Guitar Theory Lessons • Modes Of The Major Scale Simplified • Scales, Tab, Videos, Practical Examples.

Complete Blues Guitar beginner to intermediate method

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Learning Blues Guitar

I have been teaching guitar professionally since 1992, when Don’t Fret Guitar Instruction was established. Over the years, I have taught countless students (beginners to advanced) how to play or improve their chops. Past students include four members of PROTEST THE HERO.

With this book, my goal is to relate the scales with chords and rhythms as opposed to just learning solos or licks and having no idea how to apply them. Good rhythm playing and knowledge is crucial to good soloing and vice versa. This comes through understanding the relationship between chords and scales. This book provides that important foundation.

The book is unique in the fact that each chapter is based around a different key signature and an open (contains unfretted notes), pattern of the pentatonic scale. There are five chapters covering the key signatures of E, A, D, G and C, and the five open ‘box patterns’ (scale patterns) of the pentatonic scale. Eventually all the box patterns are covered, from the open strings to the fifteenth fret.

There is no endless scale practice or useless licks to learn. Instead, each chapter begins with a chord progression, moves into various rhythm patterns derived from the chord progression, and then culminates with solos based on the scale and key covered. These solos tie in with the chord progression and rhythm patterns to form a complete lesson for each chapter.

The book is progressive. Upon completion, the student will have a solid foundation in blues guitar, and will understand the rhythm, lead connection.

The book is best studied from beginning to end, without slighting any material. All theory is explained in the simplest terms. There are fretboard diagrams for the scales, chord grids, and photos of hand positions as well as videos posted on YouTube to aid in the learning process.

It is best, but not necessary, to have a knowledge of barre and open chord shapes before beginning this course. All the chords have fretboard grids associated with them.

Good luck and have fun. Music is a celebration. Enjoy!

Lorne K. Hemmerling

Study the article, come back and take the test.

Ionian

Ionian Mode-first mode of the major scale. In the key of C, this is the C Major scale starting on C, C D E F G A B C . This IS the major scale, the ever popular Do Re Mi Fa So La Ti Do. Most melodies are based on the major scale. In order to understand the reason for learning the modes, start here. This order of notes (the intervallic structure: tone, tone, semitone, tone, tone, tone, semitone) has long been recognized as the most popular scale in music. When you shift the root and form a mode of this scale, the intervallic structure changes (in the same key, D Dorian would be: tone, semitone, tone, tone, tone, semitone, tone). You must think of these modes as totally different scales in order to really get behind them.

C Ionian

Santana: Live at Montreux 2011 [Blu-ray]
Santana: Live at Montreux 2011 [Blu-ray]

Santana were founded in the late sixties and came into the spotlight following their appearance at the Woodstock festival in 1969. Their eponymous debut album was released the same year and became a global success, introducing the public to the band's unique blend of latin rhythms and guitar based rock. With legendary guitarist and bandleader Carlos Santana at the helm, hit albums and singles followed through the seventies, eighties, nineties and up to the present day. Both Carlos and the band have been frequent visitors to Montreux over the years and in 2011 they presented a stunning concert of their greatest hits, classic album tracks and brilliant cover versions from their debut album right up to 2010 s Guitar Heaven .

 
A Night at the Family Dog 1970 (The Grateful Dead / Jefferson Airplane / Santana)
A Night at the Family Dog 1970 (The Grateful Dead / Jefferson Airplane / Santana)

Filmed on location at the Family Dog Ballroom in San Francisco in September, 1970, the show captures the heyday and diversity of the San Francisco sound with three of the most well known bands to emerge from the scene: Santana, who would release their second album at the end of 1970; The Grateful Dead, including original band member Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, who were making a name for themselves with their jam-filled performances; and Jefferson Airplane, who were at the time the biggest of the bands from the area.

 

Dorian

Dorian Mode-second mode of the major scale. In the key of C, this is the C Major scale starting on D, D E F G A B C D. The Dorian mode is prevalent in rock and blues rock. Not quite as dark as the Aeolian Mode, it has a very pleasant sad sort of sound. The melody to Scarborough Fair is written entirely in the Dorian mode. This melody is an excellent example of these modes sounding so different, yet they are still C Major. This melody sounds nothing like the Ionian mode, but it is! Also check out Jimi's solo in Purple Haze (E Dorian). Carlos Santana is a big Dorian player.


D Dorian

Concert in Central Park
Concert in Central Park

What started as a suggestion for Paul Simon to play a concert in New York's Central Park blossomed, on September 19, 1981, as a full-blown Simon and Garfunkel reunion after an 11-year hiatus, and now proves a priceless snapshot of two of America's greatest folk-rock performers. (It's also the rightful bookend to Simon and Garfunkel's acoustic Live from New York City, 1967.)

 

Scarborough Fair Melody

This is the melody to Scarborough Fair, made famous by Simon And Garfunkel. Haunting tune. Note the B on the high E string. If the melody was in D natural minor (key of F Major), there would be one flat, B flat. That one natural B makes this beautiful melody strictly D Dorian.

Queensrÿche's version

Phrygian

Phrygian Mode-third mode of the major scale.In the key of C, this is the C Major scale starting on E, E F G A B C D E. The Phrygian mode has a bleak sound, however not as dark and bleak as the Locrian Mode


E Phrygian

Lydian

Lydian Mode-fourth mode of the major scale. In the key of C, this is the C Major scale starting on F, F G A B C D E F. This is a very happy sounding mode, used widely by Frank Zappa and Steve Vai

F Lydian

Steve Vai, 'For The Love Of God'

Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble - Live at Montreux 1982 & 1985
Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble - Live at Montreux 1982 & 1985

By the summer of 1982, Stevie Ray Vaughn was already a veteran of the Southern blues circuit. Desperately searching for his big break, he was asked to play "Blues Night" at the annual Montreaux Jazz Festival in Montreaux, Switzerland. Playing like his life depended on it, Stevie put on a fiery performance - full of future SRVics like "Pride and Joy" and "Love Struck Baby."

 

Mixolydian

Mixolydian Mode-fifth mode of the major scale. In the key of C, this is the C Major scale starting on G, G A B C D E F G. This mode is the basis of blues rock and funk. Many standard blues bass lines are formed around this mode. Used extensively by Stevie Ray Vaughn, Eric Clapton, etc.


G Mixolydian

This very common, simple blues riff is based in three different keys and modes. Measures one to four, seven, eight, eleven and twelve outline the G mixolydian mode. The overall tonality is G7. This chord is the dominant fifth of the C Major scale. When the C Major scale is harmonized, the resulting four note chords are: CMaj7, Dm7, Em7, FMaj7, G7, Am7, and Bdim7. There are no sharps or flats in the key of C Major. This is why the G7 contains a natural F, as opposed to an F sharp (key of G Major). The same applies to the C7 and D7. C7 is the dominant fifth of F Major (one flat: B flat), D7 is the dominant fifth of G Major (one sharp: F sharp). Obviously, these modes can be applied when improvising over these chords. This is a wonderful alternative to the minor Pentatonic scale (in this case: G minor), but not as easy to execute as playing in one scale. It is like driving a car without brakes…you have to plan ahead! The mixolydian mode is widely used in blues, funk and jazz.

The Mixolydian mode over the three chord progression

Aeolian

Aeolian Mode-sixth mode of the major scale. Next to the Ionian mode, this is the most used, most popular mode. In the key of C, this is the C Major scale starting on A, A B C D E F G A. Also called the natural minor scale, this scale is prevalent in all forms of music. Many melodies and solos are based on the Aeolian mode. The vocal line in Stairway To Heaven is sung entirely in this mode


A Aeolian

A Aeolian At The Twelfth Fret

This is a very important position for the C Major-A minor scale. Very easy to visualize and symmetrical. Plus all the notes are contained in four frets. Use the four fingers, four frets rule. Keep your hand in one position and stretch the fingers. This may be difficult at first, especially this high up the fretboard, but it is well worth the effort. Use the same fingers every time, this will aid in playing the right notes.

In the video below, I am improvising using nothing but this position and this mode. It is strictly diatonic. Using your ear, you should be able to solo endlessly in one position. In fact, this is a great exercise.

A Aeolian (A Natural Minor) At The Twelfth Fret

Led Zeppelin - The Song Remains the Same [Blu-ray]
Led Zeppelin - The Song Remains the Same [Blu-ray]

The line forms here for the world’s greatest and possibly most influential band – Led Zeppelin! With Dazed and Confused, Stairway to Heaven, Whole Lotta Love and more signature performances, this mesmerizing movie built around Zep’s famed ’73 NYC concerts is convincing proof why. Band members supervised the Re-mastering and Dolby 5.1 Re-mixing of the film’s image and sound. In addition to their performances, fantasy sequences and at-home glimpses of Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Paul Jones and the late John Bonham, this 2-disc Special Edition has over 40 minutes of newly-added extra features including: Two (2) never-before-released songs in rare performance footage: Celebration and Over the Hills and Far Away; Vintage TV Footage: Drake Hotel Robbery during the New York Concert Stand; Robert Plant BBC Interview and Tampa Concert Band Arrival.

 

This a portion of the melody to Stairway To Heaven. This is another great example of how these modes sound so different from one another, yet they are all related to the parent Major scale (in this case: C Major). The melody is strictly diatonic, and is played in the twelfth position. This form is the same as C Major played in the open position, but sounds an octave higher. The entire melody is based in A Aeolian.

Stairway To Heaven Melody

Stairway To Heaven Melody

Live version from 1975.

Locrian

Locrain Mode-seventh mode of the major scale.In the key of C, this is the C Major scale starting on B, B C D E F G A B C. This is the darkest of all the modes. Rarely used as a basis for a melody.



B Locrian

WRAP UP

In conclusion, all the modes of the major scale are formed by shifting the root. There is no magical mystical theory involved. Try it. Find a major scale pattern you like and change the root to another note in the scale. Play from that note to the same note an octave higher. Your ears will hear the difference!

© 2011 Lorne Hemmerling

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Comments 14 comments

cathie 5 years ago

very useful


6 String Veteran profile image

6 String Veteran 5 years ago

Lorne, nice Hub. 'Following' you now, btw.


manthy profile image

manthy 5 years ago from Alabama,USA

Very accurate Hub - Thanks for the info


Anna 2835 5 years ago

Does one use accidentals of the root scale while in major or minor?


Lorne Hemmerling profile image

Lorne Hemmerling 5 years ago from Port Hope Author

@Anna. Yes, whatever key signature the parent scale is in applies to all the modes of that scale. Example G Dorian (being the 2nd mode of F Major), would contain 1 flat.....B. Therefore G Dorian is G A Bb C D E F G. No matter where this scale is played on the fretboard the intervallic structure is the same. Try this: record or have someone play a Gmaj7 then move to Gm7. Over the GMaj7, play the first mode of G Major (Ionian mode) G A B C D E F# G. Then move to G Dorian for the Gm7. This change stands out a mile and sounds great!. Instant jazz!


neil 5 years ago

One thing I've always been a little unsure of with modes, is the ultimate point of knowing them! If (for ease of reference) I'm playing a song that is in C, and I'm playing over a C major chord, surely I have to be playing in the Ionian mode. The sing key and chord structure would dictate that. Or have I missed something!?


Graham Silbiger 5 years ago

Hi is it worth mentioning that each mode has its respective chord ie: Dominant 7th for Mixolydian, etc etc


Lorne Hemmerling profile image

Lorne Hemmerling 5 years ago from Port Hope Author

@ Graham: yes, I was going to address that. The chords that are formed by harmonizing the scale..... In the key of C: C Dm Em F G Am Bdim in triads.......or CMaj7, Dm7, Em7, FMaj7, G7, Am7, Bdim7 as 4 note chords. Each mode fits over its respected chord. Great point, Graham.


Ted Schuhle 5 years ago

Thanks you took the mystery out of modes.


Ken Cory 5 years ago

And beyond modes based on the major scale we can discover modes based on the melodic minor scale (C D Eb F G A B C), the harmonic minor scale (C D Eb F G Ab B C), and the rare harmonic major scale (C D E F G Ab B C). These modes will transport you to India.


Lorne Hemmerling profile image

Lorne Hemmerling 5 years ago from Port Hope Author

Thank you, Ted. Simplest explanation I could do.


Lorne Hemmerling profile image

Lorne Hemmerling 5 years ago from Port Hope Author

Ken, great point. Thought of that later, should have called it 'Modes Of The Major Scale Simplified.


T M Hoffman 5 years ago

Lorne and Ken - easy entry (thanx Lorne), expansive step (thanx Ken), but still in only considering possibilities through 'tonic shift.' Factor in modes of India (32,848 'basic scales' to start), Turkey, Persia, Arabia,Indonesia & Thailand...now we're talking intergallactic aural time & space travel!...I enjoy going way out there on my two Japanese instruments and voice, have a listen to our IJMEA website. Above all, 'sing on brother, play on drummer'


guitar retreats 4 years ago

Great simple lesson as usual Lorne, thanks. I will use some of these examples for my students. Its always best when put into context with a well known piece of music.. you have chosen well!

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