How to Calculate Standard Deviation

How to do standard deviation, listing the 6 simple steps required, showing the process manually and also describing how to do it using Excel - includes links to a downloadable spreadsheet of the examples given.

Six straightforward steps on how to Calculate Standard Deviation ;-

1. Get the Mean

2. Get the deviations

3. Square these

4. Add the squares

5. Divide by total numbers less one

6. Square root of result is Standard Deviation

--------------------------------------------
SO STEP BY STEP;-

1. get the Mean

to begin you need the mean or the average, for example add 23, 92, 46, 55, 63, 94, 77, 38, 84, 26 ... = 598 divide by 10 (the actual number of numbers) 598 divided by 10 = 59.8

so the mean or average of 23, 92, 46, 55, 63, 94, 77, 38, 84, 26 is

59.8

____________________________________________________

2. get the deviations

subtract the mean from each of the numbers, the answers are;-

-36.8, 32.2, -13.8, -4.8, 3.2, 34.2, 17.2, -21.8, 24.2, -33.8

____________________________________________________

3. square these

to square means multiply them by themselves, the answers are;-

1354.24, 1036.84, 190.44, 23.04, 10.24, 1169.64, 295.84, 475.24, 585.64, 1142.44

____________________________________________________

4. add the squares

total of these numbers is 6,283.60

____________________________________________________

5. divide by total number of numbers less one;-

you had 10 numbers less 1 is 9 numbers

so 6283.60 divided by 9 = 698.18

_____________________________________________________

6. square root of result is Standard Deviation

square root is the number multiplied by itself to get 698.18 which is:-

26.4 so 26.4 is the Standard Deviation...

_____________________________________________________

Ok so above is the manual method of doing this

_________________________________________________

Step by step example using Excel...


Calculating standard deviation using Excel

.


Step 1

Enter your range of numbers as shown in cells 1 to 10..

Step 1 - Photo 1

Step 2

place the cursor in Cell 11

go to the menu bar, select insert, select function - the insert function dialog box opens.

Click on the category and select Statistical

In the window below select Average

hit enter

Step 2 - Photo 2

Select the Insert Function
Select the Insert Function

Step 2a

When you hit enter another dialog box will appear asking you to confirm the range, i.e. the numbers in cells 1 to 10 that you wish to perform the calculation on.

Just hit enter

The Mean or Average will now appear in Cell 11

Step 2a - Photo 2a

Step 3

Place the cursor in Cell 12

same as before Go to the menu bar, select insert, select function

The function dialog box will open, select statistical, in the window below scroll down and select STDEV

Step 3 - Photo 3

Step 4

When you hit enter another dialog box will appear asking you to confirm the range, i.e. the numbers in cells 1 to 10 that you wish to perform the calculation on. Since it automatically seeks to perfrom the calc on all the cells above you will have to change the range from D4:D14 to D4:D13

The Standard Deviation will now appear in Cell 12

Step 4 - Photo 4

Pat yourself on the back if...

your final calc matches this...

and the Final Score is...26.4

What Does Standard Deviation Tell You

Standard deviation is all about dispersion - how the set of numbers or data you have deviate from the Mean, this is essentially a measure of uncertainty.

  • Low Deviation shows the numbers are all reasonably similar
  • High Deviation shows there is a lot of fluctuation in the numbers.

How can you use it;-

  • Conducting investment research since this is an aid to measuring or calculating volatility.
  • Making weather comparison between locations or year to year
  • Analysing agricultural yields and/or prices
  • Almost everything to do with population analysis
  • Lots of things in sports, with athletes, teams performances, motorsport, horse racing

All these analyses help in prediction by looking closely at past performance.


Example - Using Deviation to analyse hub scores

Just say we were using Deviation to analyse hub scores, in the example below all the hub scores are above 90, when the SD is calculated for this range the SD is 2.92. this is low, as a contrast the original calc has hub scores from 23 to 94 in other words there is a lot of volatility...

So if one wished to rank hubpages it may be that those with a lower Standard Deviation i.e. less volatility are more consistent... and so we enter the esoteric world of statistics... imagine this was horses....

An Example of Using SD

More by this Author


225 comments

Iðunn 10 years ago

nicely done~


Drax profile image

Drax 10 years ago from NYC.... Author

thanks Iðunn


chopiex_bilaz' 9 years ago

After i read your the page, i'm able to finish my statistic project..thankx dude


Drax profile image

Drax 9 years ago from NYC.... Author

hey chopiex_bilaz', no problem.. the power of the Net, isn't it great... cut copy and paste that homework...


Mystic Biscuit profile image

Mystic Biscuit 8 years ago from Phoenix, AZ

Love it, Drax.....the SD calculations, the Excel and the especially the poetry!! ;-)


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Mystic Biscuit, great name... thanks very much, I should do more of this Excel stuff some of these days since it is almost a form of relaxation...

..Drax..


kk 8 years ago

awesome man!


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

thanks KK, I really really must do more of these....


mndheather profile image

mndheather 8 years ago from India

very very informative, illustrated in a very simple way.

http://www.jasfy.com


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Mndheather - thanks for the comment, Drax...


CarpetDiem profile image

CarpetDiem 8 years ago from Southern California

hi Drax, you should write a hub on how to get a hub score of 100. Wow!

I cheat and use my calculator to get a standard deviation. One thing I think that you could add to this hub (if you wanted to, but it is already a 100) is a bell curve graph to show the significance of standard deviation. If I remember correctly from school (a long time ago), x% of the data will fall within plus or minus 1 std dev, y% plus or minus 2 std dev, and I think its 99.7% will be within plus or minus three std dev. If you have enough data to calculate an accurate std dev, you can then determine the likely values of any new incoming data - would be good for a hub on how to make a living in Las Vegas...

Now about how you get that score of 100....


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

CD thank you for the great suggestion, I must revise this again... with regard to the 100 I think it relates mostly to incoming hits from google searches, when they are high the score is high so there is a correlation of sorts there....

Thanks Drax...


CarpetDiem profile image

CarpetDiem 8 years ago from Southern California

Drax, I see that this hub is now a 91. Interesting that the hub score fluxuates based on the number of incoming hits. I wonder what the standard deviation of the fluxuation on this hub is... :)


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

CD and today (Mon May 19th) it is 93.. maybe some of these days I'll sit down and plot this...

thanks Drax..


Sarah 8 years ago

A word of advise, as a University academic, do not use wikipedia to get your answers as most of the time the information is just presented from people, and not from trustworthy sources.


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

thanks Sarah... hmmm... as a university academic it might be good to know the distinction between advise and advice.. I like wikipedia, especially because it is not perfect or does not pretend to be. This is much better than say Govt pretending that everything they say is truth....


abhinav 8 years ago

thnx a lot for such a small and easy way of understanding the standard deviation.


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

Abhinav I'm glad it was useful to you.... tell others... thnaks Drax


Tori 8 years ago

Wow, exactlly what i needed help in THANK YOU i just got an A+ on my HW =D... your example is the simpliest out there on the web, and easyest 2 understand, thanks again!


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Tori, nice of you to say so, thanks very much... Ciao Drax


CEM 8 years ago

Hey there,

THANKS for this!!! Loved the pic editorial, it was very helpful and easy to understand. I finally got it (at least I hope so) after many frustrating tries.


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

all right Cem, good that this continues to be useful... thanks for the comment..


Polong 8 years ago

Thank you so much...


Polong 8 years ago

how to calculate the IRR?


Rowan 8 years ago

cudn't ask for a better explanation. Thanks a million. Got an awful teacher who confused the entire topic (like everything else he teaches.) Got an exam tomorrow and jst conceptualised it. You may have just saved me from failing the exam. Thank you sincerely. Loved the poems as well.


Drax profile image

Drax 8 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Rowan, thanks, glad it was of use to you, I hate that when teachers cannot get the knowledge across...


Es 7 years ago

Can you tell me why it's( Deviation) devided by n-1 but not by just n. What does it really mean?


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey ES to be perfectly honest I have no idea but I will go and look it up just as soon as I have time and I'll post the answers here within a few weeks..

Thanks Drax


Grateful Alive 7 years ago

Thank you for sharing the steps to calculate the standard deviation. You rock!


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

hey great user name, thanks for the thanks regards drax


Matt 7 years ago

Thanks heaps for this example! It's by far the easiest to understand. I now understand Standard Deviations! lol.


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Matt,

thank you very much for the comment, it is always nice to get encouragement.

Regards

Drax

 

 


Noor 7 years ago

Chrisssssssssssssss U'r Owsaaaam, U really help me xxxxxx


Dots... 7 years ago

Thanks. Really helps in schoolwork.


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Dots... use the technology... cut that homework time in half... :-)


seb 7 years ago

cheers drax you're my hero.


Sexy jonty profile image

Sexy jonty 7 years ago from India

Very well written hub .....

very much informative ......

Thank you very much for your great hub, for good advice, good wishes and support. Thanks for sharing your experience with all of us.


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey thanks very much Seb

Regards Drax..


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey thanks Sexy... ;-) Regards Drax..


clever man 7 years ago

hi Drax..... i read a lot of sites about(Calculate Standard Deviation) but i cuod not understand...

now after i read your page understand 100%

great explanation

Excel explanation very great

its all Really helps

thanks a lot

( pls forgave me for my bad inglish)


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

thanks man, nice to get a compliment from a Clever Man :-)

great name..

Cheers

Drax


clever man 7 years ago

hi Drax..... thanks for your reply

i wonder if you can help me in the following :

Linear Regression Indicator ...

calculation....

how To do linear regression indicator with excel

again and again thanks a lot


Ahmer 7 years ago

DUDE THE SQUARE ROOT IS NOT THE NUMBER MULTIPLIED BY ITS SELF


eric 7 years ago

this is great, thanx for making it easy


Drax profile image

Drax 7 years ago from NYC.... Author

no problem Eric, it's great that this hub has proved to be helpful to everybody...


Areif 6 years ago

Its really cool way of explaining! This is simple this is useful, you made complex definition to simple and understandable. Good Job.


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Areif... thanks for the comment and delighted it was of some use to you...


no point 6 years ago

It doesn't answer the question how to _calculate_. It just tels what the deviation is.


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Well No Point... if you read it and follow the 6 steps telling you how to calculate it then you can apply the same rules to any set of numbers... ? so it tells you how to do it step by step...

1. Get the Mean

2. Get the deviations

3. Square these

4. Add the squares

5. Divide by total numbers less one

6. Square root of result is Standard Deviation


Cindy  6 years ago

Excellent example for beginners thumb up**


adriana  6 years ago

thank you so much! explained so much better then my book and professor!


yumna  6 years ago

thanxxxx 4 such a nice help


13 6 years ago

Thanx


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Thanks for the comments folks :-)


frooty 6 years ago

can anybody tel me the procedure to calculate standard deviation by a calculator...???


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Frooty, if you follow the steps 1 to 6 above using the calculator you will get the result...


adorababy profile image

adorababy 6 years ago from Syracuse, NY

I can't believe I am looking at the standard deviation formula again. It has been ages but thank you for the reminder though.


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Thanks Adorababy... I know when you get away from it you never want to go back unless someone is paying you :-)


ss sneh profile image

ss sneh 6 years ago from the Incredible India!

Hi! Back to school grade 6! Thanks for helping us go back in time! -- Thanks


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi ss sneh... glad it was useful :-) ..Drax


kp 6 years ago

its really a gr8 work.. easy to understand..


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey KP... glad it was of some help... that is all each of us needs.. just a little help :-)


Jha 6 years ago

Nice post!! Great work!!


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Jha thanks :-)


Tony.P 6 years ago

Great info - Many Thanks for this site


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Tony.P... glad you liked it and thanks for the comment :-)


Lina 6 years ago

omygosh! thanks so much! Deadline for my stats assignment is tmr and this practically save my life!! huge amount of thanks (: (: (:


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Lina... that's great :-) glad it was of some help.. Thanks Drax


beauty 6 years ago

thanks so so much, u really helpd me & now i understand


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Beauty... good it was useful... :-)


domingo f. samonte 6 years ago

the topic is very informational and easy to understand. i believe it will be more useful for a beginner like me if you have time to illustrate also by example how to draw a bell curve for the given example data.thank you very much


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

@submitedgeclb thanks for the very nice comment... keep up the studies... !!!


Drax profile image

Drax 6 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Domingo... thanks for the comment, I will definitely come back after Xmas and make more hubs around this theme...


Manjusha 5 years ago

good explaination


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

thanks Manjusha :-)


Shivaprakash 5 years ago

Thanks a ton i really learnt more from this dude thank u very very much


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Shivaprakash... that's great.. I really really must do more of these... :-)


savvy 5 years ago

On an employee survey using an interval scale where 1 is low and 5 is high, which of the following results would show a distribution of responses with the most number of employees responding favorably, based on a response of 500 employees?

a) Mean = 4.0; standard deviation = .30

b) Mean = 4.2; standard deviation = .99

c) Mean = 4.5, standard deviation = .89

d) Mean = 3.9, standard deviation = .75

the answer is a.

How would you explain this?


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Savvy although I am tempted to look at this in detail time does permit me to do so at this juncture... sorry mate...


Besure 5 years ago

this is simply great! :-) thnx lot Drax!


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Besure... thank you for the comment, I'm glad to hear it... :-)


SUPAMAN 5 years ago

Thanks men... very very simply and clear. Any easier and my brain would have melted lol... Thanks. Lab report, DONE!


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Supaman... thanks for the comment.. :-)


Janna 5 years ago

Thanks so much Drax! You really made it simple, I finally understand standard deviation!


vsk 5 years ago

thank uuuuuuuuuu


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@ Janna... that's great that is was useful to you... happy days :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@VSK... no probs... my pleasure :-)


kully 5 years ago

this helped alot! thanks

i was wondering if you could tell me how to work plus 1 S.D and minus 1 S.D

is it basically adding and subtracting the means from each number in the data??

your help is greatly appreciated


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey kully... if you could expand the question a little it would be a big help in trying to answering it...


municipal vehicle hire 5 years ago

Such a very interesting information. We are currently studying how to get standard deviation, and it's somehow challenging due to different solving strategies.


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

MVH... that is very encouraging... to be able to solve a mathematical issue... what else is there in life... :-)


plumbing 5 years ago

Thanks for this. Very interesting. Nice post!


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Plumbing... your url goes to an external source... this is not really cricket... I have resisted the temptation to delete you, this once... join us here at Hubpages share the knowledge and experience...


skyfire profile image

skyfire 5 years ago

I use both excel and opencal (open office) and found that this is one good method for the deviation. Thanks for posting these pics, they were helpful.


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Skyfire... (great name !!!) thanks for the comment...


Dani 5 years ago

Thank you! This helped me organize my chemistry work!


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

that's good Dani... use the webtech, always... :-)


Tony 5 years ago

How do i find the standard deviation using likert scale


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Tony... just convert your responses to numbers... if you had the standard Likert - the format of a typical five-level Likert is:

Strongly disagree

Disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

Agree

Strongly agree

number this 1-5

1. Strongly disagree

2. Disagree

3. Neither agree nor disagree

4. Agree

5. Strongly agree

so say 16 people responded;-

q1 3

q2 2

q3 4

q4 6

q5 1

so your series is 3by1,2by2,4by3,6by4 1by5

the data set is then 3 of 1, 2 of 2, 4 of 3, 6,of 4, 1 of 5

so multiplied out 3,4,12,24,5

or you could do it listing them all...

1,1,1,2,2,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,4,4,5

so then just take these and proceed from Step 1 and go through the whole deviation process above...

:-)


mrs.millis 5 years ago

this didn't work why is it on the internet?


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@mrs millis... what did not work,? if you would care to tell me more precisely then I could help you out with whatever part you are not doing right... :-)


Missunderstood 5 years ago

hey Drax,

After reading the posts made, it seems like u never answer back questions. Instead u just thank people for their compliment...

-I am Miss-understood about this


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Well Missunderstood, G'Day to all in Perth.. in order for me to understand what is the question or problem being faced by a reader I often need to ask for clarity, or for clarification, in order to be clear that I am not simply being misunderstood, if you understand...

Yet, understandably the people who often misunderstand or do not return with clarification of their question or tell me what they do not understand are not members of the Hubpages community, they are passers by, they offer nothing, they do not contribute, they are the hyenas/dingos of online society, just flotsam in the great rush of the humanity all carried forward towards electronic understanding...

I assume you have empathy with them and so can understand Misunderstood...

Ciao

Drax


Tommy 5 years ago

thanks a lot!


matt 5 years ago

very helpful thankx


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Tommy & Matt... thanks very much for the comments, it is always very rewarding when anyone comments.. :-)


sandy 5 years ago

thanks a lot author....your explanation is very easy to understand....it is very much useful to me...


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Sandy... great to hear that, my name is Drax... from Ireland :-)


Baffa 5 years ago

nice work. i understand it here more than what i have been thought


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Baffa... that is good I am glad, this is always what I find wrong with school stuff, just explain it to me mf... it is your job ;-)


fateme 5 years ago

Hi

thank for your help

our proffesor teach our standard deviation and variance and error bar.

i neeed to know how i can using excel to plot the diagram

my data just 50 numbers

please help me

thanks a lot


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Fateme

here is the above as a google doc, just download it as an excel sheet :-)

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0ApwEP...

if you need more than this then tell me exactly what you need and I will do my best to answer or give you a working example


WhiteSnow 5 years ago

Hi Drax,

Thank you so so much, u really helpd me & now i understand what is it Standard Deviation

COuld you help me forvanother question, please?

I don't understand what my instructor want for this homework

He would like me to 2. Use the Excel Descriptive Statistics tool (from the Analysis ToolPak) found in: File > Options > Add-Ins > Analysis ToolPak > Go > Analysis ToolPak (select) > OK. Then the Data Analysis tool will appear on the right of the Data ribbon.

And then question is

a. Obtain the descriptive statistics for Question #3: How many hours per day do you spend in total on Facebook, phone texting and e-mail? Format all non-integer values to two decimal places.

b. Are the data skewed? If so, in which direction and by how much?

He gave us a data but I don't know what he means and what I need to do

Could you help me,please?

Thank you very much


katie 5 years ago

Thankyou it was good made me pass my homework mock exam as i copied and pasted it all :D x


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@ WhiteSnow... Hi thanks for the great comment, I will make a quick hub about using the Excel Descriptive Statistics tool

http://hubpages.com/education/How-to-Use-the-Excel...

:-)


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey katie... that's great... use the tech but try and understand it as well... :-)


WhiteSnow 5 years ago

Hi Drax,I for got to telll you that I used Excel 2003 version so I don't know it will make any different because my instructor used Excel 2007.

That's Analysis ToolPak also related to Creating a TRUE Excel Histogram for another home works.

I really appreaciate for you trying to help Drax because I would like to understand what I am doing but instructor did not explain

Thanks


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

WhiteSnow... so check out http://hubpages.com/education/How-to-Use-the-Excel...

and for histograms they are easy, go to to Tools, Data Analysis, select Histogram.. input your range as you did before and experiment with the settings to answer the specific question you are being asked..


BakerBoy97 5 years ago

This is awesome I searched like ten other sites then I found this one. It is definitely the best. Cheers Drax!


Abby 5 years ago

This really helped me out for my Algebra 1 honors (: Thanks lots!


5 years ago

thanks it really help me with my honors algbra homework


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@ BakerBoy97 ... that's great... I must try to promote it more... tell somebody :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@ Abby magnifico !!! I was useless at algebra... I never found a teacher who cared enough to explain it to me properly...


Sara 5 years ago

ii know how to do tis in school we do it 100 times a day i have it memerised did i mention i am 12?


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Well Sara... that is fantastic, it is great to have the talent to be able to memorise mathematical things... it's good for the brain .. like running :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Well Sara... that is fantastic, it is great to have the talent to be able to memorise mathematical things... it's good for the brain .. like running :-)


Sizz 5 years ago

really well and clearly explained, thank you so much! brilliant help to me this was!


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Sizz... thank you for saying so, it is appreciated :-)


Sheshe32 5 years ago

i absolutely love this after 20 yrs out of school i was unable to have this make sense wow thank you so much!! :)0


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey thanks Sheshe... I feel that a lot when I cannot understand WTF they are trying to tell me....


FruitySnoops 5 years ago

Thanx a lot!!! very very awesome. keep it up


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi FruitySnoops... thanks for the comment !!


Ronald 5 years ago

You saved my life dude!


PrimaD 5 years ago

AWESOME!!!!!!!!


Swapnil 5 years ago

Tnx...it was very helpful :)


puzzled 5 years ago

What if you have a missing data, how do you find it if you have a standard deviation of 3?


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Ronald... good man Ronald, thanks... keeping the old life statistics current is a good habit... !!


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey PrimaD... good is awesome is good... thanks a lot :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Swapnil... good of you to say so... thanks !!


Drax profile image

Drax 5 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Pazzled... missing data usually cannot be found, you have to guess... it depends on what % of data is missing, if say 30% of the results are missing or just 1%.

Depending on the data size here are 4 choices;-

1. the questions/cases are deleted with the missing data, if it is small percent of overall study, answers, number range

2. You use Single Imputation which means you use other methods to help you guess the missing values, the real simple way is to use the mean or median

3. Next you can use complicated things like stochastic regression or EM Imputation to help predict.

4. Multiple Imputation really means using more complicated tools to predict but now your whole data is becoming more unreliable.

If you are not missing lots of data you could simply use the mean or the median and then you could make a little table of the deviation using both sets of data to show you know it makes a difference, your table could have SD with these three sets of figures...

1. with the missing data

2. just substituting the missing with the mean

3. just substituting the missing with the median


Deen mohammad 4 years ago

very usefull...easy to understand..thanks


pauline 4 years ago

hi, i am really learning and i am enjoying your piece of work i hope i understand these better. since it is simplified for those who are slow learners!!!!!!!!! thanks a lot.


Shiji 4 years ago

Such a wonderful presentation!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Thanks dude


Lal Nabi 4 years ago

very good way to learn something. easy way for understanding.


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Deen Mohammad... thanks very much, it is good to know this always !


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Pauline.. thanks for the comment, deviation is a tricky subject and it is always important to learn the fundamental, then you never forgot :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Shiji... thanks very much for the comment, it is appreciated !!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Lal Nabi... I am very glad that it can help convey what deviation is all about, thanks for the comment !!


Lal Nabi 4 years ago

why we use standard deviation means what is the application of standard deviation..


IB_MatheMacigian 4 years ago

Great, simple quidance, but isn't this the formula for the unbiased estimate of the population variance, rather than the standard deviation which only consideres the sample given?

Difference between these two would be in step 5, for standard deviation one does not need to substract 1 from the divisor. :)


lakee 4 years ago

You made it really simple for me buddy!! Thanks!


amit 4 years ago

hey how to calculate the standard error of xy plot????


Ragini Zatale 4 years ago

Thnks alot .......it was so useful to me...


shunaynay 4 years ago

thanks:) helped me alot for my hmwk!!!!


Tom 4 years ago

Thats was fantastic. I think this is all I needed and really helped moi. Thanks man!!


S ANIL KUMAR 4 years ago

I think it's better


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi folks... thanks for much for all the comment, I see a number of questions contained in these last comments and I will definitely try to make additional hubs addressing these aspects... Thanks to All !!


Mel 4 years ago

Awesome example on standard deviation. Very helpful.


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Mel... thanks very much for the comment :-)


RG 4 years ago

veryyyy veryyyy veryyy helpful. thanks :)


Sara DK 4 years ago

Thanks a lot :) Very helpful step by step for my research assignment!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@ RG verry verry good lol :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Sara... thanks, glad to be of assistance...


Blake 4 years ago

This is Awesome!!!!!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hey Blake... thanks for the comment :-)


louromano profile image

louromano 4 years ago

this is great, thanx for making it easy


lily lombardo 4 years ago

thanks for all the help. It helped me a TON!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@louromano great that you found it to be of some help... thanks for the comment :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@lily lombardo... thank You.. for the comment :-)


priyanka 4 years ago

thanks u make my efforts easy

the description is so simple....thank u so much


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@ priyanka.. that is excellent since that was the objective to make it able to be understood... thanks for the comment ... :-)


QuntileIndiangirl 4 years ago

thnks drax i really needed this for hw i did this before but didn't understand now i do.

thanks

kimberly


Marius 4 years ago

Greatings from Norway:-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Kimberly... thanks for taking the time to post a comment and I am glad it was of help.. :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Marius.. greetings from Ireland :-)


shalini 4 years ago

Thanks soo much..timely help


kus kuas 4 years ago

hi, thanks man, u helped me do my assignment


Eileen Goodall profile image

Eileen Goodall 4 years ago from Buckinghamshire, England

I remember everyone struggling with this when I did my Psychology stats - great posting!


pandula77 profile image

pandula77 4 years ago from Norway

Hey Drax, thanks for the info. A complex topic made easy. voted up!


Shini 4 years ago

Hi Drax, thanks for giving stepwise information about SD


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@shalini... glad it was right place right time.. :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@kus kuas... thanks for the comment !!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Eileen Goodall.. thanks Eileen, I feel the same about algebra, it is always frustrating if the fundamental is not explained clearly to you in school..


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@pandula.. thanks very much for the vote up !!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Shini.. thanks a lot for taking the time to comment :-)


Grace 4 years ago

This is by far the most helpful and strait forward explanation I have ever seen. THANKS!


Robert Erich profile image

Robert Erich 4 years ago from California

Very helpful information! Thanks for writing. I Googled help to find this and found a fellow hubber as the top result! Great to know that we can make it up there. Look forward to stumbling upon you again!


jacob 4 years ago

this helped me in my statistics exam


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Grace... thanks for the comment and for the nice words.. :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@ Robert Erich... yes it is nice to be at the top of any Google search :-) thanks !!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Jacob... that's good since this is the whole idea, to be able to convey what it is about... thanks for the comment :-)


kaila 4 years ago

this is very helpful for me, except it doesn't work when you divide by the number less one.... you need to divide by the number to get the correct answer


Kaila 4 years ago

this is a really hlpful page and its very much appreciated that you take the time to explain how to figure out standard deviation, although i have to say that when you say you divide the total number less one. i find that my answers are never correct. they are only correct when i divide by the total numbers. the equations in my foundation math book also say that it is divide by total numbers. it says nothing about divide less one. other than that this page helps keep me on track until i have it memorized. so thank you


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hi Kaila.. thanks for the comment :-) there is a difference in the formula for calculating Standard Deviation if the set of numbers you have is the entire Population or a Sample of the entire Population -

for the Population it is N

for the Sample it is N-1

..if you would like to post your numbers I will take them and make examples to show what happens with the formula !!


tahoor khan 4 years ago

very well done


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

thank you Tahoor Khan :-)


hello from kenya 4 years ago

fantastic those steps has enabled me to understand how to calculate standard deviation.


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Hello .. hello from kenya :-) this is excellent and I am delighted to know this helped in some small way... thanks Drax


hpgc 4 years ago

absolutely brilliant!!

thanks for the hard work

saved me heaps of time =)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

HPGC... that's great !! this is exactly what Hubpages is about... people sharing stuff that saves time and adds value in some small way... :-)


whowas 4 years ago

That is one of the clearest expositions of the methods of calculating standard deviation that I have ever seen. really, some tutors do seem to make these things unnecessarily complicated.

Most mathematical and statistical procedures are only complex in their sum but each step is simple in itself. Your hub amply and ably demonstrates this principle.


Free2writ3 profile image

Free2writ3 4 years ago from Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania

Very useful hub..Thanks alot.


dravid 4 years ago

thanks and nice post


Monica 4 years ago

Thank you so much for your simple breakdown on how to calculate a Standard Deviation both manually and using Excell. It was straight to the point and the example was quite helpful. I will now be able to help my sister understand the concept also.

THANK YOU!!! :-)


Robbi 4 years ago

Thanks. This really helped me help my daughter with her maths homework.


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@whowas.. thank you very much for the nice comment, it is great to receive encouragement and it is a great motivator to go and write articles that deliver some sort of usefulness to the reader. Thanks again !


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Sharon & Dravid... thanks very much for the comments


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Monica and Robbi... I am glad that you found this explanation to be of benefit... thanks very much for the comments :-)


pakistan 4 years ago

Thanks very thanks sir


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

Thank you, I am glad!


FreezeFrame34 profile image

FreezeFrame34 4 years ago from Charleston SC

Great and helpful! I took Algebra I and II, Geometry, Trig, and Honors Pre-Cal in high school as well as college classes, but never took Prob and Stats! This hub is easy to follow and I can use it to help my kids in the classroom!


anastasiaphillis profile image

anastasiaphillis 4 years ago from Chicago

I teach standard deviation once every 2 months, and the excel stuff was nice. Good idea to add some poetry :)


pringoooals profile image

pringoooals 4 years ago from Edinburgh

Very informative and nicely explained. Well done!


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@FreezeFrame... sorry for the slow response, I seem to have missed a whole raft of comments here... I am very glad that you will be able to use this hub in education in any way at all... many thanks :-)


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Anastasiaphillis... thanks for the comment, sorry for the slow response, poetry and mathematics actually go together very well, Einstein said;- "Pure mathematics is, in its way, the poetry of logical ideas."


Drax profile image

Drax 4 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Pringoooals... again also apologies for the slow response, thanks very much for the comment.!


dinesh-varyani profile image

dinesh-varyani 4 years ago

Hi Drax,

Its such a wonderful hub .... I am a Java Expert and write post regarding Java programs .... I am planning to write a Java program hub based on how to calculate standard deviation .... It will be dedicated to you ..... Thanks man .....


Drax profile image

Drax 3 years ago from NYC.... Author

@dinesh-varyani... thanks very much for the comment !


Sweet 3 years ago

Thanks for this, I missed this in class, your explanation is probably a lot easier to understand anyways!


Drax profile image

Drax 3 years ago from NYC.... Author

that's.. Sweet... ;-)


Pleapagenna 3 years ago

We helpful to acquire on top of life however of late I've established a new level of resistance.


Drax profile image

Drax 3 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Pleapagenna... life is full of resistance, this is a good thing :-)


Lindiwe Mazibuko 2 years ago

Thank you very much for the information, i wanted these steps for the past two weeks and my tutor could not explain as clear as it is done on this site. Thanks again you have made my day and hope will done well on my exam.


Drax profile image

Drax 2 years ago from NYC.... Author

@Lindiwe Mazibuko.. thank you for taking the time to say so.. it is always lovely to receive feedback like this and I really hope that your exam went well... :-)


gepeTooRs 8 months ago

I will surely visit back for more –Great job!

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