What are the Signs and Symptoms of Leukemia (AML)?

Bone Marrow Aspirate showing Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Several blasts have Auer rods.

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What is Leukemia?

Leukemia is an uncontrollable growth of developing blood cells (blast cells). As they undergo a cancerous change they don’t grow into mature blood cells and are not capable of performing the functions of the mature blood cells.

Based on the origin and the nature, Leukemia can be grouped as

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In this hub we will see in detail about Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Leukemias (AML, CML vs. ALL, CLL)

What is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

Our blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. There are two main types of stem cell lines in the bone marrow; myeloid stem cell line and lymphoid stem cell Line. Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets originate in the Myeloid Stem Cell Line and immune cells like B-cells and T –cells originate in the lymphoid stem cell line. Acute Myeloid Leukemia affects the growth of blast cells in myeloid stem line. These patients bone marrow will be filled with immature myeloid blast cells which in turn results in less number of mature red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Thus people with Acute Myeloid Leukemia become susceptible to anemia, recurrent infections, easy bruising and fatigability.

As you know red blood cells contain hemoglobin which is the oxygen carrying compound in the blood. Different tissues of our body get oxygen with the help of hemoglobin. So anemia which is a reduction in hemoglobin makes the person fatigued.

White blood cells are essential for our body’s immunity and a reduction in the number of white blood cells make the person susceptible to infections.

Likewise platelets play an important role in the formation of blood clots and the prevention of continuous bleeding if the body is injured. A reduction in the number of platelets will make the person susceptible to easy bruisability and bleeding tendencies.

As the disease advances there will be accumulation of immature blast cells in organs like spleen and liver.

What are the Risk Factors for Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

The exact cause for Acute Myeloid Leukemia is not known. The risk factors can be

  • Exposure to ionizing radiation: Large doses of ionizing radiation can put people at risk for developing Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Those who have received large doses of ionizing radiation as a part of their treatment (radiation therapy) for another cancer come under this category.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals: benzene exposure over a period of time may put people at risk for developing Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Certain chemotherapeutic drugs are also known to cause Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
  • Smoking increases the chance of development of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  • Some genetic factors are also believed to play a role in the development of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

As discussed earlier the bone marrow of a patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia is filled with immature blood cells. As a result the number of all types of mature blood cells will be low.

  • Anemia: It results from the decrease in number of red blood cells. Patients will have fatigue (tiredness) and weakness. They may feel giddy especially when they get up from sitting or lying down positions. Patients may also feel breathless with increased activity.
  • Increased Frequency of Infections: This is because of the reduction in number of white blood cells. It can be skin infections, respiratory infections or urinary tract infections.
  • Easy bruisability: This is because of the low platelet count. There can be nose bleeds, excessive bleeding during menstruation prolonged bleeding from cuts and wounds.

What are the Treatment Options available for Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

Chemotherapy: is the main treatment for treating Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Chemotherapy uses a combination of drugs given in cycles with rest periods in between. Acute Myeloid Leukemia is rapidly progressive and hence the treatment should be started as early as possible. Chemotherapeutic drugs target the rapidly multiplying cancer cells. They can also cause damage to the rapidly multiplying other cells of the body like bone marrow, gastrointestinal mucosa and hair follicles and may result in various side effects.

Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia is divided into

  • Induction therapy: which aim to reduce the proportion of immature blast cells in the bone marrow to less than 5 percent, bring about absence of blast cells from the circulation and to bring back the blood cell counts to normal
  • Consolidation therapy: aimed at maintaining the remission phase and prevention of relapse (reappearance of leukemia).

Summary

Acute Myeloid Leukemia is a type of blood cancer for which the most important treatment option is chemotherapy. The prognosis or the course of the disease depends on various factors like age of the patient, previous treatment for cancers and the genetic predisposition of the patient.

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Comments 14 comments

thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 17 months ago from India Author

Hi lex123

Thanks for the visit


lex123 profile image

lex123 17 months ago

Reading this hub, brought back the memories of a friend who had AML and lost her life, years ago. Very informative hub. Voted up.


thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 17 months ago from India Author

@Deb

It was very unfortunate that we didn't realize the health hazards of DDT early enough to prevent all these. How dreadful it would be to have cancer at school age.

Thanks for dropping by


aviannovice profile image

aviannovice 17 months ago from Stillwater, OK

Excellent synopsis! Many people that I went to high school with, had various forms of cancer, including leukemia. I am assuming that this was the case due to DDT that was sprayed in areas on the roadside to keep weeds in check. However, I believe that it caused mutations in people's bodies as well, and made their cells become cancerous. So many of us played outside while this spraying was being done, as it was supposedly "safe." In any event, I was one of the lucky ones.


thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 2 years ago from India Author

Hi WriterJanis

Thanks for the visit and comment


WriterJanis profile image

WriterJanis 2 years ago from California

Good coverage. I used to know someone who had this.


thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 2 years ago from India Author

Hi suzettenaples

Thanks for stopping by


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 2 years ago from Taos, NM

Very interesting and informative. It is good to know about this and I found this helpful.


thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 2 years ago from India Author

Dr Pran Rangan,

Thank you Sir


Dr Pran Rangan profile image

Dr Pran Rangan 2 years ago from Kanpur (UP), India

A good write-up on AML.


thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 2 years ago from India Author

Hi MG Singh

Thanks for stopping by


thumbi7 profile image

thumbi7 2 years ago from India Author

Hi DDE,

Thanks for the visit


MG Singh profile image

MG Singh 2 years ago from Singapore

An informative post. Adds to knowledge


DDE profile image

DDE 2 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Leukemia (AML)? is an informative and well explained hub on this topic.

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