No. Not now. But it used to be thought that the eye was the source, while the object seen was the effect. Somehow - some kind of 'rays' emanated from the eye to strike an object and thus reveal its hue, intensity and value.
BUT... there is another way to colour an object. This is from iridescence which is a refraction of incident composite wavelengths into multiple paths such that one observer at one angle sees a particular wavelength while at a different angle, a different wavelength (and therefore colour) is seen. In this way, a transparent medium appears colours. The classic examples are raindrops, prisms, beetle and butterfly wings, and soap bubbles.
Today the physics involved between the light source, the object and the path to the eye is extremely well understood whether you are talking about iridescence, subtractive, or additive colour. What happens inside the eye, and the brain however is a little more mysterious. A deeper question might be to ask how the brain interprets colour, and does every brain experience the same sensation to a particular colour? For example, when I see vermilion, and you see vermilion, do we both have an identical experience, or is my experience of vermilion more like yours for mauve or chrome-yellow? I think there has been some recent research on this - so it would be interesting to look it up.