Fantasia (1940) - Illustrated Reference

Walt Disney presented with a Special Oscar by Shirley Temple for Snow White and the 7 Dwarfs.
Walt Disney presented with a Special Oscar by Shirley Temple for Snow White and the 7 Dwarfs.

Fantasia was produced by Walt Disney and premiered on 13th November 1940. Music by Bach, Tchaikovsky, Dukas, Stravinsky, Beethoven, Ponchielli, Mussorgsky and Schubert. Conducted by Leopold Stokowski. Written by Joe Grant and Dick Huemer. Narrated by Deems Taylor. 125mins.

Eight animated segments set to famous classical music compositions.

Walt Disney (1901-1966) had some success with the Alice comedy shorts in the 1920’s, mixing animation with live action. But it was an animated mouse that would change his fortune forever. Mickey Mouse made his first appearance on screen in Steamboat Willie in 1928 it was the first cartoon with synchronised sound. By the early 30’s Mickey would become the most popular cartoon character in the world.

Disney would introduce more cartoon characters over the years, Minnie Mouse, Pluto, Goofy, Chip ‘n Dale and by the late 30’s a duck named Donald would eclipse Mickey as the worlds most popular cartoon character.

In the mid-30’s Disney started planning a feature length cartoon based on the fairy tale Snow White, critics thought it would be a major disaster and dubbed it “Disney’s Folly”. Some thought it would hurt the eyes looking at a cartoon for more than an hour. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released in 1938 and broke all records, by May 1939 it had become the most successful film of the 30's.

Disney’s next animated feature was Pinocchio released in 1940 to rave reviews but it wasn’t a big hit, the film would finally make back its cost from successful re-releases in the late 40’s and 50’s.

The origin of Fantasia started to form when Disney had an idea for a Mickey Mouse special titled The Sorcerer’s Apprentice, the cartoon would be in sync with Paul Dukas famous music. Realising this would be an expensive cartoon that may not be able to recoup its costs Disney decided to expand on the concept and make a full length movie featuring various classical pieces set to animation.

The Musical Segments


Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1870) – Toccata and Fugue in D Minor

Abstract patterns and shapes and shadows of the orchestra.

Peter Tchiakovsky (1840-1893) – Nutcracker Suite

Dancing flowers, leaves, mushrooms, fish and fairies.

Paul Dukas (1865-1935) – The Sorcerer’s Apprentice.

Mickey Mouse is the sorcerer Yen Sid’s apprentice, after the sorcerer retires for the day Mickey grabs his hat and casts a spell on a broomstick, bringing it to life and things soon spiral out of control.

Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) – The Rite of Spring

The beginning of life on Earth, primitive life in the sea evolves into fish and than to animals on land. Prehistoric animals hunt for food, it ends with the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Intermission:
Meet the Soundtrack,
narrated by Deems Taylor.

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) – Symphony no.6 (The Pastoral Symphony)

A mythic setting, there are flying horses, centaurs, nymphs, fauns etc. A festival honouring Bacchus the God of Wine is interrupted by a mighty storm and Zeus throwing thunderbolts at fleeing mythological creatures..

Amilcare Ponchielli (1834-1886) – The Dance of the Hours

Ostriches, hippos, elephants and alligators dance in a comic ballet.

Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) – Night on Bald Mountain

It is Walpurgis Night and the devil Chernabog awakens on his mountain, he summons forth ghosts, witches, spectres and various demons to dance for him. When dawn arrives the church bell drives the spirits back to their graves, Chernabog is repelled by the sound and hides back into the mountain.

Franz Schubert (1797-1828) – Ave Maria

A procession of robed monks walk through a forest and into a cathedral.

Fantasia Concept Art
Fantasia Concept Art

Referred to as The Concert Feature, after hundreds of suggestions for a title Disney settled on one of the working titles, Fantasia.

Production started on the film while Disney was still finishing Pinocchio, a pressbook for Fantasia noted that its production had involved "751 artists, 103 musicians, 600,000 celluloid drawings and 508 new characters."

Disney had envisioned Fantasia as an ongoing project, where he would add new animated sequences and music and remove old ones at each re-issue of the film so viewers would have a different experience of the film each time. But Fantasia failed to turn a profit on its initial release and many critics panned the film, so that idea was dropped.

Fantasia was the first film shown in theaters with stereophonic sound, the process was called Fantasound, basically directional four-track stereo sound.

The final Ave Maria sequence required a setup using multiple panes of glass and the camera on a 200ft track.

Bela Lugosi was one of the inspirations for the look of Bald Mountain’s resident evil, Chernabog.

Chernabog was a demon in Slavic mythology, the name is translated as “Black God”

One sequence planned, partially animated and finally abandoned was a segment featuring Claude Debussy’s Clair de Lune, a restored version is included as an extra on the Fantasia DVD and Blu-ray.

Originally the Rite of Spring sequence was to have continued showing the evolution of life on Earth right up to the appearance of primitive man and the discovery of fire but the idea was dropped in case it upset religious groups.

Igor Stravinsky hated the way his music Rite of Spring was edited for the film and wasn’t happy seeing it used as a setting for dinosaurs, he said at the time “The order of the pieces had been shuffled, and the most difficult of them eliminated, though this did not save the musical performance, which was execrable. I will say nothing about the visual complement, as I do not wish to criticize an unresisting imbecility."

Fantasia cost $2.5m to produce, it was not one of the year’s top box office grossers. After the failure of both Pinocchio and Fantasia in 1940, Walt Disney was heartbroken and was starting to wonder if people had already gone off feature length animated films and that Snow White would be his only major hit.

Rescue came in the form of a flying baby elephant in 1941, Dumbo which was a smaller production to the previous films was a big hit and Bambi was a success too in 1942, Disney had reason to smile again.

Fantasia would ultimately become very profitable and one of the studios biggest hits in reissue after reissue over the decades. When it was released on VHS in 1992 it became the biggest selling video of the year, 14,000,000 video cassettes sold in the U.S. alone.

In the 1960’s re-release of Fantasia the film was censored, black centaurs were removed from the Pastoral Symphony sequence. They were said to be objectionable stereotypes and were acting as servants to the other centaurs. Some shots were zoomed in so as not to show the black centaurettes in the frame.

In 1982 the music of Fantasia was re-recorded in digital sound to bring it up to date with modern sound equipment. The film was re-released successfully around the world. The rescored music, conducted by Irwin Kostal, was clear and sharp with more bass but it did not always match up to the visuals like the original score did.

For its 50th anniversary in 1990 Fantasia was re-released in cinemas with its original 1940 soundtrack reinstated much to the relief of Fantasia fans worldwide.

The film was digitally remastered for DVD in 2000 for its 60th anniversary, unfortunately Deems Taylor’s interstitial narration track was in bad condition and could not be remastered, the decision was made to use a sound-alike narrator, Corey Burton, to redub Taylor’s narration and this dubbed version is also on the Blu-ray release.

A sequel, Fantasia 2000, was released in December 1999. It featured all new animation set to classical music with the addition of an old favourite from the first movie. The line up was – Beethoven’s Symphony no.5 - Respighi’s Pines of Rome - Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue - Shostakovich’s Piano Concerto no.2 (The Steadfast Tin Soldier) - Saint-Saen’s The Carnival of the Animals - Dukas The Sorcerer’s Apprentice - Elgar’s Pomp and Circumstance 1,2,3, and 4 - Stravinsky’s Firebird Suite.

Fantasia is ranked #58 in the American Film Institute’s 100 Greatest Films List, and #5 on the AFI’s 10 Greatest Animated Films list, Snow White is no.1.

It was selected for preservation by the National Film Registry in 1990.

Fantasia won Honorary Oscars for Leopold Stokowski and Walt Disney – “For their unique achievement in the creation of a new form of visualized music in Walt Disney's production Fantasia, thereby widening the scope of the motion picture as entertainment and as an art form.”

The Critics Wrote –

"Motion-picture history was made at the Broadway Theatre last night with the spectacular world première of Walt Disney's long-awaited Fantasia. Fantasia is simply terrific—as terrific as anything that has ever happened on a screen. If you don't mind having your imagination stimulated by the stuff of Mr. Disney's fanciful dreams, go to see it." (Bosley Crowther, New York Times)

"A courageous and distinguished production but Disney is attempting the impossible. There are times when his breaking down of music into animated art strikes me as definitely pretentious. The images on the screen are not apt to match with your reactions to the score." (New York Herald Tribune)

"It is too long and some of it is too loud, and it will no doubt be improved upon next time it is done, but to Walt Disney now should go fresh laurels for giving us a new artistic experience of great beauty - another milestone in motion pictures." (The Commonweal)

"There is something in "Fantasia" for every taste. The eight individual compositions have been selected with an eye and ear to a wide audience.

The presentation eclipses anything previously attempted in mechanical sound entertainment and it was necessary to install special RCA reproduction equipment to cope with the recording innovations." (Variety)

"A promising monstrosity and an experiment containing many lessons. To have the Pastoral Symphony interrupted by applause for sugar-sweet centaurettes is painful... in technical respects the film is of unsurpassed quality." (Franz Hoellering, Nation )

"A masterpiece of filmcraft. Its colour photography is the best ever." (Daily Mail)

"Disney sometimes at his worst, often at his very best; and the best is on a level which no cinematographic designer has reached. It takes two hours, but somehow or other you will have to find the time." (Dilys Powell)

"Oh, Fantasia! Well, we made it and I don't regret it. But if we had it to do all over again, I don't think we'd do it." (Walt Disney, 1961)

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18 comments

FloraBreenRobison profile image

FloraBreenRobison 4 years ago

Hey, Steve.

This is an all time favourites of mine. I own it and watch it at least once a year. These pictures are gorgeous. I will need to take lots of time deciding on a favourite photo or series of favourites. I may not be able to choose one.

I will say that one scene which always reminds me of who 2-D animation can be a beautiful thing and have lots of life in it-and heart in it-is a scene that is not included here. It is a goldfish swimming in the water with a flirty expression on her face. She is totally alive to me-not flat. When I hear people say -not all say this-that digital animation s so much better than hand-drawn animation, this is the example I use to refute it. However, it is true that it takes a longer time to hand-draw things.

I have not seen Fantasia2000.


Steve Lensman profile image

Steve Lensman 4 years ago from London, England Author

Hi Flora, thanks for commenting, much appreciated. Fantasia is my favourite of the Disney animations so it had to be my first Disney hub. More are planned, all the classics at least.

I know the fish scene you mean, during the nutcracker suite segment, I had a couple of images but didn't use them, oh well. You can tell which sequence I enjoyed the most from the number of images, Night on Bald Mountain. It creeped me out as a child and I loved the music too. Excellent animation.

Thanks for posting.


Dee42 profile image

Dee42 4 years ago from Beautiful Arkansas

There is something about Fantasia. Great hub, I will have to bookmark it. Reading more of yours. Voted up.


tsmog profile image

tsmog 4 years ago from Escondido, CA

I haven't a word to describe what this hub means to me. Thank you for taking the time to put this together and then present it to us. :) This and The Wizard of Oz are my two all time favorites.

I learned a secret reading it too. It took people - past, present, and future and of all walks of life of a kindred spirit to cause Walt's idea to become reality. And, this hub is a part of that idea or vision Walt dreamt up.


clairemy profile image

clairemy 4 years ago

The best Disney film , ever. First time i saw it was with my father , and throughit, I also gained a love of Classical music.

Thankyou for doing this hub, bought a huge smile to my face.


Steve Lensman profile image

Steve Lensman 4 years ago from London, England Author

Dee42, tsmog. clairemy, thank you for the comments and kind words, it is appreciated.

70 years later and this old classic still fascinates people, there is something in it for everyone, comedy, fantasy. history and horror.

clairmy, I started appreciating classical music after seeing this film too. I bought the soundtrack album, and I was probably mostly listening to Mussorgsky's Night on Bald Mountain at the time. :)

Thanks all for posting.


Cogerson profile image

Cogerson 4 years ago from Virginia

A classic hub for a classic movie. Fantasia is one of my wife's favorite movies....our little kids refer to Fantasia as "Mommie's Movie". Although Fantasia might have started out slow it has turned into one of the biggest box office hits ever. On the adjusted for inflation lists...Fantasia ranks 22nd of all movies....pretty impressive for a movie that was originally deemed unsuccessful.

I think anybody that loves Fantasia...has an equal bad opinion on Fantasia 2000....my wife refuses to watch it....although Roy Disney was a strong supporter of Fantastia 2000....too bad his dream project is only a shell of the original.

Awesome photos, awesome trivia and very interesting facts that you have presented. Voted up and interesting.


Steve Lensman profile image

Steve Lensman 4 years ago from London, England Author

Thanks Bruce, appreciate the comment, info, kind words and votes.

Fantasia was an odd one to do, there were no actors for the usual filmographies and the only voice we hear is Deems Taylor who was dubbed by someone else in recent releases. But it was very suitable for an illustrated hub. I had 100 images prepared and used 40.

I had an image from a cut scene featuring a black centaurette but didn't use it in case it offended someone.

But if you look at the screenshots I posted above there are a couple of black centaurettes they didn't remove from the film. I'm against censorship and rewriting history the film shouldn't have been cut, but people do get offended.


FloraBreenRobison profile image

FloraBreenRobison 4 years ago

I try to consider when films were made in regards to things like black face and racial slurs. It doesn't make it easier to watch, but I must remember that the films were not made for me. And like you said, to pretend that they were not used is to rewrite film history. We cannot pretend that things did not happen that did happen. We can only use them as examples as to how society must change if it has not already.

In some cases the black face was essential to the plot because the person was in disguise-such as in Hitchcock's Young and Innocent. Without the disguise, the killer is found earlier and the movie is way too short.


Steve Lensman profile image

Steve Lensman 4 years ago from London, England Author

That's right, it's part of history, it happened. We learn from the mistakes of the past. Slavery isn't a few hundred years old it goes all the way back to the ancient Egyptians, a thousand years before Christ.

The Disney classic Song of the South is still waiting to be released on DVD here and the U.S. Disney seems to be ashamed of it, they shouldn't be it's an enjoyable fantasy film set in the old South. The BBC don't have any problems with it and show it on TV every couple of years.


Jools99 profile image

Jools99 4 years ago from North-East UK

Another great hub, Steve. When you see some of the animations as stills, it makes you admire this movie all the more. It really was a perfect union of animation and music and has, arguably, never really been surpassed - quite unique in many ways. Voted up.


The Writers Dog 4 years ago

Hi Steve. Thanks for a great Hub on my all time favourite movie. It was Fantasia that introduced me to classical music, something that I still love more than thirty years later.


Steve Lensman profile image

Steve Lensman 4 years ago from London, England Author

Jools, Writers Dog, thanks for the comments, much appreciated.

Come to think about it these were the very first 'music videos'. The only composer still alive when Fantasia was first released was Stravinsky, he wasn't a fan. Dukas died 5 years before.


FloraBreenRobison profile image

FloraBreenRobison 4 years ago

What I will do, in lieu of picking my favourite photos is talk about the music.

I love classical music and thus love all the music. but my favourite pieces included in Fantasia-as music, regardless of the visual artwork-are those by Bach, Tshaikovsky, Beethtoven, and Shubert.

Of course, when you combine the music with the visuals then I love everything!


Steve Lensman profile image

Steve Lensman 4 years ago from London, England Author

Thanks for picking your faves Flora.

It is odd that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, arguably the most popular of them all, did not get chosen for Fantasia or it's sequel.


FloraBreenRobison profile image

FloraBreenRobison 4 years ago

I agree. Mozart would have been a great addition.


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK

The one and only time I watched 'Fantasia' was as a child in the cinema (I hasten to add, it wasn't the original release!). It still remains fondly in my memory, particularly 'The Scorcerer's Apprentice' segment and the dinosaurs.

I guess I'd have to see it again to critically appraise it, but it was a ground breaking film. As you say Steve, it could be seen as the first music video, but would they make an animated children's fantasy today and feature something as cultured as classical music so prominently? Or would they feel the need to 'dumb down' with the latest pop songs? Intriguing to hear of the history and the controversies, and it would be very interesting to watch both the original, and the amended or censored releases.

Very nice hub about a film which lives long in many peoples' memories. Alun.


Steve Lensman profile image

Steve Lensman 4 years ago from London, England Author

Thanks Alun, appreciate the comment. Fantasia introduced me to classical music when I was young. I've seen the film so many times I can't listen to those classical pieces without thinking of the film. :)

I have the film on VHS, DVD and Blu-ray, the soundtrack on LP and CD. I never got into Laserdiscs.

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