjust the way that they think or because they have thinking difficulty. “An unprecedented study that followed several thousand undergraduates through four years of college found that large numbers did not learn the critical thinking, complex reasoning and written communication skills that are widely assumed to be at the core of a college education,” according to Doug Mataconis in his article titled College Students Lack Critical Thinking Skills, But Who’s To Blame. “Many students or graduated students do not know how to sift fact from opinion or make a clear written argument or objectively review conflicting reports of a situation or event, according to New York University sociologist Richard Arum, lead author of the study.” According to the article titled Why Intelligent Students Sometimes Failed by Wayne State University, in college, it requires more than memorizing. It requires a lot of skills or thinking skills. Students who want to succeed have to be diligent to acquire those skills. Intelligent students or students fail sometimes because they cannot balance the way to think critically, creatively, and analytically (1).
According to Patricia M. King, Phillip K. Wood, and Robert A. Mines in the article titled Critical Thinking Among College and Graduate Students, “John Dewey (1933) argued that reflective thinking, the careful collection and evaluation of evidence leading to a conclusion, should be a central aim of education"(167-168).
Patricia M. King, Phillip K. Wood, and Robert A. Mines mention, "Recent national reports on the quality of post-secondary education in the United States have affirmed the centrality of teaching critical thinking skills to college students (National Institute of Education 1984; Association of American Colleges 1985; Garrison 1984), yet the empirical evidence documenting progress toward this objective among undergraduate college students is minimal, and among graduate students, is virtually nonexistent”(167-168).
Academic unpreparedness or under-preparedness causes college students troubles. According to Marsha A. Miller and Coleen Murray, “The American Association of College and Universities (AAC&U) reports that ' 53% of students entering our colleges and universities are academically underprepared, lacking basic skills in at least one of the three basic areas of reading, writing or mathematics' (Tritelli, 2003).” This statistic seems to demonstrate that most students enter college without some skills, or academic unpreparedness is an issue that exists among college students as Harry H. Harrison Jr., Best-Selling Parenting Author, shows in the article titled What Causes Students to Fail or Drop out of College by stating that "no matter what students' grades were in High School, they didn't to AP or college level courses, they are simply not prepared for the onslaught of homework they will receive in college". However, academic unpreparedness among college students can face them to troubles, which can cause them or society financial deficits. As stated in the article titled Schools Coping with Students Unprepared for College, “Academically unprepared or under-prepared students are more likely to drop out, a problem that carries heavy financial costs not only to the students but also to the public ” (News-Leader.com). Not only can underprepared or unprepared students drop out, but they can also expose to other academic difficulties. According to Marsha A. Miller and Coleen Murray , as Harry H. Harrison Jr., Best-Selling Parenting Author, shows in the article titled What Causes Students to Fail or Drop Out of College, “Boylan supports King's (2004) assumptions by stating that 'students fail to do well in college for a variety of reasons and only one of them is lack of academic preparedness.'”
“Dr. Allyson Todd, dean of academic affairs at the Community College of Allegheny County, told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette that some students come to college unprepared for the amount of work required,” as stated in the article titled What Percentage of College Students Fail Their First Semester by Amy Sterling Casil.
According to the article titled Beyond the Rhetoric Improving College Readiness Through Coherent State Policy in higher education.org, “Lack of readiness for college is a major culprit in low graduation rates, as the majority of students who begin in remedial courses never complete their college degrees. About one-quarter of incoming students to these institutions are fully prepared for college-level studies. The remaining 75% need remedial work in English, mathematics, or both."
"Eligibility for enrollment in less-selective four-year institutions typically includes a high school diploma and additional college-preparatory coursework. Experience shows that these additional eligibility requirements still leave about half of incoming freshmen under-prepared for college,” according to the article titled Beyond the Rhetoric Improving College Readiness Through Coherent State Policy in higher education.org.
At-risk students face trouble or are unprepared for school. “King (2004) delineates the 'at-risk' as a diverse collection of sub-groups of students who manifest a groups of individual risk factors such as neurological, cognitive, health, or psychological factors that can contribute to academic failure (e.g., traumatic brain injury, learning disabilities, chronic illness, psychological problems, or student attitude toward learning)” (Miller & Murray). Miller & Murray also indicates that these students also experience family and “social” problems; they do not meet the minimum standard that is expected by many colleges; and they lack support from their family. Many of these students are resilient (Miller & Murray). The percentage of at-risk students who are disable is 7.6 percent; 4.9 percent of at-risk students have language barrier; 8.1 percent of them repeat class; 30.8 percent are away from their mother and their father; 2.3 percent of them have parents who do not live in the united states; 8.5 percent of them come from a “family” that makes less than $10,000; and 10.5% of them come from a family where their mother or their father or the person who is responsible to take care of them is not working (Hofer & Fauser). These students can drop out of school for a variety of reasons, including many of the ones listed above. As stated in the article titled Situations That Put Youth At Risk, “Potential dropouts tend to be retained in the same grade, have poor academic grades, and feel disengaged from school. They are more likely to come from low socioeconomic status families where parents did not get very far in their schooling. These students tend to be involved in more passive activities, to adhere more frequently to deviant norms, to manifest behavior problems, and to exhibit psychological vulnerability.”
Epistemological beliefs of at-risk students can be analyzed in relation with their unpreparedness, which has been explained in the previous paragraph. “Epistemological beliefs, learners' general understandings about the nature of knowledge and learning, have emerged as a factor influencing self-regulated learning (Jehng, Johnson, & Anderson, 1993)” (Cole, Goetz, & Wilson). Accordingly, it is important to understand the Epistemological beliefs of At-risk students. Many studies examine the epistemological belief of these students, who many of them are underprepared or unprepared. For example, as stated in the article titled Epistemological Beliefs of Underprepared College Students, “The epistemological beliefs of underprepared undergraduates were assessed at the beginning and end of the students' first five-week session. Results demonstrated that the epistemological beliefs of underprepared undergraduates tended to be naive and to change during initial college experience. Investigations of the underlying structure of these beliefs did not demonstrate the five distinct dimensions demonstrated by previous research but rather as two general dimensions: 1) the nature of learning and 2) the nature of knowledge” (Cole, Goetz, & Wilson).
In the article titled Meaning and Nature of Learning, Parankimalil (2014) analyzed ten aspects of the nature of learning. “Learning is universal. Learning is through experience. Learning is from all sides. Learning is continuous, resulting in change in behaviour. Learning is an adjustment and comes about as a result of practice. Learning is a relatively permanent change. Learning is not directly observable, learning as growth and development” ( Parankimalil , 2014, para. 4).
As stated in chapter 3 of the article titled knowledge, “Knowledge is a piece of a structure: change with respect to other changes or covariance. Additionally, these changes cannot be just any changes which are related to the change of interest but rather, must typically be changes which precede the change of interest. An additional critical element is that our ability to resolve what's going on in nature is limited by our ability to separately change its potential causes. A difference can be in the behavior. Epistemological beliefs”
Students do not do well or drop out of college because the program that they choose is difficult. According to the article titled Math, Science Popular Until Students Realize They’re Hard, “In a working paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, researchers Ralph Stine brickner of Berea College and Todd R. Stine brickner of the University of Western Ontario say that college students are fleeing from math, physics, chemistry and the like after dipping into some classes,”( Safdar). In order to do the survey, researchers Ralph Stine brickner of Berea College and Todd R. Stine brickner of the University of Western Ontario interviewed 655 students during many semesters. They asked them about many elements about their study. They found that many students who majored in math, physics, and chemistry drop out in their disciplines. “The survey results also showed that the students who dropped out do so because they found out that their majors required them to do more work than other majors. Todd R. Stine brickner, one of the paper’s authors, said ‘What they did not expect is that even if they work hard, they still will not do well’" (safdar). In addition to that, as Diann Fisher shows in his article titled Why Students Drop Out of College, students enter college but end up to not do well or drop out for many reasons, and one of those reasons is that “they find that the academic program is too hard.”
“The bulk of attrition comes in engineering and among pre-med majors, who typically leave STEM fields if their hopes for medical school fade. There is no doubt that the main majors are difficult and growing more complex. ‘It’s dry and hard to get through, so if you can create an oasis in there, it would be a good thing,’ says Dr. Goldberg, who retired last year as an engineering professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is now an education consultant,” according to CHRISTOPHER DREW in the article titled Why Science Majors Change Their Minds (It’s Just So Darn Hard) in The New York times.
“Faculty respondents said students are not aware of the rigors of their chosen discipline. Students can have difficulty in adjusting their own career expectations. Some students have/aspire to become a physician . . . but they do not realize that it is a very difficult and long road academically. Learning is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration . . . some students have not realized this yet” (Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014).
Lastly, not at all, race seems to be a factor in the problem. “Although black and Latino male students enter community colleges with higher aspirations than those of their white peers, white men are six times as likely to graduate in three years with a certificate or degree. Black men are the most engaged in tutoring and orientation sessions but report the least success. Latinos are in between, and white men report the lowest levels of engagement at almost every level but the most success according to a report released on Wednesday by the Center for Community College Student Engagement at the University of Texas,” as it is stated in the article titled Minority Male Students Face Challenge to Achieve at Community Colleges by Katherine Mangan in The Chronic of Higher Education. The report goes to show according to Katherine Mangan that “for example, 39 percent of the black men with C-minus averages said they never cut classes, compared with 31 percent of Latinos and 24 percent of white men. But only 5 percent of black men and Latinos attending community colleges earn degrees or certificates within three years, compared with 32 percent of white men.”
"’The issue is not only that these students are not capable of doing college-level work,’the report says. ‘It is that too many of them have not, for myriad reasons, had the kinds of educational experiences that would effectively maximize those capabilities,’" according to the article titled Minority Male Students Face Challenge to Achieve at Community Colleges by Katherine Mangan in The Chronic of Higher Education.
Many students go to college with the hope of giving themselves the skill that they need but often fail or drop out not entirely only because they are unprepared to attend college academically but for many reasons. “In 2011 the authors conducted a study asking 739 students to provide their own perspective of why students fail courses and drop out of colleges. The premise is that there is no better way to find out than to ask the students directly if something has helped and encouraged them to learn and succeed or held them back and discouraged them from learning (Bain 2004). In that study, the many reasons students provided for failing courses and colleges were grouped into seven main categories, including motivation (35%), study habits (17%), academic preparedness, (12%), external factors (11%), attitudes (11%), instruction (10%), and relevancy issues (4%)”( Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunningin the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission). They fail or drop out because they have financial problems or do not interact that much with their instructors. They have to work in order to provide or to support themselves; as a result, it is often hard for them to work and to study at the same time. “A young black student at a Texas community college, identified only as James, told the interviewer in August 2009 that he was pumped up about college because he was ‘all about learning new things.’ In subsequent interviews over the next few months, however, his demeanor became more subdued, and by November, he was visibly slumping, his face partially obscured by his orange hoodie. College, he concluded, wasn’t for him,” according to the article titled Minority Male Students Face Challenge to Achieve at Community Colleges by Katherine Mangan in The Chronic of Higher Education. In addition to that, lack of sleep is negatively affecting many students' learning capabilities. Most of them do not sleep adequately. "They choose to engage in other activities. Parties, late night studies session or job-related obligations are taking precedence and leaving less time for the mandatory sleep needed for optimal performance" (Shragge). As a result, most of those students have trouble staying awake in class. However, inadequate sleep or sleep deprivation is a reason of poor academic performance or negatively impacts their academic performance. As Grace Fleming states in the article titled Teens and Sleep Deprivation, Making Time for Sleep and Homework, “A more recent study shows that sacrificing sleep to study actually does more harm than good. The sleep that you miss when you stay up late to study will cause 'academic problems' the following day. It's just not worth sacrificing sleep to study!” Many of them are unmotivated , so they come to class late or do not attend class, which is negatively affecting their academic performances. According to Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunningin the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014, “Participants also indicated that some students lack the motivation and/or the interest, and thus they fail to invest the effort, time, and energy needed to complete college work. This situation is compounded by the fact that some students lack self-responsibility and come to college classes with an attitude that they developed in high school, which means that attending is enough to get a passing grade in a given course. For some students, getting an F in classes is no longer something to be ashamed of but a cool thing that you must experience before leaving college.”They are not that much intelligent. They are depressed. “Frank Durham, associate professor of journalism and mass communication at the UI, said depression is difficult to spot in the college setting unless a student personally expresses his or her distress to the instructor,” according to Moustafa and Linh Ta.“Alexandra Bushby, 23, also didn’t tell others. A December UI graduate, Bushby went from being a straight A student at the beginning of her undergraduate studies to not being able to get through classes. She said she spent the majority of her college days in her room unable to leave because she couldn’t stop crying because of depression” (Moustafa and Linh Ta). Learning disabilities, poor or bad study habit, smoking, lack of perseverance, or stress or anxiety causes them troubles. Stress among college students can come from more than one sources. As the University of Florida, CWC, Counselling & Wellness Center states in the article titled Stress and College Students, “There are four primary sources of stress: the environment- examples include noise, pollution, traffic and crowding, and the weather, physiological - examples include illness, injuries, hormonal fluctuations, and inadequate sleep or nutrition, thoughts - examples include the way students think affects how they respond, negative self-talk, catastrophizing, and perfectionism all contribute to increased stress, and social Stressors - examples include financial problems, work demands, social events, and losing a loved one. ” Lack of discipline, discouragement, perfectionism or fear of negative evaluation, burnout, violence, obesity, discrimination, loneliness, overconfidence, thinking problem, or college cost causes them troubles. "In California, for example, tuition and fees increased 91% at California State University and 74% at the University of California from 2006, according to a recent report by the nonprofit California Budget Project. Students are also more aware of rising college debt -- $1.2 trillion nationally -- and are more wary of being saddled with huge loans to repay. ‘Students are approaching their college search with a much more critical eye on how they're going to fund their education,’ Eagan said. Cost calculations are reflected in increasing requests for financial aid, many college officials said," according to Carla Rivera Cost in the article titled Financial Aid Becoming More Important in College Choice." 'Costs and financial aid are becoming more important and salient to students' decisions in part due to increased tuition,’ said Kevin Eagan, interim director of UCLA's Cooperative Institutional Research Program, which prepares the survey of the nation's first-year students conducted by UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute. ‘Tuition has increased particularly at public institutions’" (Rivera). Low self-esteem, large classes, relationship problems, or laziness is negatively affecting many students. Some of them choose inappropriate or wrong major or fear to fail or are frustrated. They academically perform poorly, which causes them troubles. According to Eric Horowitz, "The Stinebrickners looked at three ways grades can impact dropout: 1) Students want to stay in school but are forced out by their poor performance, 2) poor grades lower expectations about future academic performance and future earnings, and 3) bad grades make school less enjoyable. In the end, they found support for the latter two scenarios. Bad grades didn’t force students to drop out because of academic rules or regulations, bad grades caused students to drop out because they altered how students viewed their future college experience." Students had to help out their families’ responsibility. Race seems to be a factor in the problem. Students are pregnant. They face troubles due to online classes. Students may take online classes due to certain circumstances." 'Online is not played up in what students see in films and television, where they see a more traditional college campus with faculty and students face-to-face,’” Eagan said. ‘It may be, he said, that as ‘they have difficulty getting the classes they need ... their openness to online courses changes as they understand the greater flexibility offered. ’A somewhat surprising outcome was students' views of online education, which has been an increasing focus of efforts to save costs." (Rivera). In addition to that, Carla Rivera indicates in the article titled Cost, Financial Aid Becoming More Important in College Choice that “the responses may indicate a ‘disconnect’ between students' expectations and the drive to integrate more Massive Open Online Courses -- or MOOCs -- and other online technologies.” They choose hard programs, they are not that much or are not strategically prepared for taking their test in college, or they come from low-income families. "Students from a low income household have a harder chance of succeeding in college," according to Harry Harrison in the article titled Getting Students from Low Income Households into College. In addition to that, Katherine Mangan shows in the article titled Minority Male Students Face Challenge to Achieve at Community Colleges in The Chronic of Higher Education that “one contributing factor to the pattern: Minority students tend to enter college with weaker academic skills. For instance, only 14 percent of black students and 30 percent of Latinos meet ACT college-readiness standards in mathematics, while 53 percent of white students do. For reading, the corresponding percentages are 16, 29, and 54. Another factor dragging down the performance of minority students, according to the report, is the fear of fulfilling a negative stereotype. The report draws heavily on the research of Claude M. Steele, dean of the Stanford University Graduate School of Education. Students experience ‘stereotype threat,’ he argues, when they feel pressure not to conform to a negative stereotype, whether it’s women in a science class or black men in a college course.” Many students do not eat well. As it is stated in the article titled Why Some College Students May Not Be Getting Enough to Eat by Alexandra Sifferlin,“’Sixty two percent students reported they couldn’t afford balanced meals,' says lead study author Megan Patton-Lopez, an epidemiologist at Benton County Health Services in Oregon. ‘The quality of their diet is being impacted. It appears that many of the students are struggling to buy the healthy foods like fruits and vegetables and lean meats and this could affect their weight, although our study cannot confirm that.’” They choose inappropriate school or do not assume their responsibility or ask question in class when they do not understand. They lack organizational skills. They lack goals, which Dale Schunk say “may be cast as absolute or normative." He says, "An absolute goal has a fixed standard, such as reading one chapter in a book in one hour. A normative goal is relative to the attainments of others, such as being the first one in class to finish an assignment.” Students do not have cognitive flexibility, or they spend less time studying due to the mentality that they understand the quantity of work required because they think that college is like high school as Dr. Robert Pitcher of the Educational Development Center at the University of Alabama shows. However, there are many differences between high school and college. According to JUSTIN KASTORY in his article titled The SOLUTIONS TO ACADEMIC PROBLEMS IN COLLEGE, “In college, the amount of homework to do is higher. There is an increase demand of material knowledge. The pace in college is much faster; one test will cover up to four chapters from a book. Students have more responsibilities. They have to write long paper and read long assignments”(1). Many students do not even have the book to study. That makes the situation a little more complicated. As an example, according to Oona Goodin-Smith, Oakland University and Daniel Rader, Ohio University of the article titled Students Break the Bank to Buy Their Books, “While Jin ultimately bit the bullet to buy the book, according to the USPIRG, 65% of college students have opted to forgo purchasing class texts 'because it was too expensive.' Of these students, 94% had concerns that doing so 'would hurt their grade in a course.' The study concludes that the high prices of the books ultimately affect students’ decisions on the number and type of classes they take each semester.” In addition to that, they do not like school. According to Ethan Yazzie-Mintz in the article titled Students Are Bored, Many Skip School, Lack Adult Support, "Seventy-three percent of students who have considered dropping out said it was because 'I didn't like the school." They get suspended in school, or they lack confidence or have a language barrier. That causes them to fail or drop out. "The dropouts in the study of Amy M. Azzam identified five major reasons for leaving school. They were bored with school (47 percent), had missed too many days and could not catch up (43 percent), spent time with people who were not interested in school (42 percent), had too much freedom and not enough rules in their lives (38 percent), and were failing (35 percent)," according to the article titled Special Report / Why Students Drop Out. By the way, as the dropouts have been mentioned many reasons in Army's study, who are they? As Michele Heister shows in the article titled Dropout Data and Statistics in the 2008-2009 school year data by the Division of Data Quality in PA or Pennsylvania Department of Education in PIMS, “A drop out is a student who, for any reason other than death, leaves school before graduation without transferring to another school/institution.” Many students or dropouts do not do their assignment or their homework or do not practice their homework due to cheating or copying, which can cause them the same troubles that lack of personal standard can also cause them , procrastinate or are married, or have trouble paying attention in class due to excessive texting, so they often fail. Drinking or drug causes many of them or many who are underage many troubles. “The report, ‘Rape and Sexual Assault: A Renewed Call to Action,’ says rape's prevalence is highest at college, fueled by drinking and drug use that can incapacitate victims. Obama is giving the task force of administration officials 90 days to come up with recommendations for colleges to prevent and respond to sexual assault, increase public awareness of each school's track record and enhance coordination among federal agencies to hold schools accountable if they don't confront the problem”( THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). Many college graduates cannot find college level jobs. "Fifty three percent of recent college grads are jobless or underemployed, and forty five percent are still living with their parents. There are 115,000 graduates who are janitors,”(Tunney). What faculties say.“Faculty members perceive that the three main root-cause factors for students failing are (1) student-related factors, which were mentioned 415 times, or 68 percent of the responses; (2) life and socioeconomic issues, which were mentioned 70 times, or 12 percent of the responses; and (3) failures of the educational system, which were mentioned 125 times or 20 percent of the responses” (Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunningin the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014). Students also drop out because they see that college is a waste of time. Michael Tunney shows that “getting a degree is no longer a ticket to a job with a salary and benefits. You don’t have to drown yourself in debt for a failing institution if you don’t want to. Deciding to drop out is not life or death. If the time you’re spending in lecture halls is better spent working on your startup idea or apprenticing with a pro, it’s time to drop out. Remember, you can’t get the time back you spend doing something that’s not worth it.” For a particular type of reason, many college graduates may not find job after graduation. For example, "According to Michael Ellsberg, the problem with that is, 'College is training for managerial work, and the economy doesn’t need that many managers.' In this economy, businesses do not have the time or capital to train you to become employable. To differentiate yourself you have to learn in demand skills–a credential isn’t going to get you very far anymore" (Tunney). Students get addicted to Internet or computer; as a result, they face a lot of trouble. In addition to the problems that computer or internet addiction causes that have been stated above, Emre Balkan Cyprus and Dr. Ahmet Adalıer Cyprus show in the article titled THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS, “Students dropout from school to spend time on computers.” Some students are the first persons from their families to attend college. Their parents do not assist them that much, so they often experience a lot of problems. Many teachers or instructors cause students troubles. "In some cases, the particular way a professor grades can impact a student. Some instructors grade more heavily on homework, papers and projects, while others put a lot of weight on tests. However, regardless of the various assessment methods used, students can benefit by being cognizant of common causes of class failure" (Kokemuller). They are at risk or not that much good or fail to assume responsibility. Students fail because of that. According to Ethan Yazzie-Mintz in the article titled Students Are Bored, Many Skip School, Lack Adult Support, "' Sixty-one percent said, 'I didn't like the teachers,' and 60 percent said, 'I didn't see the value in the work I was being asked to do.'" Health problems cause them many troubles. Some of them are caught cheating , so they automatically fail the whole course. Also, many of them use social sites or do not manage their time properly or are not that much intelligent. That causes them to fail. "The economist Mark Schneider refers to colleges with such dropout rates as 'failure factories', and they are the norm" (Leonhardt). College dropout or failure rates may be decreased if most of those students persevere when they face challenges or take adequate hours of sleep. That can help them gaining memories or positively affect their learning capabilities. As Grace Fleming states in the article titled Teens and Sleep Deprivation, “One study shows that it is good to study right before going to sleep because 'there is near-consensus that sleep promotes learning of certain types of perceptual memories.' In other words, sleep helps students store memories to be retained and remembered the next day. Another study shows that sleep strengthens memories so they become clear and resistant to interferences and distractions. A study from 1999 suggests that information becomes 'cemented' in our brains as we sleep.” We can also economically help them or take more time to motivate them or to talk to them by making them realize how education is valuable. We can also look at to better our schools. In order to do so, Sara Martinez Tucker, CEO of the National Math and Science Initiative, the former Under Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education, and CEO and President of the Hispanic Scholarship Fund shows in Getting More Low-Income Students into College Isn’t about Money, It's About the Curriculum By Sara Martinez Tucker that “we need to set aggressive performance goals for schools, teachers and students, create higher expectations for success, and open up rigorous classes to every student. We also need to provide adequate training and ongoing mentorship opportunities for teachers and change the collective mindset when it comes to how the learning process works, making coursework more relevant, interactive and engaging. For example, some successful schools have added a number of Saturday study sessions taught by a master teacher, time that equates to three extra weeks of class time over the course of the year while providing valuable professional development for teachers.” We have to make students ascertain that doing or practicing homework, attending class, or studying is extremely crucial for academic success. Admissions counselors and professors can also help. According to Katherine Mangan in a report released by the Center for Community College Student Engagement at the University of Texas here, “Admissions counselors and professors should focus on students’ assets, not their deficits, said Shaun R. Harper, an associate professor and executive director of the Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education at the University of Pennsylvania, who has led studies on black male achievement. The Texas center's report includes some of his findings and strategies for helping minority men succeed in college.” We can also help low-income students. As Robert Morse and Diane Tolis show in the article titled Measuring Colleges' Success Graduating Higher-Income Students , an analysis shows graduation rates of higher-income students compared with the entire student body in U.S News & World Report, “Measuring the success of college students at lower income levels is one key goal of the president's proposed new college ratings system, to be developed by the U.S. Department of Education and available before the 2015 school year. The plan will identify 'colleges that do the most to help students from disadvantaged backgrounds as well as identify colleges that are improving their performance,' according to a release from the White House.” Parents of first generation college students have to try to be more supportive to their children. As WILL OKUN stated in the article titled “Parents Who Don’t Parent”, which has published at nytimes.com, "According to the Wall Street Journal, Barack Obama deems ‘parents who do not parent’,one of the most serious challenges facing the country. In a recent North Carolina campaign ad, Obama vowed to improve education but also emphasized that ‘the truth is government can’t do it all.’ During his campaign speeches, he implores that parents had to get involved or ‘make sure your son or your daughter is doing his or her homework.’” On the other hand, according to Publicagenda.org in the article titled Parents Want to Be Involved in Children’s Education Yet Don’t Understand Key Factors Affecting Public Education Quality, Survey Shows Few Know What Children Should be Learning or How Schools Function and Rank; Only 50 Percent Want Children to Have More Challenging Courses ,“‘Many parents report the kinds of changes they believe would enhance their involvement, and what obstacles they encounter that hinder it,’ said Kelli Wells, director of U.S. Education programs with the GE Foundation. ‘And it's crucial for school leaders and policy makers to be realistic about how much work we need to do to help parents participate more fully in their children's education.’” In addition to parental involvement, many students have to stop cheating. According to the article titled Cheating in College: Where It Happens, Why Students Do It and How to Stop It by Bryce Buchmann, Texas A&M, “Tightening the rules on classroom behavior during exams seems like the most obvious and readily available solution for cheating. Since cultural ideas may influence the prevalence of cheating, the best long-term solution may be to take a societal approach. For cheating to be reduced, instead of seeing cheating as something that can't be done, they must come to recognize that it should not be done. Removing the desire to cheat is the least immediately practical but most assured way of encouraging academic integrity.” Additionally, students have to stop using social sites, stop getting suspended in school, stop texting in class, stop being overconfident, stop eating badly, or stop procrastinating. Students have to set goal. As Dale Schunk says, “The process goal promoted self-efficacy and achievement the best. With college students, Schunk and Ertmer found that a process goal of learning computer applications led to higher self-efficacy, self-judged learning progress, and strategy use, compared with an outcome goal of performing the applications.” We can find an appropriate way to help many college students to cope or deal with stress, bad or poor study habits, violence, anxiety, hard programs, college cost, lack of confidence, online classes, or loneliness. According to UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN in the article titled Loneliness, “Students can deal with loneliness by becoming too quickly and deeply involved with people and activities without evaluating the consequences of their involvement. They may also involve in over-committed extracurricular activities.” Help students dealing with large classes, relationship issues, fear of failure or frustration, lack of discipline, lack of intelligence, discrimination, low self-esteem, or burnout. According to Linda Emma ,“UC Berkeley counseling psychologist Rick Low says that burnout is often about imbalance and that signs of it can include ‘fatigue, anxiety, loss of motivation, withdrawal from people, a sense of powerlessness and the feeling of being overwhelmed.’ However, before students reach real burnout, they’re likely to suffer signs of stress -- and that’s when they should get help. On-campus counseling centers are one resource, but students may also consult friends, family and personal physicians for hints on how to handle stress.” Help them find a way to deal with discouragement, obesity, thinking problem, health problems, perfectionism or fear of negative evaluation, lack of cognitive flexibility, language barrier, or laziness. The government, school authorities, everyone, or parents have to try to help out the students who get pregnant. "Girls who leave due to pregnancy report that they would have stayed in school if they had received greater support from the adults at school. Also, research shows that when schools make an effort to support pregnant girls in their education, they can have a significant impact in lowering their drop-out rates," according to Linda Mangel, Education Equity Director, in her article titled Teen Pregnancy, Discrimination, and the Dropout Rate in ACLU. She went on to show that "pregnancy is the #1 reason girls drop out of school." Some teachers should assume responsibility and be good. We can try to help students with college costs. Fortunately, for example, "The Long Beach campus received more than 83,500 undergraduate applications for fall 2014, among the highest count in the nation. While some of those students may choose to attend other four-year schools or community colleges because of costs, 'We will get a fair number of students who can't afford UC,' Dowell said," (Rivera). Students have to comunicate with their instructors when they struggle; their professors can understand them because "they are people" as Nicole Eisenberg shows on College Magazines. We can also look at to help these students choose appropriate majors or majors that would match them. Help minority students.“Instead of offering small, ‘boutique’ programs for minority students that attract just a few dozen students, Ms. McClenney said, colleges should extend programs like mandatory study-skills classes, learning communities, and tutoring to all students. Minority students will benefit disproportionately from such strategies, she said, but they won’t feel embarrassed by participating or feel that they’re being singled out as ‘at risk’,” according to Katherine Mangan in the article titled Minority Male Students Face Challenge to Achieve at Community Colleges in The Chronic of Higher Education. We can also find ways to help many of them performing well in school or gaining test taking strategies skills or organizational skills or to prevent them from getting pregnant or married or from having a dissatisfaction for school, help them managing their time properly or interacting with their professors, or try to help them with their families' responsibilities or to provide a better teaching style that can help students with learning disabilities or dyslexia. We can help them. As Sheryl M. Handler, a medical doctor, shows in the articled titled What Parents Need to Know About Dyslexia (Reading Disability) in American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, “Students with dyslexia can be taught strategies to work with their learning disability. With early detection, the right help and hard work students with dyslexia can and do learn successfully. Working together, parents, in partnership with members of the medical and educational communities, can formulate and oversee a prescription for their success.” Students have to attend class."That's the easiest way to graduate, is to go to class," according to Harry H. Harrison Jr. Best-Selling Parenting Author in the article titled What Causes Students to Fail or Drop out of College. We have to help the students who come from low-income families. “Students across all races and genders cited many keys to success: building strong personal connections on the campus, being held to high expectations, having instructors who are committed to their achievement, and being intensively engaged in the academic experience, both in and out of the classroom,” according to Katherine Mangan in a report released by the Center for Community College Student Engagement at the University of Texas here. Fortunately, it seems to be conceivable that low-income students seem to start receiving help. For example, “At Cal State Long Beach, the percentage of undergraduates receiving federal Pell grants for low-income students increased to nearly 50% last fall, fall 2013, compared to 36% in 2009. ‘We're seeing increasing numbers of students designated as low-income and it had to do with the growing inequality of wealth and income in the U.S., with increasing numbers of young people living in poverty,’ said David Dowell, Cal State Long Beach's interim provost”(Rivera). We can also look at to give kids from low-income family more challenging and demanding class in High school before attending college or help those who have trouble thinking reasonably or studying. “A study by the College Board shows students from poorer families who took more rigorous advanced placement courses in high school had higher four-year college-going rates, first-year grade point averages and retention rates than their counterparts who did not take any AP exams. Low-income students taking and passing AP exams are 32% more likely to graduate from college than their matched non-AP peers.” according to Sara Martinez Tucker in the article titled Getting More Low-Income Students into College Isn’t about Money, It's About the Curriculum, “and memorization and rote learning won’t work any longer. We need to teach our kids how to reason, how to think; they need to know how to study before entering college.” As a matter of fact, statistics have shown that it gives better results when students take college level classes since in High school before entering college or when teachers have better equipment in the classroom. For example, “The National Math and Science Initiative’s College Readiness Program offers students the opportunity to take college-level curriculum and earn college credit. Their teachers are better trained and have more resources in the classroom. The results are particularly notable for minority students. African-American students in the program were 69% more likely to graduate from a four-year college than African-Americans not participating in the program. Hispanic students were 83% more likely to graduate,” according to Sara Martinez Tucker. We can try to help the students who get addicted to Internet or computer. Students can also involve in activities that can help them combating with depression. “Weckmann offered a list of factors that can help increase resilience to depression: having a good social support network from friends, family and church, having regular exercise and a healthful diet, limiting the use of drugs and alcohol or not using at all, having a sense of purpose or helping others through volunteer work or caring for a pet, and maintaining treatment, such as therapy, meditation, medications and lifestyle changes” (Moustafa and Linh Ta). Legislators have to stand up. As Chris Denhart shows, “Legislators can consider tying state funding in part on graduation rate. If this were to happen, schools would go to extreme lengths to ensure students have the opportunity to graduate in four. Vedder hopes that this will ‘eliminate some of the unnecessary graduation requirements that serve as a barrier to graduation.’ With the proper incentives in place, meaning a performance-based funding model, we would not see these barriers to mobility, and fewer students would be closed out of classes.’” Students have to involve in social activities, and faculties or staff members have to try to create those activities in the academic environment. “Students that are active on campus and have interactions with faculty and students outside of the classroom are more likely to pass (and graduate).Universities and faculties need to attempt to foster these connections as much as they can. This is a challenge for online students and environments. Faculty and academic managers need to think of creative ways to do this in our virtual learning environments. Faculty managers currently do not serve well in this role; they are all production based. Faculties need ongoing advanced training in effective teaching online. Faculty managers need to have more training in academic leadership—especially in this area of persistence in online environments” (Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunningin the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014). Many students have to realize that 21 is the minimum drinking age or do not drink or smoke or use drugs at all. Abour H. Cherif, Gerald E. Adams, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Margaret A. Martyn, and Jeremy Dunning talk in the matter in the article titled Why Do Students Fail? Faculty's Perspective in Higher Learning Commission, Collection of Papers 2014. They say, “To succeed, students need to have good reasons for taking a given course and for being in school. Students also need to care about themselves and their education by setting expectations and achievable goals for themselves. In short, academic success is not governed by a student’s cognitive abilities alone. Students need to be motivated to want to learn and work hard at it to make faster gains and learn better than those who are bright but less motivated (Blue 2012). Those who do care seek help and ask questions when needed. By doing so, they ensure their own success and that their education meets their individual needs.” It can also be helpful if some colleges help students financially, and that can also help those colleges. “Kevin Eagan, interim director of UCLA's Cooperative Institutional Research Program says: The difficult financial decisions that students and their families have to make about college are becoming more evident. Colleges that can reduce net costs to families are gaining more of an edge in attracting students to their campus. Over 62 percent of students who were admitted to but did not attend their first-choice college said they were offered aid by the institution they chose to attend,” according to Dennis Romero in the article titled More Students Are Choosing Colleges by Price, UCLA Says.They have to choose appropriate school or assume responsibility. How can students assume responsibility? According to Jamestown Community College, JCC, State University of New York, in Student Responsibility Statement that was endorsed by the faculty in September 2008 and by Student Senate in October 2008, "Students assume responsibility when they take an active role in their learning by recognizing they are accountable for their academic success. Student responsibility is demonstrated when students make choices and take actions which lead them toward their educational goals." Lastly, not at all, in addition to student responsibility, the parents or the members of the schools have to talk to the teenage college students about how alcohol can cause them troubles. That will help a lot. “Studies have shown that teens whose parents talk to them about alcohol and drugs are 42% less likely to use those substances than teens whose parents don’t discuss the issue with them” (Effects of Teenage Drinking in learn-about-alcoholism.com). If we all do that, it is conceivable or possible that there will be a decrease in college dropout and failure rates.“A lot of people think college is hard and then think about quitting and doing something else because they do not think they can cut it. This is not a good reason to drop out. In many ways, college life is representative of reality, and all you’ll learn from leaving is that you quit when things got tough. At some point in your life, you’ll have to learn to become self-reliant to survive in an environment like that"(Tunney).
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First Bad Grade: What Do I Do Next? by Nicole Eisenberg on October 07, 2011Junior > Marketing & Supply Chain Management > University of Maryland, College Park. November 14, 2013.
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Farooqi, Saif. “LONELINESS: THE ROLE THAT IT PLAYS ON A STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE.”Tuesday, May 12, 2009. Thursday, July 27. 2012.
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Dr. Tomas Estrada, Elizabethtown College & Dr. Sara A. Atwood, Elizabethtown College. “AC 2012-4382: FACTORS THAT AFFECT STUDENT FRUSTRATION LEVEL IN INTRODUCTORY LABORATORY EXPERIENCES.” Sept 20, 2012.
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Whitmore School of Business and Economics and University of New Hampshire. “SOCIAL NETWORKING USAGE AND GRADES AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS,”A Study to Determine the Correlation Of Social Media Usage and Grades. “N,D.” August 20, 2012.
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Zakriya University Multan
A finding from the 2001-2002 of NFTE in two Boston Public Schools by Michael Nakkula, Claudia Pineda, Amy Dray, and Miranda Lutyens. July 21. 2012.
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Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses By Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, Thought & Action Fall 2011. National Education or scientist.
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Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses By Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, Thought College Students Lack Critical Thinking Skills, But Who’s To Blame? Oct. 14, 2013.
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Survey: 17% of high schoolers drink, smoke, use drugs during school day by Carl Azuz, CNN, August 22nd, 2012 , November 26, 2013.
Why Do College Students Smoke? , Ressources: Resources http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/factsheet.html May16,2013 from http://www.honestcollege.com/college-students-smoke.
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A study titled Academic Burnout Among Students at Faculty of Organizational Sciences by Management Journal for Theory and Practice Management that was conducted by Ana Nikodijević, Jelena Anđelković Labrović, Aleksandar Đoković at the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Organizational Sciences. XIII International Symposium SymOrg 2012, 05 - 09 June 2012, Zlatibor, Serbia. UDC: 159.944.4.072-057.875(497.11)"2011/2012" DOI: 10.7595/management.fon.2012.0019.October 30, 2013.
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Barzegar, Majid .The Relationship between Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement- The Mediation Role of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies- A Path Analysis International Conference on Management, Humanity and Economics (ICMHE'2012) August 11-12, 2012 Phuket (Thailand). October 31, 2013.
Why Students Drink by the University of Minnesota
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Messenger, David. "Studies Show People More Stressed as Students than At Other Stage of Life Due to Work, Relationships.” Stud.life.com. Student Life, the Independent Newspaper of Washington in St Louis since 1878. Oct. 30. 2009. May. 15. 2012.
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Doris M. Iarovici, MD, Medscape Multispecialty in Adolescent ADHD in Advokat CD, Guidry D, Martino L in the article titled Licit and Illicit Use of Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Undergraduate College Students in Journal of the American College of Health and Wilens TE, Adler LA, Adams J, et al in the article titled Misuse and Diversion of Stimulants Prescribed for ADHD: A Systematic Review of the Literature in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. CME Released: 08/28/2008; Valid for credit through 08/28/2009. November 27, 2013.
Scheffler RM, Brown TT, Fulton BD, Hinshaw SP, Levine P, and Stone Show in Positive association between attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder medication.reference: National Institute of Mental Health. November 17, 2013.
Webmaster, The College Student with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) , July 15, 2005 in SAC, University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. November 27, 2013.
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What causes students to fail or drop out of college by Harry H. Harrison Jr.Best-Selling Parenting Author http://www.kidsinthehouse.com/video/what-causes-students-fail-or-drop-out-college
Why Students Drop Out: Perceptions of Educators, Parents, and Students in SEDL
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Rob Ramaker, Guy Ackermans, and Pascal Tieman in Ressource for Wageningen Students and employee. March 8, 2012. Aug. 17, 2012.
Chase, Peru: Gender discrimination causes young girls to miss school peruthisweek news, October 14, 2013. October 20, 2013.
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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN in Loneliness, Counseling Center at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign | 610 E John St | 217 333 3704 | RSS Feed Connect. Learn. Achieve. Student Affairs at Illinois © 2007 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. Feb. 8, 2014.
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Christian Haro, “Managing Your Time,” November 16, 2008. October 30, 2013.
See: Nelson David Bassey in his new book titled The New Generation of Leadership that he released in August 22, 2013 with his co-authors Dr. Rajasvaran Logeswaran, an experienced educator and Dean at Nilai University, and Sarah Michel, a certified speaking professional (CSB) and a networking expert who helps people increase their network by investing in their network , especially the section titled A Wake up Call for Young People. October 25, 2013.
RAMPELL , CATHERINE: Many With New College Degree Find the Job Market Humbling, May 18, 2011 in The New York times. October 25, 2013.
Michele Heister in the article titled Dropout
Data and Statistics in the 2008-2009 school year data by the Division of Data
Quality in PA or Pennsylvania Department of Education in PIMSPennsylvania Department of Education - Division of Data Quality
Street | Harrisburg, PA 17126-0333
Phone: 717.787.2644 | Fax: 717.787.3148 |
Ra-DDQDataCollection@pa.gov | www.education.state.pa.us
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MotivotionalWellBeing. “Overcoming Laziness.” “ N.D” August 21, 2012.
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Quentin Fottrell, This Is the Biggest Challenge Facing First-year College Students. Oct 16, 2015. Oct 16, 2015. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/this-is-the-biggest-challenge-facing-first-year-college-students-2015-10-16.
Many College Students Fear Going Hungry at Some Point: Survey by Robert Preidt in U.S news and world report, Jan. 31, 2014. February 1, 2014.
William Buskist and Christopher Howard. “Helping Failing Students
Part 2: Understanding, Reaching, and Helping Passively Failing Students” January 2012. August 21, 2012.
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Dr. Timothy A. Pychyl , Fear of Failure in psychology today , February 13, 2009. November 14, 2013.
Kids Fail Less When They Know Failure Is Part of Learning, Study Finds in ABC news by Mikaela Conley, Mar 14, 2012. November 14, 2013.
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J. Richard Gentry, Ph.D. in Raising Readers, Writers, and Spellers, the author of Raising Confident Readers, How to Teach Your Child to Read and Write--from Baby to Age 7, in the article titled A Lack of Parent Engagement Helps Create Failing Schools, July 13, 2011. October 17, 2013.
Do Students Really Need Practice Homework? By Alfie Kohn: From Chapter 6 of The Homework Myth (Da Capo Press, 2006) Copyright © 2006 by Alfie Kohn. December 30, 2013. http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/practice.htm
See: University expels 34 students for cheating By Hala Khalaf in the National.eenews, December 27, 2010. October 19, 2013.
Adams, Caralee. “College Dropouts Linked to Preparedness More Than Effort,” College Bound, An exploration of the Issues Affecting Access to Higher Education. June 17, 2011. August 22, 2012.
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Tristan Watson. " Low self-esteem affects college students, " The University Star. Oct 5 2009. Oct. 21. 2012.
Intelligence and IQ , Dr. C. George BoereeShippensburg University by Copyright 2003, C. George Boeree. June 17, 2014.
What Is the Average IQ By Kendra Cherry in PsychologyToday.“N.D” 06, 17, 2014.
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The Free Dictionnary by Farlex: Intelligence Discipline. “N.D” 6/17/ 2014.
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Cheers! Students who binge drink are happier with university life, claims study,News, by By Agency staff. http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/technology-science/science/students-who-binge-drink-are-happier-1271144
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Roldens Paulynice was born in December 24, 1990 in Gonaives, Haiti. He has published many short stories and essays, especially about relationship or love, literature review, education, and politics. Think before You Act and What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Drop out are two of his works that he likes the most. Fortunately, in February 2009, he had the chance to come to the United States, attended Glade Central High School, and graduated in May 2010 . In May 8, 2012, he graduated from Palm Beach State College with an Associate in Arts Degree. In May 2014, he graduated from Florida Atlantic University with a Bachelor of Science in Economics. In May 2015, he graduated from Lynn University with an MBA in Hospitality Management. He is currently attending Nova Southestern University, pursuing his doctorate in education management leadership, and he is currently holding teaching position with The School District of Palm Beach County. He was Medical Case Manager at FoundCare's and Recreation Leader, Child Care Provider, at Boca Raton Community Middle School. In the near future, he wants to become a CPA. Being a writer is something that he has a certain zeal to become in his life, but right now, he is trying, hoping to become a famous one one day. He is the author of Teenage Marriages Are Likely to End Unhappily, Think before You Act, What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Dropout, Many People Get Married for Foolish Reasons, An Essay about the Tell-Tale-Heart and The Black Cat, and many other works.
How to Cite That Work
Paulynice, Roldens. "What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Dropout?" Hubpages.com. Hubpages. October 31, 2011. Write Date of Enrty. paulyniceroldens.hubpages.com/hub/What-Causes-College-Students-to-Fail-or-Dropout#comment8223407.
Paulynice, Roldens. ( 2011, Oct. 31). What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Dropout [ Supplemental material]. Hubpages. Retrieved from paulyniceroldens.hubpages.com/hub/What-Causes-College-Students-to-Fail-or-Dropout#comment8223407.
Roldens P. What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Dropout? (2011, Oct. 31), [cited date of Entry]; Available from: Hubpages.
Paulynice, R 2011, What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Dropout? Hubpages. View write date of entry.
5) Chicago Style Citation
Paulynice, Roldens. “What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Dropout?” What Causes Many College Students to Fail or Dropout? paulyniceroldens.hubpages.com/hub/What-Causes-College-Students-to-Fail-or-Dropout#comment-8223407.
© 2011 Roldens Paulynice
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