Film Review - Rear Window (1954)

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INTRODUCTION

Take one of the great directors in the history of film, and one of the most personable film stars, and put them to work on an original concept, and one should have a classic movie. In 'Rear Window', we certainly do.

A murder mystery thriller set almost entirely in one single room, with a bored and incapacitated hero just watching his neighbours through the rear window of his apartment - this is the setting for 'Rear Window'. It was a novel idea for a movie, and somewhat experimental in its style, and yet in this originality it was typical of Alfred Hitchcock's unique directorial style.

'Rear Window' has been discussed often by film enthusiasts for its story and set design, and its cleverness of direction. On this page I look at this famous cinematic work, relate some of the key elements in its making, and give my personal opinion as to its merits.


James Stewart and Grace Kelly as 'Jeff' Jefferies and Lisa in 'Rear Window'
James Stewart and Grace Kelly as 'Jeff' Jefferies and Lisa in 'Rear Window'

WHAT’S THE STORY ?

L.B 'Jeff ' Jefferies is a professional photographer, and he is used to an adventurous life. When not travelling he lives in an apartment block, and that's where he is throughout the course of this film, because he is recuperating from a broken leg. But it's hot in his apartment, and he's feeling bored and frustrated, and he's desperate for something to occupy his active mind. Fortunately he's got something. His window opens out on to a courtyard surrounded on all sides by numerous other apartments. Most of the occupants of these apartments don't appreciate how easy it is to see into their rooms; or maybe they just don't care. Either way, the opportunity exists to watch them and Jefferies's enquiring nature leads him to develop a fascination with the lives that he sees being conducted in the rooms across the courtyard. Particularly he studies the various relationships and speculates or imagines what might be going on in those relationships.

Jefferies has his own uncertainties in his own relationships which occupy his mind away from the window. He's got a girlfriend, Lisa, but as a couple they are like chalk and cheese. Jefferies is used to roughing it on foreign trips, whilst Lisa is a city girl, glamorous, and seemingly ill-suited to his kind of life. To distract himself from these thoughts about Lisa, Jefferies looks back towards the neighbours in the apartments opposite. He even gives them nicknames to suit their appearance or behaviour, like Miss 'Lonelyheart' or Miss 'Torso'. But as time goes on, one neighbour in particular begins to attract his deep curiosity. Jefferies begins to believe that one neighbour just may have committed a murder.

The difficulty now is to convince others of his belief, and to prove it - a task which seems impossible in the circumstances, confined as he is to his own apartment. It's also a task which becomes increasingly dangerous, as he enlists the aid of Lisa to do the necessary leg work.


'Jeff' Jefferies develops a fascination for what's going on outside his rear window
'Jeff' Jefferies develops a fascination for what's going on outside his rear window

MAIN CAST & CHARACTERS

ACTOR
CHARACTER
James Stewart
L.B 'Jeff' Jefferies
Grace Kelly
Lisa Carol Fremont
Wendell Corey
Lt. Thomas J Doyle
Thelma Ritter
Stella
Raymond Burr
Lars Thorwald (The Salesman)
Judith Evelyn
'Miss Lonleyhearts'
Ross Bagdasarian
Songwriter
Georgine Darcy
'Miss Torso'
Sara Berner
Woman on Fire Escape
Frank Cady
Man on Fire Escape

FACTS OF THE FILM

DIRECTOR : Alfred Hitchcock

WRITERS / SCREENPLAY :

  • John Michael Hayes (screenplay)
  • Cornell Woolrich (short story)

    YEAR OF RELEASE : 1954

    RUNNING TIME : 112 minutes

    GENRE : Thriller

    ACADEMY NOMINATIONS :
    •Alfred Hitchcock (Best Director)
    •Also nominations for Best Writing, Screenplay, Best Sound, and for Best Cinematography (Colour)


Grace Kelly as Lisa Fremont
Grace Kelly as Lisa Fremont
Lisa and 'Jeff' are joined by Lt Doyle
Lisa and 'Jeff' are joined by Lt Doyle
Lars Thorwald becomes aware that someone may be watching him
Lars Thorwald becomes aware that someone may be watching him

KEY CHARACTERS AND PERFORMANCES

James Stewart is possibly the all time favourite actor of the author of this review; every time he appears on screen, his performance is eminently watchable, and often incorporates wry humour. And in this film he doesn't disappoint. In some ways L.B 'Jeff' Jefferies is one of his less likable characters - not only is he a voyeur, he's also a moaning malcontented photographer who doesn't appreciate the girlfriend he has, and is full of self pity for his misfortune to be stuck at home in his apartment. Ordinarily, he's an active man with an enquiring mind - and it seems all he can do at the moment is to use his enquiring mind.

Grace Kelly plays 'Jeff' Jefferies's girlfriend, Lisa Fremont, but socially they are opposites. She has a role which wasn't in the original short story, and to be honest for most of the time her role doesn't serve a huge purpose here, except to demonstrate that Jefferies has his own little soap opera going on in his apartment just the same as Miss 'Torso' and the songwriter and Miss 'Lonelyheart' and all the rest. But she provides a distraction from the monotony of Jefferies staring out of the window, and when investigations are required to prove his murder theory, she comes into her own.

Stella is an insurance company nurse, looking after Jefferies and trying to get him back on to his feet as soon as possible. She is played by Thelma Ritter. The only other character with a prominent speaking role is Lt Doyle, a friend from Jefferies's war-time past and now a policeman. Doyle is played by Wendell Corey. Both Stella and Doyle are necessary components of a film without much action - without these two and Lisa, there wouldn't be much dialogue, and they provide sounding boards for Jefferies' theorising.

Of all the characters who live in the apartments around the courtyard, none are shown in close up (except briefly Raymond Burr as Lars Thorwald) and none are drawn in depth. We only know about them exactly what Jefferies knows about them; that's the way Hitchcock wants it, because that way we are in exactly the same position as the hero of the piece.


Stella and Lisa become engrossed in Jefferes's murder theory
Stella and Lisa become engrossed in Jefferes's murder theory

THE EXTRAORDINARY STAGE SET OF 'REAR WINDOW'

The upper part of the stage set
The upper part of the stage set
This area was actually the basement of the stage, with the stage floor removed
This area was actually the basement of the stage, with the stage floor removed
Lighting was varied to allow for night scenes
Lighting was varied to allow for night scenes

TRIVIA

The film 'Rear Window' was based on a short story called 'It Had to be Murder', published in 1942 by William Irish (aka Cornell Woolrich). In the short story there was no love interest for the James Stewart character, and no representation of other characters seen through the window - key ingredients of Hitchcock's movie.

The apartments remarkably were a stage set - not a real apartment block. But no stage had a ceiling which was high enough to incorporate all levels of the apartment block. The level of Jefferies's apartment is the true level of the floor of the stage, which was removed for the making of the film, and the lower levels were actually the basement of the studio. The whole stage complex was the largest in Paramount's history, about 60m wide, 30m deep, and 12m high. Changes in the lighting to simulate morning, afternoon, evening and night were achieved with a thousand arc lights.

Alfred Hitchcock spent all his time in Jefferies's apartment as this is the viewpoint from which the entire movie is shot. At least one member of the cast, Georgine Darcy - 'Miss Torso' - virtually lived in her stage 'apartment' relaxing here in the daytime between shots.

Raymond Burr was reputedly selected to play Lars Thorwald because he bore a resemblance to David O Selznick - a producer with whom Hitch had a long yet very uneasy, collaboration.

The 'songwriter' in the film is played by a real life songwriter, Ross Bagdasarian

Hitchcock's trademark cameo appears after about half an hour, winding the clock in the songwriter's apartment.

Hitchcock dismissed the idea that the voyeuristic element of this movie was a bit sordid. He pointed out an unspoken truth - people do have a curiosity about what goes on around them. It's normal. It is, after all, the basis of reality TV shows, soaps and the like.

Two years after this film was made, Grace Kelly married Prince Rainier of Monaco and became Princess Grace of Monaco.

There was a television version of 'Rear Window' in 1998, which starred the sadly paraplegic Christopher Reeve, but this was quite different in style and direction.


Not the most gripping scene from a Hollywood movie, but what an extraordinary stage set!
Not the most gripping scene from a Hollywood movie, but what an extraordinary stage set!
The apartment residents. The songwriter - and a very familiar individual winding the clock
The apartment residents. The songwriter - and a very familiar individual winding the clock
Another resident - Miss 'Lonelyheart'
Another resident - Miss 'Lonelyheart'

FAVOURITE SCENES

'Rear Window' is a strange film to review in terms of stand-out moments which stick in the memory. With the exception of the exchanges in the apartment between Jefferies and Lisa, Stella and Lt Doyle, the whole of the movie is shot through the window, and to be honest, nothing much of note happens. Any 'scenes', such as they are, tend to be long distance shots of other apartments across the courtyard.

The opening sequence is very well handled. First the camera takes us through the window of Jefferies's apartment and presents the whole vista of the courtyard he can see from his window. The camera then turns inwards to show us Jefferies's own apartment - he's sleeping in a chair, his leg cased in plaster, camera gear on the tables and framed magazine covers on the walls - we learn almost everything we need to know about Jefferies and his environment before a word is spoken.

In the middle of the night a strangled scream rings out and the sound of breaking glass is heard. This is the key moment of the film. It is the moment that Jefferies's focus of attention changes. It starts to rain torrentially, but one of his neighbours is behaving strangely. In the small hours of the morning, the 'salesman' makes several journeys out into the rain, carrying a suitcase. Jefferies spends the night drifting in and out of consciousness. He is left to guess what is happening; as we are too.


Lars Thorwald handles a necklace, as he rummages through his wife's handbag
Lars Thorwald handles a necklace, as he rummages through his wife's handbag

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FAVOURITE QUOTES

Right up till the last few minutes of this movie, the dialogue is limited to just four characters, and primarily centres on the relationship between 'Jeff' and Lisa, and speculation about the salesman's actions. Perhaps the most perceptive quotes however are those which take a gentle swipe at the nature of our social life and the neighbourhoods we live in. Jefferies tries to convince a sceptical Lt Doyle that there is something about the salesman's life which needs to be explained:

  • 'You can explain everything that's gone on there and is still going on?'
  • 'No - and neither can you.That's a secret, private world you're looking at out there. People do a lot of things in private they couldn't possibly explain in public.'

As well as murder and relationships, this is a film which highlights the isolationism which can exist whereby even nearest neighbours may scarcely know each other, exemplified by the scene in which a dog is found dead. There is a loud cry, and all of the apartment dwellers come out to see what's going on. One of the residents is holding the body of her dog:

  • 'Which one of you did it? Which one of you killed my dog? You don't know the meaning of the word 'neighbours'; neighbours like each other! Speak to each other, care if anybody lives or dies! But none of you do! ... But I couldn't imagine any of you being so low that you'd kill a little helpless friendly dog - the only thing in this whole neighbourhood who liked anybody!'

All the neighbours who are the target of her ire, then retreat back inside their own little homes to get on with their private lives. One suspects that would be as true today as it was in 1954.


Chairbound Jefferies and Lisa Fremont have an ill-matched relationship
Chairbound Jefferies and Lisa Fremont have an ill-matched relationship

NEGATIVES ?

'Rear Window' is without doubt a clever film. The scenario is intriguing, and one to which everyone can relate - just an ordinary guy looking out of his window and watching his neighbours, wondering what's going on in their lives.

Whether it is also a great film is more debatable. As one of Hitchcock's film experiments, the idea of a movie in which virtually all the action is filmed through one window certainly works better than 'Rope' (another experiment in which a single camera roams around a single room in a seemingly continuous take.) However, the idea is limited in what can be shown. Many characters in the apartments across the courtyard are one dimensional (even including the suspected murderer.) That is intended - we are meant to see and know only what Jefferies knows - but it does mean that a sizeable proportion of the screen time is devoted to characters many of whom are not relevent to the plot. It would at least be nice to be able to care about them, but because we know so little about them, it is hard to care.

WHAT’S SO GOOD ABOUT IT?

The plot is everything in this movie. The concept of a cast of characters, one of whom may or may not be a murderer, is not new, but the way it is handled in 'Rear Window' certainly is - a man alone in an apartment with nothing to do except spy on his neighbours, all going about their ordinary lives in their own ways. But one has a life which appears rather more mysterious - and possibly more sinister - than the rest. Like Jeff, the audience is pulled into the lives of the people in the rooms across the way. Like Jeff, the audience becomes voyeurs (though we have the excuse that we know this is fiction). The way this scenario develops is clever.

Red herrings are a common ploy in murder mysteries, but here there's almost an entire cast of red herrings - characters who seemingly have no part in the central story of murder and mystery. That also makes the film intriguing.

Finally, there is the Hitchcockian element - the experimentation with the medium of film. Almost throughout the whole movie the viewer is observing the voyeur, seeing what Jefferies is seeing, and watching how Jefferies reacts. The perspective of the viewer in this film is very much Jefferies's perspective on events.

All these factors make 'Rear Window' a movie which any student of film should watch and learn from, and everybody else should watch it at least once to see how a master director experiments with film technique to tell a straightforward story.


L.B 'Jeff' Jefferies's voyeuristic behaviour takes on a serious edge
L.B 'Jeff' Jefferies's voyeuristic behaviour takes on a serious edge

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Anyone who is a movie buff, or a fan of suspense and mystery, and above all, of Alfred Hitchcock - will no doubt find this a fascinating movie - one of his most celebrated works. For me, the manner in which the film is shot presents problems which are not entirely overcome. I feel there is a lack of characteristic Hitchcockian tension and a lack of character development. Despite this, the film doesn't drag as we watch the antics of the neighbours and puzzle out the salesman's behaviour along with Jefferies. 'Rear Window' should be watched as a masterpiece of movie technique, and a piece of classic Hitchcock.


PLEASE PROVIDE YOUR ASSESSMENT OF THIS FILM

5 out of 5 stars from 2 ratings of this film

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I WOULD LOVE TO HEAR YOUR COMMENTS. THANKS, ALUN 25 comments

Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 22 months ago from Essex, UK Author

lambservant; Thank you Lori. It's good to receive such a nice comment from someone who is clearly a real fan of 'Rear Window'! Much appreciated, Alun


lambservant profile image

lambservant 22 months ago from Pacific Northwest

I love love love this movie. It's on my top 5 list. I love that you point to more than the plot and the actors, but also the brilliance of the set design and direction and other things. Hitchcock was brilliant. Nice review.


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Greensleeves Hubs 2 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Adventuretravels; Your son has good taste! It mildly irritates me how so many of the younger generation don't watch anything but the most recent films and know nothing of the quality of films from 'before they were born' so it's good to hear that your son can appreciate these older masterpieces. I think everyone should be encouraged to view movies of all types and all ages, so they don't miss out on treasures such as this.

Appreciate your comment and support very much Giovanna. Cheers, Alun


Adventuretravels profile image

Adventuretravels 2 years ago from London UK

I adore this sumptuous film - it's sheer style. I watched it with my son a couple of months ago, he's 14 and we were both on the edge of our seats - How do I explain that? I've seen the film so many times - it could have been my son's excitement! Great Hubs really well written thanks.


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Greensleeves Hubs 3 years ago from Essex, UK Author

North by Northwest is perhaps not the most typical of Hitchcock films, as it is more of an adventure caper with strong comic undertones than a thriller, but it has some great suspenseful set pieces and a great story line and a wonderful cast. It's possibly the most 'fun' Hitchcock movie to watch, and one of only a few which I could watch time and time again.


Thief12 profile image

Thief12 3 years ago from Puerto Rico

I haven't seen North by Northwest, but I would have Vertigo, Psycho, and Dial M for Murder above Rear Window. Still a great film, and Grace Kelly was gorgeous in it.


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Greensleeves Hubs 3 years ago from Essex, UK Author

My thanks Thief12. As you'll appreciate from my review, I'm largely in agreement. Certainly technically it is very very clever and it must have taken a bold decision to shoot it in this way. As far as entertainment value is concerned, I may prefer one or two of Hitchcock's other movies, but I'd recommend anyone to take a look at 'Rear Window' at least once, just to see what can be done by a director with vision.


Thief12 profile image

Thief12 3 years ago from Puerto Rico

Not my favorite Hitchcock, but still a great film. Technically impressive.


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 3 years ago from Essex, UK Author

amandajoyshapiro; thanks Amanda for another really nice comment. It's hard to believe that the apartment blocks were a studio set isn't it? And to appreciate that the 'ground floor' was actually below the original stage floor. Amazing design.

I know of Edith Head by name and by her Oscar accomplishments, but very little else about her. Certainly I'll take a look at your hub shortly. Should be interesting! Alun.


amandajoyshapiro profile image

amandajoyshapiro 3 years ago

Another really good article with excellent photos and trivia. The information about its set was interesting: opening up the stage for more space. While I was a grad student, Prof. William Rothman (writer of the book, The Murderous Gaze) taught a class featuring nearly all of Hitch's films, especially Rear Window. I wrote a hub on the director's relationship with Edith Head, who designed all the costumes for this and ten other of his films. Please let me know what you think of it.


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Greensleeves Hubs 3 years ago from Essex, UK Author

tattuwurn; thanks so much for commenting and for sharing this hub. It's much appreciated. It's clear that a lot of people either remember Jimmy Stewart and Grace Kelly with affection, or have come to greatly enjoy their performances through watching old films. Two of the biggest stars in Hollywood's history, coupled with one of the most legendary directors - perhaps it's not surprising that this movie remains popular! Alun.


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Greensleeves Hubs 3 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Rusticliving; thanks very much for your comment (and thanks for the 'fan mail' message Lisa. It's much appreciated.) Really pleased you feel my review did justice to one of your favourite movies! It is always an enjoyable exercise to try to spot Alfred Hitchcock in his movies - and usually not too difficult because he did have a rather distinctive profile!) Cheers, Alun.


tattuwurn 3 years ago

One of those one-set wonders. I think it's my most favorite Hitch film yet. Plus there are my idols Jimmy Stewart and Grace Kelly -- she's really cute in that film especially at the moment she discovers what's going on at the next building and attempts to figure it out herself, risking her life and her poise hahahahaha.

Voted up and shared. :)


Rusticliving profile image

Rusticliving 3 years ago from California

This is actually one of my all-time favorite movies. I adore Jimmy Stewart and Grace Kelly. Wonderful review on the movie. I actually learned about Hitchcock's brief appearance in his movies years ago and so whenever I watch his movies, I tend to look for him now. (even though I know pretty much where to find him in each movie..lol) Thumbs up and shared!


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Ruby; My thanks to you Ruby for your generous comments about the presentation of this page. Alfred Hitchcock is one of my favourite directors too, and 'Rear Window' is undoubtably one of his most innovative films - in any other hands, I suspect it wouldn't have worked anything like so well. Alun.


Ruby H Rose profile image

Ruby H Rose 4 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island

I like your information about the set and other related tidbits. I love this movie and Alfred Hitchcock! Great hub, great pictures from the movie. I like how you put the facts of the film and cast of characters in.


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thanks Woody; thanks for what you were going to say if Cogerson hadn't said it first! :-)

'Rear Window' is a well crafted film with good casting in the lead roles, and a clever idea for the plot. Re-the Internet - I'm from the television age before computers, but even I couldn't cope without the computer now. How did they manage before TVs became common-place? Just look out the window at the neighbours and the murderers I guess. Alun.


Woody Marx profile image

Woody Marx 4 years ago from Ontario, Canada

I think Cogerson above said what I wanted to say but he said it first. ;)

At any rate, I love the movie and the ia of getting Jimmy Stewart to sit in a wheelchair in one room for the entire length of a film, and have only the world beyond his window to fathom for his entertainment (they didn't have the internet in those days I am told) was sheer brilliance. No special effects (I abhore films with them as a rule, but like every rule, mine has it's exceptions) and great music and to top it all off....Grace Kelley for eye-candy. What more can you ask? Plus Raymond Burr makes an ideal cad and baddun'.

Thanks for your review!


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Cogerson; my deep thanks for such a generous and warm comment and compliment, from such a significant HubPage writer on the subject of movies.

'Rear Window' is one of those films which - as you may guess from my review - I actually find quite difficult to fathom out. In so many ways - dialogue, action, character development - it shouldn't work as well as many other films including other Hitchcock classics. And yet it does work. It is very watchable, and I - like you - do not tire of seeing it. I guess because the plot and direction are the work of a genius.

Certainly I do think it might be a good idea for your hubs Cogerson to provide an index hub, especially as links are now disabled on the profile page. I don't advertise or link to other sites nearly enough but I'm sure having a 'home page/index' for my film reviews can't do any harm, and may do some good. Particularly it would be useful for any non-HubPage members who won't be aware when new hubs are published, but who may want to bookmark an index page or 'add it to favourites' and come back from time to time to see what new reviews have been added. (Which reminds me - my next job is to make the link to 'Rear Window' active on my index page!!)

Many thanks again for your visit. Alun.


Cogerson profile image

Cogerson 4 years ago from Virginia

Hey Alun......just one word about your Rear Window hub.....Awesome Awesome Awesome Awesome.

Now that I have that out of the way....lol. I know that Hitchcock's Vertigo just got the top spot on the greatest film ever poll.....but Rear Window to me is the better of the two movies....I can watch Rear Window once a year and enjoy it and seem to always notice something for the first time.....I only want to watch Vertigo every 10 years or so and each time I think....good movie but it is very slow paced....give me Rear Window or North by Northwest instead.

I enjoyed reading about your favorite scenes....and I agree that it is hard to place a finger on one great scene.....it is the entire movie that stands out.....Grace Kelly looks prettier with each new viewing...how is that possible?.....lol.

Another awesome collection of movie tribute hubs in your collection....I like that you have your index....I have thought about doing that myself....especially with our new profiles. Voted up and awesome times 5.


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Rob: I very much agree - ordinarily I do like a little action and character development in a movie, and 'Rear Window' is 'lacking' in some of these qualities. The fact that the film still works so well and is eminently watchable from beginning to end, is testament to the genius of Hitchcock.

On another matter, many thanks for taking time to visit this page. I saw on one of Cogerson's pages that you are involved in writing for television, and maybe this might limit the number of hubs you currently write? If so, I sincerely hope this or your other endeavours are going well and bringing success. You deserve it. Alun.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY

Hitchcock has such flair that he took a premise that could have been very dull and made it into a classic bit of cinema. Great film,

Excellent review,

Rob


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 4 years ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

At the time Hitchcock lived here I think the area was still in Essex - it only became part of London in the 1960s, so 'our Alf' would still have been an Essex boy. Sort of warms the cockles, so to speak.


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK Author

Thanks alancaster; Although I don't rate the storyline of 'Rear Window' as highly as some do, the innovative approach to film making, the set design, and camera use, makes this a remarkable movie.

I'm sure like all great artists, Hitchcock would have gained inspiration from all sorts of experiences in his life, including perhaps time spent in the area of London you mention.


alancaster149 profile image

alancaster149 4 years ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

Hello again, 'Greensleeves'.

I saw this film a long time ago but it didn't figure that much in my mind then. I watched it as a fan of Hitchcock would, with bated breath, no less.

There's a large hotel and pub that bears his name - his birthplace - facing Whipps Cross Flats and the Hollow Pond on (what else?) Whipps Cross Road. The bar's very busy at weekends, crowded out at times. (I can understand where he got the idea for the film 'The Birds' when I sit there in the daytime, with the crows and magpies assembling across the road on the wide open common area).

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