Floods Causes, Effects, Prevention and Control Measures

Floods occur when excess water flows over land that is normally dry. The water does not flow through any definite channel but spread over land surface. The most common type of flood is when a river overflows its banks. This may occur in the wet reason in the tropics or in spring and summer in the temperate latitudes. Another common type of flood is when ocean water overflows its shoreline and spreads over the coastal plains.

Causes of Flood

1. Heavy rainfall during the wet season.

2. Rapid melting of ice in the watershed of rivers in the temperate latitudes.

3. Collapse of dams and river embankments.

4. Poor land drainage systems, e.g. lack of drainage ditches, blocked drainage ditches, and narrow, shallow drainage ditches. Bridges and culverts that are either too low or too narrow also add to poor drainage.

5. Low relief coupled with a high water table as in flood plains, river valleys and coastal plains.

6. Strong tidal waves, storm surges and hurricanes from the sea.

7. Unplanned urban residential, commercial and industrial development on the flood plains of rivers.

Effects of Flooding

1. Destructive of farmlands.

2. Destruction of life and property.

3. Destruction of transport and communication systems.

4. Displacement of population and settlements.

Flood Prevention and Control Measures

1. Practical watershed and management such as preventing deforestation and carrying out re-forestation where necessary. Control the use of land.

2. Construction of high walls and strong embankments and the reinforcement of levees along river bank.

3. Uses of breaks to retain run-off water over land surfaces.

4. Flood plains should be used for recreational or agricultural purposes only to avoid building houses on them.

5. Construction of flood containing dams with a capacity to retain large quantities of run-off water. Such reservoirs could be used as fish ponds, sources of water for irrigation and domestic purposes.

6. Stream channelisation to increase the capacity of the channel to carry more water.

7. There should be good land use planning and development control in both rural and urban centres.

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Comments 17 comments

Michael Ngozi 4 years ago

You 've enlighten me more concerning flooding.THANKES A lot.

Sahadeo 4 years ago

you have provided good contain......thank you

simon 3 years ago

Rocking man!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

josh 2 years ago

dis mad moi dai

sidra 2 years ago

thanx for such nice details

rishika singh 2 years ago

not BAd ... Its BKwaAs... vrY BKwaaS...

emraan suqry 15 months ago

thanks for such a nice detailed summary about floods as a hazard

Simran 14 months ago

Thanks for completing my presentation about flood.

siddhant 12 months ago

Very good info fr all students

Erika 12 months ago

Thanks very much for the knowledge on floodx

ferns 11 months ago

ok ha

SAMUEL WHYTE 11 months ago


Aldrich Lammaiza 10 months ago

You help me complete my homework... Thanks!!!

r44 9 months ago


nayebare shallon 4 months ago

some more information on causes

Girish Katewa 3 months ago

not in much detail

alizeh 6 weeks ago

It was helpful....thanx..!!

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