Why so many Irish emigrated to America
Over 36 million citizens of the United States call themselves Irish Americans. That's compared to around 6 million people living on the island of Ireland today. Why did so many Irish emigrate to America? Since the eighteenth century there have been two major waves of Irish immigration to the US; around 250,000 Scots-Irish left in the 1700s in pursuit of greater religious freedom, while an estimated 1 million Irish Catholics set sail for the United States during the great famine of 1845-1849.
Both groups have made an important contributions to American life today. While most Irish Americans would trace their ancestors to the second wave of Irish emigrants in the 1800s, the earlier arrivals, the Scots-Irish did much to shape the culture of regions like Appalachia.
Scots-Irish set out for freedom in the New World
Scots-Irish ( sometimes called Scotch-Irish, or Ulster-Scots), refers to the people whose ancestors moved from Scotland to the north of Ireland around 1600 at the time of the Ulster Plantation. Unlike English settlers who were moving to Ireland at this time, the Scots-Irish were mainly 'dissenters' or Presbyterians in faith and they did not recognise the Established Church of England (Anglican / Episcopalian). As Ireland was now effectively controlled by the English Crown this meant there were many laws of religious prohibition in Ireland which discriminated against Presbyterians, as well as Catholics at this time. These were known as the 'Penal Laws' and the penalties for breaking them could be severe - even death. In the 17th and 18th century Scots-Irish 'dissenters' were not allowed to build churches, they were forced to pay a tithe to the Established Church (even though they did not recognize it) and they were charged higher rents for their lands than followers of the Anglican faith.
Both religious and economic factors inspired many Scots-Irish to immigrate to America. The New World promised freedom of conscience and the opportunity to set up a community free from repressive religious laws. In one parish near where I live, a pastor named James McGregor set sail for New Hampshire in 1718 with a large part of his congregation.High rents and problems in the Irish linen industry inspired many others to set sail for America which was seen as a land of freedom and opportunity.
Up to a quarter of a million Scots-Irish are estimated to have emigrated. While the first waves of emigration arrived mainly at New England, the later majority of Scots-Irish settled in Pennsylvania and Virginia - where their influence can be seen to this day in traditional bluegrass music. They were mainly small-time farmers and tradesmen. George Washington himself was said to have regarded their fighting prowess and staunch character particularly highly, and after their treatment by the English crown in Ireland, the Scots-Irish were very much willing to take up arms for the cause of independence.
Irish Catholics flee famine and poverty
By the mid-nineteenth century the Ireland was over-populated and large Catholic families in particular relied almost solely on potatoes to feed their families. This was because even a small patch of land could yield enough potatoes to feed a large family through the year. However, in the years 1845 - 1848 disaster struck. The potato crop in large areas was destroyed by blight in successive years. Many impoverished families had literally nothing to eat. The biggest estimates are that up to one million people died, and that another million had to emigrate to avoid starvation.
Those who emigrated at this time faced great hardship on the journey and many did not survive to see the American shore. As third class passengers they were kept in dark holds below decks and forbidden to move out of their quarters for the whole of the six week journey. Sickness spread like wildfire. Hence the nick-name ' coffin ships'. Many of these Irish emigrants did not really want to leave their homeland, and there are many sad but beautiful Irish folk songs about leaving Ireland at this time.
This new wave of Irish immigrants settled mainly in the North East - Boston and New York, and also around Chicago. They began at the bottom rung of society in America, though many families have worked their way up to the highest level today - a famous example being the Kennedys. Occupations such as the police and fire service seem to have particularly drawn recruits from the Irish American community.The Catholic Irish immigrants brought their folk music and their traditions such as St Patrick's Day and Halloween.
Famous Irish Americans
The Scots-Irish who moved to America in the eighteenth century and the Catholic Irish who emigrated in the nineteenth can count many famous Americans among their descendants.
Davy Crokett was half Scots-Irish. Fourteen American presidents have some Scots-Irish ancestry, most notably Andrew Jackson, Thedore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Dolly Parton has said she is very proud of her Scots-Irish roots and John Wayne once remarked that he was just a 'Scotch-Irish little boy'.
The Kennedys are probably the most famous Irish Americans involved in politics, but Reagan is also an Irish surname and even Barak Obama has some distant Irish ancestry. Judy Garland was the granddaughter of an Irish woman, and Grace Kelly was also from an Irish American family.
More by this Author
This article looks at the history of the Celts in central Europe, as well as the six Celtic nations of northwestern Europe. Were they all the same Celts? Read this article for an introduction to the historical debate.
Examining what it means to have Irish blood, outlining where Irish DNA comes from and who are the closest genetic relatives of the Irish in Europe. Of interest to anyone with Irish ancestry who wants to understand their...
When most English-speakers think of Christmas, they think of the customs and traditions which originated in Northern Europe; Christmas trees, evergreen wreaths, Santa Claus, mistletoe and more... However, Mexican...