What Causes Different Seasons
The short answer: because the Earth is tilted on its axis by 23 degrees.
It takes the Earth nearly three hundred and sixty-five days (one year) to revolve around the Sun.
Because of the title in the axis of the Earth, the two hemispheres get different amounts and duration of sunlight at different times of the year. This is what causes different seasons.
Let me try to explain this visually.
1) On the 22nd of September every year, both hemispheres get roughly equal amount of sunlight and in both hemispheres the day is roughly as long as the night. From this day onwards, days begin to get shorter in the northern hemisphere eventually causing winter conditions. While the exact opposite happens in the southern hemisphere eventually causing summer conditions.
2) On the 22nd of December, the northern hemisphere experiences its shortest day and hence the least amount of sunlight during the day. This is peak winter in the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere, on the other hand, experiences its longest day and peak summer conditions. Christmas in the southern hemisphere is bright and sunny.
3) On the 20th of March, both hemispheres get roughly equal amount of sunlight and in both hemispheres the day is roughly as long as the night. From this day onwards, days begin to get longer in the northern hemisphere eventually causing peak summer conditions and days begin to get shorter in the southern hemisphere eventually causing winter.
4) On the 21st of June, the northern hemisphere experiences its longest day and hence receives the maximum amount of sunlight during the day. This is peak summer conditions in the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere, on the other hand, experiences its shortest day and peak winter conditions. Hence, if you find yourself in the southern hemisphere during the month of June, don’t be surprised if it’s snowing outside.
If the Earth was not tilted on its axis, each part of the planet would get the exact same amount of sunlight throughout the day as well as year and the result of this would be a planet without seasons or rather a planet without changes in the season.
Of course, this is just a general overview. There are a lot of other complex factors such as altitude, winds, etc that need to be accounted for in order to answer what causes different seasons such as spring, fall, monsoon etc.
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