How to write in Japanese
Japanese writing is not as difficult as it looks. It is basically just memory and recognition work, each complex looking character is actually made up from a number of smaller simple character or radicals.
The Japanese language uses three different alphabets shown below:
- Katakana カタカナ- This is a very angular phonetic script consisting of around 50 characters used to represent foreign, imported or non Japanese words. E.g. Computer would be written as "コンピューター" with the phonetic sound of "Konpyuutaa"
- Hiragana ひらがな - This is another phonetic script with the same number of characters as Katakana but with more rounded type lines. This will be used for grammar.e.g. tenses, subjects, objects etc..
- Kanji 漢字 - These are the Chinese imported characters. The Japanese versions are slightly different but the basic meanings are almost the same. Kanji will be used to represent nouns, adjectives, verbs and of course names. Kanji can have a number of different readings depending on the position in the text, or depending on what sound precedes or follows it.
See the table below for learning the full chart. This can easily be memorized in a couple of weeks. Note that certain consonants - such as s,k,t and h are voiced to z,g,d and b when you put the little two strokes above ("). Which the little "o" above the character, the "h" sound will change to a "p" sound.
You will see Katakana everywhere in Japan since it's used also for company names, foreign names, certain food and always stands out for advertising. If you can read Katakana then you should be able to read most (non Japanese food) menus.
If you look at the package on the right, you may be able to recognize it from the image however if you refer to the Katakana chart you will see that it spells "Corn Frosty", phonetically "Koon Furosutei" - it's that simple. Katakana will also be used to represent foreign names and food. One thing the be careful about is that there are a lot of "Japanese English" words in Japanese which do not always correspond to the real English equivalent. For example the word "Front" will be written in Katakana with the pronunciation of "Furonto". This actually means - Front Desk such as a Hotel. NOT in front of the Hotel.
Similar to Katakana, this can also be learned in a couple weeks or so with daily practice. They have exactly the same pronunciation as Katakana, however a slightly different rounded face. One of the main uses it to modify verbs into their tenses. e.g. Iku - to go, itta - went, ikitai - want to go and more... The very first character "i" will mean go, what follows it will create the tense. Tenses are very simple in Japanese since they all follow a simple pattern. See the chart below.
Unlike Hiragana and Katakana, Kanji has a meaning and the sound may change depending on its position in a sentence or the type word. Unfamiliar place names will always be difficult for even Japanese people to read since there are no set rules for the pronunciation of names.
Common every day Kanji (Joyo Kanji) can be memorized rather quickly since you will see the characters around you every day. Take a look at the Kanji to the left. The first Kanji means Fire, and the second Kanji means mountain. If you put them together is means "Volcano". A very simple concept if you think about it.
There are thousands of Kanji that work this way, although this is one of the more simpler examples. The pronunciation of Volcano is "KAZAN", fire - KA, Mountain - ZAN. However the actual word for fire is actually "Hi", the actually word for mountain is "Yama". So why do we pronounce "Kazan" for volcano? The reason is, multiple Kanji together form "compounds" and compounds have a different reading than the standard Japanese reading. The compound sounds "KA" and "ZAN (SAN)" or imported sounds from China (with a Japanese pronunciation).
In short there are at least two sounds for each Kanji which needs to be learned. The readings are often left as the Japanese reading e.g. "Fujiyama" for names of mountains.
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As a native English speaker, what is the easiest language to learn? - I was wondering what languages are easy to pickup for English speakers, some are definitely easier than others.
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