Guitar - jazz and diminished chords

Advanced chords

The chord charts below cover most of the useful and most widely used chord types. My new hub more jazz chords for guitar shows some chord progressions, and Guitar Lesson - jazz chords shows how to play 12- Bar Blues with a jazz influence.

New hub (March 2012) Jazz Guitar chords - intros has more chord forms and chord progressions that have many applications.

See also the other hubs Guitar Jazz chords 2, and Guitar Chords - Latin Jazz Chords

If you check out some of my other hubs the underlying theory is explained - make sure you understand the harmonised scale and its applications. Briefly, all songs are in a Key. A Key can be described as a set of notes and chords that work together, and form a pattern.

The key of C would be as follows:

C Dm Em F G Am Bm7b5 C.

Each chord is built on a note from the major scale ( C D E F G A B C )

The chords are numbered in sequence - the I, IV and V chords in bold are the major chords in the key of C - now think how many songs you know use C, F, G in combination.

All the other keys have chords in the same pattern, so it is transferable. If you were to move all the notes up 2 frets (C to D is 2 frets) you would have a D major scale, and all the chords in the pattern move up 2 frets too. All the other keys work in the same way.

My hub Guitar - chords and theory has all the info for the way in which chords work together in different keys, and on different string sets.

Even if you can't be bothered with that for now, you could use most of these chords to help your songwriting, and make songs sound more interesting and harmonically advanced.

Guitar Lesson - playing jazz standards is another hub that you may find helpful, where you can find these chords used in context.

What do the numbers mean?Very briefly, they are referring to the interval between the tonic or basic note of the chord and the added note. I will explain this later in more detail, but to find what C6 means: play a C Chord and add a 6th to it ( C D E F G A, so A is the 6th)

C7 means play a C chord, and then add a flat 7th (B flat)

C maj7 means play a chord and then add a 7th (B)

Cm7 (C minor 7) means play a C minor chord, and then add a flat 7th (B flat again)

All of which is easy to see on a piano keyboard, even if you don't have any intention of playing piano!

NB: for all these chords, identify the root note and play that as the lowest note of the chord. For instance, Amaj7 would use an open 5th string (A) and you don't play string 6.

Let's look at the first three chords. Bm7 flat 5, E7 and Am7.

This progression is called a minor 2-5-1 in the key of Am.It's very widely used in jazz tunes, especially Latin and Brazilian songs, Santana, Jobim tunes. You'll also find it used in Autumn Leaves, which is one of the greatest jazz tunes in my opinion, and a terrific basis for improvisation. Also in Blue Bossa, My Funny Valentine.

On the second line are the chords F#m7 flat 5, B7, Em7.

This is a minor 2-5-1 too, this time in the key of Em.

Em uses the same chords as G, except B7 is used too

These chords are really not too hard to play, but they sound great.

To see these chords in context, check out my other hub Jazz Guitar Greats

For more info on jazz guitar chords and their applications, plus quite a lot of music theory, see my new hub entitled JAZZ GUITAR CHORDS


Diminished chords

These chords are abbreviated as dim or a small circle. You'll find them in music from the 1920s and 1930s, in songs like Makin' Whoopee, Ain't Misbehavin' and literally hundreds of others. This is a useful basic chord to know, and in my other hub Jazz Guitar Chords you can find more advanced ways of doing these progressions.

They are usually transitional chords, joining up chords in a smooth progression, adding tension which is then resolved.

From the 1960s many songwriters have tried to capture a 1930s style, and using diminished chords is an important part of this.When I'm Sixty-Four (Beatles) is an example of this.

There are 4 notes in this type of chord, and you can name the chord after any of them. So while this is an F# dim chord, it's also Cdim, Eb dim and A dim. Buy one chord, get three free.

Now here's an interesting thing. If you move this chord up 3 frets, you get the same chord again, but with the order of notes (inversion) changed. Then move up another 3, another 3 again and the chord sound shifts in an interesting/compelling way, but you are still using the same 4 notes. Musically, you are creating tension.

Even stranger: there are 12 notes, divided by 4, so there are only 3 different diminished chords. So any dim chords can be played starting in fret 1, 2, or 3. Remember the name of the chord can come from any of the four notes in it.

Add 9 chords

If you like the sound of Every Breath You Take, Police and Steely Dan songs, most of the sound is derived from the use of add 9 chords. Looking at C: C E G with an added D, usually next to the C. You could call this add9 or add 2, the same note is added.

Minor add 9 chords: take the E add9 shape, and flatten the third - G# changes to G (open third string) The A Add9 shape can be changed to Am add9 by flatteneing the third, so C# on string 2 goes down to C (fret1) These are great chords for atmosphere.

A7 sus 4 (James Taylor songs) will usually resolve to A7, then D

E7 sus 4 will usually resolve to E7, then A

Three note chords

Jazz chords are often played in the Freddie Green, comping style. try the G7 and Bm7 forms which only use 3 notes, but work well. especially in a band context. Mute or damp the middle string so you only hear the notes you are fingering.

The F#m7 chord shape - same thing applies.

Just using 3-note forms will be an easy way of vastly improving your chord playing in a jazz style.

Also, using these chords instead of full barre chords has many advantages - one of them being they are far less tiring and will enable you to play longer.

9th chords

B9 is given as an example. The barre sign means flatten your third finger over the top strings.

You can often replace 7th chords with 9th chords, especially in blues or jazz contexts.

B11 is another substitute for B7, and will usually lead to an E chord. Think of it as an A chord with a B bass added.

My new hub How to play 9th chords on Guitar has more info and examples.

6th chords

 Look at C6. It's just a C chord with an added A note.

Following the C major scale C D E F G A B C - note 6 is the sequence is an A.

Similarly, C maj7 has a B  - and C7 has a B flat, because it means "C with a flattened 7th"

Piano and keyboard

All this chord theory works equally well on keyboard. It's worth trying it on piano anyway as it is simpler to see how it all works. The link to looknohands.com might help, as there is a comprehensive resource in the Piano Room.

You can try things out and listen to them using the virtual keyboard, so you don't even have to own a keyboard for this.

Using just the white keys play a C major scale: CDEFGABC using notes 1, 3, 5 give you a major chord.(C major)

Maj7 chords: add the B (note 7 in the sequence)

7th chords :add Bb

6th Chords: add the A (note 6 in the sequence)

minor chords: flatten the 3 to E flat (C minor)

All other chords follow the same formula.

Maj 7 chords

If you play A maj7 (see the chart) and follow it with D maj7 (fret 2 over the top 3 strings) you instantly have a nice ballad type chord progression. A maj7 means *an A chord plus a G sharp note*.

A7 is a different sounding chord with a different function too. *an A chord with a G note added*

Note that 7 and maj7 are different notes, a semitone apart.

I know it turns people off music theory when the numbers appear - but much of music is strongly related to maths, and there's no way round that. When you realise how useful it is, you'll feel happier dealing with the numbers.

Questions

You can ask questions through the comments box, or e-mail me with the link at the top of the page. I'll try to cover them as soon as possible.

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Comments 27 comments

Jen's Solitude profile image

Jen's Solitude 7 years ago from Delaware

Hi Jon, It was fun learning about the 9th chords and the chords used for jazz. The virtual keyboard sounds interesting too.

Thanks,

Jen


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 7 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks again Jen. That website represents an amazing amount of work - there is easy guitar, advanced guitar and piano sections - all very well designed and completely free.

Jon


Jen's Solitude profile image

Jen's Solitude 7 years ago from Delaware

OK, I'll check it out, thanks.

Jen


parkerk393 profile image

parkerk393 7 years ago from Arlington, Texas

Great hub. I learned a lot of these chords when I played in my highschool jazz band.

Thanks


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 7 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks parkerk393. personally I really enjoy playing Freddie Green rhythm guitar in a jazz band. here's a joke for you:

Man goes to the doctor's surgery complaining of deafness. The doc says "Can you describe the symptoms?"

Man says - "What? Oh, yeah, well Homer likes a beer, and Marge has bright blue hair.."


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 7 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks Rajiv,will do. And it's nice to have some respect.


IslandVoice profile image

IslandVoice 6 years ago from Hawaii

My son in law plays jazz guitar, so, this i will share with him.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks islandvoice and aloha (?)


avangend profile image

avangend 6 years ago from St. Louis, MO

Thank you for your very helpful and insightful hubs on guitar, I enjoy reading them. I actually linked one of my hubs to yours because you covered the topic of barre chords better than I did.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Hi avangend - I'm glad you're invincible! And thanks for the link, God knows it's a slow business deriving revenue from Adsense!


Daniel Townsend profile image

Daniel Townsend 6 years ago

Really enjoyed your lesson. I am trying to learn jazz guitar right now.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks Daniel - you won't regret it. Take a few lessons if you can though.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Try

essential jazz chords for beginners

on hubpages.com


illkid_88 profile image

illkid_88 6 years ago from United Kingdom

Thanks for the link Jon. Was gonna write a hub on more advanced jazz chords but looks like you beat me to it! Nice work.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks Rowan - all the best with your hubs.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Hi vintage - you're welcome.


tonymac04 profile image

tonymac04 6 years ago from South Africa

Brilliant! Thanks for expanding my undserstanding of chords.

Love and peace

Tony


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Hi Tony,you're welcome.I think harmonised scales are the key to understanding music.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Hi - add9 chords are the key to the sound of The Police and Steely Dan, a great sound.


nikmaya62 profile image

nikmaya62 6 years ago

Thanks for sharing. I have a band, and I am a guitarist. My band genre is rock, but actually i like jazz music very much. My problem is to play jazz music, we have to mastered many chords progression and i still strange with the jazz chords because in rock i just use power chords and scale melody. I hope i can learn more after read your hubs. I've bookmarked this hub.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 6 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

OK - try using three-note chords. Pentatonic scales will work but chord arpeggios are really useful. It takes a while!


easyfreerecipes profile image

easyfreerecipes 5 years ago from Atlanta, GA

nice, you go from the basics to more advance, with chord charts and actual examples. very goo...you earned your score on this one


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 5 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks, welcome to HP.


Aesthetics Romio 4 years ago

Many many thanks u for your nice chord solution. I think its very easy technique n increasing sense if anybody practice attentively. Awesome your thinking dear Jon Green.........


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 4 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks a lot.My advice is 10 mins practice, then take a break.You can repeat that as many times as you like - even once a day will get results.


Hezekiah profile image

Hezekiah 4 years ago from Japan

Nice Hub, I will use some of this theory for the Piano.


Jon Green profile image

Jon Green 4 years ago from Frome, Somerset, UK Author

Thanks Hezekiah. I find that learning the same chords on guitar and piano really helps you improve.

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