South African Music & Dance's Struggle Against Culture Wars: A View Of The Music and Dance Of Africans of South Africa

African Cultural/Historical/customary Continuity and Transmission

An African cultural workshop with ‘African Activities’ The team of skilled African visitors arrive in national dress and engage with students, talking about their lives and taking questions as they teach the workshops.
An African cultural workshop with ‘African Activities’ The team of skilled African visitors arrive in national dress and engage with students, talking about their lives and taking questions as they teach the workshops.

South Africa - Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture Paperback by David Holt-Biddle

Mzatnsi Cultural Renaissance

On The Art's Revolutionary Tilt:

The founders of Marxism emphasized that art was an important weapon in the ideological struggle between classes. It could re-inforce just as it could undermine the power of the exploiters, could serve to defend class oppression or, on the contrary, contribute to the education and development of the consciousness of the toiling masses, bringing them closer to victory over their oppressors. Marx and Engels therefore called for a clear distinction to be made between progressive and reactionary phenomena in feudal and bourgeois culture and put forward the principle of the Party approach to art - that it be evaluated from the position of the revolutionary class.

From the Preface to Marx and Engels' "On Literature and Art"2 (Moscow 1976)

MODERN AFRICAN CULTURE

We use an English word "Culture" which in the African usage is "Setso" "Setho", "Isintu" which is known as "Culture" when we want to describe social phenomena and reality, made by Man(Africans). It now becomes the duty and responsibility of the African people of South Africa(Those who are reconstructing the history of African People Of South Africa) to make it to mean what they say it means [in their languages and meanings of the African people of South Africa] when they refer to it[Culture] in their languages, as pointed above, or as part of what they practice, live, experience and propagate as stressed above-their reality; and also, how they live and experience their culture in their day-to-day existence as they go about their lives, is important that they should know and understand their culture, custom, tradition, history and languages, music, dance, etc., thoroughly and clearly.

To describe the "way of life"[Culture] of the Africans of South Africa is a toll order, but if the Africans of South Africa understand it better, make it over and thought it up in a holistically manner, if they were to take only one part of it, as in the 'music' and 'dance', then they will be able to clearly discern their 'culture' as a uniform, united, seamless, variegated and diverse African South african Culture.

Yes, different, and variegated and variable; unrelated to each other-No. Each is an elaboration of the other, depending on region and the uniqueness of that group, or nation(of which there are 11[eleven] reside; They have many commonalities and sameness as a unified single culture which is one-Yes.

To a casual reader, right up to reading these lines, it seems normal enough what I have asked and answered with short repsonses. But in South Africa, it means a lot of different things to different people and races of this decaying country; it means conditioned cultural repsonse to Africans(who, most of them, end up hating their culture and dismissing it as do their masters-with impunity).

It also means freedom, affluence and White rights and Master complex for the White and other groups over and above Africans. Even when they are supposedly ruling themselves, Africans of South Africa are still suffering from the effects of a Apartheid 'Hangover' and a massive 'Cultural War' that has been waged against them from 1490, by Bartholomew Diaz and his thugs, in 1492 and 1652 by Vasco da Gama and Jan Van Riebeeck , the 1700sFrench Huguenotes and the 1820 British Settlers, respectively,in the subsequent years, thereafter, as indicated above.

This has had a big and negative effect and impact on the national psyche of the African people who were ruled and controlled by the segregationist colonizers from the mid-sixteen hundreds to date; who at the same time, are being attacked and an attempt to decimate their culture, which is a consistent war and struggle for Africans, who are perpetually trying to preserve and continue their traditions, practices, customs and live up to their history, the present Cultural War is being waged against them by the present "Sell Out" Black Led ANC Government. The struggle for the Africans has been to try to preserve whatever they can under such a horrific attack of their way of life, land, people,music, dance and their being(Humanity-Botho/Ubuntu). It's not easy..

The struggles are fought over and in many different fronts. The understanding of resisting foreign investments in South Africa meets up with organized resistance of people "Toy-toying"(marching, shouting slogans and singing resistance songs). The struggle in the cultural arena is quite different, and Africans have not yet figured out how to resist the war on their culture by the Europeans and now of late, the Americans. If one were to surf the Net and read-up on the Culture of Africans, it is not even acknowledged by those who are foreign and write on behalf of Africans that this is an African country with its original cultures, music, dances, languages, customs, traditions, and the whole bit.

It would be instructive to cite some of what Bantu Biko had to say about this aspect of culture and Modern African Culture.

"One of the most difficult things to do these days is to talk with authority on anything to do with African Culture. Somehow Africans are not expected to have any deep understanding of their own culture or even of themselves. Other people have become authorities on all aspects of the African life or to be more accurate [so-called] 'BANTU' life. Thus, we have the thickest of volumes on some strange subjects - even "The Feeding Habits Of The Urban Africans", a publication by a fairly liberal group, Institute Of Race Relations.

"In my opinion, it is not necessary to talk with Africans about African culture. However, in the light of the above statements one realizes that there is so much confusion sown, not only amongst casual non-African readers, but amongst Africans themselves, that perhaps a sincere attempt should be made at emphasizing and projecting the authentic cultural aspects of the African people by themselves.

"Thus, in taking a look at cultural aspects of the African people one inevitably finds himself[herself] having to compare. This is primarily because of the contempt that the "superior" culture shows towards the indigenous culture. To justify its exploitative basis, the Anglo-Boer culture has at all times been directed at bestowing an inferior status, labelled all cultural aspects of the indigenous people as [backward, savage, primitive, underdeveloped and useless].

"I am against the belief that African culture is time-bound, the notion that with the conquest of the African all his culture was obliterated. I am also against the belief that when one talks of African culture one is necessarily talking of the pre-Van Riebeeck culture. Obviously the African culture has had to sustain severe blows and may have been battered nearly out of shape by the 'belligerent culture it collided with, yet in essence even today, one can easily find the fundamental aspects of the pure African culture."

I am going to refer as well to what I have termed the "Modern African Culture."[and African culture did not lie in wait for European culture to come bring civilization to it]-Africans culture, by the time the Boers landed in the Cape- was already matured, old, and functional] (I have written about this aspect of African south African Culture in my Hub called "South African Cultre, Customs and Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance against Dysfunctional Existence"): The point I am trying make is that I will not be discussing the nitty gritty of of the culture as a whole, but the Dance and Music cultures will be further dealt with below, towards the end of the Hub.

The Family as a Power System

"Culture is a social machine, a power grid or system. As a holistic system it is composed of a number of sub-systems, power systems in their own right. The family is one such fundamental cultural subsystem. It is a system of social relations, hierarchical in structure, where different members exercise different privileges, prerogatives and different levels of authority. The family is a primary organization, a fundamental generator or source of power where the human and non-human capital resources of its members are pooled and shared as means of achieving its vital goals. These goals include sexual reproduction, socialization of its children, securing a common habitation, providing protection and affectional relations among its members, maintaining and enhancing the social status of its members and providing for their economic well-being.

"The family is a system where power is customarily and legally exercised; where its members are not only related by kinship ties, by blood and a shared history, but relate to each other in terms of membership rights, duties, behavioral expectations and authority. The character and personality of individual family members, especially its young, are developed, shaped and continuously influenced by the organization and exercise of power and authority inside and outside the family unit. Consequently,the family as a power system markedly influences its members', particularly its youngs' attitudes toward and relationships to power and authority both within and without the family." (Wilson)

Even though the family has been partly decimated, not completely, the community and social events hold sway in keeping the Cultures of African people alive. This Hub is really about different African communities, societies and nations that keep the heartbeat of African Dance and Music Cultures alive. It is in this way that African families maintain and keep their identities alive. Wilson puts it this way:

"Moreover, identification involves the process by which the individual or group is socialized to acquire those attitudes, values, interests, morals, ethics, tastes, skills, emotional and behavioral tendencies, and ways of thinking that the socializer deems appropriate to the person's gender, the person's or in the case of Whites and Blacks(Africans), the group's race and social role. In other words, identification refers to the process of fitting a person or group to its ascribed or prescribed social role.

"The social role for which the person or group is fitted is usually the one(s) the socializer perceives as important in supporting his/her or its own position and in achieving or satisfying his/her or its own goals and needs; or in terms of group relations, important to supporting, enhancing and empowering and helping the socializing group to achieve its economic, political and psychological objectives." (Wilson)

Within the Dances that I will be posting showcasing in great detail of the eleven(11) people of South Africa, it is important to note that the nations, themselves, hold these cultural events, not only as families(which are to some extent weakened) but as nations, one nation, which is more powerful and full of hope and energy to uplift the general population.

For us to better get a picture as to how this is achieved, the manner through which families become socialized through their nation to achieve culturally cohesive performances and in the process this helps their weakened families, which were purposefully made dysfunctional African nation, and their culture makes them into an empowered and vibrant nation with a colorful, musical and vibrant culture-is to do a review of the Culture of Africans through their dance, music and traditions-is to pay attention to our culture, etc.

At the beginning of this Hub, I cited a quote from Marx and Engels who emphasized that:

.., Art was an important weapon in the ideological struggle between classes. It could re-inforce just as it could undermine the power of the exploiters, could serve to defend class oppression or, on the contrary, contribute to the education and development of the consciousness of the toiling masses, bringing them closer to victory over their oppressors."

This relates to what I have been saying above, that the attempt to decimate the African family, was a partial triumph, but in the case of Africans in South Africa, they were kept afloat and survived because of and by their societies which maintained and facilitated for them to maintain their culture, throughout oppression and depression to the extend that this Hub has now attempted to re-educate and conscientize Africans about the uniformity, energy and power of their culture which will help them overcome their detractors, and what they attempted to do by trying to confuse the Africans about the validity of their culture, as pointed above, more specifically, as stated byBantu Biko..

What this Hub is about all about is to give the Africans a voice as they perform their culture, and project, inject and embed the fact that it is unified and one, but also a diverse culture. The history and story about African culture was fleshed-out by Bantu Biko below in the following manner:

Madosini @her homestead

The South Africa Reader: History, Culture, Politics (The World Readers) Paperback by Clifton Crais (Editor) , Thomas V. McClendon (Editor)

African Culture is Man-Centered

"The Prophetic And Relevant Insights Of Biko

Rewriting African History, Culture, Dance, Music And Tradition

Prior to citing Biko below, it is 'customary' to open an indaba (What is about to be discussed), by using the healers to rouse and bring forth the spirits to themselves, before any ceremony or occasions through their Sangomas(Healers), because Africans believe that through them(Healers) they can keep in touch with the ancestors, and in the process the drum will not only affect her to arouse the ancestral spirits, but the onlookers, initiates and those that have come to the Sangoma with certain maladies.

In trying to lay down African South African culture, all what we will see below really emanates from the customary beliefs and roles played by the Healers in the community. Most families still consult with them in matters relating to themselves and their members of their families and extended families. The healers are responsible for different dance, styles, music, dress and healing along with telling the patient what their ailment is, and in most cases, refer them to a herbalist, or they themselves mix the concoction and issue directions how the medicines should be used, and when, how and why(meaning, what will the outcome be in using the the medicine). The community and society utilize the styles of dances and some music of the Sangomas in their routines and performances

In order to really understand and know what African Cultures, Customs, Traditions, Rites and Practices are all about, it will be necessary to give a really superficial, not an intensely deep background(as stated above), about the Sangomas and their role in African society. Because it is such a broad and lengthy subject on its own, I will simply say that I will open the Hub with two videos showing different Sangomas. The first Video, above, is of a Sangoma woman working herself up in order to receive and come into contact with the ancestral spirit world. Not anyone becomes a Sangoma. To be one, one is chosen by the ancestors, not by any living person/individual.

A person who becomes a Sangoma, is chosen by those in the spirit world, and they pay visits to them in their sleep or wherever the spirits deem fit. They have to be initiated into the ways and workings of being an inyanga/Healer/Sangoma, up until all the spritis are permanently part of the Sangomas life, with whom he/she can communicate with during healing/spiritual revival or celebrations; in this manner she/he receives directives and other important information, in a dream, a lot of instructions as to where to dig for what medicine and what its use will be , and how it should be portioned out, and so forth.

They(Sangomas) even are shown the types of dances that the ancestors will want her to perform prior to her doing any work, and whether to charge or not for her services-in most cases, and they are forbidden from charging. Should they go against that order, their abilities disappear and can no more work, as it has happened in many cases. The community is allowed to compensate for the services in many ways, either than cash.

But today, most people have become ignorant and opportunistic and are fleecing their customers and they are really ineffective inn their crooked ways of healing. The ones who are genuine do not charge more than "Two Rand"(R2.00) to tell you about all you might need or want to know. The very good and genuine ones charge you a one time fee of less than a hundred Rands for all the services they give to one, and they allow their patients to come back for medicinal refilling and updates on their conditions and so on, for free, afterwards-as long as they are being healed.

For us to keep up with Biko in rewriting African Cultural History, we also need to peg all those relevant customary practices within the writing of this Hub. Just as I am doing in this Hub by posting a video that shows us a Sangoma working herself into a trance in and out of breath in order to connect with the spiritual world who will be the ones guiding her in the work whe will doing for the day-I am at the same time re-writing and reminding the Africans of their ways of doing things. This is because the African people of South Africa, too, before they do or perform a ceremony for their ancestors, they consult with the Sangoma. I hope this will meet that customary and traditional requirement before one heads deeper into the Hub.

The second video(The one below) is very important in that, Sangomas not only deal with healing and talking to the spirits, but they connect with the spirits through the dances of each particular spirit when they are in a trance, connecting with the spirits, for the Sangomas themselves to be able to function as healers, and to be able to foresee and be clairvoyant, and help the people who have come in for the healing-with the help of the spirits they are invoking; at the same time they dance to celebrate and honor their spirits and for the onlookers, it is a form of entertainment, enjoyment and edification ((And also strengthening their beliefs and trust in the spirit world). The Dance then, for these reasons either than the healing, foretelling and giving spiritual guidance, but for Dancing as Dancing is part and parcel of the African culture, community, and society, is the one performed by the Elderly Sangoma and her daughter.

As we watch the videos of the different eleven(11) African people of South africa, down in the this Hub, one should remember and bear in mind the dancing styles, and all that these Africans of South Africa do and dance for, are directly and intricately related and common with, same as the ones will see in the first and particularly the second video of the Dancing Sangoma Mother Mother and her Daughter-and this is found all throughout the 11(eleven) nations of Africans of South africa. Biko has this to say then about African Culture:

"As one Black(African) writer says, colonialism is never satisfied with having the native in its grip, but, by some strange logic, it must turn to his past and disfigure and distort it. Hence, the history of the Black(African) man in this country is most disappointing to read. It is presented merely as a long succession of defeats. the Xhosas were thieves who went to war for stolen property; the Boers never provoked the Xhosas but merely went on "punitive expeditions" to teach the thieves a lesson.

"Heroes like Makana (early nineteenth-century Xhosa prophet), sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island and drowned while escaping in a boat. Refusal by Blacks(Africans) to accept the truth of his death led to the mythical hope of his eventual return), and those who were essentially revolutionaries are painted as superstitious trouble-makers who lied to the people about bullets turning into water. Great nation-builders like Shaka are cruel tyrants who frequently attacked small clans for no reason but for some sadistic purpose. Not only is there no objectivity in the history taught us, but there is frequently an appalling misrepresentation of facts that sicken even the uninformed student.

"Thus, a lot of attention has to be paid to our history(culture, music and dances, etc.-my addition), if we as Blacks (Africans) want to aid each other in our coming to consciousness. We have to rewrite our history and produce in it the heroes the heroes that formed the core of our resistance to the White invaders - (Recall the Max/Engels Quote above) More has to be revealed, and stress has to be laid on the successful "NATION-BUILDING" [I have just posted a piece on my evaluation of what I worked on Facebook(FB) on this project, then , and now this Hub project/article about African culture: Dance and Music - and wrote about that project and projection and with videos and short history to go with these videos), "and we should write of the attempts of men such as Shaka, Moshweshwe [Faku] and Hintsa. These areas call for intense research to provide some sorely needed missing links. We would be too naïve to expect our conquerors to write unbiased histories about us, but we have to destroy they myth that our history starts fro 1652, the year Van Riebeeck landed at the Cape.

"Our culture must be described in concrete terms. We must relate the past to the present and demonstrate a historical evolution of the modern Black(African) man/woman. There is a tendency to to think of our culture as a static culture that was arrested in 1652 ad has never developed since. The "return to the bush" concept suggests that we have nothing to boast of except lions, sex and drink. We accept that when colonization sets in it devours the indigenous culture and leaves behind a bastard culture that may thrive at the pace allowed it by the dominant culture.
"But we also have to realize the basic tenets of our culture have largely succeeded in withstanding the process of bastardization and that even at this moment we can still demonstrate that we appreciate a man for himself. Ours[Ubuntu] is a true man-centered society whose sacred tradition is that of sharing. We must reject, as we have been doing, the individualistic cold approach to life that is the cornerstone of the Anglo/Boer culture." (Biko)

[Some people on FB tell people like us who post about this culture that they want us to stop and whatever they say is the 'bottom line', with many exclamation marks to whit. Biko adds:
"We must seek to to restore to the Black(African) man the great importance we used to give to human relations; the high regard for people and their property and for life in general; to reduce the triumph of technology over man and the materialistic element that is slowly creeping [or has completely embedded itself] into the African society and populace society. [It is as if Biko is Alive, Today!]

"These are essential features of our Black(African) culture to which we must "cling" to. Black(African) culture above all implies freedom on our part to innovate without recourse to White values. This innovation is part of the natural development of any culture of the natural development of any culture. A culture is essentially the society's composite answer to the varied problems of life.

We are experiencing new problems every day and whatever we do adds to the richness of our cultural heritage "As Long As It Has Man At Its Center". The adoption of Black(African) Theater and drama is one such important innovations which we need to encourage and develop. We Know That Our Love Of Music and Rhythm Has Relevance Even In This Day..(my emphasis in highlighting Bantus words].

I Could Not Have Said It Any Better, even If I have tried on this Posts'!- Very eerie and spooky vision! In his exhortation for African people to pick up the cudgel and write their own history, I took Biko's part challenge to mean just that. I have tried to create a visual/historical piece wherein I explore the nature of South African African Culture, define it and apply/supply these definitions by posting cultural traditional videos and short histories of the 11(eleven) African peoples of South Africa with close attention paid to observation towards authenticity of both their histories, dances, music and traditional dresses.

By so doing, I am following the appreciative sense of Africans in South Africa who usually view their cultural performers with critical eye as to whether they are authentic or not, no so much as to whether they are singing well or are good-which is a secondary consideration. I am also laying ground work whereby the children of the future will find something coherent about their culture that has been written and given the essence and importance through the voices of the Africans themselves.

And, I hope that this will help with the continuity of the culture in the viral stream, and begin to act as building blogs[for Africans who want to know more about themselves], which will assist towards the Africans knowing and writing their own history, culture, customs, traditions, dance, music, languages, practices, symbols and whatever it is they need to build anew, and to be able to do it with ease and progressive reconstruction-and as they see fit..

Dancing Sangomas: Dancing And Celebrating With And For The Spirrtual Ancestors

From the South African Past (Family, Religion, and Culture) [Paperback] John Williams (Author)

Understanding African History, Culture, Dance, and Music

Talking Culture About Culture

Cultural Nitty-Gritty

This Hub is about the Cultural Music and Dance of African South Africans. So that, before I lay down the music and the dances, at this juncture, I would like to make clear what Culture is. Amos Wilson, from whom I will cull deeply for this definition about culture, starts by asking this question[and would be helpful in helping towards understanding what culture is and means for People of African descent]:

"What is "Culture"? One of the most important contexts in which the alignment of individuals and groups is utilized to generate and exercise social power is that of culture. A Culture is a type of "power System" which includes all of its members and the various groups and institutions which constitute it. A society or culture as a power system may be subdivided into a number of smaller and smaller power systems nested within, or organically related to, one another. The overall power of a culture or society operationally emerges from these smaller power systems which may include familial, kinship, communal, regional, and other types of social institutional organizations.

"Culture is man's adaptive dimension. "Man alone among the forms of animated nature is the creature that has moved into an adaptive zone which is an entirely learned one. This is the zone of culture, the man-made, the learned, part of the environment" (Ashley Montague).

"If societies are to survive, they must minimally satisfy certain biological, psychological and social needs of their members. They must successfully counter those forces of nature and man which threaten their well-being and their very biological survival. Culture is the social-institutional instrument which is crucial for facilitating a people's adaptation to the complexities of their world. Therefore its functional structure, cohesiveness, resilience, flexibility, responsivity to reality, evolutionary growth and development, or the relative lack thereof, to a very significant extent, determine its longevity and quality of life." Culture is learned and is the result of historically and conceptually designs and patterns for living with and relating to others and the cosmos.

What Wilson just said above is that a society with a culture is a power system embedded with organically related otherness, and garners this power from familial, kinship, communal, regional, national and other types of social institutional organizations. As I have noted above, the destruction of the African family unity did not totally destroy the the nation of Africans in South Africa because they maintained and continue to hold on to these relationship I have just alluded above as taken from Wilson, in their activities as a nation-but still have to recognize that as their real culture as they live it. What then we see when the reader/viewer begins to the get into the heart of this Hub with the cultural videos and the people's history, is the Modern Cultural voice of Africans in South Africa, and the triumph of the spirit of a more expanded and bigger national spirit and musicality and dancing abilities of Africans of South africa. So if the family is resuscitated by national cultural togetherness, as we will see fro the videos, we will take a brief overview from Wilson:

The Family as a Power System

"Culture is a social machine, a power grid or system. As a holistic system it is composed of a number of sub-systems, power systems in their own right. The family is one such fundamental cultural subsystem. It is a system of social relations, hierarchical in structure, where different members exercise different privileges, prerogatives and different levels of authority. The family is a primary organization, a fundamental generator or source of power where the human and non-human capital resources of its members are pooled and shared as means of achieving it vital goals. These goals include sexual reproduction, socialization of its children, securing a common habitation, providing protection and affectional relations among its members, maintaining and enhancing the social status of its members and providing for their economic well-being.

"The family is a system where power is customarily and legally exercised; where its members are not only related by kinship ties, by blood and a shared history, but relate to each other in terms of membership rights, duties, behavioral expectations and authority. The character and personality of individual family members, especially its young, are developed, shaped and continuously influenced by the organization and exercise of power and authority inside and outside the family unit. Consequently,the family as a power system markedly influences its members', particularly its young's' attitudes toward and relationships to power and authority both within and without the family.

As Wilson give us the true definition of a Family, we should bear in mind that Apartheid worked very hard to divide and decimate the African family, but it survived because the African people's cultural institution have been function within the National African societies with the types of the relationship I have listed above, and particularly with dance and music, found within the communities and nations of the Africans of South Africa, just as Biko had explained above, despite their being battered and disfigured by the Apartheid Cultural Wars-this culture still exists, and is very powerful, energetic and viable-diverse and variegated-but one National Culture.

IBUYAMBO Live - Dance Sequences - Dizu Plaatjies

Nzesileni Group (Mkonjona, Xhosa)

Shangaan Electro: New Wave Dance Music From Shangaan Electro: New Wave Dance Music From South (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

South Africa the People (Lands, Peoples, & Cultures) Paperback by Domini Clark (Author)

African Culture And Identity

This takes us back to the question Amos asked above, "What is Culture?"

"What Is Culture?" ..Horton and Hunt Provide a workable answer to this question. .."From their life experiences, a group develops a set of rules and procedures for meeting their needs, and these set of rules and procedures, together with a supporting set of ideas and values, is called culture." Clyde Kluckhon has defined culture as all the "historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational and non-rational which may exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of man."

"Dominant groups, in seeking to achieve or maintain their power over subordinate groups, are for this reason compelled in some ways to constrain, restrict, reduce, destabilize, misdirect, or destroy the family systems, and with those, the communal and cultural systems of the group they subordinate[I have touched on this issue above]. The oppression, distortion and destabilization of the African Family by the Domineering Whites which goes along with the enslavement of Africans and continues to this day.

"The cultural identity of an individual or group is the social product of a socialization process, a process in which new responses, values, perspectives and orientations are acquired and existing behavioral 'repertoires' of the individual or group are modified to some extent, as the result of his or its subjection to direct or indirect social conditioning experiences. Cultural identity also results from patterning of its modal thoughts, feelings, actions after other cultures or group who serve as models.

"... Thus, culture, though a product of the actual lived experience of a people - the primal source of much of their daily personal and social activities, their forms of labor and its products, their celebratory and ceremonial traditions, modes of dress, art and music, language and articulatory style, appetites and desires - is essentially ideological in nature based as it is on shared beliefs, customs, expectations, and values, cultural constructs, definitions, meanings and purposes. These cultural constructs are used to proactively and reactively mold the mind, body, spirit and behavior of the constituent members of the a particular culture.[This can be observed in the cultural videos above and below].

"Hence culture is does not exist outside and independent of its human subjects. Culture is represented symbolically and operationally in the mind and characteristically mental/behavioral orientations or styles of its members, and its incarnate in the customary ways they move and use their bodies[This part of the definition of culture dovetails well with the presentation of the short histories and traditional and customary practices posted in this Hub] . The culture is represented "in" the minds and bodies of tis members, and expresses itself through the systematic ways they attend, experience, categorize, classify, order, judge, evaluate, explain and interact with their world.

"Mentally, culture involves the socially shared and customary ways of thinking, a way of encoding, perceiving, experiencing, ordering, processing, communicating and behaviorally expressing information which distinguishes one cultural group from another. All these activities are dedicated to the end of adapting the culture to the consistent and changing demands of its physical and social environment and changing demands of its physical and social environment and reciprocally adapting the environment to the demands of the culture.

"Socially, culture patterns the ways its members perceive each other, relate to and interact with each other. It facilitates the ways they create, develop, organize, institutionalize and behaviorally apply their human potential in order to adapt to the conditions under which they live so as to satisfy their psychological, social and survival needs. To the degree that the shared beliefs and behavioral orientations of the members of a culture are consensually consistent, reasonable rational and realistic, are effectively and consistently socialized and reinforced, the culture is characterized by coherence, somewhat low levels of internal conflicts and contradictions, relatively smooth, automatic, coordinated operation, and thereby effectively functions in the interest of its members." If one were to watch, and read the histories of the eleven(11) people, this will give the reader/viewer a sense of how the culture of South African Africans works and manifests itself.

"It is very important to keep in mind that a culture is to a significant extent a historical product, a social product. A culture is socially manufactured, the handiwork of both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactions. A culture also manufactures social products. Some of the most important social products it generates include its own cultural identity, and the social and personal identities of its constituent group and individual members."(wilson)

Culture is a way of life that has been created by Man throughout history, and it is ways created people to be able to deal with the natural and real lived world with each other. South Africans like to communicate with one another, not only in language conveying ideas, thoughts and plans, but talking to each other for the sake of talking to each other, and enjoying that about their communications. This can be clearly seen in the videos throughout this Hub. The videos and the short histories give the reader/viewer how the Africans in South Africa project and put on display their culture for all to see. Many people around the world, and if one were to read the comments on the YouTube Videos posted, are very much in-love with African traditional culture, and this can be discerned from their comments on these YouTube videos. It is a culture that has its own identity, style, energy and uniqueness, and is distinctly African South African. It really presents a human face to dance and music.

Lesotho women performing a traditional dance

South Africa Putumayo Presents | Format: Audio CD

A Human Being Died That Night: A South African Woman Confronts the Legacy of Apartheid Paperback by Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela

WHAT ABOUT MZANTSI? A Place Inhumanity Of Man To Man

The Nitty-Gritty Of Oppression

I am an ardent advocate of Anything South African culture and its and am not backing off my stance. Why? It seems like few people really understand what is happening to Africans here in Mzantsi [A place down south] as the Africans fondly call their country. Well, for the first time I am editorializing about things South African and why it is so importantt to air the points of view On the Web and social Media. Africans are currently facing a crisis amongst in their midst as African South African. I am not talking on behalf of those who want to wear the responsibility that they are the middle class of South Africa. I am talking on behalf of the army of the poor and ignored. In the Townships, there are people who drink bails of water just to go to sleep; people who cannot receive medical help or never know when the next meal is coming from.

People are still suffering the devastating effects of alcoholism, malnutrition, mental illnesses; freezing and unheated houses; drug abuses and multiple devastating diseases. People used to bury on weekends only-now they do so everyday- the cemeteries are already full and other space is being sought; they suffer unemployment, messed-up education; they live with rats, rodents and some big and larger than cats; there are still many people living in shacks; the government is not taking care of the meek, weak, sick and poor as it should; Africans in Mzantsi are jeered at by everyone as being lazy, won't works; they still have to fight against the undercurrent maneuvers of their past enslavers who are manipulating foreign labor at the expense of local workers; enforced ignorance; women being raped; men being killed, drugged- In sum, Africans are worse-off than during the Apartheid era- and the people themselves say so too. Then, when I defend the defenseless of South Africa, some people who are African accuse me of being only about South Africa. Well, Africans in South Africa are about to lose their current population and land, humanity, and facing extinction-albeit creeping up slowly, but consistently wiping them out in a myriad ways...

They see their land being parceled away to the highest bidders, amidst corruption. I am talking here, not about the rich and comfortable, but what is going on in the poor's lives... everything that they thought was theirs, is not. At the same time they have to fight against a relentless and determined enemy which has all the resources available like those with money, so that when the oppressed raise their voices in disgruntlement they are told that they have to remember that they are more free than the whole of Africa(An old Apartheid logic-trumpeted by the presently ANC-led government today. But we forget that Africa was not liberated in one swoop. It went on over many years, and still those that were free such a long time ago, still have not resolved their internal contradictions in their respective countries.

South Africans are talking here of a mere 20 years and instead, they, the supposed-owners of South Africa and its wealth, are the 'wretched of the earth'. How can Africans talk in terms of the continental unity when they still have to battle the West and the rest of those who think Africans in Africa and African South africans should not complain, stop protesting in trying to push their national agenda, [of which none of these things have been accomplished], and should not protect themselves and their lands with their a natural wealth and abundance(which is slowly being depleted). Africans are still reeling from the 48 straight years of the worst form of Naziism(Apartheid), with its presently continuing effort to eliminate, confuse, and oppress/depress/suppress and dehumanize Africans. I think that those efforts that were being carried out by Biko and other South African martyrs, should be continued, and this is what this Hub is essentially about.

Africans in South Africa are facing a predatory and gendarme rogue government bent on fleecing and enriching/deepening their pockets at the expense of the locals. Some people think that South Africa is New York, and they have the right to do as they please... Others act like they're fighting for issues and that South African is not fighting for Africa! Preposterous!. Some of our South African brothers think that they are white, and you can tell from the way they are talk, act, behave and plan their lives and ignore their culture, tradition,customs, practices,languages and sacred rites. They quickly run away from the present morbid and dreadful conditions of their bleak existence with the hope that if they concentrate elsewhere, they might find respite from the present harsh realities of their witnessing and facing their extinction. Thus far, nothing much has changed for Africans in south Africa, and it seems it will be so for a long time to come. Therefore, I will use Music, Dance and Art to raise the awareness and consciousness of Africans in Mzantsi, and help them empower themselves by learning and grasping from the motivation that will be provided by their own cultural and musical performance and Ubuntu(Mandela and Biko will briefly address this issue of "Ubuntu" towards the end of the Hub), as manifest in the following videos.

Sepedi Dance

Dancing In Pedi Men Doing A Sepedi Dance inSekgakgapeng Limpopo Province South Africa

The Great South African Trip - Volume 1 African Music Compilation (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

Holding Their Ground: Class, Locality and Culture in 19th and 20th Century South Africa (History Workshop) Paperback by Philip L. R. Bonner (Author) , Isabel Ho

Notes On The Voice Of African Culture In South Africa

Thus far, what the people of Mzantsi see there is nothing that they can be proud of or claim as theirs - therefore, my insistence on the preservation of South Africa culture, custom, traditions, languages and practices and rites is not because they have any handle on it, but because they are barely recognizable to the Africans of Mzantsi, nor most of them acknowledge it. Poor education is disempowering people, that is, unless one has money to send their child to better schools, those who cannot afford it are doomed.

Without knowing, practicing and respecting their cultures, customs, traditions, history, music and dance, there is now a proliferation of mental illness and total amnesia about what as Africans they should be doing, or what their identity means to them and how to move on with it[their culture] into the burgeoning future, the 21st century and beyond. This calamity and dysfunction is eroding the true social fabric of African people; it's disappearing millions of people due to HIV-AIDS, TB; cholera; high blood pressure, sugar diabetes, kidney failure; depression, repression; genocidal attrition... Everyday of their liver lives. By ignoring their Culture and all else I mentioned above, these then are the real causes of the present dysfunction and retarding working towards elevating the people's sanity, cultures, traditions, customs, history, languages, and the practices of their sacred rites which would alleviate the suffering the Africans are facing today in Mzantsi.

South Africa is in Africa but it is run by everybody except the African masses of Africans in South africa. You cannot talk of fixing your neighbors houses before you put yours in order. One cannot overlook the importance of building ones' Street, Township, Province and not firstly taking care of and hold of all that which is local. How can these leaders talk of fixing Africa which has so many different countries run by the West and the East? Why pretend like Africans can take on this mammoth task whilst the city states within Africa they unashamedly are dependencies of the West and the Rest of the Capitalist vultures lurking within and owning African and Africa's mines, farms, railway system, African land, all the metropolitan towns and African labor power? It really does not add up.

How can this lack of control and ownership help in the reunification of Africa if the Africans of South Africa are not even having a smidgen of unity; a semblance of a nation; neither controllers of their economy, media, sports, arts, dance,music, culture, tradition, custom, practices, languages manufacturing, you name it? Africans in South Africa, as a collective, are not holders of rights to everything that is enclosed within the borders of that country as a nation or the indigenous rightful owners of all that is in and within South africa, and they are presently left wondering how and why is that so?

These questions still linger on, and African people are dying by their millions from a myriad of ailments in this putrid and decrepit South Africa.. yearly... all the time.. And they are going crazy in many numbers than before at any time in their history of oppression; and their cultures, customs, traditions, history, languages, dance,music and all is not in their service nor made to work for them-instead it is owned and controlled by outsiders more than the African people themselves- i.e., their culture is in the service of foreigners who are gaining from using it in all unseemly and conceivable crooked ways. Some of these foreign Cultural hawkers claim that they have Intellectual property ownership and rights to what is not theirs but that of Africans in South Africa. On viewing the videos, one will come across this reality discussed on this paragraph.

Nobody has asked Africans of South Africa as to what is really going on here in Mzantsi. Everyone knows that they can get a piece of action, but as to the locals, they are dismissed and are not even listened to. I am raising this issue knowing that it is going to raise the ire of some people- so be it. What do I have to loose but raise pertinent issues of nation, custom, culture, traditions, languages, practice and rites and their being African South African and that it is for them and should be run and controlled and owned by Africans of South Africa-I see nothing wrong with that.... What do Africans have to lose but their already lost lands, intellectual property, ownership of arts, music and dance, its many other resources and all that is contained therein. Africans need to fight even harder, irk some people, maybe find some allies, if possible, but fight this war which has morphed into many differentiated fronts.

I am identifying those fronts here, and I will use this viral media to get my point across- and I am using many new technologies to get this type of message- through Blogs, Internet radio, journal posts and writing; FM and Television-Worldwide to bring awareness and concern to the South African Cultural Voice and put it at the forefront of the global purview. Below I will be going deeper and making the points above more clearer on this project which I will be discussing in a short.

Everyone comes to South Africa and African South Africans cannot go out as they please from their country for many reasons. African People have been purposefully kept ignorant, penniless, poor and oppressed up to this day; books are hard to come bye; the media is white-owned; Malls are white-owned; Whites still own 83% of the land; if you ask the locals what's going on, they will tell you that the sad thing is that really nothing is going on, or nothing has changed, but instead, they are now living in hell without a choice of changing the order of things inside the country.

The say, as matter of fact and conviction that "Our brothers are our enemies; our children disrespect us elders; our culture, history, customs ,social mores and norms have been sacked, flaunted and discarded. We really never had 'freedom of speech', economic self sufficiency nor educational development where teaching and learning should take place; we do not own our own businesses and are attacked from any imaginable angle; we are the most deprived on knowledge, information and at the tail-end of this modern era as a technologically come up as a disempowered people," they always answer in one or the many ways I have pointed out on this paragraph and above and more.

To have people decry the fact that they should not be living under such conditions in the land of their birth, and have begun to see their lives ebb away because of currpution and other shenanigans, is to see how disconcerting it is for them; but mainly because they seem to be losing the "The Cultural War", and it(the Culture of Africans), has never been attacked in a way that utilizes the present technology and relaying information that can get to the people globally-of which it does not not bode well for the Africans of South Africa who are denied access to the new ways of communicating;

Conversely, the African people have not yet had access to modern technology to use in such a way that it get under the skin of the roving capitalists vulture of all stripes and ethnicities within their midst, that is, if their wares were not bought in a way that made them [African exploiters and detractors], profit. The people have stopped being proactive, and have not had time to ameliorate their present condition; or to seriously begin to mount a revolutionary path towards addressing and setting all these social maladjustments and maladaptive societies and individuals. If I have to advocate for South Africa, I will do so with gusto and much energy. I approach the issue of Africa from many points of view, and will mostly attack and analyze it, as in the case of this Hub, from a historical/revolutionary cultural point of view.

Baby Zulu Girl-Wait for it!

Amabhubesi Traditional Zulu Dance

Rhythm of Resistance - Black South African Music (2000) Ladysmith Black Mambazo (Actor), Jeremy Marre (Director)

The Failure of Decentralisation in South African Local Government: Complexity and Unanticipated Consequences [Paperback] Andrew Siddle (Author), Thomas A. Koelb

Concrete and Solid Ideas Make For Robust Nation-building

No One Individual Or Person Owns, Controls, Dictates, Formulates Or Instructs the Elaboration Or Execution Of The People's Struggle

Pedagogy Of The Repressed, Oppressed and Depressed

Let Us Be Clear About some Things: No One Has Self-Aquired Monopoly about The Struggle Or Revolution. In the same breath, it should also be noted that The People Are the Ones Who Own,Control and Decide what their Revolution is and should be All about. No one person a motley crew is the boss of ideas and actions that are going to affect the lives and realities of millions of suffering African people. And this is or should be monitored, mentored-upon and Guided By the Revolutionary Vanguard, which is Recognized and natured By The People themselves. There are No Bullies or Master Thinkers in A National Revolution. The People, as I had noted from Mao, are the ones who control the Guns(Army and the Economy). Anything else, anyone trying to 'bag' and 'control', 'dictate', 'mold' 'form', 'shape' or do anything that is for personal gain, fame and satisfaction, outside the purview of the masse, and is not involved with those principals(Masses) in the revolution, that, one can see that they are nothing but bogus impostors and 'flimm-flamming-hankerchief-heads-triffling political and ecomical opportunists'(as Malcolm X would say). Anything either than a directive from the struggling masses and their participation in their own liberation(not some imagined revolution), is a farce and a cheap way of claiming unearned victories and telling lies about their hidden and obfuscated intentions, goals and aims.

As I have noted in my recently posted articles, I do not profess to be a revolutionary, nor am I one, but as part of the suffering masses, I am in a position to offer those ideas and revolutionary talking points as espoused by those who have "Fought for their revolutions", than those who "Dream" of a revolution, since theirs was and has been deferred , postponed, suspended and hijacked-also, and am able to aver the issues that those I find important to talk about and causes their concerns about the state of the African nation.

What I have learned from those who have gone through their revolutions, is their ability to read and understand the situation and mind-set of those they seek liberate. I find that the language they use, the theories and programs they develop and promulgate and develop, are the results of their having participated, or are involved with their people, and speak and use a language of that interaction, than 'waxing political', and regurgitating revolutionary clap-trap that serves no purpose to those who seek to be emancipated from the drudge and dredge of oppression, depression, repression and dehumanization- which are Achilles heel of the African struggle and revolutionary change.

The problem that Africans are not making head-way with their struggle is that Africans have a lot of these self-styled, self-apointed-revolutionary fakes and liberators-wanna-be's who offer nothing but distortion, no programs, negative critiquing and lack in planning and real leadership abilities and minds, and who preen their egos to a motley crew of ignorant followers, without themselves(these self-styled leaders) encouraging their followers to go to the masses, talk to the masses, organize structures amongst and with the masses for their own liberation, with the masses dictating and in charge of their destiny, not some banal and bare formulations which has become the bane of some intellectual sitting in the comfort zones, imbibing the trappings of ill-gotten material wealth, and couching their rhetoric with fake revolutionary-jabbawocky.

I believe that Africans in South Africa should learn from those who have been involved and have successfully, or failed to carry out their revolutionary aspiration with the masses in various countries around the world. Not some phony-baloney Facebook(FB) Revolutionary advocates who do not really offer the masses(who are not yet fully engaged on the FB) some panacea for their present social malaise. Instead, these tin-pot-head revolutionaries are besmirching and soiling the image of the people they purport to try and liberate, through their ignorance, carelessness and no clear program or ideas nor understanding of the polity they are saying they are revolutionaries for and on behalf of. Therefore, Africans all need to begin to talk truth to each other, just as they talk truth to illegitimate power.

South Africa has not undergone any revolution of any kind. Whilst people are still toy-toying, carrying wooden guns, and the "Povo'(African Collective) was never afforded the chance to en-masse have access or acquire any type of political education or mass military training they so sorely needed; their so-called guerillas were mashed up with the existing apartheid military structures, which have at the top more White Colored and indian Generals as top shelve personnel than do the Africans. The incoming guerillas that have been 'disappeared' within the structures of the Apartheid SADF, and they are the ones who have been dying in larger numbers and no one really talks about this fact [and the fact that they are dying and there is no war, should be a cause for concern to all Africans today]; or the fact that the incoming guerrilla outfits were and have been conditioned by the Apartheid Defense force, and have had carved-out for them a niche within the mammoth ogre structure that is the SADF.

Africans in South Africa, to date, have not yet been given a collective mass psychiatry from the effects and affects of apartheid hangover; and, they have not yet been weaned off from or stabilized against in their 400+ years of racial segregation by Apartheid and the present bungling ANC-led government with its gendarme and predatory tendencies; plus a whole slew of political and revolutionary opportunists and 'johnny-come-latelie's who have jumped into matters of National liberation and National conscientization Mao spoke of, Sankara, Cabral-and have no clue as to what they are doing. And many other critical issues I have pointed out to and spoke profusely and passionately about, as I have recently utilized them in some of my most recent postings,-are discarded and not applied to and along with the suffering masses. What we have instead, is rampant corruption and a deteriorating state of governance and government ethics and intense social anomie and normlessness.

I have endeavored to cast the African struggle, especially now of late, and framed this debacle in the same terms and actions used by those who have undergone similar fates in other countries. The distinction between politicians, revolution, theory and practice are the very essence of theory, which is practical practice and revolutionary fodder for revolutionaries, not politicians. The organization of ideas, structures, actions and knowledge of ones culture, etc., along with theories or ideas that need to be put to the fore to be implemented and disseminated, should be coherent, clear and have direction. This has nothing to do with trusting anyone or any persons, because individuals do not own the peoples struggles nor revolutions. Revolution and its direction and path will be dictated and shaped by the people, not some opportunistic practitioners who do not offer sound and reasonable if not operational ideas and programs that benefit the debased masses. And Culture is one of the many ways to achieve this, and on this Hub, I will explore the dance and music culture of Africans of Mzantsi.

Africans have problems of drug addiction(Nyaope) in our midst; African people suffer from ignorance, diseases and ignorance. These are some of the few dysfunctions Africans should be talking about as they pertain to and affect our people. Those basic social needs and rights that are supposed to serve poor African people, could be and should be addressed in this medium, as to how some will be dealt with, implemented and executed; how, if any action is taking place, as to why and how these ideas and practices are shaping and moving our people forward or not, by talking or reporting on these efforts and events as they take place in the midst of their collective safe enclaves. The projection of African culture need to be done with conviction and forthrightness because it is the right thing to do, and Biko exhorted Africans to reinvent and re-write their histories, and they should not expect that their enslavers would never write the true story and culture of Africans in South Africa.

Africans should be talking and constructing better schools, for children, youth and adults, and come up with concrete measures in combating such pedagogical drawbacks; they also should be training counselors and building rehab schools for all sorts of addictions and substance abuse-including gambling and other insidious operations regressing the masses. The African masses should be organizing sporting events, drama and theatre, cultural entities; establish reading and writing institutions that are and can be used and found easily by the people for free; why do should they not teach and enable the oppressed African masses to control and own the economies in their own areas?; or, why not improve and work reporting, exposing and designing health operations and centers-educating and enabling and making these to be easily accessible to the armies of the poor Africans? My point: Africans need to begin to talk from being active within their milieu than trying to express themselves immaculately and colloquially in medium such as here on the Facebook(FB, Twitter), thus exposing out their weaknesses and lack of knowledge as to what they really should do and not expose their ignorance to all and sundry.

Africans do not own nor control Facebook(FB), and it is owned and controlled by those to whom Africans hurl their barren and venomous attack upon. Therefore, African people should learn more about this social media and it capabilities; begin to flesh out ideas of increasing and making cheap the Internet cafes and their present paltry existence within the midst of the African collective; get people to volunteer, or those involved in the struggle, make it their business to engage the African public into coming into these Internet Cafes to access these social networks, and help the people learn and familiarize themselves with these new and emerging technologies. In a sense, I am saying Africans need to talk about and create programs that will help uplift their left-behind people into the viral stream, just as a revolutionary measure/effort and a new way of organizing and rallying the masses.

Why are African people not building or fitting their libraries with books and computers; or, create mobile libraries since they own and are equipped with the new Laptops many cars they drive around to deliver books and collect book from the people, and take or make those Laptops to be available to the community through arranged seminars, to educate and involve poor African people to come en masse into the technological world and age? What I am saying is that these so-called-self-styled Facebook Revolutionaries in south Africa, should take the technology to the people and begin to educate the the poor and the downtrodden, for free. The Japanese did these after they were bombed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, they went to the United States, enrolled in the best colleges and universities there, and after they graduated, took all that knowledge and textbooks to begin to teach their own people-thus today we see tiny Japan as this huge capitalist enclave and directing the technological change in many aspects.

There is so much to be done and can be done utilizing our present abilities and access to the present-day wealth, than quibbling needlessly and hopelessly here on the Web, shouting and carrying on about a non-existent revolution we have neither prepared for, nor are involved in, nor creating.

What I have been talking about is better explained by the next post I will be making to edify my comments. The situation may be in another country as to how they did what they did, and why they did it, because they were so immersed and embedded within their people, and therefore experienced and witnessed the result the next author I am quote at length-just to do away with some spurious and rickety, incoherent and inchoate hogwash. Also, to help do what I started by citing from Marx and Engels as to what the role of art should be in liberating the masses. The Arts, crafts and cultures of African people, should follow or lead the revolution, as will be discussed below

In my Humble opinion, I still assert and insist: No One owns The People's Struggle nor owns and controls the people's revolution-but anyone can help the masses in their effort to not , in many cases or necessarily, violently carry out a revolution, but revolutionize how things are going for the African people in Mzantsi. This is borne out by this article which I am posting to make concrete my observations and colloquy about the Cultural Struggles, Theory, Revolution its practice and execution even much more clearer and relevant; also included will be the role the revolutionaries play(not politicians) in the realization of this effort and the should be implacably engaged with the real struggle.

Most of the Africans who have access to this new media, use it for all nefarious or maybe legit purposes or whatever, but African people, we have still not yet have figured out how to morph approaches to struggling Africans, given the emergence of these new converging and emerging technologies which dictate contemporary technological Technopoly; also, how assist African people how they can exploit them in various new and old ways of gathering information (intelligence), and garnering support for their cause, or raising awareness and consciousness of the masse and acquainting the army of the poor, through giving them and enabling easy access to this new ways of contemporary human communications. Some old ways of dealing and managing the devastating effects of enslavement and oppression of Africans in an oral and analog ways can be used; but, new ways also , are offering Africans the path to applying and manifesting-as in merging and meshing these new technological of digital viral modes with the old problems, and enabling them to not rehash tired approaches, but affect and effect these mediums and new digital media in ways that uplift African people in tandem with the technological times

Now, My next post is next given that this diatribe is as long as it has been about Culture, stresses that Africans need to know how to know and learn about learning in contemporary and their present dysfunctional existence in Mzantsi- i.e., how they can learn from their own culture to make themselves a better and more functional nation amongst the independent and burgeoning African countries.

Binang Mmino @ Bassline - Tswana Dance coreography

Cultural Songs and Dances from Botswana

Amandla!: A Revolution in Four-Part Harmony (2002) Duma Ka Ndlovu (Actor), Vusi Mahlasela (Actor), Lee Hirsch (Director)

South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid (Seminar Studies) [Paperback] Nancy L. Clark (Author), William H. Worger (Author)

Say What?

"History ain't gonna make you (or me) Money!"

No, it's the lack of knowledge of history that doesn't make you money"

A lot of us are ignorant about the fact that our having been handicap not to know our African history, we only become ranting, belligerent alienated remodeled poor copies of our creators.

But, if we get back into our African history, get back into our tradition, we might be successful, and maybe make money(although money is not what this is all about).I'm not an African who tells others to identify with poverty. I think that the more we identify with our African tradition, the richer we're going to become as a people. I am not here to sell poverty as a virtue. I am not here to assert that poverty-stricken and welfare-laden people are somehow more virtuous and righteous than people who are making a decent living; that's not my style. We can't say that we are poor and our nations are suffering as a result of our wealth being stolen and that if we take that wealth back we won't be richer. How is taking back what belongs to us going to keep us poor"((As we are presently!)

A sure sign, then, of getting back into one's African self is becoming wealthier. Does that frighten us? Has the Imperialist world convinced us that as an African people we're destined to be poor? Some of us(throughout Africa and the Diaspora) have that thought and that's why many of us are frightened of money and wealth-so that they end up believing in dependency on the former rulers to be a better outcome. But by so doing we are escaping from "Freedom(In Camus sense of the word and meaning). That has been inculcated into us by religions and churches, and the very ones inculcating it in us are living quite well (The reader can brush brush up and can touch up on Biko on the issue of religion, at this juncture). Most Africans have been thoroughly conditioned to accept alienation and amnesia as a matter and course of life

Amnesia means an undiscovered self, an emptiness, a self incapable of self-understanding its own motivations; a self incapable of self-direction and self determination, a reactionary self; a self that does not understand others or the world in which they exist - a fatalistic externalized self. To rediscover one's history is not only an act of self-disovery, it is also an act of self-relation - a resurrection from the dead, a tearing away of the veil, a revelation of the mystery. And I will hasten to add that it is the manner in which this Hub is written that in one of the many ways is a path to self discovery, realization and empowerment-leading to genuine and complete autonomy.

To discover ones history is to discover ones somethingess (beingness/uniqueness) before someone else created us. To come to know ourself as we were prior to our recreation by aliens means we will be in charge of our own becoming, the creators of our own consciousness, the creation of ourselves as namers of the world, the namers of ourselves which gives us power of self-determination and self-direction-along with self-confidenc and self-determination. Cabral advises thus:

Tell No Lies, Claim No Easy Victories ...

"Always bear in mind that the people are not fighting for ideas, for things in anyone's head. They are fighting to win material benefits, to live better and in peace, to see their lives go forward, to guarantee the future of the children. ...

"We should recognize as a matter of conscience that there have been many faults and errors in our 'action' whether political or military: an important number of things we should have done we have not done at the right times, or not done at all.

"In various regions-and indeed everywhere in a general sense-politcal work among the people and among our armed forces has not been done appropriately: responsible workers have not carried or have been able to carry through the work of mobilization, formation and political organization defined by party leadership. Here and there, even among responsible workers, there has been a marked tendency to let things slide ... and even certain demobilization which has not been fought and eliminated ...

"On the military plane, many plans and objectives established by the Party leadership have not been achieved. With the means we have, we could do much more better. Some responsible workers have misunderstood the functions of the army and guerrilla forces, have not made good co-ordination between these two and, in certain cases, have allowed themselves to be influenced by preoccupation with the defense of our positions, ignoring the fact that, for us, attack is the best means of defense....

"And with all this as a proof of insufficient political work among our armed forces, there has appeared a certain attitude of 'militarism' which has caused some fighters and even some leaders to forget the fact the fact that we are 'armed militants' and not 'militarists'. This tendency must be urgently fought and eliminated within the army..

"If ten men go to a rice-field and do the day's work of eight, there's no reason to be satisfied. It's the same in battle. Ten men must fight like eight; that's not enough .... One can always do more. Some people get used to war, and one you get used to a thing it's the end: you get a bullet up the spout of your gun and you walk around. You hear the motor on the river and you don't use the bazooka that you have, so the Portuguese boats pass unharmed. Let me repeat: one can do more. We have to throw the Portuguese out ....

"... Create schools and spread education in all liberated areas. Select young people between 14 and 20, those who have at least completed their fourth year, for further training. Oppose without violence all prejudicial customs, the negative aspects of the beliefs and traditions of our people. Oblige every responsible and educated member of our Party to work daily for the improvement of their cultural formation(This is so desperately needed in Mzantsi)....

"Oppose among the young, especially those over 20, the mania for leaving the country so as to study elsewhere, the blind ambition to acquire a degree, the complex of inferiority and the mistaken idea which leads to the belief that those who study of take courses will thereby become privileged in our country tomorrow .... But also oppose any ill-will towards those who study or wish to study-the complex that students will be parasites or future saboteurs of the Party ....

In the liberated areas, do everything possible to normalize the political life of the people. Section committees of the Party ('tabanca' committees', zonal committees, regional committees), must be consolidated and function normally. Frequent meetings must be held to explain to the population what is happening in the struggle, what the Party is endeavoring to do at any given moment, and what the criminal intentions of the enemy may be. [Also, listen and learn form the people all they have to say and doing-and their true function is as an intelligence network-my addition].

"In regions still occupied by the enemy, reinforce clandestine work, the mobilization and organization of the populations, and the preparation of militants for action and support of our fighters. ...
Develop political work in our armed forces, wether regular or guerrilla, wherever they may be. Hold frequent meetings. demand serious political work from political commissars. Start political committees, formed by the political commissar and commander of each unit in the regular army.

"Oppose tendencies to militarism and make each fighter an exemplary militant of our Party.

"Educate ourselves, educate other people, the population in general, to fight fear and ignorance, to eliminate little by little the subjection to nature and natural forces which our economy has not yet mastered. Convince little by little, in particular militants of the Party, that we shall end by conquering the fear of nature, and that man is the strongest force in nature.

"Demand from responsible Party members that they dedicate themselves in the things and problems of our daily life and struggle in their fundamental and essential aspect, and not simply in their appearance .... Learn from life, learn from our people, learn from books, learn from the experience of others. Never Stop Learning.

"Responsible members must take life seriously, conscious of their responsibilities, thoughtful about carrying them out, and with a comradeship based on work and duty done .... Nothing of this is incompatible with the joy of living, or with love for life and its amusements, or with confidence in the future of our work ....

"Reinforce political work and propaganda within the enemy's armed forces. Write poster, pamphlets, letters. Draw slogans on the roads. Establish cautious links with the enemy personnel who want to contact us. Act audaciously and with great initiative in this way .... Do everything possible to help enemy soldiers to desert. Assure them of security so as to encourage desertion. Carry out political work among Africans who are still in enemy service, whether civilian or military. Persuade these brother and sisters to change direction so as to serve the Party within the enemy ranks or desert with arms an ammunition to our units.

"We must practice revolutionary democracy in every aspect of our Party life. Every responsible member must have the courage of his responsibilities, exacting from other a proper respect for his work and properly respecting the work of others. Hide nothing from the masses of our people." (Cabral)

These same principle of armed revolution apply to the cultural was sphere and social/community sectors. Yet, there are still people who think revolution will be like hollering and acting up on the Facebook, who I have dubbed 'Facebook Revolutionary', who have nothing amidst and on the ground with the people they are purporting to try to liberate; no good leadership qualities, anger and blurred reality and knowledge of what the Revolution should constitute and how it should be executed. Below I wrote a piece about the very same topic. And in this particular piece, I put on display what I meant when I said no one controls the revolution by the people, and the show the dumb role played by these who are the Facebook(FB) police on behalf of a system that has not asked and was not created for censorship and intimidation, though this is plenty on the FB social network. There are people who have given themselves roles of monitoring what people are doing or saying, with impunity, arrogance and ignorance. There are people, Africans of south Africa, on Facebook, who have given themselves the task of placing their Facebook(FB) Walls and practice intimidating and excessive censorship and blocking of new ideas by simply ignoring one or threatening to block a person, as in my case, when I was posting cultural videos of South africa in order to get the feedback from the users and develop this Hub. These are the people Aa Hub like this one hopes to educe and made conscious.

Mfaz' Omnyama - Ngisebenzile Mama

Rhythm of Resistance - Black South African Music (2000) Ladysmith Black Mambazo (Actor), Jeremy Marre (Director)

The Heart of Redness: A Novel Paperback by Zakes Mda (Author)

African Culture As High Culture

I have been posting some music here on Facebook and some articles for the benefit of anyone who wanted to read about our politics of Africa and African music, and in preparing to write a Hub such as this one. Writing articles is a tedious and time-consuming exercise, but am working on some very interesting articles. In the spirit of Sobukwe and our past leaders, they do not necessarily require Africans to be dogmatic in their efforts of pushing the struggle forward. If anything, African people can use their sage advices and incorporate those into their own routine and actions and lives, Just as I am trying this doing as Biko advied-rewritting and -recreating the history of Africans in South Africa, So that, by doing that, they will have met some of their expectations. It is easy for me to go and post all the quotations that Prof.(Sobukwe) issued in his life-time, and I have posted some. But I will in the future, for posterity, but at the same time, I will be posting my originally written articles about those issues that concerned Prof. and those who were fighting with him for African People's betterment.

As Africans pontificate and wax politically, this too needs interpretation and elaboration as to what have they have learned from these leaders. Africans have a high Culture, to our credit as African people. We have music, arts and crafts and the whole bit that has been originated by Africans in Africa andAfricans internationally (The African Diaspora). Prof(Sobukwe) observed that we are 'Human first and the rest afterwards- just to paraphrase him. I say, Africans are not only humans and Africans in Africa itself, but are also Africans and humans in a Global sense, and there is a lot about us (Africans) that need this to be made known, that it is common and also resonates easily with any African anywhere in the world. Marcus Garvey proved this with his UNIA "back To Africa Movement', which became globals and found throughout the world

I really do not know what Prof. would do or say today, but having experienced and read his views and actions, I think he would encourage Africans to pick up the cudgel from where he left off, and I also think he would expect Africans to keep up with the times, the politics, the unfair economical and social strata that they are mired in, try their best to extricate themselves, and invent their-selves anew; Africans can and should rehash some of his stated policies and try and follow in his footsteps and directness about how he dealt with the detractors of Africans; but, African people must also add what they have in "their hand" today-i.e., what they have learned from him about the persistence and existence and staying power and endurance of their culture, etc-and how to use the new merging and emerging technologies to better, upgrade and enhance their humanity and nation.

There are new and burgeoning technologies and techniques, but there is also a South African African Culture and an International African Collective(Diaspora) culture to fashion or add up to any African culture anywhere in the world. Africans should know and learn how to appreciate and disseminate these effectively[using these modern technologies and techniques] and make sure the armies of the poor and degraded Africans see or read them or hear them for their own edification and spiritual healing. I am talking here specifically about music,dance and exposure to the internet and books- and also pointing out to the fact that I am engaged, within this Hub, the concerted effort to present the music, dance, culture styles and other myriad things and the cultural power that Africans have for themselves in South Africa, and that this is theirs, marketable and they could live a better life if they were to uplift and upgrade it as I am trying to do, but in this case, they should do it en masse.

Africans should not be steeped only in what they know, but should expand what they know now with what the African world is doing or not doing, progressing with the modern world or not: meaning, the people of Mzantsi(South Africa) should not only regurgitate what Prof. said only(which is important to know), but we should show their ability to have learned from his aphorisms, speeches, writings, actions(wherever these can be found), and remember that, African people are not sour and dour, but vibrant, intelligent and musical- and the task of historians should also profusely encourage and utilize that on sites or Facebook(FB) Walls like the ones in operation now-flesh culture out for all to use in their own original way or so. I know there there are those people who judge what is being done or not being done on Walls of African orientations, and I accept and understand it. I also know that some of us are trying their darnest to make this a workable issue. So that keeping up with the media and understanding the media, today, is priceless.

The state of education in South africa country today is despicable and horrible. African people are being miseducated and drawn into a life of ignorance through dumb TV shows, skewed news, music on the radio that is not African; there is an attack on African languages and fusing them with English-deadening their mother-tongue linguistic sensibilities; there are drugs(Nyaope) and some salacious drugs that are proliferating in poor communities; there are wards in hospitals that have been created for the youth and elderly who are addicted; African people, because of some of these churches have given them freebies to go into the blooming gambling dens, are now addicted to gambling.

I do not even want to talk about alcohol addiction and the havoc and death/sickness it has wrought on the African communities from the dark days of Apartheid to now; all types of diseases are assailing Africans with these African Western trained medical doctors fleecing and drugging and killing their own folks through trying to have some incompetent private practices; there are lawyers, who are African South Africans(not all) who are crooks; there are at present people in parliament who are acting like the Mafia; also, who are in the deep pockets of International and local capitalist; the poor people's electricity is used to impoverish and destabilize Africans (whereas multi-corporations are paying 4 cents(four cents) per kilo-watt hour) the poor in the townships have to eke-out and are paying 70 cents(Seventy cents) per kilowatt hour); community water has been sold to the highest bidder; the majority Africans' clinics and hospitals are overflowing and can hardly manage to give the poor medicines they need; the African youth has been made ignorant and is going against their elders and vulnerable communities and individuals; and some have been taught in these White private schools and Model C schools to debunk and distrust and not know about themselves, their culture and the whole bit. I think these ought to be tackled, attacked, analyzed, all these issues I have addressed above, with gusto and intellectual force and rallying the powerless masses to action! And to counter them, is to write a Hub that takes everybody back to the basics of culture: music, dance and traditional customs, practices and clothes.

Ubuhle Be Afrika Entertainers: Performance at Red Location Museum

Homeland -- A Collection of South African Music Homeland: A Collection Of South African Music (Series) | Format: Audio CD

Mhudi Paperback by Sol T Plaatje (Author)

The Ghosts and Spooks In The Machine

How we go about creating a better world for all of us is subject to interpretation of those who are doing it along to those they are doing it for-with their participation, of course. Some people, who keep their FB sites locked so that no one can post anything to them, are the harshest critics of any effort towards African improvement and betterment, and it is as if these Walls are designed solely for them, as they have solely kept to themselves and shut their Walls from communication with other people-except those of their choosing, but at the same time 'snoop' and offer snide remarks on other Walls, knowing that they cannot even receive comments on their posts they make on their locked FB Walls.

Now, my point is that, as we go forward with the African struggle, as we try to configure the forces arrayed against all Africans(particularly those in South Africa), as we see new leaders in the ANC crew picking up the Ramaphosa;s who are the 'boys' of Mining capital; and some questionable leaders, Africans know that as followers of the ANC, all of them are in for a hell of a ride in the next five years. When poor, dispossessed and oppressed people have to deal with wimpy and complaining non-action orientated foreign people and African leaders who crush any effort Africans endeavor by anyone truing to do good for their people, some of of these reactionaries will be called up and forced to recant their callous retorts, if they are able to, and to come and openly voice their issues in the open than keep everything 'secret".

Yet, the selfsame people are the ones who visit this site and Facebook(FB) shows you who is viewing what has been posted, and gives you the names of these 'secret' voyeurs. Well, some of us and most of the people who read sites like this one which tell you who 'saw' what one has posted, throw light into some-(not all all) creepy-crawlies, and then some write or have the audacity to complain that nothing is going on this Wall. Well, I for one do not give a 'rat's ass' for such hidden cowards, who behave like spoiled brats and yet are not contributing anything to these Walls or its upliftment.

I will be posting my impressions and musical video as long as the owners of this Wall do not object, and am here to serve their interests and all those who find these issues posted here to be of some importance. Some of us are just nasty and very uninvolved, and if you are on any social media, you really do not have privacy, because the same FB Wall one has or locks up, is being monitored and controlled by the very people who are presently oppressing all of the Africans and the poor peoples of the world. So, we should use Facebook(FB) to navigate the African struggle and trying to reach as many people of our collective in order to make sure that "i-straight Lendaba"(This issue is straightfoward) as Brenda has sung.

There is nothing wrong with these Pan African Conscious Walls, but there is something wrong with people who want to come and read, listen or hang out on these African orientated Walls and never post or contribute anything, and in the end want to be "Un-addded" or "un-Unfriended because they claim there is nothing of value on the Wall-whilst they contribute nothing to to any effort. I take that last statement personally, and I need someone , at this juncture in our lives, to say that Some positive posts have no value at all. Articles such as this one I am writing are of importance, and all that I have posted, as articles or music, in these Walls, are importance. In this part of the Hub I am talking about the activities of people I came across whilst making a trial run by posting the music and history of African of South Africa's traditional music and dance and their histories.

There are many who appreciated these posts and there are those who were embarrassed by these trial runs leading to the composition of this Hub. So my point on this section wherein I am talking about Fb issues, is to try and bring to the awareness of the reader/viewer of this article about the bumps one came across when trying to put this article, and the harshest critics being the ignorant and very self-concsiuos African elite who think that they are Europeans in all aspects of their lives. Some of them dismiss without even listening nor reading to the posts, but just abhor the fact that their past is been depicted through YouTube videos, and patched with the history which they hardly bother to read at all. The aim of this Hub is to precisely try to get people to view and read the histories of these Africans of Sooth Africa, then comment on what one has read and viewed.

What Would Sobukwe Do? The effort above, is in part to try and explain what the leader of the Pan Africanist movement would do faced with issues I have just delineated above.. Well, I think he would be happy that Africans are trying something and working toward being original and keeping the people informed and nourished with music, arts, history, dances and crafts that are part of the culture of Africans of South African culture, anyway!

Cultural Wars- The Video Story Of Africans and their Cultural And Customary Dance Routines With Their Accompanying Retinues..

I am an unashamed "Cultural Warrior", and I battle more intensely and passionately on that forgotten front- Music, Dance and Poetry/Drama of the Africans of South Africa. In this article, I am concentrating on the Cultural Wars against Africans and their culture, and I will utilize all the cultural dances of the Zulus, Sothos, Xhosas, Pedis, Tswanas, Shangaans, Vendas, Ndebeles, Swazis the Khoisan, "Colored" people through videos and a short history, to begin to re-inforce the notion that African culture is alive, vibrant , musical and colorful-not stagnant,backward, irrelevant and of no use for the Africans of Mzantsi.

I have been posting a lot of music from all over the world here on Hub pages and on both Twitter and FB, and specifically, that is, 98.5% of the times I have been exploring music of Africans from South Africa, The Whole of Africa, South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and the USA. I have already written a Hub covering these areas and the music artists there, along with the musical videos and called it: "African Music Is High Culture: The Power of Song In the Struggle for Survival".

The next coming musical, dance and historical posts in this Hub, are going to be strictly about the 10-12 Peoples(nations) of South africa; i.e., the Cultural, customary and traditional dances, music and traditional dress. It is important that the African people, in Mzantsi, begin to start dispelling these false notions that they are a different people from each other as instructed and promoted by the Boers and their lackeys.

What I found on YouTube about our African South African Music and culture, it is more admired by the listeners of other cultures all over the world, but only a motley crew and paltry few of African South Africans even care to comment or listen to their own productions and their performed cultures, traditions, dance and music, When I gave these videos a trial-run on Facebook, I was able to determine from the reaction of the responses from Africans of south africa and many other people from all over the world that it was worth writing, creating and posting it as a Hub. This says a lot about the African people's mind-set, and it is a shame that Africans are doing what Bob Marley, who I have cited often, singing, "You Can't Run Away From Yourself"-of which many of the responses and many non-responses indicate is the case. Africans in South Africa are avoiding themselves; they only feel edified if they identify with western and European culture and its mores and norms-msuic and culture.

The African people have been so dumbed-down, and are so dumbfounded and dehumanized, that in the end they think that their own culture, which they perform with such gusto, energy an, finesse,grace and energy that it is still baffling the people of the west-were one to read some comments on YouTube of the people who have watched these videos, is of no consequence, unimportant, irrelevant and inconsequential in their lives, is backward and useless-most have bought into this Apartheid myth and war against their culture.There are some South Africans who chirp and chip-in on the videos and make some great comments. But, in all, they hardly see their culture presented and produced as I am about to do: very intensely and in a big way, that is, in its variegated, variable and diverse form, for all the 10-12 peoples of Mzantsi I have already mentioned above,wherein i will present their dances and music by using a lot of musical videos. Tis too, on FB and Twitter did not get any raving reviews nor some serious attention for those it was intended for. Instead, foreigners on FB and those already on YouTube are the ones who are smitten by the South african dances and music, along with their traditional wear.

Intellectual Piracy And Colonization of African Traditions

Clear Channel, and other American Conglomerates of all stripes, owns all the Radio stations in Mzantsi, and the diet of the programming is heavily biased, tinted and leaning towards the American music and artists. Television leaves less to be desired. The constant image that is being filtered and disseminated on those who are able to afford Plasma TV and those old fat TV boxes that the poor own, is nothing but American Cultural Imperialism in unmitigated and unrestrained display. And these are an obfuscated effort to try and take away from the originally of African dance and culture, and give it as being originated because of American influence, which, by the way is false and not ture. The viewer/listener/reader of the upcoming Hubs can try and find anything American about the culture being presented and on display through its videos and the short history given before the videos are posted.

Bob Marley sings in his track "Trenchtown Rock" that "..We Feed People With Music.". He was right and he knew what it was he was saying and singing about. If one were to give oneself a chance to look at the African dances and music as I will be posting them here on this Hub, one begins to discern various patterns in style execution and technique that they are of 'One People'. This is the nub of the problem and issue that bedevils African people's development as a people. This means therefore that the African people have as yet to come around to embracing their own culture with all that it has to offer them in order to "BE"! So for them to be, in this instance, I will "feed them with their 'cultural music and dance'.

Some of the music Africans dance to profusely is infused with Mbaqanga music which runs the gamut of this 'whole' culture. In all these instances I use the homegrown and original traditional music of the culture itself, of any of the 10-12 peoples, (Basothos, Batswanas, Shangaans, Pedis, Xhosas, Vendas, Ndebeles, Swazis, Khoisan, Coloreds, up to the Zulus) I have mentioned above. Africans have been dislocated from understanding and fully appreciating their Culture and history, music and dance, that it is strange that they are wearing their cultural pride on their sleeves and not giving a care in the world who says what, so long it is them who were owning, controlling and disseminating their culture, without making excuses to no one-nor asking for permission to do so form anybody-that with the same attitude and mindset, my hope is that this spirit will arise from their inner souls and spirits and they begin to really value and treasure their culture, dance and music like all other people around the world do with theirs.

Some Africans are good at explaining cultural and linguistic things to "White" tourists, and if one listens carefully, they do not really know what they are saying, and they are spreading falsities about their own cultures, customs, traditions and practices/performances and wrong interpretations about and on the African languages-because they do not really know the languages well, nor are committed to using and understanding it, and are trying their level best to accommodate the "Tourists." They do all this at the expense of their people and their own cultures.

Cultural Relevance Of African and Dance And Music In south africa

As I was researching the music and dances of South Africa and Africa throughout the Diaspora, I have seen how censorship and ownership of African music, dances, and culture is foreign owned, "Under Some Bogus license" and therefore, one is hard-pressed to get information about these artists, and is hardly accessible. In some instances, the Websites beg people to 'edit' the biographies of these african Artists, musicians and performers because they do not know them too. They misspell the artists name, misname certain things using a wrongly written and sped African language, without any care in the world as to what this means to the owners of that music, names and languages.

There can be no successful revolution of wholesome struggle if Africans leave behind the cultural relevance of their people authentic cultures, histories, customs, dances and traditional practices and dresses. One needs to look at their faces, at the effort they pour-into and put-forth in their singing, dancing and performing-with relative ease and joy[and giving it everything they got] as if that there is nothing else that matters to them and for them, as a nation with diverse, but same culture, but their culture which has been stymied and shredded in many ways. Africans of South africa have not yet given themselves time to talk about, analyze, put into proper context that which is their cultures, customs, traditions practices/performances because they are still suffering from "Apartheid Hangover"(Apartheid "Setlamatlama-Babalazi").

The African crowds(specifically) that are in the different videos, are attentive, observant, not as to the beauty of cultures, dances or music only, but also as to whether the performers are interpreting everything 'rightly' and in a way that they approve. At times some people, in some videos are seen giving money to the performers by putting it on the ground. In some videos they ululate and participate by encouraging the dancers using certain words and encouraging and cajoling utterances, which are positive. African culture in dance, music and dress is so vibrant and energetic and "ORIGINAL", and authentic, that its about time Africans need to begin to really pay attention to it, and respect it-teach the culture to to their children and the youth-and help the elderly to guide them in revamping of their cultures today.

Culture Unites, Conscientizes and Empowers: Culture Lifting Up Its Voice

The little children are a marvel to watch whenever they are given a chance to perform. The Babies and the under ten year olds are magnificent. The youth-teenagers and young adults are really pros on it. The women are strong looking and perform well on the Xhosa, Sotho, Tswana, Zulu and the Sahngaan/Tsonga videos, The men are incredible, especially the Shangaan men who are supra energetic and vigorously agile, fit and energetic-in synchrony; the Basotho are stoical and easy going and take their own time and keep a different rhythm which is in sync with their singing-you find some others in the troupe of the Basotho men singing doing some actions which do not take from the whole performance, but have an added value and differentiated concept, but the same dance theme and response to the music and dance-plus the participation of the onlookers or the African audience. The Xhosa dancers and the Batswana have same patterns towards rhythm and dance, of foot-stomping, rhythmically and hand-clapping along with ululating.

Viewing and reviewing our Cultural-customary and traditional dances and music in a holistic manner affords Africans a learning opportunity about themselves and their abilities and capabilities, not as segregated "TRIBES of which they are really not-why then is there no French, British, Italian tribes, but Africans and other peoples of color around the world? I dismiss such references to us with disdain and am ready to rumble with anyone from anywhere who dares name Africans that way. Africans learn from others in their midst, from the performers and players of our culture, what ought to be and where and how does acquiring power comes into view and being even much more sharper focus the part of the African people's collective African polity and collective.

This wholesome culture, seen in a very intense and differentiated form, is where African power and energy and rallying point lies. One cannot be a self-proclaimed revolutionary and is not cognizant of their own and other cultures, besides their own, as important. I like what Marx and Engels said in my opening citation on the top of the Hub, I'd sooner listen to, and be closer to the men and women who are on these videos elaborating African culture to edify and confirm themselves as persons and indigenous of Mzantsi without being apologetic to nobody.

He or She who knows not their culture is useless, and I do not want African culture to be seen as something exotic. No! It is self-sustaing, evolving, but remaining constant, and empowers its member by mainly watching it in its differentiated form, that in the end it becomes one united and seamless pattern of performance that can be only found in and are uniquely occurring and manifest amongst the Africans of Mzantsi.

No one can argue that, and I expect no one to, because, in reality, what I will be posting here will speak for itself, without any need for me to interpret it. The whole African people of Mzantsi understand it, even if they pretend to be European. Some men, in their best shirts and shoes, forget themselves and join in the cultural fray and celebration(albeit inappropriately) but they get taken by the spirit exuded by the dance and music-plus the exuberance of the audiences.



Many people here on FB call for a revolution amongst our people. But are they with the masses when they perform these cultural and dramatic performances? These dancers travel the world and fill up halls and theaters, and leave the crowds overseas begging for more. Africans of South Africa with their people in the rural areas and townships partake in these cultural events, and seem to be oblivious to all that, and those who ignore i, do so to their own peril.

I really do not mind if people come to my Hub or not or on those Facebook(FB) Walls wherein I post these videos, or whether they comment or not. I am not looking for that, inasmuch as it would be good to see some responses coming from Africans of Mzantsi about these postings. I am working, more or less, towards vitalizing and viralizing South aFrican African cultures, customs and traditions on the Web to the extent that there will eventually be people, over the decades, centuries and millennium who will find these videos and admire them and maybe, respect Africans for who they are and how they are presented Here on this Hub to the world. I am doing it for the dignity and respect that African people of Mzantsi deserve.

Amos Wilson intones: "The clarion call for the writing/[disseminating] of a restorative Afrikan-centered historiography/musicological and 'performance arts' - a critical undertaking - is a call for the healing of the wounds of Afrikan peoples; for Afrikan unity' for the freeing and expansion of Afrikan consciousness; for the reconquest of Afrikan minds, bodies,lands, resources [and I might add, music, dance, performing arts and crafts, traditions, customs, etc.], and Afrikan autonomy.

"To manipulate history is to manipulate consciousness; to manipulate consciousness is to manipulate possibilities; and to manipulate possibilities is to manipulate power." For us to control and won and disseminate our own cultures, customs, traditions, history, music and damce.is to manipulate the possibilities of empowering ourselves.

"Eurocentric history writing and controlling our music, is essential an exercise in apologetics and cultural imperialism for the European oppression of Africans. It seeks to impose a social/historical/cultural and amnesic tax on the heads of Afrikan peoples and thereby rob them of their most valuable resources - their knowledge of truth and reality of self; their cultural heritage and identity, minds, bodies, and souls; their wealth,lands, products of their labor, as in music and dance and menial or professional work, and their lives, specifically. Every Eurocentric social institution conspires with Eurocentric historiography and cultural imperialism to handcuff and incarcerate African consciousness, to justify and facilitate the subordination and exploitation of Afrikan peoples." I think Wilson sums up all what I have said above in so many words.

Cultural Reactionaries

So that, according to Wilson, "... when an individual or a group is compelled by various circumstances to repress important segments of his/her its formative history, he/she or it at the same time loses access to crucially important social, intellectual and technical skills associated with that history.[culture, customs, traditions, practices, languages, music dance, and arts and crafts-my two cents), which could be used to solved current problems."

I have seen the response one gets from posting various videos posted on Facebook(FB), and those that pertain to our African culture, are often scorned, ignored or paid no mind, at all-by Africans of South Africa-though one will forgive the poor masses for not having access to computers and the Internet-who prices are prohibitive. The are those that are from His master's voice and technology-Music or dance enculturation(some kids are taking ballet lessons, and cannot even dance their own African dances nor sing the community of local peoples songs), will need to re-ducate themselves about their culture. African children are aping the Hip-hop music at the expense of their own musical idioms, dance and culture. This Hub is also intended for them to begin to learn more about their traditional music, dances and so forth.

Restoring African culture cannot only be paid lip-service to, but involves the action one sees some of those petit-bourgeois who jump into the dances, in inopportune time, and do their thing. I have no problem with kids learning ballet or ballroom dance, nor the elite forgetting their immaculate dress, to duke it out on the village dust or township tar roads-instead, what bothers me is the lackadaisical attitude and an attitude Africans hold on to, that if one is confronted and affronted with this supposedly 'backward culture' meaning, their backward-selves, which, having being 'edumacated into ignorance and arrogance' in western education, are instead the ones that are vehemently opposed to their own cultures, being shown or put on display, because it embarrasses them, and would give their lives defending White culture, etc., this Hub is specifically directed towards them

African cultures, customs, traditions, histories, language are staring at Africans in the face, and African people veer away or look askance from it, and shun it, and in the end dismiss it, deny it and finally ignore it. Africans are very good at that, and very adept at being 'poor copies' of other peoples dance and music, cultures, etc.. And when the white tourists or some other ethnic groups come into our midst, Africans are the first ones to interpret for them African culture which they have avoided and paid no attention to, nor know it very well, and become the cultural spokespeople of their people[I've touched upon this a bit above in this Hub]. Most Africans are hung-up of Westernization that they feel that what Africans have, as the remnants of African culture, is irrelevant and out of sync with the supposedly "modern and technological world' of their imaginations and wishes- which is far from the truth. Some invent how they feel and think and appreciate music or anything African culture as being backwards and irrelevant. Well, I hope this Hub redresses these misconceptions and biases, especially as they are believed by Africans of South Africa; that, i the end, I hope I will be able to reach all and teach teach all about the importance and power for their culture, history, customs, traditions, practices, rites, music, dance, languages and traditional dresses.

For me and those I am in action with about music and dance in Mzantsi, I am dedicating the year 2013 to an all out offensive distributing and disseminating African Culture. Oh, I might add, I will also be playing music of the Colored people of South Africa(whom I regard as Africans) and some Indian artists, too, because they too, the Indians, are African-This part will be added on later on after the Hub is published. I will soon be posting a barrage of videos about African traditional music from all the Nguni/Bakone(11-Eleven peoples) of Mzantsi, and it is for all those who wish to sit and to learn African culture under the African Baobab tree and enjoy its shade, with offering of Traditional African Music and Traditional Dances with Africans wearing their traditional garb and using their own languages; 'all ' are welcome'. I will then begin posting these African traditional music videos all the way in order to show the beauty and power of African Dances and music, today, in Mzantsi.

South African Shangaan Music

Mbube Roots: Zulu Choral Music From South Africa, 1930s-1960s Various Artists (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

Focus: Music of South Africa, 2nd Edition (Focus on World Music Series) [Paperback] Carol A. Muller

Heads Up On the Importance Of Historical/Cultural Performance And Social Relevance

So, Let The Music And Dancing Begin!

The achievements of urban Africans must be viewed, of course, in relation to the obstacles they have faced. Culture is not simply a broad shared system of knowledge and its products. It is also the voice of a community, and urban Black(African) South Africans were eager, like people elsewhere, to have their voices heard. An oppressed people, they wanted their complex humanity and culture acknowledged, in their contributions, they knew that they carried a burdensome responsibility to tell their story as faithfully and perceptively as possible.((Coplan)

This Hub is about what they Africans in South Africa did in the aftermath of the Industrial revolution in South Africa.; it has to do, too, with an apartheidized system, and how this African change have effected and affected the very core embodied in their performance culture. There are many written accounts and studies done about the African people's popular culture, which try to articulate what the Africans themselves in South Africa could not, and can neither read nor write about it profusivley. So, this Hub is an effort to provide a unique perspective on the musical cultural patterns, performances that what we see them as today, provide evidence, in some way, how these cultural patterns associated with forms of a particular community are alive and well. Through their music, dance, lyrics, performances and dress, style and form, we are able to learn about the uniqueness of the culture of Africans in South Africa, also, we are able to discern and observe that in their music, dance and clothing, they share common elements which makes their culture one big united and diverse culture. The music videos and the short history of the African people of South Africa tell a story of longevity, resistance and achieving continuity, through their staying power that is best retold in the format I have chosen with the short history and videos of the different 11 groups of South Africa: The Zulus, Shangaans, Tswanas, Pedis, Xhosa, Vendas, Swazis, Ndebeles, Sothos, Khoisan, and the Coloreds of South Africa. These groups or nations have been ruled for many years by the British and by the Boers in South Africa. They have not yet have had time to tell the story of their culture in their own African way. That is, they have not been able to get to a point where they tell their short and common history of each group, and in the same breadth showcase their culture, in their own voice, to the world and for the world to see and appreciate it as they project and present it. Coplan writes:

"The study of South African art forms can be traced back more than three centturies. Lack of interest in these forms may be explained by the widespread perception that they cannot be authentically African, but rather diluted, bastardized, commercial stepchildren of Western cultural colonization. This perception is mistaken on two counts. First, much of the Western popular music so influential in Africa has grown luxuriantly in the americas from From African roots. Among urban urban Black(African) South African, the sustained appeal of African American performances derives also from the comparable experience of the two people under White domination. Hence it follows that modern urban forms are African because Africans have chosen to play them. They have composed and selected performance materials from diverse sources to express, celebrate, and comment upon their experience, needs, and aspirations in a world of insecurity and change.

"Urban performing arts therefore represent not the disintegration but the creation of a culture Part of a search for autonomy in an environment in which Black(African) people have little control over anything except a culturally guided sense of collective humanity and individual self. Performance expression, like other cultural forms, does not derive solely from the minds of creative indviduals. It emerges as an aspect of social action and resonate with the emotion and meaning among members of communities in the context of social institutions. Careful attention must then be given to the role performing arts have played in urban social dynamics as well as culture change, and the effects of this involvement on performance itself. The impossibility of separating performance from social action helps in understanding how successive forms of expression arise out of South Africa.

"The concept of style gives material reality to the structure of this process. So the exploration of the role of performing arts in cultural identity centers on the organization of expressive features into styles, labelled and recognized by their participants. The style of a performance is itself an index of meaning, established collectively over time by artists and their audiences. As a category of performance, a style represents a distinctive system of meaningful forms or method of treating characteristic elements, organized around the expressive purposes and outlook of its practitioners.

"Dance scholar Anya Royce has defined style simply as "the whole complex of features that people rely on to mark their identity ... composed of symbols, forms, and underlying value orientations." A given performance heed not fall within just one category; nor do practitioners necessarily agree on the element that belong to a style, or to which performance a particular stylistic label applies. Styles provide a foundation, a vocabulary of forms, activities, occasions which constitute and express social and cultural processes. Participants may apply a range of meanings to stylistic metaphors, yet there is a core of association and feeling that unites form and meaning in a shared identity. This unity in variation promotes cultural patterning and social organization in developing urban communities. People attracted to specific performance need agree only on the authentic and appropriateness of the action, not on its meaning.."

This can be seen in the following videos and hope the receive positive acclaim from the African people themselves in Mzantsi, Africa and the Whole Diaspora.

South African Shagaan Techno Music and Shangaan Traditional South African music (Vomaseve Dance Mix)Dance andmusic (Vomaseve Dance Mix)

Shangaan Electro: New Wave Dance Music From Shangaan Electro: New Wave Dance Music From South (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

The Shangaan People and their Dance to Techno-Kwaito music-Traditonal Shangaan

The Shangaan, Thonga, Tsonga

If ever there is anthing objectionable about any part of the post, please make me aware and I will adjust it accordingly. someone just cursed me for using the word 'Shangaan. If we need to change our names, it would be better if we wrote about it and informed people about that change...

The Tsonga are a diverse people, generally including the Shangaan, Thonga, Tonga, and several smaller ethnic groups. Together they numbered about 1.5 million people in South Africa in the mid-1990s, with some 4.5 million individuals in southern Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

The Shangaan cclan came into being when King Shaka of the Zulu, sent Soshangane (Manukosi) to conquer the Tsonga people in the area of present-day southern Mozambique, during the Mfecane upheaval of the 19th Century. Soshangane found a fertile place inhabited by scattered communities of peace-loving people, and he decided to make it his home rather than return to Shaka.

The Shangaan were a mixture of Nguni (a language group which includes Swazi, Zulu and Xhosa), and Tsonga speakers (Ronga, Ndzawu, Shona, Chopi tribes), which Soshangane conquered and subjugated.

Soshangane insisted that Nguni customs be adopted, and that the Tsonga learn the Zulu language. Young Tsonga men were assigned to the army as 'mabulandlela' (those who open the road). Soshangane also imposed Shaka's military system of dominion and taught the people the Zulu ways of fighting.

Soshangane’s army overran the Portuguese settlements in Mozambique, at Delagoa Bay, Inhambane and Sena, and during the next few years, he established the Nguni kingdom of Kwa Gaza, which he named after his grandfather, Gaza.

The Gaza Kingdom comprised parts of what are now southeastern Zimbabwe, as well as extending from the Save River down to the southern part of Mozambique, covering parts of the current provinces of Sofala, Manica, Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo, and neighbouring parts of South Africa.

Another army, under the command of Dingane and Mhlangana, was sent by Shaka to deal with Soshangane, but the army suffered great hardship because of hunger and malaria, and Soshangane had no difficulty, towards the end of 1828, in driving them off.

During the whole of this turbulent period, from 1830 onwards, groups of Tsonga speakers moved southwards and defeated smaller groups living in northern Natal; others moved westwards into the Transvaal, where they settled in an arc stretching from the Soutpansberg in the north, to Nelspruit and Barberton areas in the southeast, with isolated groups reaching as far westwards as Rustenburg.

After the death of Soshangane in 1856, his sons fought over the chieftainship. Soshangane had left the throne to Mzila, but Mawewe felt that he should be chief. Mawewe attacked Mzila and his followers, causing them to leave Mozambique and flee to the Soutpansberg Mountains in the Transvaal.

Mzila stayed with João Albasini at Luonde. Albasini, who had been appointed by the Portuguese Vice-Consul to the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) in 1858, employed many of the Tsonga men as 'indhuna' (headman), and defenders of his fort-like home at the foot of the Piesangkop near the modern town of Makhado (formerly known as Louis Trichardt).

Aided by Albasini and traders at Lourenço Marques, Mzila gained the upper hand, returning and defeating Mawewe in 1862. Mawewe fled to Swaziland, where he sought the help of King Mswati I, finally settling in northern Swaziland on the border with Gazaland. Ngungunyane, who succeeded Mzila, was defeated by the Portuguese in 1895, which caused the collapse of the Gaza kingdom.

The Tsonga came to João Albasini for protection and they considered Jiwawa (the Tsonga version of his name) as their chief. Between 1864 and 1867, the Tsonga were involved in the battles between Paul Kruger's commandos and the Venda chief Makhato. For their services they were rewarded some land near the town of Schoemansdal.

This area became known as the 'Knobneusen Location', because of the habit the Tsonga had acquired of tattooing the nose. Later the Shangaan people fled to the Lowveld after the Portuguese conquered them. The descendants of both Tsonga and Shangaan lived together in the area and a great deal of interaction occurred between the two groups.

The Tsonga-Shangaan homeland, Gazankulu, was carved out of northern Transvaal Province during the 1960s and was granted self-governing status in 1973. The homeland economy depended largely on gold and on a small manufacturing sector.

Only an estimated 500,000 people - less than half the Tsonga-Shangaan population of South Africa - ever lived there. Many others joined the throngs of township residents around urban centres, especially Johannesburg and Pretoria.

Traditionally, each Tsonga family had its own 'village' composed of a few houses and a kraal, surrounded by the fields and grazing areas. From 1964, the government started resettling the people in rural villages of 200 to 400 families.

These resettlements brought tremendous changes in the life of the people, some for the better (roads, schools, water, etc), some for the worse (scattering of the enlarged family, lack of privacy, problems with cattle, distance form the fields, and so forth).

Social and Cultural Life

Traditionally, the Tsonga lived mainly by fishing for subsistence. A few goats and chickens were raised, and crop cultivation was important. Their tsetse fly-infested coastal lowland habitat made cattle raising an uncommon practice.

By the 18th Century, most Tsonga were organised into several small and independent chiefdoms in which inheritance by brothers, rather than sons, was a defining feature of the social system, a practice common in many Central African societies but rare among other South African groups.

Compared with common western family structures, the traditional social structures of the Tsonga tribes are quite complex. The smallest social unit that can be determined is the ‘nuclear family’, consisting of a woman with her own hut and cooking area, her husband and their children.

For Tsonga men, the possibility of having more than one wife exists. In cases of polygamy, ‘extended families’ came about, consisting of a group of nuclear families, headed by the same man. When the sons of an extended family married, a settlement, or muti came about, consisting of a man, his wives, their unmarried children and the families of their married sons.

Traditionally, these settlements appeared as circular living areas, surrounded by wooden walls. Inside this circle, various huts and cooking spots were built. Large thatched conical roofs typify the style of their homes. Wide beaded necklaces and heavy metal bracelets are also popular.

Within the Tsonga community, different social units exist. Aside from the family units mentioned above, lineages or nyimba exist, consisting of persons who can prove they descend from the same ancestors. The various lineages can be grouped into clans or xivongo, consisting of all persons, who descend from the same ancestor.

In present times, the Tsonga community structure is based on tribal relationships. A tribe is a group of people, which recognises the authority from one tribal chief or hosi, and is living in a specific tribal area, or tiko ra hosi.

Belief System

Whilst generally in African culture, and specifically in Shangaan-Tsonga culture, a Supreme Being is acknowledged, far more relevant are the powers of ancestors who are believed to have considerable effects on the lives of their descendants. The ancestors appear mainly in dreams, but sometimes manifest themselves as spirits.

Some spirits or ancestors are believed to live in certain sacred places where ancient chiefs have been buried. Each clan has several of these burial grounds. The ancestors are propitiated by prayers and offerings, which range from beer to animal sacrifices.

The Sangoma, on behalf of the community, makes offerings in times of trouble or in cases of illness, and on special occasions. Care is taken to please the ancestors, as restless ancestors can cause trouble. Children are named after their ancestors to ensure continuity in the family.

According to the Tsonga, there exists a strong relationship between the creation (ntumbuloko) and a supernatural power called Tilo. Tilo refers to a vaguely described superior being, who created mankind, but it also refers to the heavens, being the home of this creature.

The Tsonga believed that man had a physical (mmiri) and a spiritual body with two added attributes, the moya and the ndzuti. The moya is associated with the spirit, enters the body at birth, and leaves at death to join the ancestors.

The ndzuti was associated with the person’s shadow and reflected human characteristics. At death, in the spirit world, it left the body. This meant that the spirit was attached with the individual and human characteristics of that person. Inherent in this concept is not only the belief in life after death but also that the dead retain very strong links with the living. Passing over into the spirit world is an important stage in the life of a Tsonga.

The members of the family performed a welcoming ceremony to help ease the passage of the dead person into the spirit world. The death of a member of the family also caused all the other members in the homestead to become unclean and they all had to go through ritual cleansing ceremonies.

These ceremonies were performed at different times of the day over the next few months. During religious ceremonies, the family gathered at a special area to pay homage to the ancestral spirits. Food and drink was offered to the ancestors to thank them for providing for the people.

Face scarring in Shangaan–Tsonga culture had its origin in deterring Arab slave traders but it is now considered a sign of beauty. The transition from youth to adulthood is a truly warlike affair, where patterns are burnt into the skin.

It is important to know that in the traditional Tsonga worldview, society is an overall unity, consisting of both the living and the dead. Aside from their belief in serving the ancestral spirits, there exists also a strong belief in magic, which can be used for evil purposes (vuloyi), practised by evil servants (valoyi), with the purpose to harm the community.

Good spirits brought rain and caused good things to happen, and evil spirits, controlled by sorcerers, caused great harm to the community. Illness or persistent bad luck usually indicated the presence of baloyi (evil spirits) but occasional illness was accepted as part of everyday life.

However, if the illness was serious or the cycle of bad luck persisted, a cure had to be found through divination. Traditional healers (tin’anga) consulted the ancestral spirits by “throwing” the bones (tinholo), shells or other artefacts and were thus able to determine the cause of the bad luck and suggest ways in which to get rid of the cause. Traditional healers, also combine magic and the knowledge of medicinal plants (mirhi) in favour of the community.

Music and dance:

In the Shangaan–Tsonga tradition, the storyteller is the grandmother or elder woman of the family who is the respected transmitter of the old stories. The old woman, called Garingani, or narrator, begins her storytelling by saying “Garingani, n’wana wa Garingani!” - “I am Narrator, daughter of Narrator!” after which the crowd cheers “Garingani”. The crowd chants her name after each line of the story.

With a love for music, the Shangaan–Tsonga people have developed a number of musical instruments. The 'fayi' - a small, stubby wooden flute that produces a breathless, raspy, but haunting sound, and is often played by young herd boys. The 'xitende', is a long thin bow tied on each end by a taut leather thong or wire - which runs across a gourd. This was often used to alleviate boredom on long journeys.

The Shangaan-Tsonga is well known for their mine dances, carried out to the beat of drums and horns and wide variety of musical instruments such as the mbila. Shangaan–Tsonga male dancers performed the muchongolo dance, which celebrated the role of women in society, war victories and ritual ceremonies.

Life of the Shangaan Today

A living monument to the Shangaan culture was officially opened on 23 February 1999 near Hazyview, Mpumalanga. The Cultural Village aims to enhance tourism and contribute to job creation, foreign currency earnings and economic development.

Today, the Shangaan live in areas mainly between the Kruger National Park and the Drakensberg Mountains, in South Africa's Mpumalanga and Northern Provinces. Their sister tribe, the Tsongas, inhabit most of southern Mozambique..

South African Music (Tshetsha remix)

Shangaan Drums and Dancers: Xigubu xa Machangana Vatsonga

Shangaan Soweto Dance Party 01

Shangaan Soweto Dance Party 03

Shangaan Soweto Dance Party 04

Drums for tomorrow - Amampondo (South Afric

African Voices: Songs of Life African Voices (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

Lokishini: Xhosa songs from the township of Langa Langa Traditional Singers

The Xhosa People

The People Known As Amaxhosa

The amaXhosa people are Bantu speakers living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. Xhosa people currently make up approximately 18% of the South African population. By number: in 2008: Botswana 9,900; Lesotho 22,000; South Africa 7,529,000; Zimbabwe 29,000

During the seventeenth century, a gradual migration of the Nguni took place which led thousands of people from the southern Zaire Great Lakes area to move south, displacing the original Khoisan hunter gatherers of Southern Africa.

The Xhosa culture (and Nguni culture as a whole) has borrowed from the Khoisan culture and language, and the two peoples lived symbiotically and even intermarried. The Xhosa people speak a language called "Xhosa" which is known as a "click" language, having three basic clicks, borrowed from the Khoisan languages.

Xhosa peoples were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, and occupied much of eastern South Africa from the Fish River to land inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban.

The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century. In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Both the Boers and the Xhosa were stock-farmers. The competition for grazing land led first to quarrels between the two groups, and eventually it came to a number of wars.

As South Africa shifted politically between British and Dutch rule, clashes with the Xhosa grew in magnitude, as with the Zulu in the Natal area farther north. The politics of the colonial government attempted to enforce the separation of white and black settlement areas with the Fish River as the border. But the more the colony developed into a modern state with a strong military organization, the more the whites tended towards a policy of land annexing and the subjugation of the black population.. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, the Xhosas were forced east by British colonial forces in the Third Frontier War. This dislocated Xhosa clans and disrupted the traditional lineage-family homesteads and social system. The Xhosa were pressed into highland areas where the terrain offered some defence. In the 1830s and 1840s, after major battles, the British stripped the Xhosa chiefs of effective power. Certain areas were finally designated as semi-autonomous territories, while the British settlers took the prize areas.

Many Xhosa-speaking clans had also been pushed west by expansion of the Zulus, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering".

The Xhosa-speaking southern Nguni people had initially split into the Gcaleka and the Rharhabe(who had moved westwards across the Kei river).

In British South Africa, traditional areas of the Xhosa and other peoples were preserved as autonomous territories. These later became administrative districts of the Union of South Africa in 1910. The Union remained part of the British Empire and Commonwealth until after WW II. In the election of 1948, the Afrikaner National socialist party won control, restoring Afrikaner control to South Africa for the first time since the annexation of the Boer Republics by 1879. The Afrikaner government withdrew South Africa from the Commonwealth and imposed the segregation policy called "apartheid" (apart-ness), which created separate regions that were described as Bantustans (homelands) for black people of African descent. Two regions—Transkei and Ciskei—were set aside for Xhosa people, and proclaimed independent. Thousands of people were forcibly relocated there and denied South African citizenship.

The Xhosa were active in the following decades in opposing this policy, while they were persecuted and separated from most civil and legal rights. Xhosa and other black African peoples did have access to some education and there was some economic freedom. There were Xhosa lawyers (like Nelson Mandela) and business people who worked within the system to oppose apartheid until it was finally dismantled with the change to democracy in 1994.

AmaXhosa Clan Lineage Traditions

According to tradition, the leader from whom the Xhosa people take their name was the first King of the nation. Another tradition stresses the essential unity of the Xhosa-speaking people by proclaiming that all the Xhosa subgroups are descendants of one ancestor, Tshawe. Historians have suggested that Xhosa and Tshawe were probably the first Xhosa kings or paramount (supreme) chiefs.

One of Xhosa's descendents, named Phalo, gave birth to two sons: Gcaleka, the heir, and Rharhabe a son from the Right Hand house. Rharhabe, the warrior, wanted Gcaleka's throne but was defeated and banished and settled in the Amathole Mountains. Maxhobayakhawuleza Sandile Aa! Zanesizwe is the King in the Great Place in Mngqesha. The Zwelonke Sigcawu was crowned King of the Xhosa on June 18, 2010.

Major Xhosa-speaking nations or groups

AmaMpondo (their kingdom is in dispute, like that of the amaXhosa )The AmaMpondo have their separate lineage that is traceable from Sibiside to Dlemini to Njanya, to Mpondo and Mpondomise (twins) and Xesibe. The descendants of Mpondo are Santsabe, Sukude, Msiza, Ncindise, Cabe, Gangata, Bhala, Chithwayo, Khonjwayo, Ngcoya, Hlamandana, Tahle, Nyawuza and many others.
AmaMpondomise (their kingdom was destroyed by British colonists in revenge for the killing of magistrate Christopher Hope by Mhlontlo's forces during the Anti-Colonial Revolt of 1880. The revolt was led by Mhlontlo of the amaMpondomise together with Gecelo of the amaGcina, Dalasile and Stokwe of the amaQwathi and Squngathi of the abaThembu).
AmaXesibe (The descendants of Xesibe are Ntozabantu to Ndzuza to Miyana to Bimbi to Nondzaba who begot Hlabe to Mthetho to Mtshutshumbe who founded the amaQwathi nation. Mtshutshumbe begot Mndwana begot Ncobe begot Nkovane begot Ntswayibana begot Dikela.)
AmaQwathi
AmaXhosa (the kingdom is in dispute between amaGcaleka and amaRharhabe)
AbaThembu (their kingdom is in dispute between the Matanzima and Dalindyebo descendants).
AmaBhaca (descended from Madzikane, chief of the amaNgwane, killed during the invasion of Thembuland in 1828)
AmaMfengu (amaHlubi, amaBhele, amaZizi, amaNgwane, etc.)
AmaGqunukhwebe
AmaVundle
The amaMpondo, amaMpondomise, amaXesibe and amaQwathi nations are related but the amaQwathi settled in Thembuland more than 350 years ago and as a result Qwathi chiefdom is more Thembu in culture and political association.

The “Iziduko” (clan) matters most to the Xhosa identity (even more than names and surnames), and are transferred from one to the other through oral tradition. Knowing your “Isiduko” is vital to the Xhosas and it is considered a shame and “Uburhanuka” (lack-of-identity) if one doesn’t know one's clan. This is considered so important that when two strangers meet for the first time, the first identity that gets shared is “Isiduko”. It is so important that two people with the same surname but different clan are considered total strangers but the same two people from the same clan but different surnames are regarded as close relatives. This forms the roots of "Ubuntu" (neighbouring) - a behaviour synonymous to this tribe as extending a helping hand to a complete stranger when in need. Ubuntu goes further than just helping one another - it is so deep that it even extends to looking after and reprimanding your neighbour's child when in the wrong.

One traditional ritual that is still regularly practiced is the manhood ritual, a secret rite that marks the transition from boyhood to manhood (Ulwaluko). After ritual circumcision, the initiates (abakhwetha) live in isolation for up to several weeks, often in the mountains. During the process of healing they smear white clay on their bodies and observe numerous taboos. Girls are also initiated into womanhood (Intonjane). They too are secluded, though for a shorter period. Female initiates are not circumcised. Other rites include the seclusion of mothers for ten days after giving birth, and the burial of the afterbirth and umbilical cord near the village. This is reflected in the traditional greeting Inkaba yakho iphi?, literally "Where is Your Navel?" The answer "tells someone where you live, what your clan affiliation is, and what your social status is and contains a wealth of cultural information. Most importantly, it determines where you belong".

A clan comprised of a number of groups, each led by a chief, or Inkosi, who owed his position to his mother's status (the society, however, was a patriarchal one in which women weren't formally accorded political authority and were expected to leave their families to live with their husband's family.) The Xhosa are polygynous (though today only the wealthier men have more than one wife). Marriages are arranged by the families. The family of the boy approaches the family of the girl and begins "negotiations". The lobola, or bride price, must also be agreed upon. It is typically 10 cows or the equivalent in money. The bride is captured by the groom's family and taken to live with them. In secular settings, they are considered married. In Christian settings, they proceed to the church for a two day service in which one day is spent at the groom's village and the other at the bride's village. The migrant labor system has put great strains on the traditional family. Some men have established two distinct families, one at the place of work and the other at the rural home. With the end of apartheid, some of the families previously separated by the labour laws are beginning new lives in urban areas.

Name Giving:

Xhosa clan names (iziduko) are family names which are considered more important than surnames. Much like the clan system of Scotland, each Xhosa person can trace their family history back to a specific male ancestor or stock. Mentioning the clan name of someone you wish to thank is the highest form of respect. Thus Nelson Mandela is called by his clan name ‘Madiba’ in SA.

When a woman marries she may take her husband's surname, but she always keeps her own clan name, adding the prefix Ma- to it. A man and a woman who have the same clan name may not marry, as they are considered to be related.

Children are usually named by their fathers or grandparents and all names have special meanings. When a woman marries, her mother-in-law gives her a new name. When children are old enough to attend school, they were often given an English name.(Why?)

Names in Xhosa often express the values or opinions of the community. Common personal names include Thamsanqa (good fortune) and Nomsa (mother of kindness). Adults are often referred to by their isiduko (clan or lineage) names. In the case of women, clan names are preceded by a prefix meaning "mother of." A woman of the Thembu clan might be called MamThembu . Women are also named by reference to their children, real or intended; NoLindiwe is a polite name for Lindiwe's mother.

A few names of amaXhosa and related ethnic groups include:

Bhayi (Khetshe, Mkhumbeni, Msuthu – they belong to the amaVundle people)
Bhele (divides into several sub-clan groups: Dongo, Langa, etc.)
Cethe (ooChizama)
Cirha (ooNcibane)
Deyi
Debeza – OoDebeza, ngoJebe, Nonyanya, Nongoqo, Mbeka Ntshiyini Bathi uqumbile, Khonkcoshe Mbokodo engava mkwetsho (These are royalty in the Amampondomse group. Their main concentration is in the former Transkei, in Tsolo, Qumbu and Umthatha in the Eastern Cape.)
Dlamini (or Zizi,Jama kaSjadu, the clan name of Thabo Mbeki, an Mfengu subgroup)
Dlane
Dlomo (different lines, Thembu or Hlubi subgroups)
Dontsa- oNoDlidlu, oNoDlabathi, oSwahla, oMntungwa uNdukuMkhonto, uShembe, bath' uDontsa akananyongo kant' abay'bon' uba igqunywe ngesbhadlalala so mhlehlo... (Hlubi clan)
Dosini
Duma (Nxuba)
Faku (Nyawuza, Thahla, Ndayeni, Mpondo, Hlamba ngobubend'amanz'ekhona)
Gaba (Mngqosini, Mjobi, Thithiba, Cihoshe, Nozinga, Mnt'womlambo, Thikoloshe, Ndoko, Mbokodw'emnyama Kahili, Msuthu)
Gadluma
Ganu
Gebe (a Bomvana clan name)
Gqunu
Gqwashu (with Khoi-khoi ancestry)
Gxarha (Mpodomise subgroup clan name)
Hegebe
Jola SingaMampondomse ngohlanga, oJola, oomphankomo, nomakhala, njuza, sthukuthezi, sithandwa mhla kukubi, hoshode, hakaha, mfaz'omabele made oncancisa naphesha komlambo
Jwarha (Mtika, Mazaleni, Jotela, Khatiti, Mnangwe, Mayarha, Mbelu, Ndabase, Bantw'abahle noba bapheth' izikhali,
Khawuta
Khiwa (Khonjwayo, a Pondo clan)
Khumalo (Mfengu clan name)
Khwetshube (Mpondo clan name)
Kwayi (Ngconde, Togu, Ubulawi, Ngcond'oneentshaba, etc.)
Madiba (the clan name of Nelson Mandela, a Thembu. Important rulers and chiefs include Mthikrakra, Ngangelizwe, Dalindyebo, Joyi, Jumba, Sabatha, Buyelekhaya)
Maduna (Gubevu, Nokhala, an Mfengu clan name)
Manci(Mbali, Wabane, Tshitshis'intaba, Mdludla ka Bekiso, Zinde Zinde Zinemiqala)
Maya (omaya oyem yem osophitsho, omagwa, ongqolomsila, obhomoyi)
Mahlangu
Matshaya Mbathane
Mbanjwa
Mbatha
Mbotho
Mdlangathi: Mome mome Sirhama Somntwana, Juta
Mfene (Olisa, Ojambasi)
Mhaga
Miya, Gcwanini
Mjoli (Qubulashe, Wushe)
Mkhwemte Dabane Sgadi Mekhi Ntswentswe Fulashe Nojaholo Ncibane Qhanqolo Ntlokwenyathi Ngququ venge
Mpehle (Mpodomise subgroup clan name)
Mpemvu (a Thembu clan name)
Mpinga (Mawawa): the clan of Enoch Sontonga, author of "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika", part of Nationa Athem of Republic of South Africa.
Mtakwenda (Leta, Libele, Tyebelendle, Ngcwadi, Kwangeshe, Mentuko, Mboyi, Solizembe)
Mvulane (Ncilashe, Msuthu – they belong to the amaVundle people)
Myirha Mzondi Sampu Ziyeka (Ithambo lenyoka lihlaba elimzondayo)
Ncuthu
Ndala (Ndala ka Momamana, uMncotshe, Msunu Sdumbu, Thole, Ngxunga Smukumuku, Ndithinina )
Ndlovu Mntungwa Gengesi Malunga Mancoba (zidlekhaya ngokuswela umalusi)
Ngcitshane
Ngxongo
Ngwanya
Nkomo (Mntungwa, Khumalo – amaMfengu. They are originally Ndebele from Natal and arrived in as refugees in Thembuland in 1828 during the time of the Mfecane wars.)
Nkwali (Mfengu/Hlubi clan name: bhukula, Mkhwanazi, Nkwali ye Nkosi)
Nqarhwane
Ntshilibe
Nxasana
Nxuba (Mduma, Rhudulu)
Nyawuza (Faku, Mpondo ruling line, chiefs including Faku, Sigcau, Bokleni, Ndamase)
Nzothwa
Mqadi Ngqwili Nondlobe
Qhinebe - Gqugqugqu, Zithonga-zthathu, Haha, Mlunjwa, Mkhomanzi, Duka namahlathi
Qocwa (Zikhali Mazembe, Jojo, Tiyeka, Butsolo Beentonga Mbizana, Mabombo)
Qoma
Qithi (Ndinga, Zondwa, Thembu)
Mqwambi, Holomi
Qwathi - Iinkomo zikaXesibe, zikaJojo, zikaMtshutshumbe, ogqaz'indlel'ebhek'ebuNguni. (The amaQwathi are not a clan but an independent nation founded by Mtshutshumbe kaMthetho who split from the amaXesibe nation and settled in the Mqanduli area in Thembuland some 350 years ago. Later they settled in their present capital of Engcobo during the reign of King Dlomo of abaThembu, about 1680. This small but fiercely independent and anti-colonial nation divides into several clans: amaDikela, amaTshaba, ooSdindi, ooBhlangwe, ooBhose, amaNzolo, imiNcayi, amaNtondo, amaKhombayo, ooMkhondweni, amaVumbe, ooKhebesi, amaBangula, amaDumba, ooMhotho, ooCakeni, ooBhabha, amaMvala, amaDabisa, ooS'ximba, etc. Prominent chiefs include the heroic anti-colonial Stokwe ka-Ndlela, the courageous Dalasile kaFubu, the great Fubu himself (who fought and killed both Rharhabe and his son Mlawu in 1872, defended his capital and defeatedMadzikane of the Bhaca in 1824 and Matiwane of Ngwane in 1828 during the Mfecane wars triggered by Shaka, etc), Zwelakhe (present chief))
Rhadebe ndlebentle'zombini (amaHlubi)
Rhoyi
Sithathu – means "third" (the third Khoi-khoi ancestry clan)[oChisana, Khopoyi, Ndebe, Hasa,Lawu]
Sikhosana
Skhoji (A group of Xhosa speaking people who mainly occupy the small town called Tsolo on the Tsitsa valley. They are the direct descendants of a Scottish man by the name of William Saunders who befriended a Xhosa girl and later had issue.)
Shiya
Sohobese
Sonani
Sukwini (with Khoi-khoi ancestry) – [Chwama, Dibashe ,Lawu'ndini, Nja-bomvu, Sandlala-ngca, Ithole loMthwakazi].
Thangana (Krila, Rhaso, M'bamba, Bodlinja, Gobingca)
Thole (Gqagqane, Buzini, Ndlangisa, Mzimshe, Lwandle)
Tolo (amaMfengu – Dlangamandla, Mchenge, Mabhanekazi, Zulu, Mabele-made)
Tshangisa (Zulu, Skhomo, Mhlatyana, Rhudulu, Nxuba, Mngwevu)
Tshawe (the ruling house among all the Xhosa. Chiefs include Hintsa, Sigcawu, Sarhili, Xolilizwe, etc.)
Tshezi (the ruling Bomvana clan of the Jalamba-Gambushe line, with European shipwreck ancestry)
Tshomane (with shipwreck ancestry, split from the ruling Nyawuza clan of the Mpondo)
Xesibe (AmaXesibe are a nation made up of several clans and tribes but their history is not well documented. Common clan names are: Nondzaba, Mbathane, Tshomela ka Matsho).
Xhamela (They are also called amaGcina, found in Thembuland).
Zangwa (Khwalo – amaMpondo).
Traditional Culture Veneration of the ancestors, sometimes called "ancestor worship," is very prominent among the Xhosa people. The ancestors are still considered part of the community of the lineage. They believe the ancestors reward those who venerate them and punish those who neglect them. Many mix ancestor worship with their Christian faith. There is a strong sense of loyalty among the tribe or community. The land was communally held; and great emphasis placed on giving according to need: everything was shared, in bad times as well as good; Xhosa families still routinely help one another with such tasks as hut-building.

The body of Xhosa lore has much in common with that of the other Nguni peoples such as the Zulu and Swazi. Animism, and recognition of the presence and power of ancestral spirits and of a supreme authority, are basic elements of belief. Misfortune and illness are attributed to unnatural of supernatural influences (such as the tokoloshe, a hairy and potentially malevolent goblin who attacks at night). Other figures are the huge lightning bird (Impundulu), and the gentle aBantu bomlambo, human-like beings believed to live in rivers and the sea, and who accept into their family those who drown.

The Xhosa also have amagqirha or diviners in their tribes. The diviner is the Xhosa's healer. There are herbalists amaxhwele, prophets izanusi, and healers inyanga for the community. The diviners are mostly women. They wear a shawl and headdress of fur most of the time. It takes about five years of being an assistant to a diviner until you become one yourself.

The key figure in the Xhosa oral tradition is the imbongi (plural: iimbongi) or praise singer. Iimbongi traditionally live close to the chief's "great place" (the cultural and political focus of his activity); they accompany the chief on important occasions - the imbongi Zolani Mkiva preceded Nelson Mandela at his Presidential inauguration in 1994. Iimbongis' poetry, called imibongo, praises the actions and adventures of chiefs and ancestors.[1] Xhosa traditional music places a strong emphasis on group singing and handclapping as accompaniment to dance. Drums, while used occasionally, were not as fundamental a part of musical expression as they were for many other African peoples. Other instruments used included rattles, whistles, flutes, mouth harps, and stringed-instruments constructed with a bow and resonator.Another point is that part of the National anthem of South Africa is a Xhosa hymn written in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga.

Traditional Zulu Music: Songs of King Shaka Various (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

Madosini @her homestead

Xhosa Dancers

Ubuhle Be Afrika: Xhosa Dance

UMNGQOKOLO - Thembu Xhosa - OVERTONE SINGING filmed 1985-1998 in

Music of Botswana Traditional Music of Botswana Africa: A Journey Wi (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

The Batswana People

Batswana;

If there are any discrepancies about the post below, please that should be brought to my attention so that i can adjust it...

In the 19th century, hostilities broke out between Tswana inhabitants of Botswana and Ndebele tribes who were making incursions into the territory from the north-east. Tensions also escalated with the Dutch Boer settlers from the Transvaal to the east. After appeals by the Batswana leaders Khama III, Bathoen and Sebele for assistance, the British Government put "Bechuanaland" under its protection on 31 March 1885. The northern territory remained under direct administration as the Bechuanaland Protectorate and is modern-day Botswana, while the southern territory became part of the Cape Colony and is now part of the northwest province of South Africa. The majority of Setswana-speaking people today live in South Africa.
When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910 out of the main British colonies in the region, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Basutoland (now Lesotho) and Swaziland (the "High Commission Territories") were not included, but provision was made for their later incorporation. However, their inhabitants began to be consulted by the UK, and although successive South African governments sought to have the territories transferred, the UK kept delaying; consequently, it never occurred. The election of the Nationalist government in 1948, which instituted apartheid, and South Africa's withdrawal from the Commonwealth in 1961, ended any prospect of incorporation of the territories into South Africa. An expansion of British central authority and the evolution of tribal government resulted in the 1920 establishment of two advisory councils to represent both Africans and Europeans. Proclamations in 1934 regulated tribal rule and powers. A European-African advisory council was formed in 1951, and the 1961 constitution established a consultative legislative council.
In June 1964, the UK accepted proposals for a democratic self-government in Botswana. The seat of government was moved in 1965 from Mafikeng in South Africa, to the newly established Gaborone, which sits near its border. The 1965 constitution led to the first general elections and to independence on 30 September 1966. Seretse Khama, a leader in the independence movement and the legitimate claimant to the Ngwato chiefship, was elected as the first president, re-elected twice.
The presidency passed to the sitting vice president, Quett Masire, who was elected in his own right in 1984 and re-elected in 1989 and 1994. Masire retired from office in 1998. The presidency passed to the sitting vice president, Festus Mogae, who was elected in his own right in 1999 and re-elected in 2004. The presidency passed in 2008 to Ian Khama (son of the first president), who had been serving as Mogae's Vice President since resigning his position in 1998 as Commander of the Botswana Defence Force to take up this civilian role.
A long-running dispute over the northern border with Namibia's Caprivi Strip was the subject of a ruling by the International Court of Justice in December 1999, which ruled that Kasikili Island belongs to Botswana.

Cultural Songs and Dances from Botswana

Traditional Dance Troupe, Tlokweng Botswana

Tswana Singers and Dancers: Dikakapa-Soka

(Tswana) Tshwane Dancers

Kung Bushmen Kalahari Music of !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert Afri (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

San Music

The San Music:


There exist as many different musical legacies as there are different populations of San people; nevertheless, they share many traits. Their music is characterized by complex contrapuntic polyphonies based on the superposition of different voices, each with divergent melody and rhythm. From these multiple voices emerges the yodelling procedure, which alternates between chest voice and head voice. The voices are accompanied by hand clapping and rattles, which mark the beat as well as many superimposed rhythmic figures for a strongly polyrhythmic effect.

To produce a sound that they would call "delicious"--a performance corresponding to the San musical esthetic--the singers must constantly renew their voices to create complexity and variety. They have thus developed an elaborate system of variations whereby each singer varies his/her voice in a unique way so that no two voices are identical. It is up to each performer to adjust his or her voice in real time and in relation to the others. The song is created step by step through the interaction of diverse participants.

The San also use instruments. Most common are the stringed instruments, the bow, the single-stringed zither, and the four- and five-stringed pluriarcs; the thumb piano; and sometimes the drum, borrowed in recent decades from neighboring Bantu-speaking peoples.

The songs are organized in ensembles connected to specific social circumstances like healing, initiation, hunting rituals, and the melon toss game or other diversions. Each of these ensembles refers to one or more categories determined by distinctive musical features. The San musical heritage is thus organized in a rigorous manner according to both social and musical criteria. But this rigor is in no way synonymous with rigidity. Music is, for the San, a living art encompassing the processes of creation, disappearance, transformation, and recomposition. From one generation to the next, songs and instrumental pieces are abandoned and others are created. San musicians borrow instruments from other cultures, a testimony to their ongoing relations with neighboring peoples. And their neighbors’ music can be transformed and integrated into the San musical system and esthetic. The San musical heritage may thus be recomposed. Vocal songs that fall into disuse are transposed into the instrumental repertory; ritual songs may pass into the realm of the profane and become diversions. New rituals--such as collective male initiation--appear along with new songs and dances, while others--like some rituals tied to hunting--disappear, their music gradually falling to disuse. And musical forms fall in and out of fashion; certain powerful songs become very popular (like "hits") and are frequently played for healing rituals as well as for entertainment. After a while, however, they are replaced by new, even more powerful healing compositions.

In San society, as in so many others, everyone in the community can participate in singing, hand-clapping, dancing, or playing an instrument. The concepts of a "concert" or a "concert-going public" do not exist. Nevertheless, San musicians (particularly Ju|’hoansi) have participated in recent years in regional and national competitions, as well as festivals and concerts abroad. And the world music industry, avidly searching for novelty, has seized on their polyphonic sounds. Today we find a dozen CDs of San music, from original recordings in the field by researchers to remixed melodies by Western pop musicians, on the market.

In September 1998, five Ju musicans were invited for the first time to perform outside of their homeland. They represented Namibia at the Festival Interculturel de Mayotte and at the Festival d’Art Metis in Réunion, France. The first concert took place in a stadium with more than 10,000 people in attendance. For most of the spectators, the film The Gods Must be Crazy was probably their only previous exposure to the San. But the concert gave them an entirely different perspective. Many were seduced by the music to discover the complex culture in which it was embedded. "It was a shock, an extraordinary encounter with a culture of incredible richness," enthused the Quotitien de la Réunion’s critic. "Their voices, escaping from the infinity of the desert, encoiled themselves into our Western souls. . . . The result [was] sheer magic."

The artistic director of La Maison des Cultures du Monde in Paris then invited the group to France in the Spring of 1999. They gave five concerts there, appeared on national television, were interviewed on the radio, inaugurated an exhibit on San culture at the Musée de l’Homme, and were the subject of a film documentary. Other Ju|’hoan musicians subsequently performed in June 2000 at the Hanover World’s Fair and in July 2001 at the Festival des Jeu-nesses Musicales de France.

What the San seem to be looking for in these performances, beyond a not insignificant source of revenue, is a form of recognition. In carefully choosing songs and instrumental pieces most representative of their heritage, and in interpreting them "in the manner of the elders," they want to be appreciated by Western audiences. Dressed in their most beautiful traditional costumes, they want to be seen by others in the full richness of their culture. They also see these overseas trips as an adventure--a way of visiting other cultures and participating in musical exchanges. In return, their trips have enriched their own music; the lyrics of new songs narrate their experiences during the course of their travels.

This recent phenomenon raises important questions about how Western culture is carried to and received by the San. But it also raises questions about their own culture and which of its elements they want to disclose to a neophyte foreign public. For the Ju|’hoansi, for example, musicians who are also shamans refuse to enter trance during a concert. The San are thus in a position to reflect on the notion of culture and tradition, and on how these can be expressed when the ritual is decontextualized and presented to distant societies. The concert creates in an enclosed space a dichotomy between active musicians and a passive public. San music, frozen in some way as the performance, may risk becoming a purely esthetic object. What, then, are the repercussions for the vitality of its practice?

San Woman Short song

Pops Mohamed - Khoisan

The Dance of the San

The Nguni Sound: South Africa & Swaziland 1955 '57 '58 Various Artists (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

Countries of the World: Kingdom of Swaziland Paperback – February 11, 2012 by Tomas Clancy (Author)

The Swazi People

The Amazswazi:


The Swazis of the Mountain Kingdom of Swaziland are a proud but peaceful people; occupying a small landlocked country in Southern Africa surrounded on three sides by South Africa and on the fourth by Mozambique. Swaziland is the smallest country in the Southern Hemisphere with an area of only 6,704 sq. miles. Swazis also live in the neighboring areas of Mozambique and South Africa. Those in South Africa outnumber those in Swaziland

History:
Swazis have lived in present day Swaziland since around 1750. Ethnically, Swazis are a part of the Nguni People Group, originating from the Great Lake areas of Central Africa. Their ancestors were part of the general, gradual migration of Bantu language speakers from Central Africa. The Nguni sub-group, Nkosi-Dlamini, broke from the main group and settled in Mozambique, eventually moving into the area known today as Swaziland.

The Swazi developed from the Ngwane, one of the Dlamini sub-groups, whose separate history can be traced to about 1750, in the southern side of Delagoa Bay, opposite Maputo. There they associated with the Tembe people and engaged in the heavy commerce along the coast, including the export of ivory through sea trade. The Ngwane involvement was one factor that led to the Tembes' loss of monopoly on commerce.

As the Boers expanded, treaties established boundaries with Transvaal. Though there were wars with the Zulus, the Swazi king Mbandzeni refused a British request for help in 1879 in the Anglo-Zulu war. Shaka never attacked the Swazi during his expansionist activity. In the mid-1800's Dutch (Boer) and English groups settled in the realm by contract with the king on various occasions.

Identity:
A few years ago, Swaziland has one of the highest population growth rates in the world — 3.7%. In the 1990s, the Swaziland Department of Planning projected 1.1 million by the year 2001. The rate of growth has slowed, due to the heavy toll of AIDS in the last decade. In 2007 an educational crisis developed because of the great numbers of AIDS orphans who had no one to pay school fees for them. The government decided in 2007 it could not pay their fees either.

Fifty-five percent of the population lives in the Mbanane to Manzini area. Three out of ten Swazis live in towns or cities. The estimated population of the country in 2008 is 1,128,814.

Swaziland has a reputation as one of the most prosperous countries in sub-Sahara. Swaziland's economy is tied to the South African economy through the Rand Monetary Area and the Common Customs Area. Although considered by many, including World Bank, as a middle income nation, a "third-world" economy emerges when one looks closely.

The Swazi people are closely allied with the Zulu, Ndebele and other Nguni peoples by culture, language and history. The Gwane maintained a separate identity and were not always on good terms with their cousins. The establishment of Swaziland was a strong factor in their maintaining their separate identity. The Swazi people today make up a little over half the population of Swaziland but it is ruled as a Swazi kingdom.

Language:
Swati is the home language of the Swazi people. Business and commerce are conducted in English. Zulu was used in literature and education before independence. Many Swazis also speak Zulu. Swati and its neighboring languages are written in Latin characters, following the spelling conventions used in Nguni languages.

One source says that there are about 2.5 million speakers of the Swati language. However, the 2005 edition of the Ethnologue, world authority and ISO standard for information on the languages of the world, gives the total in all countries as 1,706,924. 1,013,193 of these live in South Africa (1996 census), only about 650,000 in Swaziland.

The Swati (or Swazi) language is a member of the Nguni language family, which includes Xhosa Ndebele and Zulu. The ancestors of the Nguni came into contact with the Khoisan-speaking peoples, whose language has click sounds as consonants. The Nguni languages now have several borrowed sounds from these languages and some vocabulary items. Swati has lost all but one of the click sound sets. Swati is the mother tongue of all the ethnic Swazi people and the language is spoken by many people of other ethnic groups.

Political Situation:
Swaziland is a peaceful country, having struggled for years against outside forces, Zulus, British, Boers and land-hungry settlers. The country of Swaziland was the tribal land of the Swati people under their hereditary rulers. Swaziland was recognized as an independent nation by Britain, Portugal and South African entities in a series of treaties conventions and negotiations, dated from the early 1800's.

In 1894 Swaziland requested to become a British Protectorate to halt the encroachments of Boers and Portuguese. During the years of British consolidation in southern Africa, Swaziland remained separate. They did not participate for instance, in the Union of South Africa, formed in 1910. Swaziland preferred to remain a protectorate. (It was never a colony.) The country gained independence in 1968.

The royal line continued in administration over the decades of the Protectorate. Changes in government introduced a new-found democracy with multi-party elections held for the first time in 1993 for seats of the lower House of Parliament. The king is still highly respected. King Mswati III was crowned king in 1986 at the age of eighteen. During the 20th century many Swazis have felt free to move freely into South Africa.

Customs:
The Swazis love colourful ceremonies and traditional dress is commonly worn even today by both men and women. Marriage arrangements are initiated by a request to the fathers of the couple by the mothers of the couple.

There are two types of marriages. First, a civil rite based on western marriage conventions, prohibiting polygamy, but allowing divorce. The second category is traditional marriage. In this kind of marriage, the husband can take additional wives, where dowry (lobola) is paid by the man's family for each wife. For a woman, this marriage is binding and even if her husband dies and she remarries according to civil rites, the children of the new marriage are considered to belong to the first husband.

Girls help around the home, care for younger siblings and collect water. Boys herd cattle and goats. Training children begins as soon as the child is able to speak. Children do not rise when an elder enters the room but respect must be shown in various ways.

Incwala is a sacred ceremony of kingship and is observed as an annual festival of thanksgiving, prayer and atonement. Its the most important and sacred of all ceremonies. It is called the Ceremony of Kingship because it is led by the king. Umhlanga is a reed dance, a ceremony meant to attract unmarried girls, from whom the King chooses new brides.

The AIDS problem has grown to greater and greter visiblity for the country of Swaziland. One source reported in 2000:

A quarter of Swaziland's population of one million is said to be infected with HIV and the age expectancy has dropped from 38 to 30.
One royal health advisor created a national uproar by suggesting quarantining all the AIDS-infected persons in the country.
Religion:
The majority of the Swazis associate with some form of Christianity. Traditional religions which mix tradition with Christianity are predominant. Although many Swazis claim to be Christian and associate with mainline religions, during times of extreme need they will return to traditional beliefs and intermediaries (Tinyanga — medicine men, traditional healers or Tangoma — diviners).

Some sources indicate that approximately 80% of the Swazi nation consult traditional healers such as physicians, prophets, priests, herbalists and diviners. This is the same percentage of the population that consider themselves cultural Christians. Actual participation in formal churches is very low.

Christianity:
Christian work began among the Swazi people in 1844 when a Wesleyan missionary conference in South Africa responded to a request from king Mswati II's request for a missionary: James Allison and Richard Giddy came with two Sotho evangelists from what is now Orange Free State.

The Swazi responded vigorously to Christian work and many churches now have extensive work among this comparatively small people group. Churches that have work in Swaziland are Nazarenes, Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Assemblies of God and Evangelical Church. Baptists were added to the list when they also began work in the country in 1983. Response has slowed in the current generation and cultural Christianity may be a disincentive to personal conversion.

About 80% of the Swazi people claim to be Christian, but only about 27% are active in church. Actual church membership is even lower than worship attendance, about 20%. Reports indicate that over half of the population is claimed as members by the African Independent Church, also known as Zionists. While this movement promotes Christian spiritual gifts like healings and speaking in tongues, they also have a strong emphasis on traditional customs and practices.

The endemic AIDS situation has not only decimated the population and created a social crisis, but commentators also reflect that it has called into question the moral foundations of the people of Swaziland..

South Africa and Swaziland

Swazi dancers

Sibhaca dancing, Swaziland 1973

Thando Luka Baba (God's Love) (Ndebele Traditional) Soul Influence From the Album Koba Mnandi

South African Traditional Folk Music [Import] Celebrate the Best of South African Traditional... (Artist) | Format: Audio CD

The Amandebele

Although the origins of the South African Ndebele are shrouded in mystery, they have been identified as one of the Nguni tribes. The Nguni tribes represent nearly two thirds of South Africa’s Black population and can be divided into four distinct groups; the Central Nguni (the Zulu-speaking peoples), the Southern Nguni (the Xhosa-speaking peoples), the Swazi people from Swaziland and adjacent areas and the Ndebele people of the Northern Province and Mpumalanga.

The two Ndebele groups were not only separated geographically but also by differences in their languages and cultures. The Ndebele of the Northern Province consisted mainly of the BagaLanga and the BagaSeleka tribes who, by and large, adopted the language and culture of their Sotho neighbours.

The North Ndebele people resided an area stretching from the town of Warmbaths in the south, to the Limpopo River in the north and from the Botswana border in the west to the Mozambique border in the east. However, they were mainly concentrated in the districts of Pietersburg, Bakenberg and Potgietersrus.

Mpumalanga, much of which consists of the area known as the Lowveld, stretches from the town of Piet Retief in the south to Lydenburg / Pilgrim’s Rest in the north and from the towns of Witbank and Groblersdal in the west to the Mozambique border in the east. The Springbok Flats separated the North Ndebele and those in the east from one another.

Historical Background

The history of the Ndebele people can be traced back to Mafana, their first identifiable chief. Mafana’s successor, Mhlanga, had a son named Musi who, in the early 1600’s, decided to move away from his cousins (later to become the mighty Zulu nation) and to settle in the hills of Gauteng near where the capital, Pretoria is situated.

After the death of Chief Musi, his two sons quarrelled over the chieftainship and the tribe divided into two sections, the Manala and the Ndzundza. The Manala remained in the north while the Ndzundza, also known as the Southern Ndebele, travelled to the east and the south. Both groups remained distinctly Ndebele.

In 1883, during the reign of the Ndebele chief Mabhogo, war broke out between the Ndzundza and the (Boer) Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (South African Republic). For eight months, the Ndebele held out against the onslaught by hiding in subterranean tunnels in their mountain stronghold at Mapoch’s Caves near the town of Roossenekal.

From time to time, Mabhogo’s brave warriors crept past the enemy lines undetected to fetch water and food. However, after two women of the tribe had been ambushed in the nearby woods and tortured, one revealed the Mabhogo’s whereabouts. After Mabhogo’s defeat, the cohesive tribal structure was broken up and the tribal lands confiscated. Despite the disintegration of the tribe, the Ndebele retained their cultural unity.

Social and Cultural Life

Internal political and social structures

Ndebele authority structures were similar to those of their Zulu cousins. The authority over a tribe was vested in the tribal head (ikozi), assisted by an inner or family council(amaphakathi). Wards (izilindi) were administered by ward heads and the family groups within the wards were governed by the heads of the families.

The residential unit of each family was called an umuzi The umuzi usually consisted of a family head (umnumzana) with his wife and unmarried children. If he had more than one wife, the umuzi was divided into two halves, a right and a left half, to accommodate the different wives.

An umuzi sometimes grew into a more complex dwelling unit when the head’s married sons and younger brothers joined the household. Every tribe consisted of a number of patrilineal clans or izibongo. This meant that every clan consisted of a group of individuals who shared the same ancestor in the paternal line.

Personal adornment

Ndebele women traditionally adorned themselves with a variety of ornaments, each symbolising her status in society. After marriage, dresses became increasingly elaborate and spectacular. In earlier times, the Ndebele wife would wear copper and brass rings around her arms, legs and neck, symbolising her bond and faithfulness to her husband, once her home was built.

She would only remove the rings after his death. The rings (called idzila) were believed to have strong ritual powers. Husbands used to provide their wives with rings; the richer the husband, the more rings the wife would wear. Today, it is no longer common practice to wear these rings permanently.

In addition to the rings, married women also wore neck hoops made of grass (called isigolwani) twisted into a coil and covered in beads, particularly for ceremonial occasions. Isigolwani are sometimes worn as neckpieces and as leg and arm bands by newly wed women whose husbands have not yet provided them with a home, or by girls of marriageable age after the completion of their initiation ceremony.

Married women also wore a five-fingered apron (called an ijogolo) to mark the culmination of the marriage, which only takes place after the birth of the first child. The marriage blanket (nguba) worn by married women was decorated with beadwork to record significant events throughout the woman’s lifetime.

For example, long beaded strips signified that the woman’s son was undergoing the initiation ceremony and indicated that the woman had now attained a higher status in Ndebele society. It symbolised joy because her son had achieved manhood as well as the sorrow at losing him to the adult world.

A married woman always wore some form of head covering as a sign of respect for her husband. These ranged from a simple beaded headband or a knitted cap to elaborate beaded headdresses (amacubi).

Boys usually ran around naked or wore a small front apron of goatskin. However, girls wore beaded aprons or beaded wraparound skirts from an early age. For rituals and ceremonies, Ndebele men adorned themselves with ornaments made for them by their wives.

Art and Crafts

Ndebele art has always been an important identifying characteristic of the Ndebele. Apart from its aesthetic appeal it has a cultural significance that serves to reinforce the distinctive Ndebele identity.

The Ndebele’s essential artistic skill has always been understood to be the ability to combine exterior sources of stimulation with traditional design concepts borrowed from their ancestors.

Ndebele artists also demonstrated a fascination with the linear quality of elements in their environment and this is depicted in their artwork. Painting was done freehand, without prior layouts, although the designs were planned beforehand.

The characteristic symmetry, proportion and straight edges of Ndebele decorations were done by hand without the help of rulers and squares. Ndebele women were responsible for painting the colourful and intricate patterns on the walls of their houses.

This presented the traditionally subordinate wife with an opportunity to express her individuality and sense of self-worth. Her innovativeness in the choice of colours and designs set her apart from her peer group. In some instances, the women also created sculptures to express themselves.

The back and side walls of the house were often painted in earth colours and decorated with simple geometric shapes that were shaped with the fingers and outlined in black. The most innovative and complex designs were painted, in the brightest colours, on the front walls of the house. The front wall that enclosed the courtyard in front of the house formed the gateway (izimpunjwana) and was given special care.

Windows provided a focal point for mural designs and their designs were not always symmetrical. Sometimes, makebelieve windows are painted on the walls to create a focal point and also as a mechanism to relieve the geometric rigidity of the wall design. Simple borders painted in a dark colour,lined with white, accentuated less important windows in the inner courtyard and in outside walls.

Contemporary Ndebele artists make use of a wider variety of colours (blues, reds, greens and yellows) than traditional artists were able to, mainly because of their commercial availability. Traditionally, muted earth colours, made from ground ochre, and different natural-coloured clays, in white, browns, pinks and yellows, were used. Black was derived from charcoal. Today, bright colours are the order of the day.

As Ndebele society became more westernised, the artists started reflecting this change of their society in their paintings. Another change is the addition of stylised representational forms to the typical tradtional abstract geometric designs. Many Ndebele artists have now also extended their artwork to the interior of houses. Ndebele artists also produce other crafts such as sleeping mats and isingolwani.

Isingolwani (colourful neck hoops) are made by winding grass into a hoop, binding it tightly with cotton and decorating it with beads. In order to preserve the grass and to enable the hoop to retain its shape and hardness, the hoop is boiled in sugar water and left in the hot sun for a few days. A further outstanding characteristic of the Ndebele is their beadwork.

Beadwork is intricate and time consuming and requires a deft hand and good eyesight. This pastime has long been a social practice in which the women engaged after their chores were finished but today, many projects involve the production of these items for sale to the public.

Special Occasions

Initiation

In Ndebele culture, the initiation rite, symbolising the transition from childhood to adulthood, plays an important role. Initiation schools for both boys and girls are held every four years. During the period of initiation, relatives and friends come from far and wide to join in the ceremonies and activities associated with initiation.

Boys are initiated as a group when they are about 18 years of age when a special regiment (indanga) is set up and led by a boy of high social rank. Each regiment has a distinguishing name. Among the Ndzundza tribe there is a cycle of 15 such regimental names, allocated successively, and among the Manala there is a cycle of 13 such names.

During initiation girls wear an array of colourful beaded hoops (called izigolwan) around their legs, arms, waist and neck. The girls are kept in isolation and are prepared and trained to become homemakers and matriarchs.

The coming-out ceremony marks the conclusion of the initiation school and the girls then wear stiff rectangular aprons (called amaphephetu),beaded in geometric and often three-dimensional patterns, to celebrate the event.

After initiation, these aprons are replaced by stiff, square ones, made from hardened leather and adorned with beadwork.

Courtship and marriage

Marriages were only concluded between members of different clans, that is between individuals who did not have the same clan name. However, a man could marry a woman from the same family as his paternal grandmother.

The prospective bride was kept secluded for two weeks before the wedding in a specially made structure in her parents’ house, to shield her from men’s eyes.

When the bride emerged from her seclusion, she was wrapped in a blanket and covered by an umbrella that was held for her by a younger girl who also attended to her other needs. On her marriage, the bride was given a marriage blanket, which she would, in time, adorn with beadwork, either added to the blanket’s outer surface or woven into the fabric.

After the wedding, the couple lived in the area belonging to the husband’s clan. Women retained the clan name of their fathers but children born of the marriage took their father’s clan name.

Belief System

In traditional Ndebele society it was believed that illnesses were caused by an external force such as a spell or curse that was put on an individual. The power of a traditional healer was measured by his or her ability to defeat this force. Cures were either effected by medicines or by throwing bones.

All traditional medicine men and women (izangoma) were mediums, able to contact ancestral spirits. Some present-day Ndebele still adhere to ancestral worship but many have subsequently become Christians and belong to the mainstream Christian churches or to one of the many local Africanised churches.

Wolvenkop Ndebele dance group

Danses Ndebele 2

South African Music (Tshetsha Remix)

Shangaan Soweto Dance Party 02

Gumboots: Various (2000) Nelson Mandela (Actor), Joburg (Actor) | Rated: NR | Format: DVD

The Venda People

If anything in this story is objectionable, I will gladly help in trying to put it right were it to be brought to my attention..


Venda, also called Bavenda, a Bantu-speaking people inhabiting the region of the Republic of South Africa known from 1979 to 1994 as the Republic of Venda. The area is now part of Limpopo province, and is situated in the extreme northeastern corner of South Africa, bordering on southern Zimbabwe. The Venda have been called a “composite people” because they have historically consisted of a multiplicity of culturally different groups. Apparently the Venda have become more culturally uniform since they settled in their present location after migrating through Zimbabwe from an area farther to the northwest, and almost all now speak the Venda language.

Much of the Venda’s countryside in the south features mountains and wide valleys that receive abundant rainfall and are both densely populated and agriculturally productive. The northern area has a hot, dry climate and flat grasslands suitable for stock raising. The rugged Venda habitat was largely responsible for protecting them from invading enemies in the 19th century. Zulu warriors led by Mzilikazi, the eventual founder of the Ndebele (Matabele) people, generally met defeat in their attacks on the inaccessible mountain fortresses of the Venda. The Venda were, in fact, the last of the peoples in the area to come under European control.

Since the era of raids more Venda villages have been situated on the plains, and individual villages no longer need to be nearly self-contained. Agriculture dominates the Venda economy. The principal crops are corn (maize), peanuts (groundnuts), beans, peas, sorghum, and vegetables, and the planting season starts around October. The Venda may have been primarily herders in the past. During the 20th century their cattle holdings—especially the herds of their chiefs—increased from a few to an appreciable number; they also keep goats, sheep, pigs, and fowl.

The Venda chiefs are traditionally custodians of the land for their people, while local headmen permit household groups to occupy and work tracts of land. Lineages of kinsmen, with membership based on patrilineal descent, are used to reckon inheritance and succession. Cattle are given as bridewealth by a groom in a custom called lobola. Matrilineal descent is also observed by the Venda, especially in the religious practice of the ancestor cult. Ancestral spirits, including those of chiefs, are among those thought to inhabit the Venda countryside. Ralu Vhimba is the deity traditionally..

Tshigombela traditional Venda dance

Venda women perform Malende traditional dance

Venda Traditional Dance -south Africa

Homeland 2: A Collection of Black South African Music Homeland: A Collection Of South African Music (Series) | Format: Audio CD

In the Time of Cannibals: The Word Music of South Africa's Basotho Migrants (Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology) [Paperback] David B. Coplan

The Basotho People

Basotho People:

This history part, if there's anything objectionable, I will be pleased to correct it..

The Basotho are a group of people from a cluster of tribes united under King Moshoeshoe I (Moo shway shway) during the early 1800’s. Moving south from the Transvaal region of South Africa, they settled in the Orange Free State and on into the mountainous area now known as The Kingdom of Lesotho. Lesotho, with an area of 11,720 square miles, is completely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa.

Rugged, beautiful Lesotho ranges from five thousand feet in the western lowlands to more than eleven thousand feet in the majestic Maluti Mountains, which cover the majority of the country.

It is often called “the roof of Africa.” With few good roads, many areas are accessible only by horseback or light plane. Today, approximately 2.3 million Basotho live in the mountain kingdom of Lesotho while another 3 million live in the Republic of South Africa. Lesotho itself is severely overpopulated in the lowlands. Life expectancy is approximately 52 years of age but with the onslaught of AIDS this is reducing.

The majority of the Basotho in South Africa reside in the Orange Free State Province which borders Lesotho; however, there is also a large population in the city of Johannesburg.

Politics & Economy

Lesotho received it’s independence in 1966; however, the country has never experienced much political stability in the ensuing years. The tiny mountain kingdom, completely surrounded by South Africa, has lurched from crisis to crisis since gaining independence over three decades ago. In the early years of independence the country was ruled by the military until the first free elections were held in 1993. Presently, the country has a king (King Letsie III), a prime minister and a Parliament composed of elected representatives and traditional chiefs. After the May 1998 elections, opposition groups protested the election results resulting in political tensions which intensified in August, when members of the army joined the protestors.

Eventually, South African troops intervened in September to prevent a coup but were met with fierce resistance from rebels and from ordinary citizens, many of whom viewed the intervention as an invasion. The result was widespread rioting and looting which swept Maseru, destroying much of the city, and throughout towns in the lowlands. Years later, the country is still recovering from the crisis with many businesses still not yet rebuilt.

Lesotho suffers some of the worst ecological devastation in the world. There is severe soil erosion and soil exhaustion. There are very few trees. In a country that has traditionally based wealth on cattle and sheep, many of the animals have died during prolonged drought. A large percentage of the animals are now in the hands of a relatively small percentage of the population.

The principal source of wealth is livestock raised on the country's grazing land. Lesotho's rivers and mountainous terrain offer potential for hydroelectric development. A major diamond mine still exists in the mountains with a major diamond (633 carats) found in August 0f 2006. This was the 15th largest diamond ever found.

There is a growing disparity in the standard of living between the mountainous areas and the lowlands, where there are more jobs. Only 10% of the land is arable. Lesotho depends heavily on foreign aid to survive economically.

Most Basotho in South Africa live in African townships, are laborers on farms owned by Afrikaners or work in the mines.

Culture

The Basotho have a patriarchal society. A woman belongs to, or is incorporated into, the husband’s family. Lobola, the bride price, is still very important in the culture. All men have to pay the bride price even though some now use money instead of cattle.

In Lesotho, traditional authority is still firmly exercised through a system of chieftancy extending from the paramount chief (king) and his court, down through senior chiefs and sub-chiefs, to headmen and sub-headmen at the local level. Families and clans still cluster together as units in small villages. The hut of the chief is usually in the center of the village.

There are kraals, or enclosures, for the animals. Boys start herding cattle/sheep when they are five or six years old. Many teenagers and young men herd the flocks in remote areas and stay in little huts high in the mountains away from family for months at a time. Winter in the mountains may be severe and sometimes herd boys are cut off by snowstorms.

Two distinctve features are the people’s love of horses and blankets. The small, surefooted Basotho pony is often the only means of transport in the rugged country of Lesotho. Donkeys are also widely used to haul goods. Both men and women wear bright blankets as cloaks and fasten them with an oversized safety pin. They also wear a Sotho hat woven from reeds into a conical shape with a unique topknot.

Basotho traditional songs, Lesotho.

Traditional Lesotho: Basotho Women Song and Dance

Junk Funk - Sotho Sounds - Release October 1 2012

Song & dance by Basotho men of Lesotho

Traditional Basotho song by Lesotho men

In the Time of Cannibals: The Word Music of South Africa's Basotho Migrants (Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology) [Paperback] David B. Coplan (Author)

The Bapedi People

[baPedi – People and sePedi – Language]

The four major ethnic divisions among Black South Africans are the Nguni, Sotho-Tswana, Shangaan-Tsonga and Venda. Together the Nguni and Sotho account for the largest percentage of the total Black population. The major Sotho groups are the South Sotho (Basotho), the West Sotho (Tswana), and the North Sotho, which includes the Pedi people.

Language, culture and beliefs:

Language: The difference between Northern Sotho and Sepedi

Northern Sotho, or Sesotho sa Leboa, is one of South Africa’s 11 official languages, and consists of up to 30 different dialects, one of which is Pedi. Much confusion surrounds this term, as Sepedi, the language spoken by the Pedi people, which has been often referred to as Northern Sotho, which is incorrect.

The confusion between Northern Sotho and Pedi probably arises from the fact that the missionaries who developed the orthography for Northern Sotho mainly had contact with the Pedi people. However, Northern Sotho or Sesotho sa Leboa, is not the same as Sepedi. Sepedi is the language of the Pedi people, also known as the BaPedi.

Sepedi is closely related to the official language of Setswana or Tswana, and the dialect of Setlokwa and the similar Sotho language, Sesotho sa Borwa, or Southern Sotho. Sepedi is mainly spoken in the northern parts of South Africa, including the provinces of Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Gauteng and the North West province.

Settlements

Early Pedi settlements were divided into kgoro (pl. dikgoro), which are groups centred around agnatic [from the father’s side] family clusters. According to research by Peter Delius, members of a kgoro were not always strictly agnatic, and according to circumstances other non-relatives were known to be accepted into a kgoro.

A kgoro consisted of a group huts built around a central area which served as meeting-place, cattle byre, graveyard and ancestral shrine. These were ranked in order of seniority. Each wife of a polygynous marriage had her own round thatched hut, which was joined to other huts by a series of open-air enclosures called lapa encircled by mud walls.

Older boys and girls would be housed in separate huts, which are referred to as ‘age sets’, and were an important element of Pedi social hierarchy.

Subsistence and economy

Early Pedi settlements were subsistence farmers, and grew sorghum, pumpkins and legumes, which were cultivated by women on fields allocated to them when they married. Women hoed and weeded; did pottery and built and decorated huts with mud; made sleeping mats and baskets; ground grain, cooked, brewed, and collected water and wood.

Men did some work in fields at peak times; hunted and herded; did woodwork, prepared hides, and were metal workers and smiths. Most major tasks were done communally by matsema (work-parties).

Cattle also played an important role in Pedi society, as it was not only a source of food, but also an important status symbol, and used as bohadi or bridewealth payments.

Labour division shifted significantly after the introduction of the animal-drawn plough, and maize (mielies), and due to the effects of labour migration.

Young men left home to work as migrant labourers in regimental groups, in order to satisfy the paramount’s need for firearms and ammunition and to assist individual household income. Migrant labour was also a prominent feature of life under apartheid, as population increases in homelands or reserves, and land degradation, meant that men would have to leave home to work for wages to support their families, who could not survive on subsistence farming alone.

Delius also points out that many young men were drawn to migrant labour because it enabled them to buy cattle in order to marry.

It said that despite long absences due to migrant labour, men still remained committed to their fields. This required ploughing during their time of leave, a job that was also handed over to professionals or tractor owners.

Women were then left to perform all the other agricultural tasks, while the men, who were subject to restrictions on their lives to being wage-labourers, resisted direct involvement in cattle-keeping and agriculture. They resisted so much in fact, that a rebellion took place, which was quelled in the 1950s. Later on, families would continue to practice cultivation and keep livestock, which was more a way of gaining retirement security in a rural social system than a means of household subsistence.

In the early 1960s, about 48% of the male population was absent at any given time. From the 1930s to the 1960s, most Pedi men would spend some time working on a nearby White farm. This would be followed by employment on the mines or domestic service, and later, especially in more recent years, to employment in factories or industry.

Recently, female wages have also begun, but are generally more rare and sporadic. Some of these women work on farms for short periods or as domestic workers in the towns of the Witwatersrand since the 1960s.

Religion

The Pedi practice ancestral worship (phasa) which involves animal sacrifice and the offering of beer to the ‘shades’ on both the mother's and father's side. Another important ritual figure was the kgadi (father's older sister). The position of ngaka (diviner) was traditionally inherited via patrilineal lines, but this position is now inherited by a woman from her paternal grandfather or great-grandfather.

The position of diviner is said to be manifested through illness and violent spirit (malopo) possession. The only cure for these ailments is to train as a diviner. Apparently, there has been an increase in the number diviners recently, many of whom are believed to be driven only by a desire for material gain. The chief also played the role of rain-maker for his subjects.

In today’s Sotho society, Christianity in various forms is accepted, as many Sotho-speaking groups were converted by Christian missionaries. Lesotho has a large percentage of Catholics, but also has Protestant denominations.

There are also a number of independent churches that combine elements of African traditional religion with Christianity. These churches emphasize healing and the Holy Spirit. One of the most well known of these churches is the Zion Christian Church (ZCC), which was founded by two Pedi brothers. The ZCC has an enormous following and attracts followers from all over South Africa. Each spring there is a "Passover" meeting at the churches’ headquarters in the Northern Province, in Moria, which is attended by thousands of people.

Arts

Important elements of Pedi arts include metal-smithing, which was a common practice in the Pedi area and surrounds. Other art forms made by the Pedi include beadwork, pottery, house-building and painting, as well as woodwork and the making of drums.

Pedi music (mmino wa setso: traditional music, lit. music of origin) is made up of a six-note scale. This kind of music was formerly played on a plucked reed instrument called dipela, but its musicians now use trade-store instruments such as the Jew's harp, and the German autoharp (harepa), which are now regarded as characteristically Pedi.

The height of Pedi musical expression is said to be the kiba genre, which has surpassed its rural roots and has become a migrant style. In its men's version it is played an ensemble, each member playing an aluminium end-blown pipe of a different pitch (naka, pl. dinaka). Together this ensemble produces a descending melody with harmonies.

In the women's version they sing songs (koša, pl dikoša) and improvise on older lyrics. This is a development of earlier female genres which have recently been included within the definition of kiba. a group of women sings songs (koša, pl dikoša) in which Both male and female groups are accompanied by an ensemble of drums (meropa), which were previously wooden but are now made of oil-drums and milk-urns.

Land tenure

The pre-colonial system of communal or tribal tenure which was similar to that practised throughout the southern African region was cemented, but subtly altered, by the colonial administration. A man was granted land by the chief for each of his wives; and unused land was reallocated by the chief, rather than being inherited within families.

Overpopulation resulted from the government's relocation policies, and the system was then modified. A household's fields, and its residential plot, are now inherited, ideally by the youngest married son.

Christian Pedi communities who owned freehold farms were removed to the reserve without compensation, but since 1994 South Africa many have now reoccupied their land or are preparing to do so, under restitution legislation. The few Pedi who still live as labour tenants on White farms have been promised some security of tenure by land reform legislation.

Kinship

Kgoro, or subdivisions of villages and chiefdoms, were made up of a collection of kinsmen with related males at the centre. These kgoro were also jural and kinship units and acceptance into a particular kgoro was up to the kgoro-head's authority, and was not only determined by relations. Royal or chiefly dikgoro were often faced with subdivision, as sons competed for authority.

The eldest son of a household within a polygynous family would be set to inherit his mother’s property, including cattle, and was assigned the task of custodian to the other children in the household. However, due to a decline in cattle-keeping and increases in land-shortage, this system of inheritance has now altered so that the last-born inherits primarily land.

Marriage

In traditional Pedi society, marriage was patrilocal, and polygyny was practised by those with a higher social status, including chiefs. Marriage to a cousin was preferred in the ruling dynasty, as this ensured a degree of political integration and control. This is because the two-sets of in-laws were already connected, and the bohadi (bridewealth) could then be used for further bohadi payments within the ruling house.

Initiation

The life of both girls and boys was differentiated by important rituals, such as initiation. Boys called bašemane and later mašoboro) would spend their youth herding cattle at remote outposts with their peers and others from older age-sets.

Initiation would also include circumcision at koma (initiation school) which would be held about once every five years. This initiation process socialised youths into groups or regiments called mephato which would bear the leader's name, and whose members would then be loyal to each other for their lifetimes. These groups or regiments would often travel together to work on farms or on the mines.

Girls attended their own koma and were divided into their own regiments, a process that usually took place two years after the boy's school. Initiation is still practised today, and provides a substantial income to the chiefs who licence it for a fee or. In recent years private entrepreneurs have also established initiation schools, outside the chiefs' jurisdiction.

Origins

Monarchy

According to historians, Pedi society has it’s origins in the northern Transvaal. The Pedi began as a confederation of small chiefdoms sometime before the 17th century, and over time, strong Pedi chiefs claimed land from smaller chiefdoms, and dominated trade routes from the interior to the coast. Historians also credit the Pedi with the first monarchy in the region, but their rule was marked by occasional military defeat and population disruption.

The Maroteng and their symbolic animal noko (porcupine) were an offshoot of Tswana-speaking Kgatla. In about 1650 settled in the area to the south of the Steelpoort River and here, over several generations, linguistic and cultural homogeneity developed to a certain degree. Only in the last half of the 18th century did they broaden their influence over the region, establishing the Pedi paramountcy by bringing powerful neighbouring chiefdoms under their control.

During migrations in and around this area, groups of people from diverse origins began to concentrate themselves around dikgoro (s. kgoro) or ruling nuclear groups. They identified themselves through symbolic allegiances to totemic animals such as tau (lion), kolobe (pig) and kwena (crocodile).

The Pedi area, or heartland, is known as Sekhukhuneland, and is situated between the Olifants and Steelpoort Rivers, which are also known as the Lepelle and the Tubatse. The area is named after Sekhukhune I, the son of Sekwati.

Before this, the Pedi polity under Thulare (c. 1790-1820) was made up of land that stretched from present-day Rustenburg to the lowveld in the west and as far south as the Vaal river. Pedi power, at its height during Thulare's reign (about 1790-1820) was undermined during the period of the Difaqane, by Ndwandwe invaders from the south-east. A period of dislocation followed, after which the polity was re-stabilised under Thulare's son Sekwati.

Sekwati succeeded Thulare as paramount chief of the Pedi in the northern Transvaal (Limpopo) and was frequently in conflict with the Matabele under Mzilikazi, and plundered by the Zulu and the Swazi. Sekwati was also engaged in numerous negotiations and struggles for control over land and labour with the Afrikaans-speaking farmers (Boers) who had since settled in the region.

These disputes over land occurred after the founding of Ohrigstad in 1845, but after the town was incorporated into the Transvaal Republic in 1857 and the Republic of Lydenburg was formed, an agreement was reached that the Steelpoort River was the border between the Pedi and the Republic.

The Pedi were well equipped to defend themselves though, as Sekwati and his heir, Sekhukhune I were able to procure firearms, mostly through migrant labour to the Kimberley diamond fields and as far as Port Elizabeth. The Pedi paramountcy’s power was also cemented by the fact that chiefs of subordinate villages, or kgoro, take their principal wives from the ruling house. This system of cousin marriage resulted in the perpetuation of marriage links between the ruling house and the subordinate groups, and involved the payment of inflated bohadi or bride wealth, mostly in the form of cattle, to the Maroteng house.

Sekhukune I succeeded his father in 1861, and repelled an attack against the Swazi. At the time, there were also border disputes with the Transvaal, which lead to the formation of Burgersfort, which was manned by volunteers from Lydenburg. By the 1870s, the Pedi were one of three alternative sources of regional authority, alongside the Swazi and the ZAR (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek).

However, tension increased after Sekhukhune refused to pay taxes to the Transvaal government, and the Transvaal declared war in May 1876. It became known as the Sekhukhune War, the outcome of which was that the Transvaal commando’s attack failed. After this, volunteers nevertheless continued to devastate Sekhukhune’s land and provoke unrest, to the point where peace terms were met in 1877.

However, unrest continued, and this became a justification for the British annexing the Transvaal in April 1877, under Sir Theophilus Shepstone. Following the annexation, the British also declared war on Sekhukhune I under Sir Garnet Wolseley, and defeated him in 1879. Sekhukhune was then imprisoned in Pretoria, but later released after the first South African War, when the Transvaal regained independence.

However, soon after his release Sekhukhune was murdered by his half-brother Mampuru, and because his heir had been killed in the war and his grandson, Sekhukhune was too young to rule, one of his other half-brothers, Kgoloko assumed power as regent.

In 1885, an area of 1000 square metres was set aside for the Pedi, known as Geluk’s Location, created by the Transvaal Republic's Native Location Commission. Later, according to apartheid segregation policy, the Pedi would be assigned the homeland of Lebowa

The smaller Lobedu population makes up another subgroup among the Northern Sotho. The Lobedu are closely related to the Shona population, the largest ethnic group in Zimbabwe, but the Lobedu are classified among the Sotho primarily because of linguistic similarities. The Lobedu were studied extensively by the early twentieth-century anthropologist J.D. Krige, who described the unique magical powers attributed to a Lobedu female authority figure, known to outsiders as the rain queen.

Bapedi Dancing Mpogo African Cultural Dance

Bapedi Cultural Dance.mpg

Sepedi Traditional Dance

Sounding the Cape Music, Identity and Politics in South Africa Paperback – June 20, 2013 by Denis-Constant Martin

The Cape Colored And The Coons

The Coons Parade amongst the Colored People of the South Africa


Cape Town's Colored People's Minstrel Carnival:


As the southeast breeze kicks up outside Cape Town's Greenpoint Stadium, the sound of strumming banjos and banging drums reaches a crescendo, and thousands of merry minstrels hold onto their multicolored hats. It's the final day of the Cape Town Minstrel Carnival, known more colloquially among "coloured" or mixed-race Capetonians as the "Coon Carnival," and the excitement generated by weeks of parades and months of preparation is building to a climax. Dressed in a dazzling array of shining colors, the "coons"—mostly men but also some women and children--burst spontaneously into song and dance. They croon in the local Afrikaans dialect of "Kaapse taal" (literally, "Cape language"), jump into little Chaplinesque jigs, and pump their parasols to and fro. And in their midst, looking dapper in his sky-blue jacket and with neon-green polka dots painted across his cheeks, is the festival's only white participant: Henry Trotter, age 28, of New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.

"Henry!" shouts a coloured woman wearing a press badge. "There you are!" She gives him a hug and motions to a cameraman, who starts filming. Mr. Trotter strikes a pose and is immediately surrounded by camera-happy comrades from his troupe, most in blackface or in some version thereof, who flash toothless grins and victory signs. Then the troupe's band rumbles past and Mr. Trotter falls into formation with the rest of the minstrels, who gaily shimmy and shuffle their way into the stadium to the rhythm of drums and the flutter of tambourines.

Mr. Trotter, a graduate student in Yale University's African Studies program, first came to Cape Town in 1997, at the end of extensive travels in the eastern and southern regions of the continent. "I was curious about the coloured community here, because it's quite different than what I'd seen in the rest of Africa. Here you have a community basically predicated on the idea that they're mixed, that they're not 'pure' whites or Africans. And even though you have, of course, mixed people everywhere else, you don't find any [mixed] communities necessarily...and you would never find a majority mixed community. But here in Cape Town, you have that. So I wanted to look into it, and see what it was all about."

Three years after his first visit, Mr. Trotter has returned to Cape Town, this time not as just a traveler but as a Rotary Foundation Ambassadorial Scholar working on an M.A. thesis. He took up residence in the coloured township of Bonteheuwel (bon-teh-HEE-vel) on the Cape Flats and decided to study the ways in which the coloured community remembers the forced removals of the apartheid era. While conducting interviews throughout Cape Town's coloured townships, he began to learn more about the Coon Carnival and was eventually invited to observe a troupe rehearsing. Soon, he found himself becoming more than just an observer.

"They said, 'Well, why don't you just run with us?'" he recalls. Mr. Trotter could not play or sing the Kaapse songs in the troupe's repertoire, but he found a role as a "runner"—one of the dancers who marches behind the band and the main chorus. So after attending a few rehearsals and paying 250 Rand (about $35) for his outfit, Mr. Trotter was officially a member of the Lentegeur Entertainers, named after the Cape Flats neighborhood where most of its members live.

In joining the "coons," Mr. Trotter created a minor sensation throughout this city, which is still deeply divided along racial lines. Few whites, and few blacks for that matter, participate in or attend the Coon Carnival; it is largely a coloured affair. And although a handful of foreign tourists come to watch the troupes parade through the streets, there have been no other foreigners in recent memory who have actually participated. Mr. Trotter also discovered that his participation exposed class divisions within the coloured community itself. Henry's girlfriend, for example, a coloured woman who works for the municipal department of land affairs and aspires to be a lawyer, was mortified when he joined. "She was so against it," laughs Mr. Trotter. "She had never seen the coons in her life. Part of the way to set yourself apart from the working class is to deny interest and participation in the 'coons,' which [are] a celebration of working-class existence, basically. She had a strong aversion to it, and she said, 'it's so local, it's just a bunch of skollies, just a bunch of riff-raff, getting together and jumping up and down."

Mr. Trotter's neighbors in Bonteheuwel, however, and his new friends in the Lentegeur Entertainers, were enthusiastic and encouraging. Of course, the young man had to endure his share of good-natured ribbing. "'Hey, whitey, stay in formation,' they used to say," he recalls with a smile. But his involvement was welcomed and even celebrated by his new friends and neighbors. They were thrilled that someone outside the coloured community had taken an interest in the carnival. The Cape Argus, one of Cape Town's local dailies, was also exultant: "Uncle Sam marches with the minstrels," it declared in a bold headline.

The carnival has its roots in the creole culture that formed at the Cape over hundreds of years from the interaction and intermingling of indigenous African groups, European settlers, Muslim slaves from the Indonesian archipelago, and people from a variety of other backgrounds. Freed slaves in Cape Town developed their own cycle of festivals in December and January, among them the Tweede Nuwe Jaar ("Second New Year"), which is celebrated on January 2nd and is a kind of independence day for the coloured community. When American minstrels arrived at the Cape in the mid-nineteenth century, the styles and sounds of vaudeville were incorporated into local celebrations, and the Coon Carnival was born. The word "coon" was borrowed but its pejorative and racial connotations were ignored, so that it came to refer to a member of a minstrel troupe and nothing more.

Today, the minstrels continue to borrow from a variety of cultural sources. One of this year's favorite troupes, for example, is called the Pennsylvanians; another is known as the Fabulous Mardi Gras. And while the minstrels' repertoire largely consists of folk songs, they also perform Broadway show tunes and dance to hip-hop and Latin tracks as they parade through the streets of the city.

It is perhaps ironic that a festival formed from so many varied and cosmopolitan influences should remain so local in character. Yet this is part of the charm of the Coon Carnival. Each troupe is made up of members from a particular neighborhood of the city, and each is expected to parade and perform for its local community in exchange for booze and tables full of delicious Cape cuisine. Of course, the local character of the carnival also means that the carnival reflects some local problems. Many of the city's gangsters join the minstrel troupes, for instance, and tensions sometimes spill over into violence at the stadium. But rather than exacerbating the problem, the Coon Carnival often provides an opportunity for peace and co-existence within the community. "Look," said one elderly minstrel in the green, yellow, and red of the Elsies River Community Entertainers, waving his arms over a dancing sea of colorful umbrellas. "All the gangsters from the Cape Flats in one place. And no guns. Everybody's happy. It just goes to show you."

Under apartheid, the Coon Carnival faced enormous challenges. Segregation, forced removals, and discrimination made the troupes and their performances more difficult to organize. The government often placed the best stadiums off-limits to the coloured community, and where the carnival was able to perform it had to do so in front of segregated audiences. Now, in the "New South Africa," the government is lending its support to the carnival, and Nelson Mandela himself presided over the carnival's opening in 1996. Academics have begun taking notice as well, with a groundbreaking study of the Coon Carnival being published in 1999 by the French academic Denis-Constant Martin. And with tourism quickly becoming a pillar of the local economy, city officials talk about turning the "Minstrel Carnival" into a celebration that will rival festivals in New Orleans and Rio de Janeiro.

As exciting and ambitious as that may sound, some of the minstrels themselves are apprehensive about opening up the festival to the world. There is a widespread fear that organizing the Coon Carnival to appeal to foreign tourists and commercial sponsors would mean taking it away from the local communities that have kept it alive for over a hundred years, in effect reserving the best seats for tourists just as they were once reserved for whites at the segregated stadiums. And there is an enduring ambivalence in Cape Town about coloured identity and whether it is something that can or should be embraced and celebrated. If Capetonians are unsure about how to respond to a parade of blackface minstrels, the feeling goes, how might the rest of the world react?

Mr. Trotter, for one, has made up his mind: the Coon Carnival is a lot of fun, even if wearing blackface might be seen back home as a provocative act. "I think it would be challenging to explain this to Americans, because we have abandoned these things," he says. "But one group's cultural taboos are another's celebration." In Cape Town, as in other creole cities around the world, it seems that pushing cultural boundaries is what the party's all about after all.

Cape Town Minstrel Carnival of January 2014

Cape Coons Cape Town

Witness : Cape Town Carnival

Sound of Africa: Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio Paperback by Louise Meintjes

The Zulu People

Zulu Dance - Zulu Dancers South Africa Performing Traditional Zulu Dancing:

Today there are about 3 million Zulus, who mostly live in the Natal Province of South Africa. This area is some- times called Zululand, and has a very warm climate.
HISTORY
The Zulu started as a clan that belonged to a larger group of people called the Nguni. The Nguni migrated south from central East Africa in the 16th century to the Natal region. As they settled the Zulu built beehive shaped grass huts to live in.
The Zulu people believe that they are the direct descendents of a chief called Zulu (which means heaven in the Nguni language). After the death of Zulu, his descendants called themselves abakwaZulu (people of Zulu). The Zulu people also call themselves Abantsundu, which means "brown people".
By the early 19th century the Zulu had become the strongest military force in southern Africa (under the leader- ship of the powerful but violent Shaka). They raided and killed many neighbors and took their land, goods and women. Soon after this, however (around 1830), they had to face the growing colonial presence of the British, who wanted to control the entire southern part of Africa.
It was not the first time that Europeans had seized control of land in Southern Africa. The first white Europeans arrived in 1488. Many whites (English, Dutch, German and French) went to the nearby Cape of Good Hope to settle starting around 1600. There, the Europeans imported slaves to work for them and a society was created of free whites and blacks with very few rights. Many white settlers did not like British rule, however. They called themselves Afrikaner or Boer (the Dutch word for farmer) and used their own language, called Afrikaans (which resembles Dutch). The Afrikaners and English fought for power for many years.
After much tension between the Zulu people and the Europeans a war broke out in 1879. Though the Zulus had some success in driving back the British in the very beginning, the superior weapons and horses of their enemies led to the rapid defeat of the Zulu. The last military attempt to keep their land free of the British took place in 1906.
After the British defeated the Zulu and the other native peoples of South Africa a period of British white colonial domination began. The Union of South Africa was created in 1910, and South Africa thus became officially inde- pendent. Afrikaans became the dominant language. Whites had all the power and wealth in this new nation and the black population became second class citizens with almost no political power. In 1948 a racist government came into power that started the practice of Apartheid. New Apartheid laws soon made Zulus and other blacks (as well as other ethnic groups) officially inferior to whites, and kept the different groups completely separate. During the Apartheid period the Zulus tried to resist the domination of the whites in every aspect of life, but they had little power to live the lives they wanted.
Since the transition to democracy in 1994 (when Nelson Mandela became president), and the end of Apartheid, the Zulus have struggled against the new South African government for the right to run their own affairs. This has led to a lot of violence in the last ten years.
RELIGION
The Zulu religion is based on the creator god Unkulunkulu and the worship of ancestors. The creator god is almighty, but has little to do with everyday affairs. The spirit world, on the other hand, is always present in tradi- tional Zulu religion. It is believed that when a person dies this person's spirit will watch over the others from this spirit world. People can come into contact with the spirit world and one's ancestors during special ceremonies.
The spirits of the ancestors like to be remembered. People make offerings (like beer and meat) to the spirits to show them that they have not been forgotten. Because it is so important to honor the spirits there are many rituals in Zulu daily life that are meant to please the spirits. According to the more traditional Zulu belief all misfortune is due to evil magic or to spirits that have been offended. Another important part of Zulu religion is cleanliness. People will bathe up to three times a day.

At the end of the1700s, missionaries attempted to convert the Zulus to Christianity (mostly Protestant); due to the Zulus strong beliefs and community, this has only been partially successful. Many Zulus today practice a type of religion that is a mixture of Christianity and their own traditional religion.
SOCIETY, ECONOMY AND POLITICS
In the past centuries the Zulus preferred to live in homesteads (a group of huts called kraals) instead of villages. The huts in the homestead formed a circle. There was a cattle pen in the middle of the circle where the Zulus kept their livestock. Traditional huts were built by using small trees with grass mats on top. The floor was made of clay and cow dung that was rubbed hard into a smooth and shiny surface.
Traditional Zulu society has chiefs and a king. Several homesteads were traditionally run by one chief, who made the important decisions. There was one Zulu king who represented all the Zulu. He played an important role in the politics of the Zulu territory throughout history and has represented his people internationally. Today, Zulu kinds are still respected but this traditional power structure clashes with the central and democratic government of South Africa.
The Zulu who live primarily in the rural part of South Africa tend to raise cattle and also grow corn and vegetables (such as corn, beans, yams and millet). The men and boys have been traditionally responsible for the herds of cattle, goats and sheep, while the women have been responsible for the planting and harvesting of crops.
Men play the dominant role in Zulu families. The men own the huts, make the decisions, receive visitors and go to war. They are also allowed to have more than one wife. When they are young, girls learn to cook, plant crops and take care of the children. After marriage, Zulu brides traditionally move in with their husbands and their husbands' families. The husband and his family give the bride's family some cattle as a gift in return. In the past, the only way to inherit property was through the father. Mothers are primarily responsible for their children, but children tend to grow up with a large number of other people who are all seen as family.
The Zulu who live in urban areas are still suffering from the history of Apartheid. They have a hard time competing for jobs and most do unskilled labor (men) and domestic work (women).
CULTURE
The Zulu have close ties to other Nguni people such as the Swazi and Xhosa, and their cultures are quite similar. Zulus speak the Kwazulu language, which is a mixture of several other languages.
Traditionally men and women are involved in different types of arts and crafts. The Zulu women are best known for their beadwork and basket making, while men are known for their wood carvings and for the objects they make out of animal skins.
Poetry has long been an important art form among men. The poems of the past praised kings and national heroes. Poems today are often more political and talk about the history of Apartheid and Zulu life today. Story- telling and riddles have also always been popular form of entertainment.

Solomon Linda's Original Evening Birds - Mbube (ORIGINAL VERSION OF Imbube Song by Solomon Linda))

Zulu Dance - Zulu Dancers South Africa Performing Traditional Zulu Dancin

Amabhubesi Traditional Zulu Dance

Umhlanga - The reed dance

Editorializing About the Posted Tradtional Cultural Music

A Review Of The Posted Cultural Videos Of The People Of Mzantsi..

I have just finished a series of videos that I had started by posting first with an article articulating my objectives: to create a format and structural form of South African African music and culture and frame it such that it has a National body and appearance and unity. What I mean by this is that, I made some means of collating african people's of South Africa's 'different,' 'variegated,' 'variable' and 'diverse' culture, which up to the point before I started posting it in that manner, and having written a preface to my intentions, had never been done like so. Also, what I did was create the bios or small histories of each of the musicians, performers, groups and bands so's to lay out a matrix that most of the South Africans on FB, or on TV, ever get to see laid out in the way I have, and maybe they might get a glimpse of it holistically in a mosaic kaledoscopic rhythm and sight.

This exercise in Cultural defense is a "practice in Promoting African music and dance which is consistent with and in tandem with the idea of re-creating and refurbishing a people's culture, on the viral stream, that had already been cast-off as useless and irrelevant.. It seems there is culture of obfuscating the 'right' things for African people in order to "Dumb Them Down". African people of Mzantsi are prohibited by a new species of "Censurers" and "Gatekeepers". And not on the TV and radio only, but viciously here on these social media that can reach millions of people in Mzantsi and the world over, form coming around to realiziing and projecting themselves in a positive and edifying, respectful manner.

Some of Africans are patently ignorant of these new, burgeoning, emerging, converging, moving-at-the-speed-of-viral-data phenomenon and gizmos which are disseminating numerous social sites at the speed of the Internet. The African in government and economical power, and who are in different privileged position are scared of an Independent poor African South African, who has the potential to learn, and become better, if not different from them. Some of these leaders are cloaked in Pan Africanism of a "Type". The Pan Africanism that cannot even recognize Africanism in the efforts some of us are trying to disseminate, without us being crass and ignorant about what we are posting and how we are posting it-as African peoples.

The response might not have been an earth shaking event when I posted all the videos, short histories of the 11 people of Mzantsi, namely: The Zulus, Pedis, South Sothos, Shangaans, Vendas, Ndebeles,Swazis, Xhosas, Tswanas, Vendas, Coloreds and the Khoisan. The main thrust of posting such music, was not, and I still emphasize, to "Promote My music/videos" on the Pan African Sites on FB for monetary gain. Apparently there are people working as spooks and moles of the FB owners, and the present ANC government, of which they are on its pay and beckon-and-call. It was a means a a new way of projecting and promoting African dance and music in a visual and vial format.

The aim of laying these viral videos was specifically to, in a coordinated and structured way(that of choosing authentic relevant 'cultural ' videos with as much 'authentic' dances and live videos as much as possible), to help Africans begin to learn much more better and in a 20/20 way the breadth and depth of the African cultural matrix and mosaic as it has manifested itself in their daily realities an on the Web; and, undergirding this first aim, was the second one, wherein I was trying to parlay an ideas, way of seeing, and upgrading the conceptual ability of African people to begin to see that they are really one people, as opposed to the apartheidized way of seeing, thinking and being that they are a different disunited collectives of "TRIBES". A Term I have consistently rejected, until we end up having a "French Tribe", "British, Italian, Danish," and so forth tribes, then I might reconsider.

But, since that is not what I am talking about, Africans need certain perceptive ways and perspective of beginning to realize themselves not as a collection of different "Tribes", but a nation with a diverse, vibrant,energetic, similar and one culture, is what I am writing about in this Hub. Even if we were to try and interrogate or investigate the notion that African languages are different and not the same, and that they emerged from Africans trekking South from the north(As peached by the boers), is utter balderdash! African peoples have always been here in Mzantsi for eons, and now there is proof of 'supposedly' disappeared civilization of here in Mzantsi, and it can be traced back to 170,000 B.C., and there is a lot of physical material proof that they have been here since the formation of the earth! So that, when I use african people's music, culture, customs, dances, languages and their practices, techniques and uniqueness, I am working toward reconstructing their notion of a Nation (through all the mentioned music, dance, dress, techniques and styles of their own making and composition, and making them real through our Music Video presentation, Dance and interpretation of their Culture) and that they should be viewed as being one,, not different or unrelated to one another-but one National Culture, etc..

For Africans in South Africa to see themselves as a Nation of Africans in Mzantsi, they need to see themselves, in some shape of form, as one people who are having a diverse culture, which is in essence, one culture-but variegated and diversified. It is one culture when one starts listening to the music, which we can group into Mbaqanga/Techno/Traditional and those songs unique to different groups in various regions throughout South Africa. We need to have a sense and way of seeing our different cultures as they seemingly are different, but see them for their commonalities, originality, energy, similar dances, hand-clapping, rhythmic foot-stomping, movements of all kinds, from the gyrations of the Shangaan women, to the active and energetic synchronic dances of their men-to the smooth foot-shuffling ad gentle stepping Batswana , Swazis mass singing, and for the Swazi men Zulu-type of dancing; up to the easy, steady and deliberate dance of the Basotho men, with their "kotos"(Knob-Kierries-Sticks) always held high and the foot-stamping well calculated and seemingly off rhythm, but on the beat; to the 'mokgibo'(Movement of their upper torsos) of their women kneeling on the ground, chest-vibrating to their musical rhythm-along with the Xhosa mix of the Batswanas, khoi, Zulu and Sotho cultural dance nuances, as found in the case of the "Xhosa" who perform the "Mtjitjimbo" same as the Basotho women, but in a Xhosa male stylistic fanfare(and of the older Xhosa women generation, more akin to the the Basothos) in dance, actions and technique; and the Khoisan animistic and Tswana-like dance, projecting the action of different animals(they hunt) in a dance form and which too is related in style and presentation to the Zulus, Xhosas, Pedis and all the other groups-handclapping and smestyle as the shangaan, Awazi's and Sulu type of dancing in their techniques.

We see children put up their best efforts, imitating their parents, in dance and song and style(which promises continuity), in most of the different videos of the African peoples on South africa. That in the final analysis, what I am saying here, is not quoted or cited from some book, but what am creating through viewing the Music I have been posting, and I do not get paid a cent, and do not own these videos, nor composed anything in them, or am I gaining in any way, shape or form. This is part of my contribution to the Africa struggle and betterment of African peoples in South Africa, specifically and, am using much needed innovative ways of teaching all and reaching all-through creating, from the old, new ideas and ways of seeing fof their African selves and the posterity this portends.


I intensely dislike African detractors, whether they be Africans of Mzantsi or from anywhere else. I have a passionate and offensive attitude when it comes to being blocked by those ignoramuses who are in service of deep vested monied pockets. Nobody said I should do what I am doing. I am doing it because we need many different ways of executing and making sure the African struggle in this part of Africa survives, but Africans will not get this from those who Police The Pan Africanist Walls, who throughout the Facebook Walls are humming and howling for revolution, and the truth is that there is not one way to making a revolution: ask the Zimbabweans with their Chimurenga; learn from the Angolans and their MPLA guerilla wars; Frelimo and their brashly taking over Maputo((Mozambique); I mean, from all revolutionaries if whether in executing their revolutions, they respected and listened to their people and worked on one single idea, one at a time. That is an inexact way of making a revolution-according to how some agents provocateurs and African capitalist quislings and functionaries pretend thing ought to be-Westernized . A revolution uses all that is relevant for it to succeed. Not a prescribed panacea from some "Facebook revolutionaries" who are really out of touch with the people in the country, while the silent African majority African are trying, their darnest, to liberate their people- By Any Means Necessary [a la Malcolm X).

I have been viciously attacked on Face on different sites and in my in-box. I can be just as vicious too, but I do so tactfully. I cannot stand Bullies and Ignoramuses. Most of us are in position that prevent Africa people from dreaming big, and bettering themselves. It does not mean that posting here on FB is not "Free". No, according to the minions that are in service of Big Capital and they themselves vulture-capitalist and self-serving-coutner-revolutioanries, they do so at the expense and to the detriment of the African people learning and yearning to becoming much more better. I beg down to no such quislings! These gendarmes tell people of "Bottom Line" as they have been instructed to trumpet that by their handlers in various places, institutions and the whole bit!

They attack African culture that I am working on here on FB with venomous vengeance, and multiple 'exclamation marks" to drive their point home. They Defend their Master's wishes that Africa people should remain dumb, not made to be awake, by anyone. Some of us remember, when the ANC and some of the PAC people came out, I have the press cuttings, many of the revolutionary ANC cadre and PAC cadre were mercilessly murdered by goons of the Apartheid Death and Torture squads of the mode of the Vlakplaas executioners, and they worked with some African brother(terrorists) who made it their business to eliminate all fierce and what they considered to be vexatious elements amongst the worthwhile and erstwhile stalwarts and martyrs. Is it not then a wonder that some of them(african quislings) have morphed into the FB police, when Africans should now be working with their people to create a 'Sane Society' and an independent and well -self-willed and developed polity. No! There are people telling Africans that they are "Guarding some Walls", and yet, they are the first ones to eat up what they claim to dislike.. I am not really scared of such quirks, but I will use the FB too, to go for their tainted and fattened jugulars.

Our African Cultures, Customs, Traditions, Languages, Rites, Histories and Practices, they too need Warriors. They need fearless and very culturally self-loving and defending Warriors. It is not only the gun in a "revolution" that has to be monitored and executed, but the cultural revolution, too. This methodology I have carved up in laying out our culture Bare and bringing them to the fore, with their own structure they already have, but am giving form, meaning and dignity, is what ought to preoccupyAfricans. Or attaining power will be the one way that will be made realistic by re-learning, and re-developing 'new ways of seeing and looking', shedding off the Apartheid blinkers in the process, will be what might do for Africans in moving the struggle forward and their own culture of which they live-daily - So that, through their knowledge, control and ownership of their culture.... The can reform and breath new life and energy and power into their present and living, vibrant and beautiful culture of dance, music and tradition. The African struggle is lined and linked to the International African Diaspora and Africa itself's struggles. I have posted music of Africans from Cape to Cairo; from South America to North America-and throughout the world, to show how much the same its matrix and mosaic-in all genres- and is like-that in actual reality(it is pan Africans and Global in the Garvey-ite modal, mode and sense).

I posted all the different nations of Mzantsi to show the 'similarities', 'commonalities' and 'converging' points of performance, technique and style(both musically and dance-wise) to be of one people-one nation. Africans in south africa are not "Tribes" but one Nation with a diverse and uniquely one culture, and they are also are one nation. But Africans are not yet even ready to energetically defend and protect it, if they do not develop what they have as a culture because, as I usually say, most of them have been 'edumacated into ignorance', and 'they are running away from themselves'. In fact, there are still people in the African midst who are still ashamed of, and deride their own culture as backward, because they have been conditioned to be so by their masters whom they now serve with zeal and gusto: and are totally embarrassed and ashamed of and by it.

They go out of their way to please the master-they might as soon take the disease plaguing their controllers/master and have it manifest itself on them-on his behalf. There are some who attack the way I use this foreign language of English. Well, my take is that, if Africans ever do anything, they better better do it well, and good. This will not and does not take away from one being an African. It is just like presenting the videos that I have been posting or have posted thus, I still hold on to the belief that Africans need to do their own things right. Africans need to take control, shape and form, mold and design their own cultures, customs, traditions, history, music, dance and all its styles and techniques fully and correctly-and to their own desires and wishes.

It is amazing that going through YouTube, one discerns the way the Cultural imperialists are using all manners of obfuscation, censorship, and licensing and holding on to information pertaining to our music, cultures, dances-pattened to be released at their own discretion-affects many researchers of articles or Hubs like this one. When researchers like me come and look for the music, artist, it's either there's limited information of the bio, or the music has not yet been uploaded or are ignored, and Africans have not yet developed themselves to be in a position to really own, control and disseminate their own culture as they see fit: to be able and be also in a position to disseminate our data in any form they wish to is empowering and control of ones autonomy.

I hope the thrust of the small idea I have implemented on all the PAC Walls should be seen as me 'showcasing our music. I put a lot of short history for the listener/reader to get an idea about what they are listening to, and I posted it en-masse as I did because I was swelling the viral stream with positive vibes and dances. On some other far flung and rare FB Walls and YouTube, South african music rules; African music rocks; African South african music makes people all over the world come back wanting more- whether it is contemporary music, or traditional/cultural music they make.

All I have done was collate a culture of music and dance that has already survived for itself without me doing what I am doing, so what I did was that I made sure that it becomes well structured and well-formed for the world to see thatAfricans are who they say they are; Africans in south africa have a powerful, colorful, variegated, diverse and same and one culture here in Mzantsi. And I thought that my presenting it as I did by posting it on the Pan Africansts Walls, will be seen for what it is-and yet, what does one see, cultural quislings who have no regard or use for their own culture, and personalize their dimwitted-myopic and narrow-minded selves and work assiduously to prevent its being made too look as great as it is. Well, so long as I do and am able to, I will type and post; I will use "Word" and "Image" to put out Culture of Mzantsi of the Global Cultural Map-and put it up to speed with the spreading and speed of the viral stream. For me, to Date! ... there is no other better culture than the African culture in Mzantsi..

Ipi Ntombi - "TheVillage"

A Review Of The Posted Cultural Videos Of The People Of Mzantsi..

I have just finished a series of videos that I had started by posting first with an article articulating my objectives(See Older Posts): to create a format and structural form of our music and culture and frame it such that it has a National body and appearance. What I mean by this is that, I made some means of collating our 'different,' 'variegated,' 'variable' and 'diverse' culture, which up to the point before I started posting it in that manner, and having written a preface to my intentions, had never been done like so. Also, what I did was create the bios or small histories of each of the musicians, performers and bands so's to lay out a matrix that most of the South Africans on FB, might get a glimpse of it holistically.

This exercise in Cultural defenseis not a "practice in Promoting My music " as has been claimed by those who are left behind in what I was doing. It seems there is culture of obfuscating the 'right' things for our people in order to "Dumb Them Down". Our people of Mzantsi are prohibited by a new species of "Censurers" and "Gatekeepers". not on the TV and radio only, but viciously here on these social media that can reach millions of people in Mzantsi and the world over.

Some of us are patently ignorant of these new, burgeoning, emerging, converging, moving-at-the-speed-of-viral-data phenomenon and gizmos. Our people who are in different privileged position are scared of an Independent African South African, who has the potential to learn, and become better, if not different from the. Some of these leaders are cloaked in Pan Africanism of a "Type". The Pan Africanism that cannot even recognize Africanism in the efforts some of us are trying to disseminate, without us being crass and ignorant about what we are posting and how we are posting it-as African peoples.

The response might not have been an earth shaking event when I posted all the videos, short histories of the 11 people of Mzantsi, namely: The Zulus, Pedis, South Sothos, Shangaans, Vendas, Ndebeles,Swazis, Xhosas, Tswanas, Vendas, Colored and the Khoisan. The main thrust of posting such music, was not, and I still emphasize, to "Promote My music/videos" on the Pan African Sites on FB. Apparently there are people working as spooks and moles of the FB owners, and the present ANC government, of which they are on its pay and beckon-and-call. The aim of laying these viral videos was specifically to, in a coordinated and structured way(that of choosing relevant 'cultural ' videos with as much 'authentic' dances and live videos as such as possible), to help us beggining to learn much more better and in a 20/20 way the breadth and depth of our cultural matrix and mosaic as it has manifested itself in our daily realities; and, undergirding this first aim, was the second one, wherein I was trying to parlay an ideas, way of seeing, and conceptual ability of our people to begin to see that we are really one people, as opposed to the apartheidized way of seeing, thinking and being that we are a different disunited collectives of "TRIBES". A Term I have consistently rejected, until we end up having a "French Tribe", "British, Italian, Danish," and so forth tribes, then I might reconsider.

But, since that is not what I am talking about, we need certain perceptive ways and perspective of beginning to realize ourselves not as a collection of different "Tribes", but a nation with a diverse, vibrant,energetic, similar and one culture. Even if we were to try and interrogate or investigate the notion that our languages are different and not the same, and that they emerged from our trekking South from the north, is utter balderdash! We have always been here in Mzantsi for eons, and now there is proof of 'supposedly' disappeared civilization of here in Mzantsi, andit can be traced back to 170,000 B.C, and there is a lot of physical material proof that we have been here since the formation of the earth! So that, when I use our music, culture, customs, dances, languages and their practices, techniques and uniqueness, I am working toward reconstructing our Nation (through all the mentioned building blocks, and making them real through our Music, Dance and interpretation of our Culture) and that they should be viewed as being one,, not different or unrelated to one another-but one National Culture, etc..

For us to see ourselves as a Nation of Africans in Mzantsi, we need to see ourselves, in some shape of form, as one people who are having a diverse culture, which is in essence, one culture. It is one culture when one starts listening to the music, which we can group into Mbaqanga and those songs unique to different groups in various regions throughout South Africa. We need to have a sense and way of seeing our different cultures as they seemingly are different, but see them for their commonalities, originality, energy, similar dances, hand-clapping, rhythmic foot-stomping, movements of all kinds, from the gyration of the Shangaan women, to the active and energetic synchronic dances of their men
; to the smooth foot-shuffling ad gentle stepping Batswana , Swazis mass singing, and for the men Zulu-type of dancing; up to the easy, steady and deliberate dance of the Basotho men, with their "kotos" always held high and the foot-stamping well calculated and seemingly off rhythm, but on the beat; to the 'mokgibo' of their women kneeling on the ground, chest-vibrating to their musical rhythm-along with the Xhosa mix of the Batswanas, khoi, Zulu and Sotho cultural dance nuances, as in the case of the "Xhosa" who perform the "Mtjitjimbo" same as the Basotho women, but in a Xhosa male stylistic fanfare(and of the older Xhosa women generation, more akin to the the Basothos) in dance, actions and technique; and the Khoisan animistic dance, projecting the action of different animals(they hunt) in a dance form and which too is related in style and presentation to the Zulus, Xhosas, Pedis and all the other groups. We saw children put up their best efforts, imitating their parents, in dance and song and style(which promises continuity). That in the final analysis, what I am saying here, is not quoted or cited from some book, but what we are creating through viewing the Music I have been posting, and I do not get paid a cent, and do not own these videos, nor composed anything in them, or am I gaining in any way, shape or form. This is part of my contribution to our struggle, and am using much needed innovative ways of teaching all and reaching all-through creating, form the old, new ideas and ways of seeing for our self on our own.

I intensely dislike our detractors, whether they be Africans of Mzantsi or from anywhere else. I have a passionate and offensive attitude when it comes to us and now we are blocked by those ignoramuses who are in service of deep vested fiscal pockets. Nobody said I should do what I am doing. I am doing it because we need many different ways of executing and making sure our struggle survives, but we will not get this from those who Police The Pan Africanist Walls, which are humming and howling for revolution, and the truth is that there is not one way to making a revolution: ask the Zimbabweans with their Chimurenga; learn from the Angolans and their MPLA; Frelimo; I mean, from all revolutionaries if whether in executing their revolutions, they listened and worked on one single idea. That is an inexact way of making a revolution. A revolution uses all that is relevant to it to succeed. Not a prescribed panacea from some Facebook revolutionaries who are really out of touch with the people in the country, and how we should be trying, our darnest, to liberate them- By Any Means Necessary [a la Malcolm X).

I have been viciously attacked here on face book on different sites and in my in-box. I can be just as vicious too, but I do so tactfully. I cannot stand Bullies and Ignoramuses. Most of us are in position that prevent our people from dreaming big, and bettering themselves. It does not mean that posting here on FB is not "Free". No, according to the minions that are in service of Big Capital and they themselves vulture-capitalist and self-serving-morons, they do so at the expense and to the detriment of people learning and yearning to becoming much more better. I beg down to no such quislings! These gendarmes tell us of "Bottom Line" as they have been instructed to trumpet that by their handlers in various places, institutions and the whole bit! They attack our culture that I am working on here on FB with venomous vengeance, and multiple 'exclamation marks" to drive their point home. The Defend the Master's wish that our people should remain dumb, not made to be awake, by anyone. If some os us remember, when the ANC and some of the PAC people came out, I have the press cuttings, many of the revolutionary ANC cadre and PAC cadre were mercilessly murdered by goons of the Death and torture squads of the mode of the Vlakplaas executioners, and they worked with some of our brother(terrorists) who made it their business to eliminate all fierce and what they considered to be vexatious elements amongst our worthwhile and erstwhile stalwarts. Is it not then a wonder that some of them(african quislings) have morphed into the FB police, when we should now be working with our people to create a Sane Society and an independent and well -self-willed and developed polity. No! we have people telling us that they are "Guarding some Walls", and they are the first ones to eat up what they claim to dislike.. I am not really scared of such quirks, but I will use the FB too, to go for their tainted and fattened jugulars.

Our African Cultures, Customs, Traditions, Languages, Rites, Histories and Practices, they too need Warriors. They need fearless and very culturally self-loving and defending Warriors. It is not only the gun "revolution" that has have to be monitored, but our cultural revolution, too. This methodology I have carved up in laying out our culture Bare and bringing them to the fore, with their own structure they already have, but am giving form, meaning and dignity, is what ought to preoccupy us. Or attaining power will be the one way that will be made realistic by relearning, and developing 'new ways of seeing and looking', shedding off the Apartheid blinkers in the process, will be what might do for us in moving the struggle forward our own culture of which we live-daily-by our knowledge, control and ownership of our culture.... Our struggle is lined to the International African diaspora and Africa itself. I have posted music of Africans from Cape to Cairo; from South America to North America-and throughout the world, to show how same its its matrix and mosaic-in all genres- that in actual reality(in the Garvey-ite mode and sense).

I posted all the different nations of Mzantsi to show the 'similarities', 'commonalities' and 'converging' points of performance, technique and style(both musically and dance-wise) to be of one people-one nation. We are one nation, but we have not yet even ready to energetically defend and protect it, if not develop what we have as a culture because, as I usually say say, most of us have been 'edumacated into ignorance', and 'we are running away from ourselves'. If fact, there are still people in our midst who are still ashamed of, and deride our culture as backward, because they have been conditioned to be so by their masters whom they now serve with zeal and gusto.

They go out of their way to please the master-they might as soon take the disease plaguing their controllers/master and have it manifest itself on them-on his behalf. There are some who attack the way I use this foreign language of English. Well, my take is that, if we ever do anything, we better do it well, and good. This will not and does not take away from me being an African of Mzantsi. It is just like presenting the videos that I have been posting or have posted thus, I still hold on to the belief that we need to do our own things right. We need to taken control, shape and form, mold and design our cultures, customs, traditions, history, music, dance and all its styles and techniques fully and correctly.

It is amazing that going through YouTube, one discerns the way the Cultural imperialists are using all manners of obfuscation, censorship, and licensing and holding on to information pertaining to our music, cultures, dances-pattened to be released at their own discretion. When researchers like me come and look for the music, artist, it's either there's limited information of the bio, or the music has not yet been uploaded or are ignored, or we have not yet developed ourselves to be in a position to really own, control and disseminate our culture as we see fit: to be able and be also in a position to disseminate our data in any form we wish to.

I hope the thrust of the small idea I have implemented on all the PAC Walls should be seen as me 'showcasing our music. I put a lot of short history for the listener/reader to get an idea about what they are listening to, and I posted it en-masse as I did because I was swelling the viral stream with positive vibes and dances. On some other far flung and rare FB Walls, our music rules; our music rocks; our music makes people all over the world come back wanting more- whether it is contemporary music, or traditional/cultural music we make. For people who think that I have backed off from posting music and originally written articles about various, they have got another think coming..

We are much better than this- Ons is nie 'Moegoes', and have never been di-Bari, never! For me, I post what I like, and like what I post, and if anyone on any site needs to block me, go ahead, make my cultural day! I will post, if not create my own Wall on various topics and keep on working for our people for no Renumeration.. None at all..


Many people have the need and drive to prove that they too are 'edumacated into ignorance' on these social sites and Walls. I will never claim the trophy of being edumacated' by my masters-because I have not and was not and will never be. But as to what should be doe about this proliferating medium, people take it they should vent and wax political or otherwise in an effort to display their "Alpha-self" but no ideas nor action are being expounded upon on these sites. some try try, but the complex web that is FB, has another game changer up their sleeves. What am I really talking about here? Time will tell.

If you have not really been warned by FB based on the type and rate of dissemination like I have been, you are basically 'ineffective and are not a threat to the Media Status Quo and the whole bit. If one is threatened for using lewd language and porno here on Fb, I would understand and have no qualms about it. But if it is because one is posting, albeit too rapid, which by the way is not, at the speed of the stream, and viral motion, then what is this media for? for us Africans to brag to each other that one is on FB, Internet, has a "Crackberry", changes of phones and tablets like one breathes, boast to the African have-nots that as a clique or cabal you will connect on the FB/Twitter, for all those within ear-shot to hear-and this whole freaky and dysfunctional self edification through boasting and usage of the Imperialists 'toys' and acquired material wealth- well, there will never be any results nor changes in our present condition no matter haw many platitudes, harangues citations, or complains we might arise and arouse or raise.

I not only speak truth to "Power" but to our people too. One might not like me for my brashness(because the Boers always regarded one as an "Uppity Ka***r" so that most of us covet the attention they get from white people who think 'something' of them, and the are short of saying what Malcolm X said about such 'types', those that live in the Sandtons, Norwoods, and such-like affluent suburbs-with white only neighbors, Malcolm said they like to claim that they "Are the only Ni**er here", is what is actually happening to us here in Mzantsi. I have and continue to speak these 'cheese-boys' who hold power and are filthy rich, in-as-much as I challenge the FB establishment or any other media-newspapers, radio mega-multi Corporations. Some are just content just to 'be on FB" and what that entails, who cares. Well, you should all care and begin to understand the media far better that sloppy attitude of "I don't care", which , by the way, has assailed the very base, and fulcrum of our culture, that of 'caring' and respecting one another. Biko, whom I have recently quoted, and one can go back and look, advices us to care and not be destructive to other peoples properties and lives. I add, and cultural feeling-which is our blueprint and radar to all that we might want to do-without it, we are like a tree without roots- that is, "We Stand For Nothing, And we Fall for Everything and Anything!"

Any time you give up your information, ID, Life Stats(Children, Uncles, Friends) you yourself, in mediums such as FB you are and become a commodity in the Marxian sense. You whole being in all its manifestations, is hawked around as you are the commodity that they desire and need to make oodles of Capital, which you do not get a cent, and can get hurt or die because of it.. This is not scaring people, but we need to get real here, and talk about the media, its affects and its effects on us in all these myriad ways. is sold to the highest bidder out on Webland. You or all of us logged here, serve a good purpose, and you also keep on changing your FB Mug to whatever, but that does not take from the fact that your information is collected and collated somewhere and it will be of use in the very near future-bought and sold as a commodity-Read Marx and Lenin on what the concept of "Commodity" entails if one has not yet done, and if you did, go back and re-read it- you will see the parallels of when I say our information on these sites is a commodity, we are a commodity, that is being bought and sold for a profit nexus... Some of us do not think nor realize what I am saying is so. It is!

Both of us are cognizant of the fact that we are sick and made so in a myriad ways, and we're immersed in and embedded into this oppressive juggernaut and it feels like we are still riding the back of a tiger, and that we need to begin to learn and read about the causes of our dysfunction and sickness without being belligerent, ignorant and spiteful of each other, as we have see happen here on the Facebook. Getting our act together is recognizing and diagnosing our social malaise, and act in the midst of our people by affecting their suffering and creating programs and helping, without sounding of like dummies knocking against each other on the FB; and, in the final analysis, the madness, sicknesses and psychological malfunction needs to be checked, and as I have been saying throughout this year now ending- we need to come up with better results next year and hope that will be the case-we are far much more better than what and where we are now. However one uses "ENGLISH", so long as it drives home concrete lesson and teachable moments which are so sorely needed-who cares how that "ENGLISH" is used, and the very critics use the same 'masters language to crush those they dislike', for dumb, ignorant, vindictive and regressive reasons like "how they write English-As if that a point worth talking about in this dire time in Mzantsi. Instead of the ideas and the information this "ENGLISH" is sharing by the one using it-to elucidate(clarify) some points about the struggle of Africans here at home. This is part of our sickness and madness, and the sooner we recognize it as such, the better we will be able to combat and rectify these sicknesses, as per Wilson, and what we can see for ourselves where we live(for some of us who still live in Kasi( mo-lokishini, and never left it) ......

Phillip Tabane and Malombo Live at the market theatre2

Phillip Tabane and Malombo Live at The Market Theatre

Speaking Truth To The People

Many people have the need and drive to prove that they too are 'edumacated into ignorance' on these social sites and Walls. I will never claim the trophy of being edumacated' by my masters-because I have not and was not and will never be. But as to what should be doe about this proliferating medium, people take it they should vent and wax political or otherwise in an effort to display their "Alpha-self" but no ideas nor action are being expounded upon on these sites. some try try, but the complex web that is FB, has another game changer up their sleeves. What am I really talking about here? Time will tell.

If you have not really been warned by FB based on the type and rate of dissemination like I have been, you are basically 'ineffective and are not a threat to the Media Status Quo and the whole bit. If one is threatened for using lewd language and porno here on Fb, I would understand and have no qualms about it. But if it is because one is posting, albeit too rapid, which by the way is not, at the speed of the stream, and viral motion, then what is this media for? for us Africans to brag to each other that one is on FB, Internet, has a "Crackberry", changes of phones and tablets like one breathes, boast to the African have-nots that as a clique or cabal you will connect on the FB/Twitter, for all those within ear-shot to hear-and this whole freaky and dysfunctional self edification through boasting and usage of the Imperialists 'toys' and acquired material wealth- well, there will never be any results nor changes in our present condition no matter haw many platitudes, harangues citations, or complains we might arise and arouse or raise.

I not only speak truth to "Power" but to our people too. One might not like me for my brashness(because the Boers always regarded one as an "Uppity Ka***r" so that most of us covet the attention they get from white people who think 'something' of them, and the are short of saying what Malcolm X said about such 'types', those that live in the Sandtons, Norwoods, and such-like affluent suburbs-with white only neighbors, Malcolm said they like to claim that they "Are the only Ni**er here", is what is actually happening to us here in Mzantsi. I have and continue to speak these 'cheese-boys' who hold power and are filthy rich, in-as-much as I challenge the FB establishment or any other media-newspapers, radio mega-multi Corporations. Some are just content just to 'be on FB" and what that entails, who cares. Well, you should all care and begin to understand the media far better that sloppy attitude of "I don't care", which , by the way, has assailed the very base, and fulcrum of our culture, that of 'caring' and respecting one another. Biko, whom I have recently quoted, and one can go back and look, advices us to care and not be destructive to other peoples properties and lives. I add, and cultural feeling-which is our blueprint and radar to all that we might want to do-without it, we are like a tree without roots- that is, "We Stand For Nothing, And we Fall for Everything and Anything!"

Any time you give up your information, ID, Life Stats(Children, Uncles, Friends) you yourself, in mediums such as FB you are and become a commodity in the Marxian sense. You whole being in all its manifestations, is hawked around as you are the commodity that they desire and need to make oodles of Capital, which you do not get a cent, and can get hurt or die because of it.. This is not scaring people, but we need to get real here, and talk about the media, its affects and its effects on us in all these myriad ways. is sold to the highest bidder out on Webland. You or all of us logged here, serve a good purpose, and you also keep on changing your FB Mug to whatever, but that does not take from the fact that your information is collected and collated somewhere and it will be of use in the very near future-bought and sold as a commodity-Read Marx and Lenin on what the concept of "Commodity" entails if one has not yet done, and if you did, go back and re-read it- you will see the parallels of when I say our information on these sites is a commodity, we are a commodity, that is being bought and sold for a profit nexus... Some of us do not think nor realize what I am saying is so. It is!

Both of us are cognizant of the fact that we are sick and made so in a myriad ways, and we're immersed in and embedded into this oppressive juggernaut and it feels like we are still riding the back of a tiger, and that we need to begin to learn and read about the causes of our dysfunction and sickness without being belligerent, ignorant and spiteful of each other, as we have see happen here on the Facebook. Getting our act together is recognizing and diagnosing our social malaise, and act in the midst of our people by affecting their suffering and creating programs and helping, without sounding of like dummies knocking against each other on the FB; and, in the final analysis, the madness, sicknesses and psychological malfunction needs to be checked, and as I have been saying throughout this year now ending- we need to come up with better results next year and hope that will be the case-we are far much more better than what and where we are now. However one uses "ENGLISH", so long as it drives home concrete lesson and teachable moments which are so sorely needed-who cares how that "ENGLISH" is used, and the very critics use the same 'masters language to crush those they dislike', for dumb, ignorant, vindictive and regressive reasons like "how they write English-As if that a point worth talking about in this dire time in Mzantsi. Instead of the ideas and the information this "ENGLISH" is sharing by the one using it-to elucidate(clarify) some points about the struggle of Africans here at home. This is part of our sickness and madness, and the sooner we recognize it as such, the better we will be able to combat and rectify these sicknesses, as per Wilson, and what we can see for ourselves where we live(for some of us who still live in Kasi( mo-lokishini, and never left it) ......Spe

South African Jazz...

Developing Talking Musical Cultural/Historical Points And Shifting the Paradigm

African Polyrhythmic-Roots-Rocking-Rhythms:

Any culture does not allow for stagnation; each culture manages to learn from other cultures, but keep itself unique to itself. Many races or people throughout the world perform and manifest their culture whilst maintaining this uniqueness, that which one can can discern by interrogating certain aspects of those cultures, like in the case of this hub: music and dance.

I have been posting various types of music in their specific genres, and this means that different music is sung in different languages, since the music I post is from different countries, This means that whoever is listening might not understand the language, but the music is universal(that is, the rhythm, sound melodies and the playing of various instrument and different dances), and most them have different musical style, tones and accentuation as do their languages.. But what is important and common about these musical acts and sounds, is that they are being selected from an African centered perspective. Were people to find time and read-upon the origins and histories of these groups, one would be struck at the similarities of experiences experienced by these musicians, in their different countries throughout their different struggles. This is important to note, for this applies too the the music and dances of Africans in South Africa.

If one were to listen to Eldridge cleaver, his issued this aphorism in the same spirit of what I had just discussed above when he informs us that:

"Until Black(African) people as a whole gain power, it's not a question of where you are geographically if you Black (African); it's a question of where you are psychologically. No matter where you place Black(African) people under preset conditions, they'll still subject to the whims and decisions of white political, economic and [psychological] apparatus."

Why I am using this citation is the simple reason that we have to begin to understand The African peoples situation is not only regionally, nationally or continentally manifest, but looking at it from a global perspective. This helps us become more aware and sensitized to this issue of African musical culture is really Global-and if that is hard to conceive, we cannot change or shift any existing paradigms that chain Africans to all our colonial past and continued existence. Africans will operate with blinkers in a Globe that is Web-driven in its vastness and content. Africans cannot dig in into their heels when they need to move into the 21st century. This means knowing, learning and understanding the African struggle as it is International as much as local where it is based for each individual.

In fact, some of us are so caught -up with trying to be very Europeans in how they imbibe or groove to the music so long it is not their local music, and not African, in many cases. This you can find all over the globe, and it is not unique to one people. But it applies to all the oppressed because most of us have not yet been liberated in ourselves and in our societies. Ourselves are chained , to our societies which are incarcerated..

I remember reading somewhere about Duke Ellington that he moved the music which we know as Jazz from "Jungle Music" to what we call Jazz(I guess-bleached sounds). African Music globally is not "Jungle Music", but it is human music. Imagine we have to actually say that and try to qualify and uplift it to the level of it being human-preposterous! Yet, this is what we, those oppressed around the world, have been sold to, bamboozled with and dry-cleaned to the extend that we ignore our music, cultures and so forth, because we are avoiding and ignoring ourselves-as Bob Marley sings: "You Running Away From Yourself.."

Then there is this perception that when one plays or posts music, they are not 'seriously' carrying out the struggle. That could not be far from the truth. The Music of any people is the soundtracks of their lives, culture and so on. It as as one as breathing is to our lives. You ignore music that uses a language that you do not understand, or have been conditioned in a sort of "Kraal" enclosure in one's existence by the laws, regulation, tricks, fraud, corruption and use of force that is administered to to those who resist-and you cave in-you lose; so that, the act of brutal oppression, increased the intensity of the production of radical music as one would breath hard when fighting.

Writing is just like music. One needs to compose it. In the case of writing, you compose whatever it is from social experience-as does music. When as a people you originate ideas and other such things, you become more legit and real. You cannot live your life as a duplicate of a colonially manufactured personality. One cannot live a life that is not relevant to their lives. One cannot listen to music that does not harken back to one's own social experience. To ignore or refuse to acknowledge that ones music which is a pathway to sanity, then, one will be left lollygagging within a mix which corrodes their inner core and souls. That is why we see the madness engulfing many poor Africans.

Just like writing, we develop our musical talking points about music that originates from our inner sanctum and soul. To shift paradigms is to totally change a way that is not compatible with ones well-beingness. Music appreciation is something one grows up and finds people one is born into listening or playing it. This also means that, since then it is human music, it compels one to spread one's listening preferences. If what we say amongst ourselves, we do not trust nor believe it, because one of the same oppressed as us is saying it, means that when we begin to listen and participate, imbibe and consume our 'high' culture, we have shifted a preset, concrete reality that was an inhibitor to our spiritual, musical, intellectual or otherwise development. We change the way we are conditioned and are made to see, think and behave, it is in this way that we will see ourselves anew and begin to see the way we are educing ourselves to.

I for one believe in the emancipation of Africans throughout the world, and music is one way of the many ways of doing it. Another way is cobbling together African musical experiences into an article such as this one to begin to expand and extend African people's listening range to music we are not familiar with, which can be found in a narrow category, world-wide, and I choose to simple dub it to be African Music Systems- that is, to shift gears in appreciation of this African musical and dance art form. Africans should 'validate' themselves and not wait for someone to box them or keep them caged and be satisfied with.African people should dare explore themselves and their sounds without let-up as part of waging their struggle for psychological liberation as a people who still have to realize that freedom.

If people gave themselves time and opened themselves to the possibility that Africans have a "high Culture" in music, their consciousness and actions and appreciations would change. They would stop being people who are spectators(as Biko so pithily concurred) of their daily oppression, depression, dehumanization and suppression that so disdainfully and cruelly manifested itself in their collective midst and psyche so boldly throughout their history and current reality, that in the end, an attempt or serious effort at dislodging, shifting of displacing these current deadening and dumbing ways-down post-colonial paradigms should be dealt with and eliminated permanently. like any crucial part or point of the Struggle of african people. Our African music is powerful and soulful, we just need to listen, or take it, for its out there in the musical viral stream.

A Review Of The Posted Cultural Videos Of The People Of Mzantsi..

I have just finished a series of videos that I had started by posting first with an article articulating my objectives(See Older Posts): to create a format and structural form of our music and culture and frame it such that it has a National body and appearance. What I mean by this is that, I made some means of collating our 'different,' 'variegated,' 'variable' and 'diverse' culture, which up to the point before I started posting it in that manner, and having written a preface to my intentions, had never been done like so. Also, what I did was create the bios or small histories of each of the musicians, performers and bands so's to lay out a matrix that most of the South Africans on FB, might get a glimpse of it holistically.

This exercise in Cultural defenseis not a "practice in Promoting My music " as has been claimed by those who are left behind in what I was doing. It seems there is culture of obfuscating the 'right' things for our people in order to "Dumb Them Down". Our people of Mzantsi are prohibited by a new species of "Censurers" and "Gatekeepers". not on the TV and radio only, but viciously here on these social media that can reach millions of people in Mzantsi and the world over.

Some of us are patently ignorant of these new, burgeoning, emerging, converging, moving-at-the-speed-of-viral-data phenomenon and gizmos. Our people who are in different privileged position are scared of an Independent African South African, who has the potential to learn, and become better, if not different from the. Some of these leaders are cloaked in Pan Africanism of a "Type". The Pan Africanism that cannot even recognize Africanism in the efforts some of us are trying to disseminate, without us being crass and ignorant about what we are posting and how we are posting it-as African peoples.

The response might not have been an earth shaking event when I posted all the videos, short histories of the 11 people of Mzantsi, namely: The Zulus, Pedis, South Sothos, Shangaans, Vendas, Ndebeles,Swazis, Xhosas, Tswanas, Vendas, Colored and the Khoisan. The main thrust of posting such music, was not, and I still emphasize, to "Promote My music/videos" on the Pan African Sites on FB. Apparently there are people working as spooks and moles of the FB owners, and the present ANC government, of which they are on its pay and beckon-and-call. The aim of laying these viral videos was specifically to, in a coordinated and structured way(that of choosing relevant 'cultural ' videos with as much 'authentic' dances and live videos as such as possible), to help us beggining to learn much more better and in a 20/20 way the breadth and depth of our cultural matrix and mosaic as it has manifested itself in our daily realities; and, undergirding this first aim, was the second one, wherein I was trying to parlay an ideas, way of seeing, and conceptual ability of our people to begin to see that we are really one people, as opposed to the apartheidized way of seeing, thinking and being that we are a different disunited collectives of "TRIBES". A Term I have consistently rejected, until we end up having a "French Tribe", "British, Italian, Danish," and so forth tribes, then I might reconsider.

But, since that is not what I am talking about, we need certain perceptive ways and perspective of beginning to realize ourselves not as a collection of different "Tribes", but a nation with a diverse, vibrant,energetic, similar and one culture. Even if we were to try and interrogate or investigate the notion that our languages are different and not the same, and that they emerged from our trekking South from the north, is utter balderdash! We have always been here in Mzantsi for eons, and now there is proof of 'supposedly' disappeared civilization of here in Mzantsi, andit can be traced back to 170,000 B.C, and there is a lot of physical material proof that we have been here since the formation of the earth! So that, when I use our music, culture, customs, dances, languages and their practices, techniques and uniqueness, I am working toward reconstructing our Nation (through all the mentioned building blocks, and making them real through our Music, Dance and interpretation of our Culture) and that they should be viewed as being one,, not different or unrelated to one another-but one National Culture, etc..

For us to see ourselves as a Nation of Africans in Mzantsi, we need to see ourselves, in some shape of form, as one people who are having a diverse culture, which is in essence, one culture. It is one culture when one starts listening to the music, which we can group into Mbaqanga and those songs unique to different groups in various regions throughout South Africa. We need to have a sense and way of seeing our different cultures as they seemingly are different, but see them for their commonalities, originality, energy, similar dances, hand-clapping, rhythmic foot-stomping, movements of all kinds, from the gyration of the Shangaan women, to the active and energetic synchronic dances of their men
; to the smooth foot-shuffling ad gentle stepping Batswana , Swazis mass singing, and for the men Zulu-type of dancing; up to the easy, steady and deliberate dance of the Basotho men, with their "kotos" always held high and the foot-stamping well calculated and seemingly off rhythm, but on the beat; to the 'mokgibo' of their women kneeling on the ground, chest-vibrating to their musical rhythm-along with the Xhosa mix of the Batswanas, khoi, Zulu and Sotho cultural dance nuances, as in the case of the "Xhosa" who perform the "Mtjitjimbo" same as the Basotho women, but in a Xhosa male stylistic fanfare(and of the older Xhosa women generation, more akin to the the Basothos) in dance, actions and technique; and the Khoisan animistic dance, projecting the action of different animals(they hunt) in a dance form and which too is related in style and presentation to the Zulus, Xhosas, Pedis and all the other groups. We saw children put up their best efforts, imitating their parents, in dance and song and style(which promises continuity). That in the final analysis, what I am saying here, is not quoted or cited from some book, but what we are creating through viewing the Music I have been posting, and I do not get paid a cent, and do not own these videos, nor composed anything in them, or am I gaining in any way, shape or form. This is part of my contribution to our struggle, and am using much needed innovative ways of teaching all and reaching all-through creating, form the old, new ideas and ways of seeing for our self on our own.

I intensely dislike our detractors, whether they be Africans of Mzantsi or from anywhere else. I have a passionate and offensive attitude when it comes to us and now we are blocked by those ignoramuses who are in service of deep vested fiscal pockets. Nobody said I should do what I am doing. I am doing it because we need many different ways of executing and making sure our struggle survives, but we will not get this from those who Police The Pan Africanist Walls, which are humming and howling for revolution, and the truth is that there is not one way to making a revolution: ask the Zimbabweans with their Chimurenga; learn from the Angolans and their MPLA; Frelimo; I mean, from all revolutionaries if whether in executing their revolutions, they listened and worked on one single idea. That is an inexact way of making a revolution. A revolution uses all that is relevant to it to succeed. Not a prescribed panacea from some Facebook revolutionaries who are really out of touch with the people in the country, and how we should be trying, our darnest, to liberate them- By Any Means Necessary [a la Malcolm X).

I have been viciously attacked here on face book on different sites and in my in-box. I can be just as vicious too, but I do so tactfully. I cannot stand Bullies and Ignoramuses. Most of us are in position that prevent our people from dreaming big, and bettering themselves. It does not mean that posting here on FB is not "Free". No, according to the minions that are in service of Big Capital and they themselves vulture-capitalist and self-serving-morons, they do so at the expense and to the detriment of people learning and yearning to becoming much more better. I beg down to no such quislings! These gendarmes tell us of "Bottom Line" as they have been instructed to trumpet that by their handlers in various places, institutions and the whole bit! They attack our culture that I am working on here on FB with venomous vengeance, and multiple 'exclamation marks" to drive their point home. The Defend the Master's wish that our people should remain dumb, not made to be awake, by anyone. If some os us remember, when the ANC and some of the PAC people came out, I have the press cuttings, many of the revolutionary ANC cadre and PAC cadre were mercilessly murdered by goons of the Death and torture squads of the mode of the Vlakplaas executioners, and they worked with some of our brother(terrorists) who made it their business to eliminate all fierce and what they considered to be vexatious elements amongst our worthwhile and erstwhile stalwarts. Is it not then a wonder that some of them(african quislings) have morphed into the FB police, when we should now be working with our people to create a Sane Society and an independent and well -self-willed and developed polity. No! we have people telling us that they are "Guarding some Walls", and they are the first ones to eat up what they claim to dislike.. I am not really scared of such quirks, but I will use the FB too, to go for their tainted and fattened jugulars.

Our African Cultures, Customs, Traditions, Languages, Rites, Histories and Practices, they too need Warriors. They need fearless and very culturally self-loving and defending Warriors. It is not only the gun "revolution" that has have to be monitored, but our cultural revolution, too. This methodology I have carved up in laying out our culture Bare and bringing them to the fore, with their own structure they already have, but am giving form, meaning and dignity, is what ought to preoccupy us. Or attaining power will be the one way that will be made realistic by relearning, and developing 'new ways of seeing and looking', shedding off the Apartheid blinkers in the process, will be what might do for us in moving the struggle forward our own culture of which we live-daily-by our knowledge, control and ownership of our culture.... Our struggle is lined to the International African diaspora and Africa itself. I have posted music of Africans from Cape to Cairo; from South America to North America-and throughout the world, to show how same its its matrix and mosaic-in all genres- that in actual reality(in the Garvey-ite mode and sense).

I posted all the different nations of Mzantsi to show the 'similarities', 'commonalities' and 'converging' points of performance, technique and style(both musically and dance-wise) to be of one people-one nation. We are one nation, but we have not yet even ready to energetically defend and protect it, if not develop what we have as a culture because, as I usually say say, most of us have been 'edumacated into ignorance', and 'we are running away from ourselves'. If fact, there are still people in our midst who are still ashamed of, and deride our culture as backward, because they have been conditioned to be so by their masters whom they now serve with zeal and gusto.

They go out of their way to please the master-they might as soon take the disease plaguing their controllers/master and have it manifest itself on them-on his behalf. There are some who attack the way I use this foreign language of English. Well, my take is that, if we ever do anything, we better do it well, and good. This will not and does not take away from me being an African of Mzantsi. It is just like presenting the videos that I have been posting or have posted thus, I still hold on to the belief that we need to do our own things right. We need to taken control, shape and form, mold and design our cultures, customs, traditions, history, music, dance and all its styles and techniques fully and correctly.

It is amazing that going through YouTube, one discerns the way the Cultural imperialists are using all manners of obfuscation, censorship, and licensing and holding on to information pertaining to our music, cultures, dances-pattened to be released at their own discretion. When researchers like me come and look for the music, artist, it's either there's limited information of the bio, or the music has not yet been uploaded or are ignored, or we have not yet developed ourselves to be in a position to really own, control and disseminate our culture as we see fit: to be able and be also in a position to disseminate our data in any form we wish to.

I hope the thrust of the small idea I have implemented on all the PAC Walls should be seen as me 'showcasing our music. I put a lot of short history for the listener/reader to get an idea about what they are listening to, and I posted it en-masse as I did because I was swelling the viral stream with positive vibes and dances. On some other far flung and rare FB Walls, our music rules; our music rocks; our music makes people all over the world come back wanting more- whether it is contemporary music, or traditional/cultural music we make. For people who think that I have backed off from posting music and originally written articles about various, they have got another think coming..

We are much better than this- Ons is nie 'Moegoes', and have never been di-Bari, never! For me, I post what I like, and like what I post, and if anyone on any site needs to block me, go ahead, make my cultural day! I will post, if not create my own Wall on various topics and keep on working for our people for no Renumeration.. None at all..


Many people have the need and drive to prove that they too are 'edumacated into ignorance' on these social sites and Walls. I will never claim the trophy of being edumacated' by my masters-because I have not and was not and will never be. But as to what should be doe about this proliferating medium, people take it they should vent and wax political or otherwise in an effort to display their "Alpha-self" but no ideas nor action are being expounded upon on these sites. some try try, but the complex web that is FB, has another game changer up their sleeves. What am I really talking about here? Time will tell.

If you have not really been warned by FB based on the type and rate of dissemination like I have been, you are basically 'ineffective and are not a threat to the Media Status Quo and the whole bit. If one is threatened for using lewd language and porno here on Fb, I would understand and have no qualms about it. But if it is because one is posting, albeit too rapid, which by the way is not, at the speed of the stream, and viral motion, then what is this media for? for us Africans to brag to each other that one is on FB, Internet, has a "Crackberry", changes of phones and tablets like one breathes, boast to the African have-nots that as a clique or cabal you will connect on the FB/Twitter, for all those within ear-shot to hear-and this whole freaky and dysfunctional self edification through boasting and usage of the Imperialists 'toys' and acquired material wealth- well, there will never be any results nor changes in our present condition no matter haw many platitudes, harangues citations, or complains we might arise and arouse or raise.

I not only speak truth to "Power" but to our people too. One might not like me for my brashness(because the Boers always regarded one as an "Uppity Ka***r" so that most of us covet the attention they get from white people who think 'something' of them, and the are short of saying what Malcolm X said about such 'types', those that live in the Sandtons, Norwoods, and such-like affluent suburbs-with white only neighbors, Malcolm said they like to claim that they "Are the only Ni**er here", is what is actually happening to us here in Mzantsi. I have and continue to speak these 'cheese-boys' who hold power and are filthy rich, in-as-much as I challenge the FB establishment or any other media-newspapers, radio mega-multi Corporations. Some are just content just to 'be on FB" and what that entails, who cares. Well, you should all care and begin to understand the media far better that sloppy attitude of "I don't care", which , by the way, has assailed the very base, and fulcrum of our culture, that of 'caring' and respecting one another. Biko, whom I have recently quoted, and one can go back and look, advices us to care and not be destructive to other peoples properties and lives. I add, and cultural feeling-which is our blueprint and radar to all that we might want to do-without it, we are like a tree without roots- that is, "We Stand For Nothing, And we Fall for Everything and Anything!"

Any time you give up your information, ID, Life Stats(Children, Uncles, Friends) you yourself, in mediums such as FB you are and become a commodity in the Marxian sense. You whole being in all its manifestations, is hawked around as you are the commodity that they desire and need to make oodles of Capital, which you do not get a cent, and can get hurt or die because of it.. This is not scaring people, but we need to get real here, and talk about the media, its affects and its effects on us in all these myriad ways. is sold to the highest bidder out on Webland. You or all of us logged here, serve a good purpose, and you also keep on changing your FB Mug to whatever, but that does not take from the fact that your information is collected and collated somewhere and it will be of use in the very near future-bought and sold as a commodity-Read Marx and Lenin on what the concept of "Commodity" entails if one has not yet done, and if you did, go back and re-read it- you will see the parallels of when I say our information on these sites is a commodity, we are a commodity, that is being bought and sold for a profit nexus... Some of us do not think nor realize what I am saying is so. It is!

Both of us are cognizant of the fact that we are sick and made so in a myriad ways, and we're immersed in and embedded into this oppressive juggernaut and it feels like we are still riding the back of a tiger, and that we need to begin to learn and read about the causes of our dysfunction and sickness without being belligerent, ignorant and spiteful of each other, as we have see happen here on the Facebook. Getting our act together is recognizing and diagnosing our social malaise, and act in the midst of our people by affecting their suffering and creating programs and helping, without sounding of like dummies knocking against each other on the FB; and, in the final analysis, the madness, sicknesses and psychological malfunction needs to be checked, and as I have been saying throughout this year now ending- we need to come up with better results next year and hope that will be the case-we are far much more better than what and where we are now. However one uses "ENGLISH", so long as it drives home concrete lesson and teachable moments which are so sorely needed-who cares how that "ENGLISH" is used, and the very critics use the same 'masters language to crush those they dislike', for dumb, ignorant, vindictive and regressive reasons like "how they write English-As if that a point worth talking about in this dire time in Mzantsi. Instead of the ideas and the information this "ENGLISH" is sharing by the one using it-to elucidate(clarify) some points about the struggle of Africans here at home. This is part of our sickness and madness, and the sooner we recognize it as such, the better we will be able to combat and rectify these sicknesses, as per Wilson, and what we can see for ourselves where we live(for some of us who still live in Kasi( mo-lokishini, and never left it) ......

..

Beaters - Harari

We Must Not Only Revise And Regurgitate History or Revolution-But We Must Dare To Invent It and Speak about It With New Words and New Thinking-

If .."Africans Stand For Nothing, Then They Will Fall for Everything and Anything!"

This is Too long for a topic, but it is a topic nonetheless. Facebook is not that old, and it is relatively a young medium which we find ourselves enveloped with. One of the tasks I have given myself is to study this social media very closely, and test some ideas that are not necessarily your run-down-the mills utterances and rantings-that won't cut it.. never!. I back up my posts, for African people, with fact, if need be. But being here on Fb has been great for it helped me answer so many question about the medium itself(And I have blogged heavily and extensively on both the Tweeter and FB on my own personal Blogs).

Also, what I have learnt is how people behave and "sort-of" interact in a manner of the viral stream, how they use the media for agendas that are 'weak', and an understanding of what the term media implies; the term communication in the digital and social media means in actuality-that is, how interacting and having technique determine how you should communicate, interact, and 'be' on all the mediums facilitated by their technological gizmos(which most regard as their 21st century toys-which I think they have another 'think' coming.

I not only speak truth to "Power" but to our people too. One might not like me for my brashness(because the Boers always regarded one as an "Uppity Ka***r" so that most of us covet the attention they get from white people who think 'something' of them, and the are short of saying what Malcolm X said about such 'types', those that live in the Sandtons, Norwoods, and such-like affluent suburbs-with white only neighbors, Malcolm said they like to claim that they "Are the only Ni**er here", is what is actually happening to us here in Mzantsi. I have and continue to speak these 'cheese-boys' who hold power and are filthy rich, in-as-much as I challenge the FB establishment or any other media-newspapers, radio mega-multi Corporations. Some are just content just to 'be on FB" and what that entails, who cares. Well, you should all care and begin to understand the media far better that sloppy attitude of "I don't care", which , by the way, has assailed the very base, and fulcrum of our culture, that of 'caring' and respecting one another. Biko, whom I have recently quoted, and one can go back and look, advices us to care and not be destructive to other peoples properties and lives. I add, and cultural feeling-which is our blueprint and radar to all that we might want to do-without it, we are like a tree without roots- that is, "We Stand For Nothing, And we Fall for Everything and Anything!"

Any time you give up your information, ID, Life Stats(Children, Uncles, Friends) you yourself, in mediums such as FB you are and become a commodity in the Marxian sense. You whole being in all its manifestations, is hawked around as you are the commodity that they desire and need to make oodles of Capital, which you do not get a cent, and can get hurt or die because of it.. This is not scaring people, but we need to get real here, and talk about the media, its affects and its effects on us in all these myriad ways. is sold to the highest bidder out on Webland. You or all of us logged here, serve a good purpose, and you also keep on changing your FB Mug to whatever, but that does not take from the fact that your information is collected and collated somewhere and it will be of use in the very near future-bought and sold as a commodity-Read Marx and Lenin on what the concept of "Commodity" entails if one has not yet done, and if you did, go back and re-read it- you will see the parallels of when I say our information on these sites is a commodity, we are a commodity, that is being bought and sold for a profit nexus... Some of us do not think nor realize what I am saying is so. It is!

Closing Thoughts: FB and The Making and Discourse about "Change" in Mzantsi

To add up and add another perspective from Wilson who says that according to Ronald Leifer (1969) defined the ethnicization of psychotherapy "as the molding and polarization of behavior so that it conforms to prevailing cultural patterns. It is indoctrination or training for culturally specific traits, attitudes, and actions." thus, Wilson states that "The aim of ethnicized psychotherapy is to return the deviant to "Normal", i.e., to instil in the deviant a set of particular traits, attitudes, values, behavioral orientations, and goals which when pursued or realized, support and maintain the political-economic social status quo along with its ruling elite ... Ethnicized psychotherapy, too, views any form of behavior and stat4e of consciousness which do not conform to the norms or political-economic interests of the ruling establishment or group as, "by definition, a reflection of individual maladjustment, emotional immaturity, mental pathology, or some other negatively valued concept". Thus, problems which may be reflective of social and political problems are dismissed as the ailments of isolated individuals, as evidence of individual maladjustment, the epiphenomena of a distorted personality and economic forces which generate their existence from. " This, according to me, and also, according to your quote above, is designed and 'guaranteed to make us sick and crazy" as we are now here in Mzantsi....!
"Hepi!" Tshiks, and hope you have a greatest next incoming year...Tshikosi cited this piece from Amos Wilson:

SUCCESSFUL FAILURE: Success can be a type of failure. That is one reason why success does not bring the kind of personal satisfaction and peace that many people seek. And why often the individual, despite all of the material evidences of having succeeded, still feels psychologically cheated - because one can achieve for the wrong reason. So when we achieve to prove to somebody else, to show the white-folk that we can do it as good as they do it, it is a success that still is guaranteed to make us sick - Dr.Amos Wilson

Wilson says that according to Ronald Leifer (1969) defined the ethnicization of psychotherapy "as the molding and polarization of behavior so that it conforms to prevailing cultural patterns. It is indoctrination or training for culturally specific traits, attitudes, and actions." Thus, Wilson states that "The aim of ethnicized psychotherapy is to return the deviant to "Normal", i.e., to instil in the deviant a set of particular traits, attitudes, values, behavioral orientations, and goals which when pursued or realized, support and maintain the political-economic social status quo along with its ruling elite ... Ethnicized psychotherapy, too, views any form of behavior and state of consciousness which do not conform to the norms or political-economic interests of the ruling establishment or group as, "by definition, a reflection of individual maladjustment, emotional immaturity, mental pathology, or some other negatively valued concept".

"Thus, problems which may be reflective of social and political problems are dismissed as the ailments of isolated individuals, as evidence of individual maladjustment, eht epiphenomena of a distorted personality and economic forces which generate their existence from. " This, according to me, according to your quote above, is designed and 'guaranteed to make us sick and crazy" as we are now here in Mzantsi....!
Getting our act together is recognizing and diagnosing our social malaise, and act in the midst of our people by affecting their suffering and creating programs and helping, without sounding of like dummies knocking against each other on the FB; and, in the final analysis, the madness, sicknesses and psychological malfunction needs to be checked, and as I have been saying throughout this year now ending- we need to come up with better results next year and hope that will be the case-we are far much more better than what and where we are now. However one uses "ENGLISH", so long as it drives home concrete lesson and teachable moments which are so sorely needed-who cares how that "ENGLISH" is used, and the very critics use the same 'masters language to crush those they dislike', for dumb, ignorant, vindictive and regressive reasons like "how they write English-As if that a point worth talking about in this dire time in Mzantsi. Instead of the ideas and the information this "ENGLISH" is sharing by the one using it-to elucidate(clarify) some points about the struggle of Africans here at home. This is part of our sickness and madness, and the sooner we recognize it as such, the better we will be able to combat and rectify these sicknesses, as per Wilson, and what we can see for ourselves where we live(for some of us who still live in Kasi( mo-lokishini, and never left it) ...

Each one Teach one; each one reach one.

Sipho Hotstix Mabuse - Thiba Kamoo

Stimela - Zwakala (Come to me) (Live)

Ipi Ntombi - Best Songs

The Ubuntu Experience (Nelson Mandela Interview)

South African African Culture Is A Culture With A Human Face

If people stand for nothing, they will fall for everything and anything! This maxim is true in so far as it relates to what I have tried to create above. The Hub above is about the history, culture, customs, traditions, languages, practice of sacred ties and the practices of African people of South Africa. What this Hub does is to try and present the dancing and musical culture in one seamless form in order to project and put it on display on the viral stream as one culture. In doing this, the Hub above attempts to bring to the attention of the reader the traditional costumes, worn by the Eleven peoples of South Africa in one Hub and in a continuous melange of different photographic collage.

The Hub also puts forth the definitions of what culture is, and in the process, goes on to explain what the culture of music as presented about the Africans of South Africa's dance and music is all about. While this is a first time effort for such kind of a Hub, wherein each and every national African group indigenous to South Africa has been given a slight effort in showing the dance styles and techniques of each African ethnic group, I have also included a short history for each of the eleven(11) African peoples of South africa in order to give the reader/viewer not only the dance and music part of the culture, but a brief history which puts each group in perspective as to their common history and common oppression, repression and depression by the same common advesary: Colonization and, post colonialism and present Imperial takeover of their country, minerals and human labor..

Although each group has a bit of history, this is not because they are a different people. But separate development and racial segregation had been the cornerstone of British and the Boer Colonization and Apartheid, respectively, which they specifically designed for African peoples and enforcing European rule over them in all aspects of their lives. Apartheid cronies have tried to convince African people that they are not one nation, but 'tribes' which were different with their histories, cultures, customs, traditions,languages and practices of sacred rites. As Biko points out on his part about modern African culture, that colonization did indeed bend the culture and falsify the history of Africans in South Africa. But, he maintains that the durability and staying power of this history and culture are still the the confirmation of the resilience of this culture and of Africans of South Africa in their struggle to survive against the Cultural Wars that they are facing to date.

But one thing that Biko and Wilson help do is to encourage the writing of African history from an African perspective by the Africans themselves, and Wilson gives a through definition and clarification as to what culture is. so that, this Hub combines the two observation, creating a Hub of Modern South Africa, and using a scholarly definition as to what culture is, and presenting this tow intellectuals and revolutionary's ideas, that closely uses, embraces and ir snynergizes their synthesis in order to produce a Hub filled with consciousness, historical cultural theory about what these cultures are, like and alike, with the use actual of close to authentic videos showing the performances that have been done those far by Africans in South Africa, along with their History, and a synergized-sysnthesis of it all as Modern African Culture.

gumboots dance story(South Africans performing at the Playhouse theater in London

Black Umfolosi - Live at Oxford Folk Festival 2006 - 2

GUM BOOTS - Northampton -South African - Dance-Singers

Gumboot Dancing - South Africa - Grahamstown

Kliptown Youth Center Gumboot Dance

Gumboot Dance

Africans had to be move from their villages and rural areas to work in the Gold and diamond mines. They brought with them their cultures and dances which they practiced on weekends when most people were off from their shift in the mining holes(close to two miles below the ground). The last Gumboot video above is the one reason why Hubs like this one are important to begin to expose fakes and those who paddle a people's culture without those people knowing that this is the case with their culture. from the Youtube video, I picked up this comment from Drick Mackridge:

It's a pity that this guy stoops to stealing other people's footage and labels them as his own "auditions!" Right from the footage to the voice over artist and script - they all belong to Hands On Promotions, AND we have the original Betacam footage and voice over tapes to prove this claim!!!

He wrote tis becasue the person who posted this video, wrote the following:

"Audition video for Johan Yssel Global Africa Entertainment"

Now, this part of the Hub I am not concerned with the theft that is so rampant regarding South African African Dances and music, but the fact that these people are the one who are actively selling, buying and owning and controlling a Culture they are not part of, nor understand, and neither are they promoting it for the good of the Africans in South Africa, but as a means to make a fast buck for themselves. This Hub is important because as one watches and goes through the videos presented above, some are written off as having been made from the perspective of Tourists, and the like; and then, in the end they show up on YouTube, with false interpretations with their blurbs and analysis which is wrong and nobody holds them accountable for the lies and distortions they are spreading on the viral stream.

The coming of Gumboot dances came because in the mines, the African miners were not allowed to be with their wives or children since they were made to live and sleep in barracks of which the beds were made of concete. As already stated, on weekends they would meet in a football field or arena built by the miners and commence their performances against or for each other. Amateur school and evening concerts became crucial to stylistic development in popular African Performing Afts. Ragtime and Jazz song and dance were favorites at these occasions and soon found their way int the emerging working-class culture of the cities, which made their own contributions to the stage.

Schools picked up new urban-influenced rural dances, even though missionaries forbade them. One such dance, is'cathulo (Zulu for 'shoe'), was adopted by students in Durban; from there it spread to dock workers who produced spectacular rhythmic effects by slapping and pounding their rubber Wellington boots in performance. All this rhythm made it popular with min and municipal laborers elsewhere, especially in Johannesburg. There it became "Gumboot' dance, divided into a series of routines and accompanied by a rhythm guitar. By 1919, Gumboot had filtered back into school concerts. It soon became a standard feature of urban variety entertainment, and a setting for satirizing characters and scenes drawn from African worklife. (Copland)


South Africa - Zulu Choir - Dressing room... Impromptu Performance

Brenda Fassie - Thola Amadlozi (Find The Ancestors)

The Cultural Voice Of Africans Of South africa

We Are A People Who Sing: Music And Dance Is The Culture Of Africans In South Africa

I would like to preface this part of the Hub with the remarks that I had already cited from Biko:

"These are essential features of our Black(African) culture[all I have shown above] to which we must "cling". Black(African) culture above all implies freedom on our part to innovate without recourse to White values. This innovation is part of the natural development of any culture of the natural development of any culture. A culture is essentially the society's composite answer to the varied problems of life. We are experiencing new problems every day and whatever we do adds to the richness of our cultural heritage "as long as it has man at its center". The adoption of Black(African) Theater and drama is one such important innovation which we need to encourage and develop. We Know That Our Love Of Music and Rhythm Has Relevance Even In This Day..(my emphasis in highlighting Bantu's words].

The Hub above is about the customary and traditional dance of the Africans of South Africa. Africa, as continent, has its own unique Dances and music. That is too much to deal with, and as I have said, I have tried to create a Hub that deals with African music in South Africa, Africa and theAfrican Diaspora. I will, in the future, create a Hub of the Music and Dance of the whole of Africa.

But the Hub above is based on the Customary, cultural, traditional dance and music of the African people of South Africa. Up to this point, I have not really broken down the actual activities, rites, traditions, an meanings attached to all the aspects of culture of South Africa when it it applied in many other areas . What I have done was to take the music, dance and performance of Africans South africans, given a short history of all, and made sure the videos somewhat meet the approval of the Africans of South Africa.

In order to achieve the aim above, I begun some trial runs of posting these and other videos and giving a short history of different nations of South Africa. By posting them on Facebook, this gave me an opportunity to receive harsh criticism and great raving reviews, that this compelled me to define "Culture" as broadly and at length using a few intellectual modern Africanists, to give shape, form and structure to this culture which has been heretofore never been done in the way I am just describing. That of selecting , for each Nation of South african Africans, several authentic traditional cultural videos, of the different 11(eleven) nations, and giving a short history of each nation, undergirding it with the definition of cultural theory and definitions thereof, summing up the reaction of the Africans of South Africa's reaction to their culture(albeit not in-depth), being posted on Facebook, and drawing lesson from that and in another way, explaining and tying everything up, to demonstrate the common things about this culture, and deconstructing and debunking the Apartheid myth that these nations are 'tribes', and presenting the whole Hub as a national consciousness raising attempt, in order to raise the African people's awareness of the power inherent and embedded in and within their own African culture. This, in a summary, was what the objective for writing this Hub was all about in its being written and created. This was done with an eye towards educating Africans of South Africans, and the people of the world about the culture of Africans and its importance and diversity, energy, beauty, dignity, humanity and relevance to Africans of South Africa and the World of Music and Culture, globally.

When Biko exhorted his fellow African countrymen to re-write and invent themselves anew, it was not merely good to be used only to be cited, but followed and an attempt be made to create, with what is already there, in this case, African culture, traditions, music and dance, to present them in a holistic and structurally coherent way. Biko admitted the the culture of Africans in south Africa was whacked out of shape by the constant Cultural wars that were and are still arrayed against it. He also pointed out to the fact that it still retains its original components, of which some of them I have presented here by culling from YouTube, and utilized historical precis, to give them background and content. This has then resulted in their creation of this Hub in the spirit and advice of Biko that African people should do for themselves all that they see fit, so long as it is in the interests of the suffering masses of South Africa.

Finally, having one's cultural identity as part of one's life, is key to national building because then it means the people in that culture know something about their self-identification. "Moreover, identification involves the process by which the individual or group is socialized to acquire those attitudes, values, interests, morals, ethics, tastes, skills, emotional and behavioral tendencies, and ways of thinking that the socializer deems appropriate to the person's gender, the person's or in the case of Whites and Blacks(Africans), the group's social role.

"In other words, identification refers to the process of fitting a person or group is fitted is usually the one(s) the socializer perceives as important in supporting his or its own position and in achieving or satisfying his/hers or its own position and in achieving and its own goals and needs.; or in terms of group relations, important to supporting, enhancing and empowering and helping the socializing group to achieve its economic, political, social and psychological objectives." (Wilson)

So that, in the final analysis, according to Wilson, ".. culture is to a significant extent a, a social product. A culture is socially manufactured, the handiwork of both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactions. A culture also manufactures social products. Some of the most important social products to generates include its ow cultural identity, the social and personal identities of its group and individual members".

African South Africans, through their culture have created a culture such as displayed and projected in this Hub. It shows the good qualities of of 'both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactions', which we witness from the videos presented in this Hub.Also, the social cultural product produced by the South African African culture are its dance, music and traditional clothing.. In this way, it has given the culture of Mzantsi its identity and voice. This in turn, hopefully, will give the poor African people their personal identities back, and empower them to realize and see themselves as one a Nation. Being that the dance and music is the cornerstone of African South African culture, there is no denying, from watching the videos, that African people of South Africa, are a people who sing, and and compose music and dance styles as is true to the nature their culture. They give their culture a strong, energetic and loving Human Face. Brenda Fassie in the Video below, in today's modern South Africa, sings about giving obeisance and recognition to African ancestors

Mfaz' Omnyama - Sxaxa Mbij´

The Cultural Music Of Africans Of South Africa

The Importance Of Intergenerational Transmission Of African Culture

Unlike Central and West Africa, communal(cultural music) in South Africa was basically vocal, with drumming, and other instrumental accompaniment, also, solo performances always involved dancing and gestures and synchronized by the singers themselves. There were at least two vice part in antiphonal, leaders-and-chorus relationship to each other, and the parts frequently overlapped, producing polyphony. An essential feature was that the two basic parts never entered or ended simultaneously.

"Additional counter-melodies were often added, and the leading part was frequently varied through extemporisation. with single-stringed mouth resonate instruments such as Sotho, "Lesiba"(Feather) and "Setolotolo"(Mouth Harp), vocal melody could be simulated through the selective resonation of harmonics. On gourd-resonated musical bows such as the Zulu Isugubhu(Zulu Drum), vocal chorals could be simulated, against which the player could sing an antiphonal leader's part, and choral music was often composed in this way.

In order to broaden my point above I will quote from Asa Hilliard who writes:

"As we continue our mission of socializing ourselves with the use of our own systems, we must begin with the understanding that African people laid the foundations for education and socialization. Some of the principles and practices that were outlined thousands of years ago, continue to influence people today. Later derived European systems diverged in important ways from the African value-based system, but key approaches were directly influenced by African master Teachers from the past(One can read my Hub titled: "Master Teacher of African History-Prof. John Henrik Clarke: African's Survival From antiquity To Beyond The 21st Century." Asa adds further that:


"The current negative and disrespctful view of Africa and /africans, by many, is very recent. For example, a careful review of European records featuring reports of early contracts with Africa, shows that they were in awe of African intellect and creativities. This is not surprising, as Nile Rive architecture, education, philosophy, science, mathematics, spirituality and more, influenced visitors and students from Europe. The students included Europe's finest, including many of it's, so-called, famous philosophers.

"In spite of centuries of attempts at ethnic cleansing and miseducation, there are ancient independent systems of indigenous African socialization that ate still in operation today, on the continent and in the Diaspora. These systems are not familiar to most of us anymore. Some of our socialization retentions are watered down versions of what we once had, while some have changed little since ancient times. These retentions provide opportunities to observe and learn about some of the indigenous socialization practices.

"Some African socialization retentions have been modified, and can be recognized only by well-prepared observers. Examples of African cultural retentions abound. Africans in Suriname, located on the North coast of South America, have managed to maintain traditional African culture; even more so than many contemporary Africans in ghana. They are able to maintain these traditions after almost four hundred years of physical separation from Ghana" (Counter and Evans, 1981)

Traditionally, varied rituals address every occasion in African traditional life. The rituals provide individuals with an opportunity to stand before the community for naming ceremonies, enstoolment ceremonies, initiation rites, harvest festivals and other times to link and collectively give thanks to God, the Ancestors and Nature. These rituals, and the purposes for them are common in Africa and the Diaspora. They provide an opportunity to promote community unity, to outline purpose and expectations, to reinforce the positive aspects of the culture, and to acknowledge the power of the Creator.

Most of the ceremonies give validation to the elders, children,t the leadership, and to any links that contribute to community health. Ceremonial practices help communities to affirm community tie and values.

"African socialization practices served to assist communities in day-to-day operations, collective survival, interpersonal relations, and basic quality of life issues. The content of an African education and socialization process contains many components which are modified according to the specific goals and aims of the community-as best presented by and in the Whole Hub above).

"The character of traditional African education reflects thousands of years of development(One Can read about thee issues in my Hub Titled: "Master Teacher of African History-Prof. John Henrik Clarke: African's Survival From Antiquity To Beyond The 21st Century." It is unique in terms of its purpose, its content, and its outcomes. An example of a traditional African view of the world is the idea that we live in a cosmos that is alive(The reader can see my Hub called "The Genesis of African Science and Technology: The Stars of the Deepest Origins-The Dogon's Planetary Cosmologic Knowhow."


Africans believe that "It is created by the Divine," Asa teaches. He further adds: "Human beings are a part of the Divine Cosmos, and we are aspects of the Divine; the Hidden Creator(See my Hub titles: "Egyptian God, Amon (Amen) The Invisible Creative Power - Hidden From View: Akhnaton, Moses and the Origins of Monotheism.") We are not alien to any part of the world.The core belief in Kemetic socialization is that the Divine is Manifest as MAAT, (a Kemetic or "Egyptian" term for ideas that have widespread presence in common world-views and value-views), meaning that the cosmos has order, balance, harmony, and reciprocity. At the behavioral level, there is truth, justice, and righteousness.

"So that, we must not be distracted by the false argument that, using African "Traditions in the Modern or Postmodern world" is useless, misguided, trivial, and irrelevant. there is o conflict between high technology and African traditions. The difference is that it myst be balanced with the traditional values which emphasize that technology must compliment nature, not destroy it. Even in the face of our greatness in these areas, some Africans ridicule our concern with the value of elements of antiquity as a source of orientation and practice for today. These same Africans, however, raise no objection to Europeans constant and pervasive use of their ancient culture.

Although few communities in Africa or the African Diaspora, continue to maintain authentic traditional structures for intergenerational cultural transmission today, there are still many sources from which we may recover much of what was left behind. The Hub above is precisely about that: the music, Dance, traditional garb and short histories of the eleven peoples of South Africa can be seen as written about and posted within this Hub above.

Umlazi Maskandi (Zulu People's Music)

Imithente

A Brief History Of The Recording Industry and the Music Of Africans in south Africa

One of the points that has not been discussed in-depth, is the relationship of the Recording Industry and their control/distribution of the Music of Africans of South Africa.

We learn from Copland that:

"In the 1920s and '30s. gramophone recordings and films became important for urban African performing arts. We know that recordings were available from Britain even before the First World War. some members of an African political delegation to London recorded African songs there as early as 1912. Imported recordings were so popular with school choirs and minstrel companies that some educators complained that gramophones were retarding the growth of African musical literacy and promoting foreign musical styles at the expense of "African National Culture."

The same scene is what we are witnessing again, that, the National music of Africans has been pushed aside for the music of America and Europe. The contemporary "free" African, has ignored his indigenous music, and imbibes foreign music at the expense of his orignal African music/musicans.

"Afro-American styles became well established in urban African entertainment during the inter-war period. East London's Gipsy Melody Makers popularized a Xhosa translation of "When My Sugar Walks Down The Street"; the youthful Manhattan Brothers of Pimville location/Township(Johannesburg) imitated the Mills Brothers; and the Merry Blackbirds played the music of Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Louis Jordan, and Sy Oliver from written orchestrations. This form of voluntary acculturation was generated largely by the communications media, rather than by direct contact between different cultures or peoples.

"By the mid-1920s English recording companies sensed the potential of the African market. In 1925, Zonophone began a small series of records by educated visiting African South Africans and experimented with portable recording equipment on the Rand Gold Mines. Nationalist political leaers H, Selby Msimang and Sol Plaatjie recorded African folk songs and hymns, including "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfriaka," and migrants performed rural folk music.

"Soon Pathe, HMV, Columbia, and Polydor had all established branch offices in Johannesburg, and Brunswick and Decca were selling foreign recording through Gallo, a local representative. Gramophones became an item of status among urban Africans. Companies were pleased to discover that Africans would buy everything produced for them, though humorous musical folk stories in African languages were especially popular.

"With the success of "African" recordings, companies sent Africans to record in London, since there were as yet no studios as such in South Africa. In 1930, Reuben Caluza and a group of performers recorded more than 120 selections there for HMV. These were of three types: 'records specially for Africans, , partially westernized and for the Educated Africans, and they included many of Caluza's own compositions.

"In south Africa, they sold as well as the popular imported recordings by African Americans and contributed greatly to Caluza's influence on local performers. In the same year, Griffiths Motsieloa and the Shangaan Choral composer Daniel Marivate, each made London recordings for Decca

Blues Ntaka & The Daveyton Choir - Xhosa-Amaqwati

Xhosa - Uyaphiteni Ngomlomo (Leave this thing, This Is Mine!)

Miriam Makeba - Oxam

Letta Mbulu - Use Mncane (Little One)

Dumile Feni's sculptures spotlight the difference between white and black in South Africa. Portraits displaying clear characteristics of native Africans remain

Dumile Feni's Sculptor and Art
Dumile Feni's Sculptor and Art | Source

South African And International Recording Industry's History With

In 1932 Gallo set up the first recording studio in Johannesburg, and other companies quickly followed suit. In 1935, HMV had an "African" catalogue of 366 discs with sales totaling 86,436. With local studios, the companies took advantage of the popularity of indigenous recordings among the migrant workers. Though these workers did not consider music a potential profession, competition for prestige among song composers and instrumentalists was extended to recording. A stream of migrant instrumentalists presented themselves at the studios and made one or two recordings each, more to be lionized by their peers than for the fee of a a few shilings(per side).

"Companies hired some players as permanent staff. If they could think of no more tunes to record, they were given a four bar segment of an American song to play over and over in the African maner. this practice has continued until today and has strongly affected urban popular music directed at the migrant audience.

"The record companies were eager to meed the demand for music by African performers but were generally unfamiliar with the wealth and diversity of local musical styles. They drew their talent from the mines and the Townships during the early 1930s, and tended to rely on mission school Africans like Mike Mark Radebe for advice about what to record. Radebe himself made a number of recordings for Columbia and created opportunities for other middle-class performers. In 1938, Griffiths Motsieloa became Gallos' first African talent scout.

"These men ignored the "Marabi" music of the shebeen(Taverns, today) society, which they considered degraded and unworthy of preservation. "Marabi" did not appear on records until 1940s, when it had been blended with swing by the Jazz band and worked its way into the concertina and guitar songs of the migrants. Muff Andersson suggests that the emphasis on rural styles, whether traditional, migrant, or mission school, reflected the White South african view of Africans as "temporary sojourners" in the their land and cities.

"In retrospect, it appears that the record companies suffered more from ignorance of the size, sophistication, and commitment of urban African communities than from any conscious desire to advance homeland identification among them." In not so many words, they were kow-towing to the dictates/laws of the Apartheid rulers of the time."

Kwela Marabi Jazz

Mahlathini & The Mahotella Queens - Re Ya Dumedisa

Musical Companies Biased Production

Copland continues:

'The growth of the South African music industry had important cultural consequences for urban South African communities. By distributing imported music, the companies offered Africans a ready-made, deceptively attractive solution to the dilemma of urban cultural Indentity. As musical specialization increased, musicians increased their status by turning away from indigenous popular music and acquiring the ability to produce imported styles.

"Yet, the popularity of African American styles created new problems, made more difficult by the growing involvement of the commercial media in urban African performing arts.The contradiction involved in basing the expression of urban African identity on the assimilation of African American models became apparent as performers reorientated themselves towards a multi-racial and international audience beginning in the late 1930s.

"Performers who wished to appeal to the large African working-class audience had to draw upon indigenous performance culture. Nevertheless, the internationalism of African jazz became part of a struggle against cultural isolation and segregation and expressed the aspirations of the majority of urban Africans. The social status of professional performer therefore, arose during the 1930s, a trend that continued until the 1960(and has begun to reassert itself in under the rule of the ANC-led government, today.

"The development of local recording meant that the African community had to compete with the White media industry for their performers. White companies could now buy African performance culture from the musicians and sell it back at a profit to the communities from which it came. In the process, African cultural autonomy was further threatened because record producers influenced the actual composition, manner of performance, and the stylistic development of the music. American popular culture and the entertainment media profoundly affected urban African performing arts during succeeding decades, but the thread of indigenous, independent cultural development was never lost. All these trends are evident in the culture of what was South Africa's most vital and autonomous urban community."

Sophiatown was destroyed by the Apartheid regime and the new town built over there was dubbed "Triomf"(Triumph", by the Apartheid regime.


Ladysmith Black Mambazo & Soweto Gospel Choir

Spokes Mashiyane - Phatha Phatha (Take Charge, 1960s)

Spokes Mashiyane & Lemmy 'Special' Mabaso - Manyatela

South African music 3

South African music 4

Running Away From Our African Selves

What we have learned from the short history of the recording Industry in south is that it is foreign owned and foreign dominated/conditioned and determined. The distortion and condition foisted upon the musical and dance culture of South Africa is nearly totally complete. When we begin to see and understand the latest musical genre, Kwaito, by understanding and reading up on the history of music from 1912, the goal has been simply to control and dictate to the music of Africans in South Africa by Britain, the US and other Western country. This has had a deleterious and devastating effect on the Africans of South Africa.

We learn from Asa what has happened and the effects are, what we should do and observe about the effects and affects of the foreign musical industry has had on south Africa. I have already cited Copland's assessment of these affects, and Asa looks at this even in a much more in-depth dig.

"One of the greatest obstacles to our clear vision and healthy growth as African people is the lack of unity(For us in south Africa, this has been set up and constructed by the Apartheid regime amongst Africans of south Africa). This is no accident as the "Balance"(Maafa), was eradicated, which enabled the Colonizers to separate Africans from traditional spiritual values, family, culture, and land/[music/dance and customs].

"Africans were tortured and killed for practicing traditional religions, speaking traditional languages, using African names, and more.Bu the time Africans had gained a semblance of freedom to reclaim traditional practices, anti-African propaganda machines had already succeeded in enforcing a mental disengagement between Africans and anything African.

"The lingering result has been mental and social confusion which has prevented African from being themselves. the result has also been that Africans are unable to unite and work to achieve true freedom. This lack of unity is in direct rejection of indigenous African principles which promote a strong sense of community.

"There is no need to struggle to change the minds of those who make a personal choice to function as an individual and not as a member of an ethnic family; with the obligations that family membership entails. But we do need to be clear about who chooses to be in the family and who prefers to be an individual or just "happens to be Black(African)"

"Understanding this distinction will clarify the kinds of expectations or challenges which might be posed by certain people. It will help us to know who will be an advocate for African liberation versus who will be an opportunistic individual.

"Restricting one's identity to physical characteristics is equal to acquiescing to the European domination strategy of ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide.. People often confuse "race" with 'ethnic" and 'cultural' identity. When we see people who look like us, we assume that they all regard themselves as members of the African ethnic family; in addition to being "Black."

"Many Africans believe that our only real struggle is to join the mythical "mainstream" as individuals. While we, as Africans, may have individual distinctions connected to religion, class, nationality, etc., we must be careful not to allow these distinctions to divide us in the name of service tot he oppressors.

"Even as oppressors make an unapologetic commitment to the deculturizing Africans, they work very hard to present African or Darker skinned people of the world as being inhuman spirits in need of domination, yet, sensible people know that we are all members of the human race. Still, the fact that many people prefer to pretend that Darker humans are not the one who continue to catch the brunt of oppressive laws, behavior, and overall exploitation do not change that reality.

"It is by design that to say, many African people around the world, cry that they do not want to be culturally connected to Africans. "Color me human and do not separate me" is the shallow cry of those bent on perpetuating a mythical "colorless" yet firmly European orientation; as if to suggest that claiming, respecting, and using one's indigenous traditions is anti-human."

Dumile Feni's Sculpture Below is Called "rovenance

The Dumile Feni Family Trust Dumile Feni is one of South Africa's enigmatic artists who played an important role cultivating a unique form of expression that piercingly articulated the repressive social, economic and political conditions of his time.
The Dumile Feni Family Trust Dumile Feni is one of South Africa's enigmatic artists who played an important role cultivating a unique form of expression that piercingly articulated the repressive social, economic and political conditions of his time. | Source

This Is The Story Of OUr Music As Africans Of Mzatnsi

The brief history above of the recording industry helps us to glean the fact that Colonialism was not only enslaving people for the profit motif, but it was also the colonization of their culture and and everything about their lives, dictating and foisting upon them rules and regulation as the colonizers and the the Apartheidizers, in particular, resorted to and applied with impunity.

We see how the recording of African music was done outside South Africa(London) from the 1912, and was taken over by Gallo(in the 1930s), and Gallo worked against the interests of the African musicians whilst it collaborated with the Apartheid regime. As we have noted above, Gallo worked with those African musicians, they chose and promoted, to be the ones to be scout for music and musicians in the African community, and what they did in turn was fleece and screw the African musicians and their musicians, for its own gain(paying them ten shillings for a side) and making mega profits, and in the process, shaping and distorting the music of Africans.

Copland also tells us that many African musicians never took up to the 'competititve' nature imposed upon them by the Western recording promoters and industry, instead, in the Shebeens(now called the Taverns, the owners of these entities(Shebeens) allowed and were more interested in 'live' music, and this was performed on their premises, and this was also the music that was never recorded-but remained known and popular in the African communities.

It is also interesting to note that some White South Africa writers here on the HubPages and in their Blogs are today the "Authorities" about African music and artists. Because they have unlimited access to the Web and can afford to buy computers and so forth, they are recognized by their readers and peers and specialist about African music. For one, a person like me, would never even get the White traffic that one sees on the Hubs or Blogs of these White writers about African music, including their articles on African culture, which, really harkens back to the time when the white people were our(African) self-appointed spokes-people about what our culture, music, thinking and beingness, as Africans, is all about. This continues up to this day.

We do have our own stories, as African people that we will be telling and talking about regarding our African music, artists, culture and history. This will never be blocked, stopped nor ignored(as is the case now about such articles as I write here on FB). There is nothing new here, that is how the White people of South Africa, well intentioned(some paltry few may be) and paternalistic attitude towards us as Africans, have elected and imposed themselves upon a people they have never lived with, nor really understand what music means to us.

Now that we have unlimited access to the Web, some of us poor Africans, have made it our business to learn, study and know all facets and aspects of our existence within our: History, Customs, Traditions, Cultures, Traditions, Traditional Rites and Practices, Languages, Music, Dances and we are, those of us in the contemporary Technological age/era and societies, ask for no permission from any writers, critics, reviewers and so forth from the White society. We, Africans of Mzantsi will lay out, explain, tell, discuss, talk about and to show the world what our African culture, music, dances and so forth is all about. It has nothing to do with disliking White people, but it has everything to do do with us, as an African people of Mzantsi, reclaiming "All" that is ours, and some of us have begun to and have, in fact, posted here on HubPages what I am asserting above.

Letta Mbulu- Jikijela Ngamatje

Jabu Khanyile Bayete - Umkhaya-Lo: In this song or Album/CD, "Umkhaya-lo", Jabu Khanyile encourages us to marry each other, to preserve our cultural Ubuntu, cus

Brenda Fassie - "Wewe"(Wedding song)...: (Just To Clear the Air here: Brenda Fassie Is An African South African , born and raised here in Mzantsi-African South

Hita Famba Moyeni Paul Ndlovu

Hugh Masekela ~ "Market Place"...

Witchdoctor's Son - Magwaza by Johny Dyani/Dudu Phukwana... I think the Title Is "Magwaza-The Witchdoctor's Son)

Batsumi Reissue

LETTA MBULU - "NOMALIZO" - (Name of Girl from the Rural Areas To The Big City)...

Fikile Magadlela

Fikeile Magadlela's Art
Fikeile Magadlela's Art | Source

Thandiswa Mazwai - Lahl' Umlenze"(Throw Your Leg)..

Simphiwe Dana featuring Mthwakazi - iNkwenkwezi(The Star) ~ (Live)..

Phillip Tabane and Malombo - "Live at The Market Theatre"...

South African Music (Uya kwini ka rose remix)(where Are You going at Rose)....

Winston "Mankunku" Ngozi -" Yakhal' Inkomo" ~ ("And The Cow Bellowed")

South Africa - Mahlathini & Mahotella Queens - "Kazet" Live...

Caiphus Semenya - "Ziph'inkomo" (Where are the Cows For the Dowry)

Hugh Masekela - "Grazing In The Grass"...

These are the times, today, that we, Africans of Mzantsi will have to narrate, write and tell our own stories without any other ethnic group being our spokes-people. For one, living with and amongst Africans as an African person in the Townships, we have a different take as to our music. Our musicians are our Djali's(Griots) who are really adept at capturing the spirit and voice(Voice) of the people).

Apartheid controlled the lives of African people, and this extends to their culture, customs, traditions, languages, music and so forth. There has always been some resistance to Apartheid in many ways. As Copland has pointed out, the musicians and the, as those who drve the African people into action, dance and appreciation of their music, did not buy into the the Capitalist/Apartheid intent of foisting the competition amongst themselves.

In the Townships, in the early fifties and sixties, there were beer/Shebeen raids by the police. Africans had to hide their liquor by digging the ground and hiding it. And if the police find these hiding spots, they would come and spill the liquor and arrest many people, selling the concoction, and the patrons and musicians too, were arrested in these Apartheid police forays.

The movement of Africans from the rural areas to the Townships in search of work in the Big cities, created an African cultural fusion of the Apartheid 'fictionallly-segregated-so-called-tribes".

Mzantsi Proletariat

The urban proletaria was not the passive clay out of which the forces of the traditional society of the urban industrial society moulded a culture. The formation of the urban proletariat culture was the result of a fusion of constitutive and imposed forces, and involved the energy and adaptive.creative capacity of human beings to affect or even resturcture their relationship with their environment, exemplified by the development of new languages, for example, "Kasi slang, new societal cultural forms like the "Stokvel(akin to the Caribbean Susu) and new genres of music(Mbaqanga, a cappella, choirs,, Marabi(penny-whistle sounds) and music of Semanjemanje(Modern Sounds), South African Soul Music and bands[The Movers, Teenage Lovers, The In-Laws, The Beaters(later changed to Harari) and Monkey Jive dances), Music of ZCC singer(of Lekganyane; the Big brass band of Rev. Manku and the other Big bands from the Police force and those of the Red Cross and other such-like churches and organizations.

A lot of African have been caught-up in trying to distinguish music that ws dictated to by Apartheid and the International recording companies

ZCC Church/ The Beaters/Harari

Lekganyane's ZCC Church Males Dancers and singers
Lekganyane's ZCC Church Males Dancers and singers | Source
The Beaters-Tehn Re-named Harari
The Beaters-Tehn Re-named Harari
Isigqi Sesimanjemanje was formed in the late 1980s. Regular Electric Jive readers will be aware that this group was born out of one of the country's most popular mbaqanga girl groups, Izintombi Zesi Manje Manje (The modern girls), who - along with th
Isigqi Sesimanjemanje was formed in the late 1980s. Regular Electric Jive readers will be aware that this group was born out of one of the country's most popular mbaqanga girl groups, Izintombi Zesi Manje Manje (The modern girls), who - along with th

The Musical And Kaleidoscopixal Mosaic Sounds of the People Of Mzantsi

The Church of Lekhanyane has bought some old churches throughout my Township and early in the morning, as one can note from the video above, the dance, sing, in solid rhythm and thump the ground so har, that one can actually feel the individual jumps/dances of its members. At the same time, we have the brass bands of Rev. Manku, who would belt their songs, very early on Sunday mornings, whilst we were still in our beds.

Many-a-times with so many wedding around in the townships, we got entertained by live bands and very popular musicians, most of whom were our neighbors and friends/fathers, and their musician friends; at some times, someone would just be celebrating their ancestors, and after doing their traditional/customary and cultural rites and practices, we would be treated to music by the live band and the whole Township would be swinging.

Groups like The Beaters/Harari, the Young Lovers, The In-Laws, The Teenage Lovers, The Red Flames, The Heroes, were our weekend entertainment, for free, and we would be dress in what was called Polo Caps, bermuda and doing the Monkey Jive, or belonging to Dance Troupes, The High Ballon and the like, and competing against each other in front of live Bands performing in the Yard or Stoop of any house for that weekend.

There were many Festivals throughout the Stadiums and halls or open spaces in the Township of Soweto, and so forth, where when we attended, were entertained to Jazz(by local Jazz ensembles, Popular music and traditional songs. The Mbaqanga groups commanded a serious and total following in their gigs, too. There were Church and school choirs where we sang our traditional songs or listened to people of other churches render their own ditties. Coirs like the Ionians and Baragwanath and Teachers Coirs were and are still the best we have in Mzantsi. The latter tow have not yet been posted on YouTube, but there is vinyl and tapes of their performances.

We have traditional singers(iZngomas and Traditional healers who have their healing and entertainment dances and music accompanied by drums and other percussive instruments. There are the churches of the African Zion Churches, very many, who too, sing and are accompanied by Drums. We also have music from the diverse Nations of Mzantsi which is sang in concerts, in the Townships and so forth. When I was growing up in the early sixties, we had singing groups for weddings

Lekaganyane Church and Its Music

Awufuni Ukulandela Na? by Izintombi Zesi Manje Manje

The Beaters - Push It On

Saitana-The disco

Herb Alpert & Hugh Masekela - Skokiaan

Malombo - Perefere

Batsumi Reissue

The Pithiness of Our Humanbeingness

Activity and music in the African communities is synonymous. Work and sork and rhythm amakes the day go by. A lot of people when trying to explain the music of South Africa use the common strictures and structures that define Western or European music. For us, when we explain our music, we note and denote the feelings, spirituality, customary deflection/inflection and timbre of language, voicing it the music is being sung; the communal African togetherness of fusing our consciousness as one, recognizing the present and the past and reflecting the future. It is the way the piano drums, music, guitars and the singers voices and melodies that anchor us into our collective cultural experiences, memories and existence.

Our whole life experiences are embedded within and without our music, dances, historical, cultural traditional and sacred memories, remembrance, ancestors and the whole bit. We do not look and feel and listen to our sounds as if that is one is Bubble-gum music, jazz, or something else. We know our music to be our life's experiences, our cultural reality, entertainment, and the accent of the different "genres" is the magnification and presentation of our selves, cultures, tradition, stories, history, traditions, customs and everything that we do as a people. This is very important.

Scathamiya Medley

African Music Bombers

Ladysmith Black Mambazo - Wentomb'unecala Live

Zulu Messengers - Sidliwa ngoShameni

Music In Mzantsi....

Ultra Worldwide will literally be taking over the world in 2014! As the world’s premiere electronic music festival, Ultra will be hitting the road, making new stops in South Africa
Ultra Worldwide will literally be taking over the world in 2014! As the world’s premiere electronic music festival, Ultra will be hitting the road, making new stops in South Africa | Source

Africans Of South Africa Do Not Have To Justify Their Culture - They Are It

There's been a lot written about Africans and their culture in south Africa, and there has been more written about how their culture was useless, infantile and irrelevant. What is disconcerting about the statement I have just made above, is the fact that, even today, when one reads carefully what is being written about Africans and "their culture", by the defenders of the history of Europeans, in a very coded and couched in 'deliberately ignorant way", which is nothing but the fortification of the existing narrative of the right of Europeans to take land, culture and the humanity of Africans, is truly beguiling.

Africans of South Africa do not have to justify or explain their culture and themselves to nobody, and should be keenly aware that they are their culture, and they live in it and with it-through it. As I have noted above, what music, for example, means to Africans, is not what the apologists for White supremacy are saying or writing about. It is maddening to read and research what has been written by Whites, is, according to them, true, correct and spot on as it pertains to Africans .

It should be clear by now that South Africa is an unequal country/society. It is marked by inequality of power, of wealth, of access to the means for acquiring power and/or wealth, of education, and of status-that have so far been created by Whites/Europeans. Most Whites see/pretend conveniently that these inequalities are the result of the unequal contribution made by the various ethnic groups-Which is obfuscating the reality and truth of this part of history. And that the whites have "brought civilization, developed industry, etc., and it is only natural that they should take the lion's share. Which on its face is a lie and has been the historical thread that has been regurgitated by utilized/believed to be true by White People in South Africa and America, etc.

There is this constant and consistent belief and condescending arrogant charge by Whites is that 'Africans have not really contributed, either because they are biologically inferior, or because they are culturally inferior. And this belief amongst the Whites who hold fast onto the perception that they(whites) cannot bridge that cultural gap , yet it is still existing in the first place and is at the origin and basis of today's inequalities and racism. Most Africans, on the other hand, see these inequalities as being largely the result of exploitation and of inequality/racism towards their culture and humanity by Europeans.

I writing the Hub above, this is one of the preliminary steps we are taking as Africans to reclaim our culture. I do this by narrating the progression of the history of these cultural wars, and also, make choices of music that we Africans know and love, and in the process, impugn the reality and how the music is connected to and appreciated by Africans of South Africa from an African point of view, and by an African Historian.

As usual, whenever we Africans write about our history, culture, customs, traditions and so forth, we are always anticipating an attack from White people, either direct, or being ignored s being irrelevant. Well, the time is now that we say, what one has read and listened to, thus far, is the music and dances of Africans of South Africa, and we have a lot to say about, despite our detractors. Our culture is diverse,and it is not made by tribes(by the way, this is 2014), and we are still addressed(as a people) as tribes and backward, lest we morph into being pseudo and poor copies of our European tormentors. To this point I say, time is now that Any White person that has anything to add to detract from this Hub, is more than welcome, because, this is what we, the Africans of Mzantsi have to write and say about culture, history, traditions, Customs and so forth, and are not going to ask permission for no one, nor apologize for all that has been sad in this Hub up to this point.

World Festival Is Headed To South Africa In 2015 (Cape Town)

Yes, the rumours are true, the world famous electronic music festival, TomorrowLand, will be coming to South Africa in February 2015. TomorrowLand, which has been held in Belgium for the past eight years, is one of the largest and sought after intern
Yes, the rumours are true, the world famous electronic music festival, TomorrowLand, will be coming to South Africa in February 2015. TomorrowLand, which has been held in Belgium for the past eight years, is one of the largest and sought after intern | Source

Amilcar Cabral

The Importance of National Liberation and Culture/History
The Importance of National Liberation and Culture/History | Source

Cabral Discurses on Culture and Liberation

National Liberation and Culture

Amilcar Cabral

This text was originally delivered on February 20, 1970; as part of the Eduardo Mondlane (1) Memorial Lecture Series at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, under the auspices of The Program of Eastern African Studies. It was translated from the French by Maureen Webster.

When Goebbels, the brain behind Nazi propaganda, heard culture being discussed, he brought out his revolver. That shows that the Nazis, who were and are the most tragic expression of imperialism and of its thirst for domination--even if they were all degenerates like Hitler, had a clear idea of the value of culture as a factor of resistance to foreign domination.
History teaches us that, in certain circumstances, it is very easy for the foreigner to impose his domination on a people. But it also teaches us that, whatever may be the material aspects of this domination, it can be maintained only by the permanent, organized repression of the cultural life of the people concerned. Implantation of foreign domination can be assured definitively only by physical liquidation of a significant part of the dominated population.

In fact, to take up arms to dominate a people is, above all, to take up arms to destroy, or at least to neutralize, to paralyze, its cultural life. For, with a strong indigenous cultural life, foreign domination cannot be sure of its perpetuation. At any moment, depending on internal and external factors determining the evolution of the society in question, cultural resistance (indestructible) may take on new forms (political, economic, armed) in order fully to contest foreign domination.

The ideal for foreign domination, whether imperialist or not, would be to choose:

either to liquidate practically all the population of the dominated country, thereby eliminating the possibilities for cultural resistance;
or to succeed in imposing itself without damage to the culture of the dominated people--that is, to harmonize economic and political domination of these people with their cultural personality.
The first hypothesis implies genocide of the indigenous population and creates a void which empties foreign domination of its content and its object: the dominated people. The second hypothesis has not, until now, been confirmed by history. The broad experience of mankind allows us to postulate that it has no practical viability: it is not possible to harmonize the economic and political domination of a people, whatever may be the degree of their social development, with the preservation of their cultural personality.
In order to escape this choice--which may be called the dilemma of cultural resistance--imperialist colonial domination has tried to create theories which, in fact, are only gross formulations of racism, and which, in practice, are translated into a permanent state of siege of the indigenous populations on the basis of racist dictatorship (or democracy).

This, for example, is the case with the so-called theory of progressive assimilation of native populations, which turns out to be only a more or less violent attempt to deny the culture of the people in question. The utter failure of this "theory," implemented in practice by several colonial powers, including Portugal, is the most obvious proof of its lack of viability, if not of its inhuman character. It attains the highest degree of absurdity in the Portuguese case, where Salazar affirmed that Africa does not exist.

This is also the case with the so-called theory of apartheid, created, applied and developed on the basis of the economic and political domination of the people of Southern Africa by a racist minority, with all the outrageous crimes against humanity which that involves. The practice of apartheid takes the form of unrestrained exploitation of the labor force of the African masses, incarcerated and repressed in the largest concentration camp mankind has ever known.

These practical examples give a measure of the drama of foreign imperialist domination as it confronts the cultural reality of the dominated people. They also suggest the strong, dependent and reciprocal relationships existing between the cultural situation and the economic (and political) situation in the behavior of human societies. In fact, culture is always in the life of a society (open or closed), the more or less conscious result of the economic and political activities of that society, the more or less dynamic expression of the kinds of relationships which prevail in that society, on the one hand between man (considered individually or collectively) and nature, and, on the other hand, among individuals, groups of individuals, social strata or classes.

The value of culture as an element of resistance to foreign domination lies in the fact that culture is the vigorous manifestation on the ideological or idealist plane of the physical and historical reality of the society that is dominated or to be dominated. Culture is simultaneously the fruit of a people’s history and a determinant of history, by the positive or negative influence which it exerts on the evolution of relationships between man and his environment, among men or groups of men within a society, as well as among different societies. Ignorance of this fact may explain the failure of several attempts at foreign domination--as well as the failure of some international liberation movements.

Let us examine the nature of national liberation. We shall consider this historical phenomenon in its contemporary context, that is, national liberation in opposition to imperialist domination. The latter is, as we know, distinct both in form and in content from preceding types of foreign domination (tribal, military-aristocratic, feudal, and capitalist domination in time free competition era).

The principal characteristic, common to every kind of imperialist domination, is the negation of the historical process of the dominated people by means of violently usurping the free operation of the process of development of the productive forces. Now, in any given society, the level of development of the productive forces and the system for social utilization of these forces (the ownership system) determine the mode of production. In our opinion, the mode of production whose contradictions are manifested with more or less intensity through the class struggle, is the principal factor in the history of any human group, the level of the productive forces being the true and permanent driving power of history.

For every society, for every group of people, considered as an evolving entity, the level of the productive forces indicates the stage of development of the society and of each of its components in relation to nature, its capacity to act or to react consciously in relation to nature. It indicates and conditions the type of material relationships (expressed objectively or subjectively) which exists among the various elements or groups constituting the society in question. Relationships and types of relationships between man and nature, between man and his environment. Relationships and type of relationships among the individual or collective components of a society. To speak of these is to speak of history, but it is also to speak of culture.

Whatever may be the ideological or idealistic characteristics of cultural expression, culture is an essential element of the history of a people. Culture is, perhaps, the product of this history just as the flower is the product of a plant. Like history, or because it is history, culture has as its material base the level of the productive forces and the mode of production. Culture plunges its roots into the physical reality of the environmental humus in which it develops, and it reflects the organic nature of the society, which may be more or less influenced by external factors. History allows us to know the nature and extent of the imbalance and conflicts (economic, political and social) which characterize the evolution of a society; culture allows us to know the dynamic syntheses which have been developed and established by social conscience to resolve these conflicts at each stage of its evolution, in the search for survival and progress.

Just as happens with the flower in a plant, in culture there lies the capacity (or the responsibility) for forming and fertilizing the seedling which will assure the continuity of history, at the same time assuring the prospects for evolution and progress of the society in question. Thus it is understood that imperialist domination by denying the historical development of the dominated people, necessarily also denies their cultural development. It is also understood why imperialist domination, like all other foreign domination for its own security, requires cultural oppression and the attempt at direct or indirect liquidation of the essential elements of the culture of the dominated people.

The study of the history of national liberation struggles shows that generally these struggles are preceded by an increase in expression of culture, consolidated progressively into a successful or unsuccessful attempt to affirm the cultural personality of the dominated people, as a means of negating the oppressor culture. Whatever may be the conditions of a people's political and social factors in practicing this domination, it is generally within the culture that we find the seed of opposition, which leads to the structuring and development of the liberation movement.

In our opinion, the foundation for national liberation rests in the inalienable right of every people to have their own history whatever formulations may be adopted at the level of international law. The objective of national liberation, is therefore, to reclaim the right, usurped by imperialist domination, namely: the liberation of the process of development of national productive forces. Therefore, national liberation takes place when, and only when, national productive forces are completely free of all kinds of foreign domination. The liberation of productive forces and consequently the ability to determine the mode of production most appropriate to the evolution of the liberated people, necessarily opens up new prospects for the cultural development of the society in question, by returning to that society all its capacity to create progress.

A people who free themselves from foreign domination will be free culturally only if, without complexes and without underestimating the importance of positive accretions from the oppressor and other cultures, they return to the upward paths of their own culture, which is nourished by the living reality of its environment, and which negates both harmful influences and any kind of subjection to foreign culture. Thus, it may be seen that if imperialist domination has the vital need to practice culturaloppression, national liberation is necessarily an act of culture.

On the basis of what has just been said, we may consider the national liberation movement as the organized political expression of the culture of the people who are undertaking the struggle. For this reason, those who lead the movement must have a clear idea of the value of the culture in the framework of the struggle and must have a thorough knowledge of the people's culture, whatever may be their level of economic development.

In our time it is common to affirm that all peoples have a culture. The time is past when, in an effort to perpetuate the domination of a people, culture was considered an attribute of privileged peoples or nations, and when, out of either ignorance or malice, culture was confused with technical power, if not with skin color or the shape of one's eyes. The liberation movement, as representative and defender of the culture of the people, must be conscious of the fact that, whatever may be the material conditions of the society it represents, the society is the bearer and creator of culture. The liberation movement must furthermore embody the mass character, the popular character of the culture--which is not and never could be the privilege of one or of some sectors of the society.

In the thorough analysis of social structure which every liberation movement should be capable of making in relation to the imperative of the struggle, the cultural characteristics of each group in society have a place of prime importance. For, while the culture has a mass character, it is not uniform, it is not equally developed in all sectors of society. The attitude of each social group toward the liberation struggle is dictated by its social group toward the liberation struggle is dictated by its economic interests, but is also influenced profoundly by its culture. It may even be admitted that these differences in cultural level explain differences in behavior toward the liberation movement on the part of individuals who belong to the same socio-economic group. It is at the point that culture reaches its full significance for each individual: understanding and integration in to his environment, identification with fundamental problems and aspirations of the society, acceptance of the possibility of change in the direction of progress.

In the specific conditions of our country--and we would say, of Africa--the horizontal and vertical distribution of levels of culture is somewhat complex. In fact, from villages to towns, from one ethnic group to another, from one age group to another, from the peasant to the workman or to the indigenous intellectual who is more or less assimilated, and, as we have said, even from individual to individual within the same social group, the quantitative and qualitative level of culture varies significantly. It is of prime importance for the liberation movement to take these facts into consideration.

In societies with a horizontal social structure, such as the Balante, for example, the distribution of cultural levels is more or less uniform, variations being linked uniquely to characteristics of individuals or of age groups. On the other hand, in societies with a vertical structure, such as the Fula, there are important variations from the top to the bottom of the social pyramid. These differences in social structure illustrate once more the close relationship between culture and economy, and also explain differences in the general or sectoral behavior of these two ethnic groups in relation to the liberation movement.

It is true that the multiplicity of social and ethnic groups complicates the effort to determine the role of culture in the liberation movement. But it is vital not to lose sight of the decisive importance of the liberation struggle, even when class structure is to appear to be in embryonic stages of development.

The experience of colonial domination shows that, in the effort to perpetuate exploitation, the colonizers not only creates a system to repress the cultural life of the colonized people; he also provokes and develops the cultural alienation of a part of the population, either by so-called assimilation of indigenous people, or by creating a social gap between the indigenous elites and the popular masses. As a result of this process of dividing or of deepening the divisions in the society, it happens that a considerable part of the population, notably the urban or peasant petite bourgeoisie, assimilates the colonizer's mentality, considers itself culturally superior to its own people and ignores or looks down upon their cultural values. This situation, characteristic of the majority of colonized intellectuals, is consolidated by increases in the social privileges of the assimilated or alienated group with direct implications for the behavior of individuals in this group in relation to the liberation movement. A reconversion of minds--of mental set--is thus indispensable to the true integration of people into the liberation movement. Such reonversion--re-Africanization, in our case--may take place before the struggle, but it is completed only during the course of the struggle, through daily contact with the popular masses in the communion of sacrifice required by the struggle.

However, we must take into account the fact that, faced with the prospect of political independence, the ambition and opportunism from which the liberation movement generally suffers may bring into the struggle unconverted individuals. The latter, on the basis of their level of schooling, their scientific or technical knowledge, but without losing any of their social class biases, may attain the highest positions in the liberation movement. Vigilance is thus indispensable on the cultural as well as the political plane. For, in the liberation movement as elsewhere, all that glitters is not necessarily gold: political leaders--even the most famous--may be culturally alienated people. But the social class characteristics of the culture are even more discernible in the behavior of privileged groups in rural areas, especially in the case of ethnic groups with a vertical social structure, where, nevertheless, assimilation or cultural alienation influences are non-existent or practically non-existent. This is the case, for example, with the Fula ruling class. Under colonial domination, the political authority of this class (traditional chiefs, noble families, religious leaders) is purely nominal, and the popular masses know that true authority lies with an is acted upon by colonial administrators. However, the ruling class preserves in essence its basic cultural authority over the masses and this has very important political implications.

Recognizing this reality, the colonizer who represses or inhibits significant cultural activity on the part of the masses at the base of the social pyramid, strengthens and protects the prestige and the cultural influence of the ruling class at the summit. The colonizer installs chiefs who support him and who are to some degree accepted by the masses; he gives these chiefs material privileges such as education for their eldest children, creates chiefdoms where they did not exist before, develops cordial relations with religious leaders, builds mosques, organizes journeys to Mecca, etc. And above all, by means of the repressive organs of colonial administration, he guarantees economic and social privileges to the ruling class in their relations with the masses. All this does not make it impossible that, among these ruling classes, there may be individuals or groups of individuals who join the liberation movement, although less frequently than in the case of the assimilated "petite bourgeoisie." Several traditional and religious leaders join the struggle at the very beginning or during its development, making an enthusiastic contribution to the cause of liberation.

But here again vigilance is indispensable: preserving deep down the cultural prejudices of their class, individuals in this category generally see in the liberation movement the only valid means, using the sacrifices of the masses, to eliminate colonial oppression of their own class and to re-establish in this way their complete political and cultural domination of the people.

In the general framework of contesting colonial imperialist domination and in the actual situation to which we refer, among the oppressor's most loyal allies are found some high officials and intellectuals of the liberal professions, assimilated people, and also a significant number of representatives of the ruling class from rural areas. This fact gives some measure of the influence (positive or negative) of culture and cultural prejudices in the problem of political choice when one is confronted with the liberation movement. It also illustrates the limits of this influence and the supremacy of the class factor in the behavior of the different social groups. The high official or the assimilated intellectual, characterized by total cultural alienation, identifies himself by political choice with the traditional or religious leader who has experienced no significant foreign cultural influences.

For these two categories of people place above all principles our demands of a cultural nature--and against the aspirations of the people--their own economic and social privileges, their own class interests. That is a truth which the liberation movement cannot afford to ignore without risking betrayal of the economic, political, social and cultural objectives of the struggle.

Without minimizing the positive contribution which privileged classes may bring to the struggle, the liberation movement must, on the cultural level just as on the political level, base its action in popular culture, whatever may be the diversity of levels of cultures in the country. The cultural combat against colonial domination--the first phase of the liberation movement--can be planned efficiently only on the basis of the culture of the rural and urban working masses, including the nationalist (revolutionary) "petite bourgeoisie" who have been re-Africanized or who are ready for cultural reconversion. Whatever may be the complexity of this basic cultural panorama, the liberation movement must be capable of distinguishing within it the essential from the secondary, the positive from the negative, the progressive from the reactionary in order to characterize the master line which defines progressively a national culture.

In order for culture to play the important role which falls to it in the framework of the liberation movement, the movement must be able to preserve the positive cultural values of every well defined social group, of every category, and to achieve the confluence of these values in the service of the struggle, giving it a new dimension--the national dimension. Confronted with such a necessity, the liberation struggle is, above all, a struggle both for the preservation and survival of the cultural values of the people and for the harmonization and development of these values within a national framework.

Robert Prof. Mangaliso Sobukwe

It was the Sharpeville Massacre that gave the international community a glimpse of the cruelty and inhumane treatment Black South Africans were living in under the Apartheid regime. Robert Sobukwe was a threat to the Apartheid system that they arrest
It was the Sharpeville Massacre that gave the international community a glimpse of the cruelty and inhumane treatment Black South Africans were living in under the Apartheid regime. Robert Sobukwe was a threat to the Apartheid system that they arrest

Robert "Prof." Mangaliso sobukwe...

This Speech was given by Mangaliso Sobukwe at a Convention:

Sir, Sons and Daughters of Afrika! Mr. Speaker as already informed you that we had hoped that this inaugural Convention of the Africanists would be opened by Dr. Kamuzu Hastings Banda, failing which, by Mr. Kenneth Kaunda of the Zambia African National Congress in Northern Rhodesia. Both have been unable to attend our convention, for both are now, in the language of the colonialists, "detained" in some concentration camps because they dared to demand the right of self determination for the indigenous African people of Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia. The honourable task of opening this conference has, therefore, fallen to me, an Africanist, and I wish to thank the Central Committee for the honour.

I am particularly grateful for the opportunity this offers me to treat briefly of certain issues relevant to our struggle which, though adequately treated in the documents that will be considered by this Convention, require to be presented to such a gathering. I hope, then, Mr. Speaker, in the course of my address, to answer broadly questions pertaining to our stand in contemporary international politics, our relation to the states of Afrika, both independent and dependent, our attitude to the entire nationalist movement in Afrika, our stand on the question of Race in general and the so-called racial question in South Africa. Finally, I hope to outline briefly our ultimate objectives.

INTERNATIONAL SCENE

We are living today. Sons and Daughters of the Soil, fighters in the cause of African freedom, we are living today in an era that is pregnant with untold possibilities for both good and evil. In the course of the past two years we have seen man breaking assunder, with dramatic suddenness, the chains that have bound his mind, solving problems which for ages it has been regarded as sacrilege even to attempt to solve. However, in spite of all these rapid advances in the material and physical world, man appears to be either unwilling or unable to solve the problem of social relations between man and man. Because of this failure on the part of man, we see the world split today into two large hostile blocks, the so-called Capitalist and Socialist blocks represented by the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union respectively. These two blocks are engaged in terrible competition, use tough language and tactics, employ brinkmanship stunts which have the whole world heading for a nervous breakdown. They each are armed with terrible weapons of destruction and continue to spend millions of pounds in the production of more and more of these weapons. In spite of all the diplomatic talk of co-existence, these blocks each behave as though they did not believe that co-existence was possible.

AFRIKA'S POSITION

The question then arises, where does Afrika fit into this picture and where, particularly, do we African nationalists, we Africanists in South Afrika, fit in? There is no doubt that with the liquidation of Western imperialism and colonialism in Asia, the Capitalist market has shrunk considerably. As a result, Afrika has become the happy-hunting ground of adventuristic capital. There is again a scramble for Afrika and both the Soviet Union and the United States of America are trying to win the loyalty of the African States. Afrika is being wooed with more ardour than she has ever been.

There is a lot of flirting going on, of course, some Africans [are] flirting with the Soviet camp, and others with the American camp. In some cases the courtship has reached a stage where the parties are going out together; and they probably hold hands in the dark but nowhere has it yet reached a stage where the parties can kiss in public without blushing. This wooing occurs at a time when the whole continent of Afrika is in labour, suffering the pangs of a new birth and everybody is looking anxiously and expectantly towards Afrika to see, as our people so aptly put it ukuthi iyozala nkomoni (what creature will come forth). We are being wooed internationally at a time when in South Africa the naked forces of savage Herrenvolkism are running riot; when a determined effort is being made to annihilate the African people through systematic starvation; at a time when brutal attempts are being made to retard, dwarf and stunt the mental development of a whole people through organised "miseducation"; at a time when thousands of our people roam the streets in search of work and are being told by the foreign ruler to go back to a "home'' which he has assigned them, whether that means the breakup of their families or not; at a time when the distinctive badge of slavery and humiliation, the "dom pass" is being extended from the African male dog to the African female bitch.

It is at this time, when fascist tyranny has reached its zenith in South Afrika, that Afrika's loyalty is being competed for. And the question is, what is our answer? Our answer, Mr. Speaker and children of the Soil, has been given by the African leaders of the continent. Dr. Kwame Nkrumah has repeatedly stated that in international affairs, Afrika wishes to pursue a policy of positive neutrality, allying herself to neither of the existing blocs but, in the words of Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria, remaining "independent in all things but neutral in none that affect the destiny of Afrika". Mr. Tom Mboya of Kenya has expressed himself more forthrightly, declaring that it is not the intention of African states to change one master (western imperialism) for another (Soviet hegemony).

We endorse the views of the African leaders on this point. But we must point out that we are not blind to the fact that the countries which pursue a policy of planned state economy have outstripped, in industrial development, those that follow the path of private enterprise. Today, China is industrially far ahead of India. Unfortunately, however, this rapid industrial development has been accompanied in all cases by a rigid totalitarianism notwithstanding Mao Tse Tung's "Hundred Flowers" announcement. Africanists reject totalitarianism in any form and accept political democracy as understood in the west. We also reject the economic exploitation of the many for the benefit of a few. We accept as policy the equitable distribution of wealth aiming, as far as I am concerned, to equality of income which to me is the only basis on which the slogan of "equal opportunities" can be founded. Borrowing then the best from the East and the best from the West we nonetheless retain and maintain our distinctive personality and refuse to be the satraps or stooges of either power block.

RELATION TO STATES IN AFRIKA

Our relation to the States in Afrika may be stated precisely and briefly by quoting from George Padmore's book, 'Pan Africanism or Communism'. Discussing the future of Afrika, Padmore observes that "there is a growing feeling among politically conscious Africans throughout the continent that their destiny is one, that what happens in one part of Afrika to Africans must affect Africans living in other parts". We honour Ghana as the first independent state in modern Afrika which, under the courageous nationalist leadership of Dr. Nkrumah and the Convention People's Party, has actively interested itself in the liberation of the whole continent from White domination, and has held out the vision of a democratic United States of Afrika. We regard it as the sacred duty of every African state to strive ceaselessly and energetically for the creation of a United States of Afrika, stretching from Cape to Cairo, Morocco to Madagascar. The days of small, independent countries are gone. Today we have, on the one hand, great powerful countries of the world; America and Russia cover huge tracts of land territorially and number hundreds of millions in population. On the other hand the small weak independent countries of Europe are beginning to realise that for their own survival they have to form military and economic federations, hence NATO and the European market. Beside the sense of a common historical fate that we share with the other countries of Afrika, it is imperative, for purely practical reasons that the whole of Afrika be united into a single unit, centrally controlled. Only in that way can we solve the immense problems that face the continent people.

NATIONAL MOVEMENTS IN AFRIKA

It is for the reasons stated above that we admire, bless and identify ourselves with the entire nationalist movements in Afrika. They are the core, the basic units, the individual cells of that large organism envisaged, namely, the United States of Afrika; a union of free, sovereign independent democratic states of Afrika. For the lasting peace of Afrika and the solution of the economic, social and political problems of the continent, there needs be a democratic principle. This means that White supremacy, under whatever guise it manifests itself, must be destroyed. And that is what the nationalists on the continent are setting out to do. They all are agreed that the African majority must rule. In the African context, it is the overwhelming African majority that will mould and shape the content of democracy. Allow me to quote Dr. DuBois, the father of Pan Africanism: "Most men in the world", writes Dubois, "are coloured. A belief in humanity means a belief in coloured men. The future of the world will, in all reasonable possibility, be what coloured men make it". As for the world, so for Afrika. The future of Africa will be what Africans make it.

THE RACE QUESTION

And now for the thorny questions of race. I do not wish to give a lengthy and learned dissertation on Race. Suffice it to say that even those scientists who do recognise the existence of separate races, have to admit that there are border line cases which will not fit into any of the three Races of mankind. All scientists agree that all men can trace their ancestry back to the first Homo Sapiens, that man is distinguished from other mammals and also from earlier types of man by the nature of his intelligence.

The structure of the body of man provides evidence to prove the biological unity of the human species. All scientists agree that there is no "race" that is superior to another, and there is no "race" that is inferior to others. The Africanists take the view that there is only one race to which we all belong, and that is the human race. In our vocabulary therefore, the word 'race' as applied to man, has no plural form. We do, however, admit the existence of observable physical differences between various groups of people, but these differences are the result of a number of factors, chief among which has been geographical isolation.

In Afrika the myth of race has been propounded and propagated by the imperialists and colonialists from Europe, in order to facilitate and justify their inhuman exploitation of the indigenous people of the land. It is from this myth of race with its attendant claims of cultural superiority that the doctrine of white supremacy stems. Thus it is that an ex-engine driver can think of himself as fully qualified to be the head of the government of an African state, but refuse to believe that a highly educated black doctor, more familiar with Western culture than the White premier is, cannot even run a municipal council. I do not wish to belabour this point. Time is precious.

Let me close discussion of this topic by declaring, on behalf of the Africanists, that with UNESCO we hold that "every man is his brother's keeper. For every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main, because he is involved in mankind".

IN SOUTH AFRIKA

In South Africa we recognise the existence of national groups, which are the result of geographical origin within a certain area as well as a shared historical experience of these groups. The Europeans are a foreign minority group, which has exclusive control of political, economic, social and military power. It is the dominant group. It is the exploiting group, responsible for the pernicious doctrine of White Supremacy, which has resulted in the humiliation, and degradation of the indigenous African people. It is this group which has dispossessed the African people of their land and with arrogant conceit has set itself up as the "guardians", the "trustees" of the Africans. It is this group which conceives of the African people as a child nation, composed of Boys and Girls, ranging in age from 120 years to

one day. It is this group which, after 300 years, can still state with brazen effrontery that the Native, the Bantu, the Kaffir is still backward and savage etc. But they still want to remain "guardians", "trustees", and what have you, of the African

In short, it is this group which has mismanaged affairs in South Africa just as their kith and kin are mismanaging affairs in Europe. It is from this group that the most rabid race baiters and agitators come. It is members of this group who, whenever they meet in their Parliament, say things, which agitate the hearts of millions of peace-loving Africans. This is the group, which turns out thousands of experts on that new South African Science the Native mind.

Then there is the Indian foreign minority group. This group came to this country not as imperialists or colonialists, but as indentured labourers. In the South African set-up of today, this group is an oppressed minority. But there are some members of this group, the merchant class in particular, who have become tainted with the virus of cultural supremacy and national arrogance. This class identifies itself by and large with the oppressor but, significantly, this is the group, which provides the political leadership of the Indian people in South Africa. And all that the politics of this class have meant up to now is preservation and defence of the sectional interests of the Indian merchant class. The down-trodden, poor "stinking coolies" of Natal who, alone, as a result of the pressure of material conditions, can identify themselves with the indigenous African majority in the struggle to overthrow White supremacy, have not yet produced their leadership. We hope they will do so soon.

The Africans constitute the indigenous group and form the majority of the population. They are the most ruthlessly exploited and are subjected to humiliation, degradation and insult. Now it is our contention that true democracy can be established in South Africa and on the continent as a whole, only when White supremacy has been destroyed. And the illiterate and semi-literate African masses constitute the key and centre and content of any struggle for true democracy in South Africa. And the African people can be organised only under the banner of African nationalism in an All-African Organisation where they will by themselves formulate policies and programmes and decide on the methods of struggle without interference from either so-called left-wing or right-wing groups of the minorities who arrogantly appropriate to themselves the right to plan and think for the Africans.

We wish to emphasise that the freedom of the African means the freedom of all in South Africa, the European included, because only the African can guarantee the establishment of a genuine democracy in which all men will be citizens of a common state and will live and be governed as individuals and not as distinctive sectional groups.

OUR ULTIMATE GOALS

In conclusion, I wish to state that the Africanists do not at all subscribe to the fashionable doctrine of South African exceptionalism. Our contention is that South Africa is an integral part of the indivisible whole that is Afrika. She cannot solve her problems in isolation from and with utter disregard of the rest of the continent. It is precisely for that reason that we reject both apartheid and so-called multi-racialism as solutions of our socio-economic problems.

Apart from the number of reasons and arguments that can be advanced against apartheid, we take our stand on the principle that Afrika is one and desires to be one and nobody, I repeat, nobody has the right to balkanise our land.

Against multi-racialism we have this objection, that the history of South Africa has fostered group prejudices and antagonisms, and if we have to maintain the same group exclusiveness, parading under the term of multi-racialism, we shall be transporting to the new Afrika these very antagonisms and conflicts. Further, multi-racialism is in fact a pandering to European bigotry and arrogance. It is a method of safeguarding white interests, implying as it does, proportional representation irrespective of population figures. In that sense it is a complete negation of democracy.

To us the term "multi-racialism" implies that there are such basic insuperable differences between the various national groups here that the best course is to keep them permanently distinctive in a kind of democratic apartheid. That to us is racialism multiplied, which probably is what the term truly connotes. We aim, politically, at government of the Africans by the Africans, for the Africans, with everybody who owes his only loyalty to Afrika and who is prepared to accept the democratic rule of an African majority being regarded as an African.

We guarantee no minority rights, because we think in terms of individuals, not groups. Economically we aim at the rapid extension of industrial development in order to alleviate pressure on the land, which is what progress means in terms of modem society. We stand committed to a policy guaranteeing the most equitable distribution of wealth. Socially we aim at the full development of the human personality and a ruthless uprooting and outlawing of all forms or manifestations of the racial myth.

To sum it up we stand for an Africanist Socialist Democracy. Here is a tree rooted in African soil, nourished with waters from the rivers of Afrika. Come and sit under its shade and become, with us, the leaves of the same branch and the branches of the same tree. Sons and Daughters of Afrika, I declare this inaugural convention of the Africanists open.

Remember Sobukwe! - South Africa

IPI NTOMBI - Cape Town 1997

South Africa - The Brenda Fassie Story I - Documentary..

Brenda Fassie Documentary II..

South Africa - The Brenda Fassie Story III - Documentary..

South Africa - The Brenda Fassie Story VI - Documentary..

Coming Around To Seeing Ourselves As We Really are

Why I wrote this Hub above is because of the effects and affects of cultural wars against us. For example.. I have been posting music on Facebook and watching the reaction of the viewers and so forth. It is very discouraging that in many of the Walls that deal with South African Jazz, you find that the members of these Walls hardly even bother about any African American or African artists.

They post many of these White artists that no one has even heard about. They reckon it makes them look schtick and modern.. as advanced connoisseurs of the music of Jazz played by White folks. They know about many of the artists that play Jazz in America and south Africa.. but they ignore the posts of such music as if you are cursing at them.. It is like, when they look at and listening to these Africa American and African artists, they are like people who when they look at he mirror, and see what's staring back at them, they dislike, and deride.

My points that, Hubs like this one are an anomaly and unusual in that they extol the virtues of African culture to the consternation of the lackeys of African culture and it is also sad that the very Whites they are so enamored with, are the one, if you were to read the comments on YouTube concerning our African music, Jazz and so forth, they are enthralled by it and think highly of it. Whereas, we, the Africans, are the ones who feel like they are being made to be backward for loving their culture and music. the Cultural Wars and their battering of us has been so complete, that the like of me, are fast becoming dinosaurs and irrelevant to our own people.

The European cultural Wars are a reality we have to deal with.. some of us are so self hating that they have bough hook-and-sink into the whole enchilada of Western culture. I have nothing against European culture, I think it is human culture.. It is just that I think that my own African culture is very important and deserves some serious recognition, by all-specifically, by our own people.

Sometime, many of us spend time attacking Europeans for what they have done to us... But go to our parties, our get-togethers, what you find? Those most vehemently opposed to European culture and its imperial tendencies(in relation to African culture, in this instance) are the very ones more European than their invited guests(Majority being European) and trying very much to impress them about their knowledge of those European cultures, to the chagrin of their European guests.

What these pseudo Africans fail to realize is that the very Europeans they are falling all over themselves to impress, are real bamboozled as to why these people do not do their cultural thing, which the Europeans, today, respect and love, but no, us, Africans, we rush pellmell all over the place, like chickens with their heads cut, looking so silly that we end up being an embarrassment.

This Hub highlight all that we have become, and at the same time, it point out, rightly so, to the colorfulness and vibrancy of our cultures. This does not really matter to many of us africans because many of us, do not want to be connected to ourselves. We have been told we are nothing, our culture, history, customs traditions, languages , muscid, traditional garb and sacred rites and practices are nothing. We really have come around, in the age of the Internet and its social media, to even hate ourselves more, and we display this and it is manifests in our polity, collectives in various forms.

We are lying to ourselves constantly as African people.. We are running away from our Freedom(a la Camus).. We work assiduously hard to impress one another how much advanced we are by showing off our mastery of cultures either than ours. I have addressed this false-confidence on our part in many of my Hubs here. We show off our cars, perfumes, clothes, languages, appreciation of music, fine wines from France, and the whole enchilada.

Our culture beckons and calls on to us to be it, practice it and be proud of it. We do not want to do so for we are not even aware of, nor know about neither practice or respect our own culture. We are too busy aping others either than ourselves. It is sad to write these things about us. But my tie is that we cannot all hide behind the fact that the White man has done this and that to us-which they have. But, we are now complicit in our own oppression, and as Biko said, we are going to be held responsible for being so.

Professor John Hendrik Clarke

We should Remember Who We Are: Never Ever Forget

Master Teacher Of African History...
John Hendrik Clarke Teaches: "Once a people knows who they are, they will also know what they have to do about their condition. To make a people almost assume that oppression is their natural lot, you have to remove from them the respectful commentary of their history and make them dependent on the history of their conquerors. To infer that a people have no history is also to infer that they have no humanity that you are willing to recognize. African people the world over need a definition of history that can be operational in different places at different times and operational everywhere African people live. Because we are the most dispersed people on the face of the earth, our operational definition of history must be universal in scope, applicable to people in general, and to African people specifically.
This is my definition: I repeat, "history is a clock that people use to tell their political and cultural time of day. It is also a compass that people use to find themselves on the map of human geography. The role of history is to tell a people what they have been and where they have been, what they are and where they are."
The most important role that history plays is telling a people where they still must go and what they still must be. No people can move into the mainstream of history and be respected when they answer to an ethnic name not of their choosing and worship a God-concept not of their choosing. All people develop within a culture container that includes their geographical background, their religion, and their method of surviving in their original habitat. When you take a people out of the cultural surroundings in which they originally developed, you take away part of their humanity. African people living outside of Africa are so obsessed with surviving under conditions that they did not create that they often lack a universal view of their condition and how it started."
Because Africa is the worlds richest continent a great deal of the economic strength of the Western world and parts of Asia is built on what is taken out of Africa. The continent has things that other people want, think they cant do without, and dont want to pay for. Africa is the pawn in a world power game that the Africans have not learned how to play. I emphasized repeatedly that Africa has been under siege for more than 3,000 years, and this condition did not change with the superficial end of colonialism and an independence explosion that had more ceremony than substance. In most African countries the condition of the average African person has not changed one iota with the coming of flag independence. All too often Africans fighting for the liberation of AfricaAfrica before they strategically planned how they were going to do it. A case in point is South Africans in the international rhetoric against apartheid. Apartheid is not the main issue in South Africa, bad as it is. If the whites in South Africa eliminated apartheid tomorrow, the Africans would still be in difficulty because they would have no economic power and their land would still be in the hands of foreigners.
Land is the basis of nation. There is no way to build a strong independent nation when most of the land is being controlled by foreigners who also determine the economic status of the nation. Africans need seriously to study their conquerors and their respective temperaments. Neither the Europeans nor the Arabs came to Africa to share power with any African. They both came as guests and stayed as conquerors.

African Historical/Cultural Education Education

Asa G. Hilliard III | The State of African Education
American Educational Research Association Plenary Presentation
Commission on Research in Black Education
It took Lerone Bennett several decades to write his newest book, Forced Into Glory: Abraham Lincoln’s White Dream, meticulously documenting Abraham Lincoln’s white supremacy beliefs. Bennett shows that Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation” was a conscious and necessary deception that did not free a single enslaved African. Bennett then shows the carelessness of historians, and even the cover-up of the record by some, in order to let the myth survive. How ironic that many tears have been shed by those who choose the Lincoln Memorial as a symbolic site to celebrate African liberation, while oblivious to those who truly sought to free Africans, not the least of whom were Africans themselves. Instead we honor an opponent of equality who openly espoused white supremacy views until his death. Then we accept a myth that is the opposite of the truth.

In many ways, the persistence of the myth of Abraham Lincoln as a liberator of Africans is a symbol of the contemporary response to the state of education of African Americans and of African people worldwide. So much of what we believe about our state is false. How do we account for this myth of the “Emancipator” and of “emancipation.” It is in the curriculum and in the culture at large, a belief in the face of all evidence to the contrary. And so, until this very time, we have a whole nation in deep denial.

For the record, it was really the 13th Amendment to the Constitution that outlawed slavery or involuntary servitude, except, except as punishment for a crime. In view of the current escalation of criminalization of African men in particular, and of privatization of prisons and the use of prison labor in private businesses, we can see that there are apparent limits to event the protection of the 13th Amendment. We actually have virtual slavery for some existing today. Moreover, it took the 14th Amendment to guarantee equal protection of the laws to all citizens. So how can so many of us join in the perpetuation of such a curriculum myth about Lincoln freeing Africans from slavery and also believing in the political equality of “the races,” and still be certain that we can be real when we approach the design of education/socialization for our children? Are we habituated to myths? Can we see the true condition of our people, the masses of them? Can we see, as Carter G. Woodson saw, the miseducated though highly schooled among us, whose orientation is “alien self” or even “anti-self” as Dr. Na’im Akbar has said? What is the state of African education?

There are also some potent common myths about African learners, myths about low ability, cultural deprivation, myths about poverty causing learning problems, and myths that school treatments are equitable for all children. These myths persist and are even adopted by many members of the African community, even though we are a community with a long history of creating powerful transforming educational and socialization institutions, both in Africa and in the diaspora. We above all ought to be able to detect myths right away. To grasp the real state of education of African people everywhere, including in America, we must examine the intersection of culture and power. A global system of power distribution has dictated and continues to dictate the nature of the education and socialization processes. Slavery, colonization, apartheid/segregation and the rationalizing ideology of white supremacy are centuries old challenges, really aspects of a global hegemonic system. That system interrupted and largely destroyed the flow of thousand of years of powerful and independent African education/socialization excellence, about which most of us are totally uninformed.

Above all, we must understand that the structure of society and the embedded structure of education/socialization systems in hegemonic societies are designed to maintain hegemony. It is the structure, including especially its ideological foundation that controls possibilities for African education/socialization, even today. Hegemonic structures and ideologies cannot acknowledge or respect our traditions in education/socialization, profound though they are. Moreover they shape the beliefs and the behaviors that guide miseducation, while blaming victims. No matter how much progress we appear to have made, more degrees and higher paying jobs for a few of us, there has been no shift in the power structure at all, anywhere in the African world. Even “liberated” and “independent” African nations, lack control over real economic and military power.

Few even have more than minimal control over their education institutions. These institutions still mimic those of former colonial masters in most cases. Some still have governance of education in the hands of former colonial masters. While African people globally are entitled to justice, including of course reparations, if any people were ever entitled to them, and while we may have friends and allies, there will be no saviors for us by others from these structural conditions. Nothing in history suggests that non-African benefactors will rescue us. Purely and simply we must emancipate ourselves from hegemonic structures; including especially the foundation beliefs that support those structures. We must challenge these things at every turn. We must pose and construct alternatives to them. We will definitely get those things that we construct! We also will definitely get those things that others construct for us in the absence of our own efforts to construct our future. So, the state of “black education” cannot be separated from the state of African people generally. It is a fundamental error of major proportions to limit our analysis of this matter to Africans in America. Africans all over the world were controlled by the same hegemonic structures, and still are. Globally, our position remains on the bottom of virtually all meaningful indices, even as other ethnic families, including new ones to the United States, one after the other, lift themselves up, without saviors. Even former colonial nations, not African, have entered the competition as producers in the international mainstream.

Recently, I was forced to consolidate some of my thinking on the nature of the problem of African people, within which the problems of education/socialization are situated. I was invited to present a paper at the Interdenominational Theological Seminary in Atlanta on the topic, “The Spiritual State of Black American.” I identified “12 Challenges for African People” in my response to this theme. The big picture for Africans is the same everywhere in the world, because hegemonic structures are global.

Even now, enormous power is being consolidated everywhere, with no priority on African development, e.g., The European Community (EC), North Atlantic Free Trade Association (NAFTA) and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) (GATT). Equally important is globalization in the business arena.

1. We are unconscious, with no global view of African people and no global view of successful ethnic groups. We experience ourselves as local people in a global world. Some of us experience ourselves only as individuals without any connection even to a local African community.

2. We have acute amnesia, with no valid memories or awareness of ourselves as a historical people evolving through time and spreading throughout the world. We are episodic in our experience of ourselves.

3. We are disintegrating as a people and disorganized. We have lost our solidarity. Many of us feel no bond of identity with our people.

4. We are not raising our own children. We have no systematic socialization structures for the masses of our children. They are raising themselves or they are being raised by others. We have forfeited one of the most vital functions of a people, the responsibility for intergenerational cultural transmission.

5. We have a growing loss of independent faith communities, becoming more subordinate in institutions that we do not control.

6. We have no long-range strategic goals, plans and mobilization. Without these things nothing positive will happen for us.

7. We do not have an adequate comprehension of wealth production and accumulation. Many of us make money. Few of us make wealth. Our consumption appetites make us prime sources for exploitation by others.

8. We do not have an adequate comprehension of how to nurture health and prevent illness. We do not have healthy diets. We do not monitor and control our environment. We do not have a critical orientation about these things.

9. We have no major independent, self-funded think tanks to help us to define and to resolve our problems. We do not see how successful group fund and rely upon ideas based upon research and reflection (Edwards, 1998).

10. We do not have an adequate African Centered Higher Education. Definitions, assumptions, priorities and above all our worldviews must reflect us.

11. We do not have sufficient cultural centers, movements, monuments, and celebrations to highlight important experiences and to shape directions. These things offer us the opportunity to be reflective and to develop a more firm vision of the future.

12. We have no regular independent communication capabilities, such as serious national and international periodicals to address our serious and continuing problems. This is shameful. It is not really a matter of resources. It is a matter of consciousness. Appropriate socialization will produce an appetite among the masses of our people for appropriate information.

I cannot amplify these points in the time available here. However, it should be clear that if we begin with these challenges while reflecting on our geo-political status as a people, they call for very special approaches to education/socialization, approaches that can only come from us. It should also be evident that something far beyond the common school experience is required for our children, even though most of our children will continue to attend common schools. Moreover, we must insure that this common school experience taps the genius of our children and stops disabling them through structured miseducation. Many of us rely totally on the common school experience. That will not meet our complete needs. The socialization of the masses of our children can only be done through structures that we develop and control.

Most of the 12 Challenges mentioned above are tied directly to our task of education/socialization, affecting directly the aim, methods and content of education/socialization. However, out of all of these high priority challenges, the first, becoming conscious, and the fourth, the matter of control over the education/socialization of our children are critical. Hegemonic structures were created to mis-educate enslaved and colonized people, and people who were victims of white supremacy influenced structures of domination. Indigenous and independent systems were destroyed. Colonial and slave structures as well as apartheid and general white supremacy structures, were created, including boarding schools, to separate children from parents and communities and cultures, and especially mission schools to destroy the worldviews and to stigmatize colonized and enslaved people as savages, primitives, and pagans. The recent “culture wars” over the school curriculum is a continuation in a newer form of ideological structures of hegemony that follow the old path of separating children and communities from their traditions. (Schlesinger, 1998) (Bloom, 1987) (Ravitch, 1996) (Hirsch, 1987).

So we see the denial of African culture, the denial of the significance of African culture, the assertion of the supremacy of western culture and the containment of teaching about African culture, even the distortion and destruction of African history and cultures. Perhaps the worst of all is the recent accelerating drift in the control of the education/socialization structures, making our communities even more remote from the power centers in education which follow their own agenda. The grip of others who control our young people is becoming tighter. Among the obvious controls are as follows:

1. There are trends toward removing control of schools from local elected school boards, to mayors, governors, state departments of education and even judges. Urban schools no longer tend to have Superintendents who are close to the communities served. Corporate CEO’s, generals from the military, business managers, and even prosecuting attorneys, without roots in the culture or the community, are placed in charge of the large urban schools where most of our children are. Whatever the weaknesses of local control at the board level, there was at least a modicum of potential for community influence. As our children are being managed and even exploited for profit, our communities are more alien than ever from the process.

2. Privatization is growing in the public sector through standardized curriculum using cyber technology. There is a corresponding loss of community control over what is generally minimum competency, non-culturally responsive curriculum and methodology. Private for profit corporations have discovered the lucrative urban market. They are bringing industry practices to the creation of “education maintenance organizations” (EMO’s).
We have no control over them with their minimum competency efforts. In fact some of us are selling these things to our own community.

3. More and more we see publicly funded, large scale off the shelf, cookie-cutter standardized programs for public schools, mainly urban, mainly minimum competence, mainly non-culturally responsive. They see the Title I dollars and other funds in urban education. Policy makers increasingly have abandoned the belief in regular teachers and schools. They now shop for large-scale “research based” programs. We have virtually no control over these services. Some of our best educators look to these programs as saviors for our children, even though the programs do not have excellence track records. They are minimum competency at best. We are truly at risk.

4. The control over more than one million men in the prisons and jails is appalling. Prisons are also places for “teaching and learning,” mostly the wrong lessons. We do not control them. Many of them have virtually abandoned the self-improvement courses and have become torture chambers, or sources of below minimum wage cheap labor. Of what value to our communities will young men be when they return?

When we combine the formal system trends with the control of informal socialization through movies, videos, audios, advertising and television, where is the space and time for our community to carry out its responsibility for intergenerational cultural transmission? Our whole community is in virtual lockdown. I do not expect anyone outside of our community to see these matters as critical problems. Certainly we have heard nothing about this threat so far. It is not on the radar screen, not even for many Africans. However, so many within the African community itself, perhaps because of their own alien socialization and mis-education, are not alert to this problem. Therefore they do not see it as a priority for action. Therefore, we are not mobilized to deal with these matters. Moreover, many of us have become experts at implementing the most damaging parts of systems of
structural inequity.

For example:

1. We assist in the non-beneficial use of mental measurement and assessments that falsely label our children as impaired.

2. We manage tracking systems that result in the disproportionate placement of our children in low tracks.

3. We teach non-culturally responsive curricula that leave our children ignorant of themselves.

4. We sell privatized services and schools to public schools, mainly in urban areas that enrich entrepreneurs with no real benefits to our children.
It is clear to me that a major effort is required to make any substantial meaningful and positive change in the education/socialization of African children. However, no such change is even remotely possible until we can effect a fundamental change in the dialogue about education/socialization. This is first and foremost an internal dialogue within the African community. After that we can address both the common school experience with others and the African community’s responsibility for the broader socialization approaches.

Currently the heaviest emphasis in the education research community in general is on children, how “intelligent” they are, which “intelligences” they have, how “motivated” they are, and on “special methods,” etc. I think that the emphases are misplaced. By now it should be clear that, for the most part, our children are geniuses with capacities to go far beyond any current school requirements. They respond very well to quite a variety of well-executed methods and techniques. There is no mystery about how to teach any of them. The priority that needs more emphasis is the deep study of the quality of services that we offer to students, the unequal distribution of those services and the structures of inequity such as tracking and inappropriate special education, still existing in the school.

Why do our children fail to get access to the many educators who are not puzzled about how to teach them?

Our children’s manifest problems in public education virtually all have to do with opportunity to learn. The evidence for this conclusion is overwhelming, if we only raise and try to answer the right questions. There is a growing body of powerful conclusions from literature focusing on high poverty, high achieving students. Results by Schmoker (1996), Closing the Gap by Kati Haycock (1998) and Value Added Evaluation by Saunders and Rivers (1998) are but three of the newer citations adding to what Ron Edmonds and his associates showed us long ago. It is clear that ordinary public school teachers, with unselected regular classrooms, serving poor children, without specialized standardized programs, can move students to the highest academic levels in a short period of time. It is not the children or their parents, poverty, culture or bilingual status (correlates that explain little or nothing) that determine academic success. It is good teaching.

It is also clear that poor and minority ethnic groups tend to get a lower quality of instruction for many reasons, including high teacher turnover, experienced teachers choosing more desirable neighborhoods, high rates of substitute teachers, high rates of teachers teaching out of their fields and a host of other factors that combine to produce what Kozol documented and called Savage Inequalities (1991), also documented by other researchers. These are realities not myths. This suggests to me where the education researchers’ focus should be, primarily on the quality of service and its distribution.

Our preoccupation with the analysis of the victims of savage inequalities in the schools exhausts our resources and our energies and may well impede progress toward valid teaching. Because African children’s academic performance averages are usually low, our attention turns to “multiple intelligences.” “whole language or phonics,” “site based or central management,” off the shelf “cookie cutter programs,” etc. However, these things do not address our basic problems, given the state of African people with respect to opportunity. We do not have to wait for new discoveries on how to teach. As Ron Edmonds has said: “We already know more than we need to know.” At least some do.

In my opinion, the basic problems are elsewhere. I believe that there is a prerequisite to any approach that would attempt to address the problems that are basic. Most of the 12 Challenges that I cited earlier are challenges that have education/socialization components. Almost none of the 12 Challenges influence the aims in schools that serve our children. But worse, even if they did, the ideas about education/socialization that should serve as a foundation for our work have been well articulated over the years, even centuries, yet these ideas that come from deep thinkers of the African community are unknown or marginalized. Therefore, the prerequisite for problem solving is to do the homework that is necessary to understand the works of those who have already done much homework for us. These ideas are fundamental conceptions about problems and solutions.

Some examples of the indispensable works that must be considered as the starting point for change in education/socialization of African people are as follows:
Carter G. Woodson – The Miseducation of the Negro
W. E. B. DuBois – The Education of Black People: Ten Critiques
Marimba Ani – Yurugu: An African Centered Critique of European Thought and Behavior
Mwalimu Shujaa – Too Much Schooling: Too Little Education – A Paradox of Black Life in White Societies
Molefi Asante – The Afrocentric Idea
Jacob Carruthers – Intellectual Warfare
John H. Clarke – Africans at the Crossroads: Notes for an African World Revolution
Amos Wilson – Blueprint for Black Power: A Moral, Political, and Economic Imperative
Kwame and Akia Akoto – The Sankofa Movement: ReAfrikanization and the Reality of War
Chinweizu – The Decolonization of the African Mind
Ayi Kwei Armah – Two Thousand Seasons
Matthew Arnold – Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa
Ben-Jochannan – Cultural Genocide in the Black and African Studies Curriculum

Of course, there are other important better known references. However, these are writers who call upon our community to develop an independent vision, a vision that is grounded in our cultural and historical reality as well as in our present political and economic condition, a vision that is based upon an understanding of hegemony and education in its direct and indirect forms and the structure that it creates, a vision that is rooted in our excellence tradition of education/socialization, one of the most awesome traditions in the world. (Hilliard, 1998)

Our problems persist because we are not asking the right questions and are being diverted and consumed by the wrong ones. The state of education for African people will remain at its low level, in a rut, unless and until there is a return to an independent consciousness among our leadership in general and our educational leadership in particular. By this I mean that African leadership, guided by a deep grounding in our cultural heritage and guided by a sense of destiny, must frame courses of action and must design the essential education/socialization direction for our people. Having done that, we can then determine what must be done in our communities and what can be done in common schools, as well as how to make common schools culturally responsive.

I am not calling for something strange. In fact, I have outlined the very thing that successful global ethnic groups do now. Such groups take responsibility to define and control the core education/socialization processes for their ethnic families, with cultural transmission held as the prerogative of the family. They may be and most often are enrolled in public schools with other groups. They know that no one outside their families will place the highest priorities on highest quality socialization. Our problem is that our oppressors prefer to see us as individuals, not as an ethnic family. Worse, many of us have fallen victim to this way of seeing ourselves.

One thing should be crystal clear by now. There is no sense of crisis and no high priority being placed on the problem of education/socialization for African people. There is no major mobilization in place or being planned to get us out of the hole that we are in.

Nothing in place or publicly contemplated offers any prospect that our general position in the global society will improve. Yes there are a few who claim that African students have been emancipated, who claim to be able to serve them well. They have tricks galore, standardized, mass marketed, minimum competency, public and private businesses; mainly plying the urban market. Our children and others are their commodities. They stuff the children with advertising. Schools buy “teacher proof” software and “programs” for them. Our children are still a part of the giant shell game, bussing them from one place to another, chasing reluctant whites, moving from outside segregation to inside segregation through tracking and special education. We do not have efficacious processes in place, even for the common school requirements.

The 400-year struggle for African people has been for a legitimate education for the children, a high quality, culturally appropriate, truthful education/socialization for our children. (Hamilton, 1968) It has been a struggle against hegemony and for control over socialization of our own children. We begin the new millennium with the same issues that we have always had, just new faces and new forms. Who can be pleased with what we see as we observe our people all over the world?

We know that at its base, our problem is a simple one. Can we place our children in the care of well-prepared wise educators who love them and who have the will to teach them? We need educators and leaders who are oriented towards our destiny because they are rooted in a deep understanding of our culture and traditions, educators who identify with and are a part of us, educators who see our children as their own. Those who love our children and who have the will to teach them will make whatever sacrifices are necessary to raise our children up where they belong. Now is the time for the real liberators to come forward. Some educational researchers already serve in this role; more can by destroying myths. There is heroic work for educational researchers as a part of this process.

1. Document and disseminate information about the many educators who are not at all puzzled about how to raise achievement of all children to high levels, educators who get excellent achievement now!

2. Evaluate the efficacy of tracking and special education services, especially in the high incidence categories, services that hold so many of our able students in custody, with little if any benefits, and sometimes with harm. (Heller, Holtzman and Messick, 1982) (Skyrtic, 1991).

3. Document and disseminate information about savage inequalities in services.

4. Study the availability of appropriate African ethnic specific materials to enhance our understanding of all curriculum areas.

We must destroy myth and illuminate reality. We cannot call oppressors liberators and cry with gratitude at their tombs.
Contrary to some popular opinion and even some professional opinion, educators and systems are extremely powerful. We can choose either powerful positive or powerful negative effects, and we can bring either into being. The futures of children truly are in our hands.

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Comments 6 comments

Micky Dee profile image

Micky Dee 3 years ago

In depth! Thanks, MD


ixwa profile image

ixwa 3 years ago Author

Micky Dee: Thank you very much for the pithy comment above.. I really appreciate it very much...


DDE profile image

DDE 2 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

Incredible about the dancers and where they intend to be. I found this hub to be interesting, useful and most informative. Voted up.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 2 years ago Author

DDE: Thank you very much for viewing, listening to and acknowledging the Hub above. I really appreciate your accolades and feedback, and am humbled by the effect you say the Hub has had on you. Thank you for the confidence you have given me about the Hub above, and hope to hear from you about other Hubs in the future...


John Albu profile image

John Albu 21 months ago from Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87102

Wow. This must be the most informative hub ever posted. Malombo has a new fan, for sure!

Thanks for your great effort, ixwa!


ixwa profile image

ixwa 21 months ago Author

John Albu: Thanks for listening and reading the Hub above.. I really appreciate your accolades above. Malombo is sure a great group.. Thanks agains...

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