Rating the Actors Playing Superman

Faster Than a Speeding Bullet

Look! Up in the Sky!
Look! Up in the Sky!
Christopher Reeve from the Superman movies
Christopher Reeve from the Superman movies
George Reeves from the Adventures of Superman TV show
George Reeves from the Adventures of Superman TV show
Tom Welling from Smallville
Tom Welling from Smallville
Dean Cain from Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman
Dean Cain from Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman
Brandon Routh from Superman Returns
Brandon Routh from Superman Returns
Kirk Alyn from the original Superman TV Series
Kirk Alyn from the original Superman TV Series
John Haymes Newton from Superboy
John Haymes Newton from Superboy
Gerard Christopher replaced Newton on Superboy
Gerard Christopher replaced Newton on Superboy
Bob Holiday from the 1966 Broadway Musical, "It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's Superman!"
Bob Holiday from the 1966 Broadway Musical, "It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's Superman!"
David Wilson from the TV adaption of the play
David Wilson from the TV adaption of the play

Strange Visitor from Another Planet

From an early age, I was always interested in comics. Predictably, the first comic book I read starred Superman, the “strange visitor from another planet with powers and abilities far beyond those of mortal men”. This imaginary survivor from the planet Krypton has fascinated fans of all ages since his creation in 1938. He has been featured in the DC titles Superman, Action, Superboy, the Legion of Superheroes, the Justice League of America, the Justice Society of America, and World’s Finest Comics, among others.

Superman has been more than a comic book legend, however. He has appeared in movies and television shows for more than 60 years, and has been portrayed by a number of actors. Who are they? The names of the actors that have portrayed Superman over the years include Kirk Alyn, George Reeves, Bob Holiday, David Wilson, Christopher Reeve, John Haymes Newton, Gerard Christopher, Dean Cain, and most recently Brandon Routh and Tom Welling. My task today is to rate them. Who offered the best portrayal of the Man of Steel? Whose performance put the “Super” into “Superman”? My rankings are as follows:

1. Christopher Reeve (1952-2004). Reeve portrayed Superman in four motion pictures between 1978 and 1987. The first movie was a classic, not just by the standards of superhero or action movies, but by any standard. Reeve gave us a performance that captured both Superman and his alter ego, Clark Kent. He was tall, good looking, and visually perfect for the role. He brought naïve sincerity to the role that suited an alien perfectly—even if the alien grew up in Kansas. Each movie was inferior to its predecessor but Reeve stood tall, even when the plot was as inane as the offerings in Superman III and IV. It was also interesting to note how unchanged he looked after 9 years in the role. Chris Reeve is my runaway choice for the best Superman ever.

2. George Reeves (1914-1959). George Reeves played Superman in the movie, “Superman and the Mole Men”, which served as the pilot for the television series Reeves starred in from 1951-1958. The series was as much about Clark Kent as Superman, as the activities surrounding Clark, Lois, Jimmy and Perry White drove many of the storylines. Reeves seemed more comfortable as Clark than as the Man of Steel anyway, and his portrayal of the Daily Planet reporter was outstanding. As Superman he mostly jumped out of windows to fly through the air or stood motionless as thieves and hoods fired guns at him to no avail. As Clark he came across as mature, calm and in control—which one would expect from a being with great powers. Although he essentially played Superman and Clark as the same personality, he was the best Clark of all.

3. Tom Welling (1977--). Currently stars in the WB hit series Smallville, a weekly show airing since 2001. Smallville tells the story of a young Clark growing up and learning to become the hero he is destined to be. Although the series has pitted him against most of the foes Superman faced in the comics, the premise of depicting Clark before he became the hero has allowed Welling to avoid donning the red-and-blue tights. Welling’s acting skills have been up to the challenge of making a comic character seem real, and he offers a sensitive portrait of the lonely alien from another world. Like the George Reeves version, however, Clark takes center stage, perhaps symbolized by the lack of the customary solitary curl resting upon Clark/Superman’s forehead.

4. Dean Cain (1966--). Starred as Superman in “Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman” from 1993-1997. Although storylines for some of the episodes were supposedly taken from the George Reeves series, this series was the most tongue-in-cheek (while lacking the farcical qualities of the third and fourth movies). Cain possessed limited acting skills but grew nicely into the role and offered a handsome, well-dressed Clark Kent while again invoking George Reeves with Superman’s greased-back hairdo. A good supporting cast helped the show while Cain found his rhythm, and by the end of his four year run he was offering some very good moments.

5. Brandon Routh (1979--). Starred in the 2006 motion picture “Superman Returns”, and hopes to reprise the role in future films. Tall, handsome and looking very much like Christopher Reeve, Routh invoked Reeve perhaps too much and never appeared capable of adding anything unique to his portrayal. This might be the fault of the script he was given, which seemed intended primarily to pay homage to the 1978 Superman movie. Its depiction of both Superman and Clark were molded after that first film and seemed content to give us Reeve’s interpretation without adding much to it. While watching this movie I continually found myself wishing it were Chris Reeve on the screen—a bad sign for Brandon Routh. However, I would love to see him portray Superman again and provide him the opportunity to show what he could do with more original material.

6. Kirk Alyn (1910-1999). Alyn was the first actor to portray Superman on screen with the 1948 film “Superman” and its 1950 sequel, “Atom Man versus Superman”. He looked good as Superman and made a convincing Clark. Alyn portrayed Clark differently than his Superman, helping the audience believe that no one should suspect the two were one man. Alyn was apparently offered the starring role in 1951 but turned it down, paving the way for George Reeves. (The movies weren’t ready to portray Alyn flying through the air in 1948, and the flight scenes were animated. It was reported they tried to show him flying by suspending him from wires but the wires were easily seen and the footage replaced.) While this version of Superman looks very dated now, it was undoubtedly quite impressive for its time.

7. John Haymes Newton (1965--). John Haymes Newton starred in the first season of “The Adventures of Superboy” in 1988. He looked good in the costume but the show was only average and Newton’s performance seemed stilted and awkward throughout. This might have been a result of bad scripting, with conversation that sounded too much like comic book dialogue and too little like real people speaking. Newton rarely rose above the mediocrity of the material, and the show seemed dated with performances reminiscent of ‘70s television.

8. Gerard Christopher (1959--). Christopher replaced Newton after the first season of “Superboy” but didn’t change much, which once again suggests the scripts are to blame for a weak performance instead of the actors. Christopher made a good-looking Superboy but somehow seemed artificial to me, almost as if we knew he wasn’t supposed to look this way. His acting was no better than Newton’s either, as we were treated to three more years (1989-1992) of wooden performances that lacked feeling or charisma.

I have intentionally omitted two names from my list because I never saw them in the role of Superman: Bob Holiday (1932--) and David Wilson (1949--). Holiday portrayed Superman in a 1966 Broadway musical, “It’s a Bird, It’s a Plane, It’s Superman”, and Wilson played the title role in a 1975 television adaption of the musical. I am certain both men were outstanding as the Man of Steel, but I never saw them and felt unqualified to rate their performance.

While any listing has to have someone come in last, I enjoyed every portrayal of Superman that has been offered to us. There is just something about this story that is appealing, no matter who is playing the lead, which might just be why this character has entertained so many for the last 70 years. Thanks to each and every actor mentioned for contributing to the legend of Superman.

Click on a product to check it out at Amazon.com

Vote for your favorite Superman!

Who is your favorite actor to portray Superman?

  • Christopher Reeve
  • George Reeves
  • Tom Welling
  • Dean Cain
  • Brandon Routh
  • Kirk Alyn
  • John Haymes Newton
  • Gerard Christopher
  • Bob Holiday
  • David Wilson
See results without voting

More by this Author


Comments 33 comments

Bill Getz 6 years ago

A fine job of research. In the early sixties a critic named Seymour Krim did an essay on the political significance of the Superman character and decided that the original comic-book character was an inversion of the Nietzschean "Ubermensch" stereotype into the common man using such powers in behalf of democracy, not fascism, as in the case of other such heroes (notably Flash Gordon).

The same democratic critique was later used to compliment "Star Trek."

BTW, as you probably know, George Reeves appears in the first scene of "Gone With the Wind" as one of Scarlett O'Hara's suitors. Bill


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

The idea of using great powers in behalf of democracy was never more evident than the television tag line, citing a "never-ending battle for truth, justice and the American way". In that era the three were seemingly synonymous, and the idea caught on as heroes like Captain America and the Human Torch duked it out with Hitler and the Nazis during World War II.

Thanks for your comments, Bill. They are much appreciated.


Linda 6 years ago

George Reeves was my favorite. I like Christopher Reeve, also.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Thanks for weighing in, Linda. Chris Reeve was my personal favorite, but George Reeves was second.


rml 6 years ago

I think Tom Welling does a great job on Smallville, and I would have to say he's become my favorite.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

rml, I like Tom Welling also. One of the nice things about a television series, especially a series that has run for 8+ years, is that you have a chance to develop the character and make it your own. Welling has done that pretty well (no pun intended), and I give him credit for the work he has done on the series.

Thanks for your comment.


Amez profile image

Amez 6 years ago from Houston, Texas

Great Topic to build a Hub around, I really liked George Reeves, most likely because thats when I really watch it on TV. I appreciate your research, was nice to see them all together and learn alittle about who they were indiviually.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Amez, thanks for visiting and leaving a comment. George Reeves was the Superman I knew as a kid, and I always admired how down-to-earth and reasonable he seemed. It was a really fun show to watch.

Thanks again for commenting.


Andy Webb profile image

Andy Webb 6 years ago

That was rather enlightening as beyond the obvious 6 I was unaware of the 80’s TV series with John Haymes Newton and Gerard Christopher. Personally I would have putt Dean Cain above Tom Welling and Brandon Routh down to 6th. For me Routh’s version tried to capture Reeve’s version but then at the same time bring a bit of “Smallville” to it and as such didn’t work. But then I doubt anyone will ever surpass Christopher Reeve’s performance as Superman.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Andy, thanks for reading. I always thought it was a shame that "Superman Returns" seemed so much a tribute to Chris Reeve and his portrayal. I never thought the movie gave Routh a chance to show what he could do. You're right, there was a bit of Smallville to the movie that didn't serve Routh well, either. I read that Routh hopes to play the Man of Steel again, but another movie has been held up by the desire to make Superman movies darker in theme and scope, as has been done with the Batman movies.

Given that, I wouldn't mind seeing Routh given another chance with some fresh writing that doesn't draw from the old movies so much. We'll see, I guess.

Thanks again for your comments.

Mike


sabrebIade profile image

sabrebIade 6 years ago from Pennsylvania

Oh course I loved Chris Reeve, but did you even notice that George Reeves sometimes made Superman kinda cocky? I mean he was a good guy and all, but sometimes he looked at the bad guys like he was thinking "Oh please." Usually after the millionth time some idiot shot at him. Looks like someone would have told the crooks, "Guns don't WORK on him!"


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Hi, Sabreblade. You know, you're right about George Reeves. He did have a certain smug look about him that the other actors who portrayed Superman never did. Just a tiny little smile that made you think he didn't take any of it too seriously (as Superman and as an actor playing him). And, when you think about it, you probably would be a little cocky if crooks tried to shoot at you over and over.

Thanks again for reading, Sabreblade. Hope you have a great weekend.

Mike


WeakvsFire profile image

WeakvsFire 6 years ago

I'm also mostly partial to Christopher Reeves. Always thought he portrayed Superman best as the ultimate boy scout but still likable. I say still because being perfectly good in every way could come off as really annoying (cough Mary Poppins). Goodness knows it's harder now to do adaptations since having heroes folks can identify with or heroes with a bit of a dark side are more in. That's why I also have to give it up for Tom Welling for doing a decent job in Smallville...though I am concerned with some of the writing in the last few seasons.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

WeakvsFire, thanks for reading. I liked Chris Reeves the best also. Your comment about darker heroes is dead on--I read somewhere that the reason another Superman movie wasn't made was because the success of the Batman flicks made producers look for ways to offer a "darker" Superman. A bad idea, in my opinion; Superman doesn't lend itself to the same type of storytelling.

I very much approve of the job Tom Welling has done on Smallville. You're right about the scripts from the last few seasons. I think the show suffered from the loss of the actor playing Lex Luthor--without Superman's major nemesis, the show has lost some of its focus. Green Arrow seems to be the star as much as Clark/Superman, and I also struggle a bit with the decision to make small town geek Chloe into a Super-spy. I do like the appearance of the other heroes--the Justice Society, the Legion of Super-Heroes, Martian Manhunter, etc. I wonder what it would take to get an appearance from a young Bruce Wayne??

Well, thanks again for your comments, they are greatly appreciated!

Mike


habee profile image

habee 6 years ago from Georgia

Great hub! I had to go with Reeve.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Habee, thanks for stopping by. Chris Reeve was my favorite, also.

Mike


ThomasWMutherJr profile image

ThomasWMutherJr 6 years ago from Topeka, KS

Unlike your article about the various Catwoman actresses, I agree with you 100% here, though if I'd tackled the subject, I would have made it clear there was a wide gulf between 1st and 2nd place. Of all the performances of every super-hero film ever made, Christopher Reeve gave the single best performance of all--not counting Heath Ledger's as The Joker which belongs in a universe all its own. He was able to bring absolute sincerity to the role, all the while maintaining a twinkle in his eye--a balancing act that very few actors could have pulled off. Add to this his physical beauty, the recently pumped-up body perfectly suited to the role, and a comic deftness which brought hilarity to his portrayal of Clark Kent and you have a perfect storm of screen presence and acting ability. It's too bad they weren't able to produce better scripts for the sequels. Cheers!


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Hi, Tom! Sounds like we are in agreement about Reeve, at least, if not Catwoman. Chris Reeve was born to play Superman, and in a way it is easy to understand why they tried so hard to get Brandon Routh to look and act like Reeve. If you can't top his performance, you mimic it, I guess. The Superman movie was what super-hero movies were supposed to be like, and it proved you could get it right, blazing the trail for Howard the Duck and his contemporaries. It was indeed a shame that they couldn't produce better sequels. The second movie was fair, but Richard Pryor as a hapless adversary in the third movie was not a good idea, even if Pryor was a relatively hot screen presence at the time. And the fourth movie isn't even worth mentioning....

The story is that the intent is to make another Superman movie, but similar in (dark) style to the latest Batman offerings. I hope not--Superman and Batman lend themselves to different types of storytelling, and it would be the wrong style for Superman. We shall see, I guess.

Well, take care.

Mike


ThomasWMutherJr profile image

ThomasWMutherJr 6 years ago from Topeka, KS

Yes. It must have been quite a scary task to approach the role of Superman when you have the performance of Reeves constantly looking over your shoulder. It would be like someone trying to pull-off a redo of "Citizen Kane"--or for readers unfamiliar with anything that occurred before the yeqar 2000--someone attempting to do The Joker again, with Heath Ledger's maniacal laugh constantly ringing in your ears. Question: they managed to honor Ledger with an Oscar (though, alas, he had to die to get it), why couldn't they have given one to Reeves? Answer: Because Oscar is only allowed to get it right 25% of the time. Or so it would seem.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 6 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Hey, Tom. Channel 50 had Superman Returns on tonight, so I got to see some of it again before sitting down here. It didn't change anything. Routh was unfortunately doomed to mimic Chris Reeve. It almost seemed that was what they expected of Kevin Spacey while picking up where Gene Hackman left off, but Spacey had the talent to make the role his own. (Who was better as Luthor, Hackman or Spacey? Don't answer too quickly...)

I liked Superman Returns, but forgot how much they imitated the first Superman movie. If we were to believe that Superman Returns picks up five years or so after Superman (or Superman II) left off, would Superman and Lois actually be repeating things they said to each other in the past??????

Well, thanks for stopping by, and it is a legitimate question--who was better as Luthor?

Mike


sjk6101983 profile image

sjk6101983 5 years ago from Milwaukee, WI

Did anyone ever see "Hollywoodland" where Ben Affleck played George Reeves? Any Superman fan should watch that movie. I'm not into the whole superhero scene really myself - I just love old Hollywood movies - and I loved the story behind this movie.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 5 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Sjk6101983, thanks for stopping by. I never saw 'Hollywoodland' but will see if I can give it a look sometime. It sounds intriguing--George Reeves had an interesting life and career. Thanks very much for the suggestion.

Mike


surlyoldcat 5 years ago

I hate to be the bee in the bonnet, but superman debuted in 1938, not 1939. That was the year Batman appeared in Detective Comics.

But that's just litle nitpick, this article kicked A....uhm...backside. WHat a great hub for around this time of year. Remember the old vynil costumes? I had Batman, Superman, Spider-Man and wore them all until they were rendered competely useless.

Thanks for stirring up those memories. I'll relish this always.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 5 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Surlyoldcat, thank you for pointing out that Superman made his first appearance in 1938. I had not noticed my error and I appreciate the correction. I will note it immediately, and I thank you again. I remember the old costumes, also. A friend of mine had a Batman costume that he simply treasured. I had a Superman costume when I was young, as well.

Thanks for your comments, and for noticing my error. I appreciate it a great deal.

Mike


trusouldj profile image

trusouldj 5 years ago from Indiana

Thanks for including Newton and Christopher from the Superboy series. This show was the original Smallville, but was pushed off the air in favor of developing Lois and Clark. In fact, one of the Superboy actors auditioned and was liked for the Dean Cain role until they realized he'd in been in the costume before.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 5 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Trusouldj, thanks for your comments. While I was a bit hard on the Superboy series and the actors who played the role, I liked the show and appreciated the work Newton and Christopher did. I always believed they would have done better with better scripts, but I always felt their place in the history of Superman is justified. Their show was indeed, "Smallville before there was Smallville".

Mike


The Fanboy profile image

The Fanboy 5 years ago from South Africa

Hey Mike, fantastic hub. I love Superman, and Christopher Reeve is my all-time favorite actor in the role.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 5 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

Thanks, Fanboy. Chris Reeve was my favorite of all the actors to play Superman, as well.

I appreciate your stopping by.

Mike


rjbatty profile image

rjbatty 4 years ago from Irvine

Interesting Hub. I don't agree with your particular order, but that's okay. It's all a matter of opinion, I suppose. You might want to do an update re. the upcoming Superman: Man of Steel (even though none of us have seen it as of this date).


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 4 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

rjbatty, thanks for your comments. In the end you're correct--the order is all a matter of opinion, and the poll at the bottom of the hub reflects that to a large degree. I will do an update once the new Superman comes out, but I feel it's only appropriate to wait. I can't help but wonder how you would rate the actors. If you are of a mind to, stop by again and let me know. Till then, thanks again.

Mike


rjbatty profile image

rjbatty 4 years ago from Irvine

Mike: You can notice something very apparent with your chart, i.e., the older actors who played Superman have received many less votes than the newer. With the passage of time, people simply die or forget or do not log on to HubPages, thus their vote is under-sampled. While your intentions are pure, the hope of discovering the most admired Superman cannot help but be skewed by time. The public has the retention span of an insect. It will always find the next iteration to be the "best." And this is unfair for a number of reasons. Cinematography continues to improve, the ability of a studio to study demographics continues to improve. While one generation fades into oblivion, the next exerts the loudest voice. We have a generation today that barely heard of Elvis Presley or even The Beatles -- so how can we expect them to judge the roles of prior Supermen impartially? It just can't be done. Speaking for myself, I am just barely aware of the work Kirk Alyn did as Superman -- so how can I fairly judge him among the others? I'm not saying that you purposely created a false survey, but, well, frankly, that's all it will ever end up being.

Secondly, I am not trying in the slightest to discourage you from building the kind of Hub you feel is most engaging. I think that the work you have done here is excellent -- far exceeding any article I've come across. So, I know your intentions are good and honest. I just have to comment that neither you nor I could derive at a "best" Superman because each Superman belongs to a particular age -- and that age is advantaged/disadvantaged by its longevity.

I watched some but not all of "Lois and Clark" and hardly gave any notice to Dean Cain because I couldn't tear my eyes off of Terri Hatcher. (Here's another Hub you might try creating ...) I found Hatcher to be the sexiest Lois and I basically had no need for a Superman to be in the series. Dean Cain just seemed like, well, sort of a distraction.

Unlike everyone else on the planet, I found Kate Bosworth to also be a scene stealer in "Superman Returns," although I still give high credit to Brandon Routh (who I did not entirely overlook).

The next film,"Superman: The Man of Steel," will readjust our opinions -- up or down, but the disagreement will go on until the older generations simply stop voting because they are all dead. If I were alive during the 1930s when Superman first arrived in all his colorful glory -- and if I were to be shown a costume to be worn by Henry Cavill vs. what I saw in the comics, I don't think there would be much argument about which was the superior design. The design that fit 1930s America evidently is not the same design that fits the early 21st Century. And I'm sure when I see Amy Adams on the screen as Lois, I will instantly forget any of her progenitors.

For me George Reeves personified Superman -- despite the low budget and everything else. Why? Because he was the most mature of the lot. The scripts never got much in the way of whether he was torn between being Superman or Clark Kent. No. He performed both roles without conflict. He was always steady, confident. The idea of marrying Lois would have seemed ludicrous. Reeves (despite what we read) came across as a protective, loving and gentle Superman -- one who was didn't suffer from identity conflict and maintained a self-assurance that none of his predecessors were able to master (or given the chance to master).

I thought it was a raw deal that Christopher Reeve faced one picture after another with a diminishing budget and cast. I thought it was a raw deal that Brandon Routh didn't get a chance to prove himself without being hamstrung as a Christopher Reeve clone. The movie biz is ruthless, that's for sure.

I hope the Henry Cavill Superman will knock our socks off, but I'll always have emotional feelings for the actors who came before. In America, who gets to play the next Superman is of greater importance than who plays the next Hamlet.


Mike Lickteig profile image

Mike Lickteig 4 years ago from Lawrence KS USA Author

rjbatty, thank you so much for your insightful analysis. We write hoping for responses like this. I agree wholeheartedly with your opinion regarding George Reeves. He was the best Clark of them all, and his Superman was calm and self-assured. If there was ever a Justice League movie that could pluck actors out of any era, George Reeves would be the one I would most have wished to see interact with other actors/heroes.

Chris Reeve made the most convincing Superman from a physical perspective. It is difficult to imagine someone looking better in the costume. He brought a charm and honesty to the role and made it his own. The increasingly poor scripts were a shame.

Tom Welling grew nicely into the role on television, although his abilities as an actor were more limited. He always had a decent supporting cast to play off of (much like Dean Cain in the Lois and Clark series), and it made for some good moments.

Brandon Routh was limited by the material--it was unfair to ask him to simply be a Chris Reeve clone. I wish he could have had another film to prove himself because I think he could have done a fine job.

You are absolutely correct--time erodes our memories and perceptions of those who came first. I have had a similar argument with basketball fans who claim Michael Jordan to be the best of all time, while older fans frequently opt for Wilt Chamberlain. There are fewer of us around who remember George Reeves than there once were, which is a shame. If only he really could be transplanted into the 21st century, where special effects could add the same wonder to his portrayal of the Man of Steel that it has to his successors.

Thanks again for your terrific response--I look forward to updating this article after the next movie. Take care.

Mike


DuaneJ profile image

DuaneJ 2 years ago

I had no clue that so many actors have played the role of Superman. Christopher Reeves is my favorite.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working