World War 1 Weapons WW I

A Group of German Soldiers in 1914

The German Army During World War 1

The German Army (The Axis)

In 1914 at the Outbreak of World War 1, the German Army was the strongest in Europe; Germany knew that war was immanent and had been preparing for many years before The Great War started.

At the outbreak of the war, Germany had 840,000 men in the army with over 3 million reservists at the ready for the call up to arms.

During the War Turkey and Bulgaria fought alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary.

German infantry were issued with the Mauser rifle. This rifle was designed in 1898 by Peter Paul Mauser. It was popular with those who were issued with it because of its reliability but it did suffer one weakness - its magazine only took five bullets.

A Group of British Soldiers 1914

The British Army In World War 1

At the start of the war, the British army had 247,400 soldiers and only 218,000 reservists, during the war though many more men joined the army or were conscripted (forced to join).

The Allied armies of Britain, France and Russia were joined by Serbia, Montenegro, Belgium, Romania, Portugal, Greece, and in 1917 The United states joined in the war effort.

The basic British infantryman, like his French and German contemporaries, was issued with his uniform, webbing and a rifle with bayonet. Some infantrymen were trained to use the relatively new machine gun but the majority had to make do with his rifle. The British infantry man was issued with the Lee Enfield 0.303 rifle.

German Maxim MG'08 Machine Gun

Weapons of World War I

The Vickers Machine Gun

Big Bertha

British 6inch 26cwt WW1 Howitzer

WW1 Tank

German Stick Grenade

British Mills Bomb

Land Combat Weapons Of World War 1

World War One on the Western front brought a new kind of war, Trench warfare, where both sides slugged it out for most of the war years. With this new type of war, new weapons had to be developed and modified on either side for them to have any tactical advantage.

Machine Guns

Machine guns were first used during the American Civil War to devastating effect, but advances in technology made the machine guns even more effective during World War 1.

They could fire over 600 bullets in one minute and they were so effective that they were considered as "Weapons of mass Destruction.

The German Maxim machine gun was fed by a fabric or metal belt, making it a very effective automatic weapon, its relatively small size also made it difficult for the enemy to destroy.

On the opening day of the Somme offensive the British suffered a record number of single day casualties, 60,000, the great majority lost under withering machine gun fire.

The Vickers Gun,

closely modelled on the Maxim Gun, comprised the British Army's standard heavy machine gun at the start of the First World War, following its formal adoption in 1912.

Water cooled - via a jacket around the barrel which held approximately one gallon - the Vickers was loaded from a 250-round fabric belt mounted on a tripod. A rubber hose leading to a container condensed steam from the jacket as a means of minimising water wastage.

The gun used standard rifle 0.303-inch ammunition and weighed a little under 20kg; it was thus lighter than both the original Maxim Gun and the German Maschinengewehr 08. It fired some 450 rounds per minute; after some 10,000 rounds had been fired the gun barrel invariably required replacement.

Despite this the Vicker's was still considered unwieldy as a battlefield infantry weapon, and could not be readily transported from site to site without great effort. The gun itself was usually operated by a team of six men.

Artillery

For four years the British used artillery and fired 170 million shells in that time. But Germany had a plan up their sleeve. For years, German scientists were developing the biggest artillery ever known. It was call the ‘Big Bertha'. Big Bertha was so powerful it could fire at the heart of Paris from 120 kilometres away. The cannons weren't the only things that had been improved. The shells were upgraded as well. Instead of ordinary shells, new High-explosive shells were developed. The Shells were thin casings and were filled with tiny lead pellets. This was so effective, that artillery fire killed hundreds and thousands of men.

Tanks

Tanks were introduced into battle for the first time in 1916 by the British, these proved to be unreliable though, A later model played a vital role during the allied advances of 1918, flattening barbed wire,crossing enemy trenches and acting as shields for the advancing troops.

Grenades

The Germans introduced the Hand Grenade better known as the Stick grenade into the battlefield, they worked in the same way as today's grenades, pull out the pin and throw it.

The Mills Bomb introduced into battle by the British looks more like a hand grenade that would be used today.

Both of these bombs were designed to cause maximum damage in confined spaces.

A German Club For Close Combat

World War One Close Combat Weapons

Apart from Bayonets attached to the soldiers rifles, soldiers also carried other weapons for hand to hand combat, during a raid a silent kill would keep the enemy unaware of your presence, allied soldiers would be armed with daggers and sometimes even swords.

German soldiers also had daggers for a silent kill and they also carried a wooden club with a spiked metal head similar to a medieval weapon.

Gas Attack

Poison Gas In The Trenches of World War 1

Gas: The German's "secret" new weapon

Gas was available in three basic varieties:

Lachrymal (tearing agent)

Much like today's tear gas and mace, this gas caused temporary blindness and greatly inflamed the nose and throat of the victim. A gas mask offered very good protection from this type of gas. xylyl bromide was a popular tearing agent since it was easily brewed.

Asphyxiate

These are the poisonous gases. This class includes chlorine, phosgene and diphosgene. Chlorine inflicts damage by forming hydrochloric acid when coming in contact with moisture such as found in the lungs and eyes. It is lethal at a mix of 1:5000 (gas/air) whereas phosgene is deadly at 1:10,000 (gas/air) - twice as toxic! Diphosgene, first used by the Germans at Verdun on 22-Jun-1916, was deadlier still and could not be effectively filtered by standard issue gas masks.

Chlorine gas destroyed the respiratory organs of its victims and this led to a slow death by asphyxiation. One nurse described the death of one soldier who had been in the trenches during a chlorine gas attack. "He was sitting on the bed, fighting for breath, his lips plum coloured. He was a magnificent young Canadian past all hope in the asphyxia of chlorine. I shall never forget the look in his eyes as he turned to me and gasped: I can't die! Is it possible that nothing can be done for me?" It was a horrible death, but as hard as they tried, doctors were unable to find a way of successfully treating chlorine gas poisoning.

Blistering Agent (Mustard Gas)

Dichlorethylsulphide: the most dreaded of all chemical weapons in World War I - mustard gas. Unlike the other gases which attack the respiratory system, this gas acts on any exposed, moist skin. This includes, but is not limited to, the eyes, lungs, armpits and groin. A gas mask could offer very little protection. The oily agent would produce large burn-like blisters wherever it came in contact with skin. It also had a nasty way of hanging about in low areas for hours, even days, after being dispersed. A soldier jumping into a shell crater to seek cover could find himself blinded, with skin blistering and lungs bleeding.

Sopwith Camel

Fokker Triplane

Zeppelin

Aerial Combat During World War 1

At the beginning of the war, aircraft were used for reconnaissance,flying above the enemy lines, helping to direct the artillery bombardments or to detect and troop movements, it was soon realised though that bombs could be dropped from the planes onto the enemy causing as much damage as possible.

This led to the development of fighter planes, the Sopwith Camel was developed by the British and the Germans retaliated with the Fokker Triplane.

The most famous pilots of The Great War was a German pilot named Manfred Von Richthofen, better known as the Red Baron, He was responsible for shooting down over 80 Allied aircraft before he himself was killed when his aircraft, a Fokker Triplane, was shot down over France in 1918.

In 1915 the first German Airships or Zeppelin's appeared in the Sky over Britain, they were silent invaders that caused a lot of panic amongst the people below, at any moment a hail of bombs could be dropped from the airship.

In the early years of the war Zeppelin's could fly much higher than airplanes and it would be almost impossible to shoot them down, this made them useful for bombing raids, although Zeppelins were rarely used and played little part in the war.

By 1917 airships were mainly restricted to Naval Reconnaissance because of the invention of incendiary bullets and higher flying and faster airplanes.

WW1 German U-boat

HMS Dreadnought

Naval Combat During World War 1

In 1906 Britain launched the Dreadnought Battleship, which sparked off a naval building programme in other countries.

Britain being an Island relied on their fleet of Merchant ships to keep them supplied with food and equipment, built a fleet of battleships to protect the merchants and to prevent supplies from reaching Germany.

Although the German Navy did have a few Battleships they took the fight below the surface by building submarines or U-boats as they were better known.

The Battle of Jutland off the coast of Denmark in the North sea, was the only major sea battle of the whole war, the battle mainly took place under the sea, as German U-boats fought a damaging war against British merchant and troop ships.

Fourteen British and eleven German ships were sunk with great loss of life.

Both sides claimed victory. The British had lost more ships and many more sailors, and the British press criticised the Grand Fleet's actions, but the German plan of destroying Britain's squadrons had also failed. The Germans continued to pose a threat that required the British to keep their battleships concentrated in the North Sea, but they never again contested control of the high seas. Instead, the German Navy turned its efforts and resources to unrestricted submarine warfare.

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Comments 130 comments

Eileen Hughes profile image

Eileen Hughes 8 years ago from Northam Western Australia

You have just about everything there, very interesting.


jimmythejock profile image

jimmythejock 8 years ago from Scotland Author

Thanks Eileen, WW1 has always been of interest to me so I really enjoy carrying out the research for these hubs.....jimmy


Zsuzsy Bee profile image

Zsuzsy Bee 8 years ago from Ontario/Canada

What a great hub Jimmy. You brought the horror of war to the fore-front. Wasn't WWl the war that was going to end all wars? It somehow seems no matter how crude or sophisticated the weaponry is humanity can turn it on each other...

regards Zsuzsy


johnr54 profile image

johnr54 8 years ago from Texas

I really enjoy the information you've pulled together on WWI. It's a great set of hubs, quite thorough.


budwood profile image

budwood 8 years ago from Southern Nevada

Good work - Very nice and informative hub.  I have been interested in WWI, mostly because my father was a victim of mustard gas.  Mustard gas didn't kill as many as it disabled - it was designed to disable as many as it could because of the servicing costs behind the lines. 

My father coughed every night for the rest of his life - - but he did make 90 years of age.  I was in WWII, but didn't get in harms way, thankfully.

The USA's entrance into WWI is an example of the USA government blundering in and screwing up an awful lot of human beings! I am convinced that the Lucitania incident was a set-up.


Jessie 7 years ago

omg thank you so much. i had a history assignment and you helped me so much. thnx =D


Ron McKimmy 7 years ago

I've been handed down an Aerial Bomb and can not find any info on it. Is there a place I could send a pic and info ,so IO could find out what I have?


V. SIVAGNANAM PILLAI 7 years ago

The story of World War-I written by Britishers contains all details required for a history scholar. But one thing remains silent, for unknown reasons! The census of India was taken first in 1901. Every ten years, the census was retaken. The population in 1911 was 19 crores. In 1921, the population fell to 18 crores. The decline for population in 1921 census is due to participation of Indian soldiers on behalf of British Govt. No one seems to be concerned about this. They simply describe the war as "won by weapons." Please give some appreciation to those who handled "your weapons" and won the war for Britain. Even today, there are many memorials for World War I heroes in India. (Eg.: Chennai Beach Road, South India)


jesse 7 years ago

who cares about India!!!!!!! I think he did a good job.


cliff 7 years ago

this is very helpful thanks


britneydavidson profile image

britneydavidson 7 years ago from united kingdom

wow....i felt like i been to world war one and watched soilders using these weapons...really really good information.thanx for posting such a nice hub.very nice.


Pasha Aqilla 7 years ago

Nice hub, give me more knowledge abot World War-I.


Skoolkid771 7 years ago

thankz! this helped me out in my social studies project.everythings here! :)


historygirl532 7 years ago

History seems so easy with this WW1 info thanks I will ace this test


historygirl532 7 years ago

how on earth did you find so much info and there is a cool donold duck cartoon about the WW


EcoAsh profile image

EcoAsh 7 years ago from Hemet

Wow! the germans had a lot of crazy weapons to fight with. The technology of German weapons has always been very cutting edge throughout history.


bob 7 years ago

this is cool it is very interesting11111111111!!!!!!!11


Chrissieeeeee 7 years ago

really helpful thanks for the info (y)


Teresa Hart 7 years ago

I am currently preparing a power point presentation for my year 11 GCSE students on 'The Weapons of World War 1' and found the pictures on your site very helpful, thank you. I have also read the comments posted and would like to take this opportunity to reply to V. SIVAGNANAM PILLAI. As a teacher of History in Britain today, whenever we are studying either of the World Wars we never omit the courageous support that the allies had from the soldiers of the British Empire. Men from all over the empire fought with bravery and determination and this fact is always conveyed to the next generation. Let us not forget all of those that fought so that we may live in a free and democratic society.


Jess 6 years ago

Wow. I have to make some notes for my history exam, this was so helpful! Thank you!


kim ball  6 years ago

i sayy its very its veryyy intrusting aand very perrttty


Adam 6 years ago

Thanks for helping me with my finial Project at school


hannahterry 6 years ago

this is so cool:-)


??? 6 years ago

very halpful information for my school essay.

thankss!!


Cakes, the way forward 6 years ago

Cheers pal very detailed information you've helped me loads. Got me out of a crisis!


nate stephens 6 years ago

this is pretty good but it could use a lil more info


NerissaHall 6 years ago

Thanks you really helped me a lot.


abby 6 years ago

wow, thank you this will really help my history project. :D


Lindsey 6 years ago

I am doing a research paper,and i find this information very helpful!


Megan 6 years ago

thanks this has been great it has helped me with my history assessmnet on WW1


Mico Sanchez 6 years ago

thanks for the info


zach b 6 years ago

great info , used it for a history project


Robert 6 years ago

Cheers mate, that's great.


FunnymonkeyIl 6 years ago

Thanks for the info, it helped a lot on my school project


WW1 6 years ago

thx!! lots of info, helped me finish my history project


holden cox  6 years ago

very good stuff mate nice work as u u say say in america shiten. goog good


Justice  6 years ago

Wow thx a lot man. used it on my WW1 project. dont think i coulda found this info easly anywhere els!!!!!


joshie 6 years ago

awesome-o!


Chaos Boy 6 years ago

Thanks the info is great lol


someone 6 years ago

do u know anything about the averadge cost of artillery


Junie 6 years ago

Thanks a lot on this hub. Great insights. I thought I hate to learned my history subject. But I love to learn more on this action story.


Kyle Crawford 6 years ago

I have a 303. WW1 and also used in WW2 how can i find out the background of the gun


ssssssssssssssssssssssssss 6 years ago

It really helped me but more info


rob24hrs profile image

rob24hrs 6 years ago from UK

Good hub Jimmy. My grandmother witnessed a zeppelin being shot down over Hartlepool. I have documented it here. rgds Rob


SId 5 years ago

thanks so much this is grrrrrreeeeeeeeaaaaaaaatttttttt :) :)


Dim 5 years ago

great info thanks a lot


Brandon 5 years ago

Thanks! I'm doing an essay on weaponry in WW1 and this helps so much! Thanks again!


jiii 5 years ago

this is awsome!!!


ELITE WARRIOR CP 5 years ago

great info to do my homework L.O.L


Berti15 5 years ago

thanks so much dude. i hav to do this project for history class about how technology evolved in WW1 and your info and pics have really helped me out! thanks man!


Adam 5 years ago

Thanks, this helped a lot in English. I am doing a project in English were I have to get a talk prepared and this information was very helpful, thank you.


Wilson 5 years ago

Thanks for the great article, it was interesting and also saved me for my WWI assignment. This information is very useful and helped me answer my questions.


case 5 years ago

world war 1 is awsome


shpard 5 years ago

thanks guys this really helped me with my history project that im currently working on now! Thank you sooo much!!!!!


Crazy 5 years ago

yo man this is very good stuff so keep it up and make another page to get more info


yeshi zangpo 5 years ago

dang.............dang......dats great


Malcolm_Cox profile image

Malcolm_Cox 5 years ago from Newcastle, England

hi,

I have published a HUB and linked a couple of yours on there. I hope you don't mind.


gordon strachan  5 years ago

thank you for helpin me with my project x


Felix dj 5 years ago

Omg this is so helpful i need one of u in my life


Jill 5 years ago

this is good


Jonathan 5 years ago

Thanks for putting all this info together, good work.


Bob 5 years ago

Good job!


EzKilla 5 years ago

this info is top notch it helped me with this big ass history assignment that i have to do so thanks a lot


hunter 5 years ago

So cool!!!!!!!!!!!


alex 5 years ago

much help


young man123 5 years ago

thanks you heped with my project:)


phil 5 years ago

thanks you helped a lot with the info I needed to gather


downesem 5 years ago

people, how much did a mills bomb cost to make?? thats what i NEED to know. and yo, duffin tn, its not called the 'tripartite alliance'. germany, austria and italy where known as the triple alliance. britain, france and russia where known as the triple entente. they were the two main forces in 1914 - 1916


Doofus 5 years ago

I DON'T GET THIS BUT JOLLY GOOD INFO :) :) :) :)


taco1128 5 years ago

this helped me out with almost all of my history assignment i just need drawings thank you so much


harnold 5 years ago

I am doing an essay on weapons in World War One and this helped a lot!! Thanks!


Student 5 years ago

Thank You so much!

I have a project on this and the info helped a lot. :)


ash 5 years ago

very helpful, i needed information about weapons of ww1

thanks JIMMY!


pauline 5 years ago

Hi Jimmy,

I have been given a WW1 shell and am trying to find out if it is British or German, has PAR 1918 on it Can you help!


racheal 5 years ago

This has been very helpful for my history coursework! Thank you!


none of your news 5 years ago

i know this hub thank jimmy it helped a lot assesment in social studies


lukolio 5 years ago

AWESOME!!!


fugdy 5 years ago

thanks for the info for studys


histroyNERD 4 years ago

thanks


Thomas Terrington 4 years ago

This helped melots


Ihearthistory 4 years ago

tH@nK5 4da 1Nf0 Br0.


Josef J 4 years ago

Thanks for the information! It helped a lot with my homework.


sc 4 years ago

thank u so much it was very useful


casserole123 4 years ago

you really helped me with my project thanks a bunch i really appreciate it you got me out of having a bad grade in that class


minimaccaa 4 years ago

Hi thanks for the information REALLY HELPED WITH AN assignment.

Thanks


Darren mcfeeters 4 years ago

thanks


amy m 4 years ago

very good info, helped a lot with my assignment! thanks a lot


asdfghjkl 4 years ago

Wow, this is so informative. good work buddy.


Alex C 4 years ago

this is very coo. I feel bad for the people that are in it.

i like the video that is from world war one. I am adding it to a project so i like it.


Rod 4 years ago

I have a shell from either WWI or WWII. It is approx. 5 inches long and 3/4 of an inch in diameter. It has a M on the bottom above the primer and a V M below the primer. I'd like to know what it is? Can you help?


trevor 4 years ago

this stuff is good for my history and i learned about a bunch of wepons


derek 4 years ago

cool


Xavion Tucker 4 years ago

this is cool


Ben Prout 4 years ago

good info, but you don't have any on American infantry weapons that I saw. might want to add that. jus a tip.


Timi 4 years ago

Thanks, your really happened! but can someone help me? wat was life like before ww1


reasey 4 years ago

thanks this helped allot for my english project


jr 4 years ago

cool


amber 4 years ago

this a cool web site for my s.s project just a lital bit more info on the guns


girl 4 years ago

helped with ww1 assignment thanx(;


Aryan M 4 years ago

This is all very interesting, and I did learn stuff from this article or hub or whatever you wanna call it. It was incredibly useful and helped me complete my history essay. I thank you very much for this. :)


Avery 4 years ago

good this helped me in solcial studies it a great find and good info


Hollie 4 years ago

thanks, this helps a lot. p.s when did the british first sight the germans?


bob 4 years ago

good information for my project


cardona 4 years ago

thanks you helped a lot in my socal studies homework


will 4 years ago

this is cool l know the true


tom 4 years ago

Thank you so much, this is going to help me with my History assignment.


tanisha 4 years ago

Awesome.It helped me a lot in EVS project.Thanks.


Jeeny 4 years ago

I love this! I just finished my History essay, and this was super helpful!!(:


eric 4 years ago

Thank you so much. My Global HW got way more easier.


ken 4 years ago

This is very helpful! I got away with 2 hours of researching just by looking at this website!!!!!


undead 4 years ago

Ohhoi! This helped me a lot :)


Lhanslip 4 years ago

GD info! my homework is now dne! :p


?????????? 4 years ago

This seems like a helpful website, but try to find weapons that start with Y. That's what I needed


nikipa profile image

nikipa 4 years ago from Eastern Europe

Very educational and interesting!


terence 4 years ago

Jimmy, I am using your article as a source for my research paper. May I have your last name and the date this article was written?


jimmythejock profile image

jimmythejock 4 years ago from Scotland Author

Hi Terence this article was written on 08/30/11 i dont give out my last name here but if you visit my profile page you will find a link to my facebook where you will find my name.


natalie 4 years ago

this was really helpful for my project for school.


Vivky 4 years ago

This very good info.. thanks(;


raymar 4 years ago

thank for the stuff


big z 4 years ago

nice


papagomas 4 years ago

This extract helped me with my exam Thank You very much :)


Dash 4 years ago

I liked the info helped me a lot on my info report


lol 4 years ago

its really good information for school stuff


ShadowPoke 4 years ago

Do you have any info on what explosives the canadians used in world war 1? i have a history project on explosives!


clf 3 years ago

Excellent. Helped me get a good mark on my history essay at Eton!


shroomie 3 years ago

thanx helped lots with history project!!!


padur1 3 years ago

hi jimmy. today i found a world war 1 gun in a bog not far from my house. just woundering do you know anyone in ireland to take a look at it??


king86 3 years ago

so cool it helped me so much.


2 years ago

i love this site. can u guys make more history sites like this on different subject?


Duke 18 months ago

I have also had a great interest and curiosity for WWI specifically. I wonder if it was part of our past lives.

"jimmythejock 6 years ago from Scotland Hub Author

Thanks Eileen, WW1 has always been of interest to me so I really enjoy carrying out the research for these hubs.....jimmy"

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