How to Read a Mexican Menu, Mexican and Spanish Food List

Mesoamericans and Cortez

Source
Source

Mexican Food History

If you have gained your knowledge of Mexican food in typical American restaurants you have a great deal to learn. Most of our restaurants are actually serving what should be called Tex Mex cuisine, it can be very tasty but that’s not how they eat in Mexico! At least that’s not all they eat in Mexico.

Spanish Conquistadors arrived in Mexico in 1519 and the Spanish stayed for 300 years, so, much of the culture and cuisine of Mexico derives from Spanish influence. Aside from the Spanish influence, Mexican cuisine comes from the various people of Mesoamerica.
The ancient societies of the Mayans, Aztecs and others were raising and eating corn, tomatoes and chilies long before the first Conquistador came along with European foods. In fact there is a long list of foods that we take for granted now that were unknown in Europe at the time of Cortez.

Around 6000 BC, Mesoamericans began to cultivate squash and chilies, within 500 years maize (corn) was being grown. Soon other crops, beans, jicama, tomato and squash all were being grown. The list of native fruits and veggies includes tomatillos, avocados, sweet potatoes, jicama, guava, papaya and many others. Can you imagine cooking without these foods native to the Americas? All of these influences have given Mexico a unique cuisine that can compete with that of any other region. In fact Mexican is one of the most requested foods when diners are polled.

In 2010 Mexican cuisine was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage"

Maize, biodiversity
Maize, biodiversity | Source
Scarlet runner beans were one of the earliest crops
Scarlet runner beans were one of the earliest crops | Source
Azetec sculpture with cacao
Azetec sculpture with cacao | Source

Corn, Beans and Chocolate

Corn, (what we would call field corn) and beans are traditional staples of the Mexican diet but most of the corn is ground into flour to make dough for tortillas and such.Sweet corn also came from Latin America as a natural hybrid. Wheat and barley were introduced by the Spanish. Corn may be the most significant contribution Mesoamerica has made to world agriculture. Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas with 332 million metric tons grown annually in the United States alone.


Chocolate has always had a major role to play, with records going back to before the Olmecs and conquering the world. Corn may be more important, but don’t ask a chocoholic which crop is more significant; which would you rather give up, corn or chocolate?

Meats for the Mesoamericans were mostly turkey and fish until the Spanish brought Europe’s traditional farm animals. Since then Mexicans have been eating beef, pork, goat, and even lamb to a lesser degree. These early Americans had no draft animals to domesticate which makes their level of civilization even more remarkable.

The Spanish introduced all of the European vegetables which were quickly added to the repertoire.
The original Mesoamericans didn’t have ovens so they cooked on a hot flat surface which is why they invented tortillas.

The difference between Spanish food and Mexican food is mostly the use of chilies. It’s difficult to make such broad generalities and all cuisines depend on location and climate. Much of Mexico’s cuisine comes from the Spanish influence but with local foods thrown into the mixture. Spain has been less influenced by American foods and more influenced by their Mediterranean neighborhood.

How to cook Mexican food

Havana Cuban bread man

Source

Mexican or Cuban?

There are many similarities between Mexican and Cuban foods but there are also major differences. First of all Mexico is much bigger with more regional variations in cuisine. Mexicans use a lot more spices and chilies, “hot” is definitely “in” in Mexico but not so much in Cuba. Mexican cooks use a lot more cheese and a lot more sauces. Mole Poblano is known around the world but is only one of the many Mexican sauces. When you go to a Mexican restaurant they will start you off with a basket of tortilla chips while a Cuban restaurant will serve you a basket of Cuban bread, displaying the European influence over Cuban cuisine. The influence of Spain, the Aztecs and Mayans are unmistakable in Mexican food while Cuba has a long list of influences from Spain and Europe to Africa, the Caribbean and even China.

Mexico’s cooking varies by region and is far from the monolithic presentations we see in restaurants here. If you can find a restaurant being run by a Mexican family be sure to try it out, you may be in for a pleasant surprise, there is so much more to Mexican food than you will find in a Taco Bell.

Chili or Chile?

Chile with an "e" at the end is the correct spelling in Spanish.
Chili with an "i" at the end is the Americanized version.
I’ve used the Americanized spelling in this glossary. LR

Traditional Mexican cuisine

Anonna, sugar apple
Anonna, sugar apple | Source
Star anise
Star anise | Source
Ayocotes
Ayocotes | Source

Watermelon Agua Fresca

Alambres at Tacos Don Guero in Mexico City

Alambre

A plate of "alambre", a mexican cuisine dish consisting of meat, cheese, peppers, bacon and other
A plate of "alambre", a mexican cuisine dish consisting of meat, cheese, peppers, bacon and other | Source

Atole

Feria del Atole Coacalco
Feria del Atole Coacalco | Source

Glossary A

Abobora

A round winter squash.

Aceituna

Olive

Acitrón -

Candied cactus fruit

Achiote -

Annato tree seed

Achiote Paste -

Achiote ground with spices and lime juice or vinegar

Adobo -

A spicy paste used to marinate meats, poultry and fish, also used to store chipotles.

Agave nectar (also called agave syrup)

A sweetener commercially produced in Mexico and South Africa from several species of agave, including the Blue Agave. See Agave Nectar for pro and con discussion

Agua -

Water

Aguas frescas-
Spanish: water refreshments are a combination of either fruits, cereals, or seeds with sugar and water, blended to make a beverage. Some of the flavors include tamarind, agua de Flor de Jamaica (made with Hibiscus), and agua de horchata (usually made with rice and cinnamon).

Aguacate -

Avocado

Aguamiel -
Juice of the maguey plant. The maguey heart is tapped while the plant is still alive. This gives many times the volume of sweet sap, called aguamiel (honey water), than if the heart was simply cut out, cooked and crushed as is dome making agave syrup, mescalor tequila

Ahumado -

Smoked

Anejo-
Cheese, rolled in paprika, aged, strong, firm, sharp, crumbly and dry. Grate, and use as Parmesan.. This cheese is not as strongly flavored as Cotija It is commonly used as a topping or stuffing for enchiladas, burritos, and tacos

Anis Estrellado -

Star anise - star shaped spice from Southeast Asia with a smoky, licorice like flavor. In Mexican cuisine, star anise is used in Capriotada (a traditional Bread Pudding), and the beverages atole and champurrado.

Antojito

An hors d'oeuvre or small snack food

Annona -

Sugar apple - an oval fruit covered with light green knobby skin. Sweet and said to taste like custard, there is also a pineapple sugar apple tasting like pineapple

Ajo -

Garlic

Alambre -
means wire in Spanish but the dish does not have to come off a skewer. A typical alambre is made of green peppers, onions, meat and sometimes bacon and has been described as fajitas on steroids.

Albaricoque -

Apricot

Albóndiga -

Meatball

Albahaca -

Basil

Almeja -

Clam

Almendra -

Almond

Almíbar -

Syrup

Almuerzo -

Second breakfast

Anaheim Pepper -

mild pepper

Ancho -

Dried poblano chili

Annatto -

Achiote

Anticuchos -

beef kabobs

Aperitivo -

Appetizer

Apio -

Celery

Arracheras -

Skirt steak

Arroz -

Rice

Asadero
A smooth, yellowish cow’s milk cheese sharper than Queso Quesadilla cheese

Asado -

Broiled

Ate

Fruit jelly, typically made of quince or guava

Atole -

Atoles are a thick beverage a made from corn masa gruel sweetened with raw sugar and flavored by fruit or berries or chocolate or even chilis. They hmay be made with water or milk and may be seasoned with cinnamon, vanilla or almond extract.

Atún -
Tuna

Ayocotes
Scarlet runner bean, the seeds can be used fresh or as dried beans. The starchy roots are still eaten by Central American Indians

Azafrán -

Saffron

Azucar -

Sugar

Mexican food in day of the dead

The principal idea of the image is to share the colors of the food that the Mexicans use to offer to their dead people who are coming to visit the 2nd November night; moreover you can see that is sweet pumpkin; although you can´t taste or smell it
The principal idea of the image is to share the colors of the food that the Mexicans use to offer to their dead people who are coming to visit the 2nd November night; moreover you can see that is sweet pumpkin; although you can´t taste or smell it | Source

Cow Head Barbacoa

Calabaza is a term that can be applied to a variety of gourds and melons grown throughout the world.
Calabaza is a term that can be applied to a variety of gourds and melons grown throughout the world. | Source
Capiratoda
Capiratoda | Source

Buñuelos

Shows the size and people who prepare Buñuelos
Shows the size and people who prepare Buñuelos | Source

Glossary B C

Bacalao -

Dried fish

Bañar -

To immerse in sauce

Barbacoa -

meat (usually cow's head) baked in an earthen pit, our word barbecue derives from this

Batata -

sweet potatoes

Batir -

Beat or whip

Bizcochos -

Cookies or sweet buns, generally flavored with anise

Blanquear -

Blanch

Bocadillo -

Snack

Bolillo -

Crusty rolls about 6 inches long and a version of French Baguettes

Bonito -

Latin American name for sweet potatoes

Boracho -

Cooked with beer or other alcohol - drunken

Borrego -

Sheep


Brasear -

Braise

Brocheta -

a skewer

Buñuelos

In Mexico buñuelos are made of yeast dough with a hint of star anise that is deep-fried, then drenched in a syrup of brown sugar, cinnamon, and guava served with ice cream as a dessert. There are many variations depending on the country and region

Burrito -

A large tortilla stuffed and rolled with many different fillings

C

Al Carbón -

Barbecued over wood or charcoal , smoked

Cabrito -

Young goat / kid

Cacahuatas

Peanuts


Cafe

Coffee.

Cajeta de Celaya

Fudge sauce made with goat's milk

Calabaza -

A hard round winter squash. Similar butternut squash but the name may apply to any number of squashes, gourds and melons grown around the world.

Calamar -

Squid

Caldo -

Soup, broth

Caliente

Hot

Camarón -

Shrimp

Camote -

Latin American name for sweet potatoes

Campechano -

Seafood cocktail or something related to the Mexican state of Campeche

Canela -

Cinnamon

Capirotada -

A dessert pudding served in the Easter season. It is made of of toasted french bread soaked in syrup, sugar, cheese, raisins, and walnuts. The syrup is made with water, piloncillo (Mexican brown sugar), cinnamon, and nutmeg.

Caramelo -

Caramel

Carne -

Meat, especially b eef

Carne asada -

Mexican version something like our barbecue, carne asada is beef that has been marinated and grilled over coals

Carne Guisada -

A beef stew served over rice or tortillas

Carne Molida -

Ground Beef

Carne a la Tampiqueña

Thin strips of beef, grilled.

Carnitas

Shredded Pork

Cassava -
See Manioc

Cayenne -

Hot red pepper usually ground and sold dry, 30 to 50 thousand Scoville units (Hot)

Cazuelitas -

A thin tortilla molded into a shallow bowl and deep fried before being filled

Cebolla

Onion .

Cerveza -

Beer

Ceviche (Cebiche) -

Raw seafood marinated in citrus juice

Chimichanga -

Deep fried burrito

Chalupas -

Thick, filled, boat shaped tortillas

Champurrado -

Hot chocolate Atole drink, made with masa harina, Mexican chocolate and seasoned with cinnamon or star anise, sweetened with piloncillo (raw Mexican sugar)

Chícharo -

Pea

Chicharrónes -

Fried pork rinds

Chilatole -

Chili and tomato atole

Chili, chilies _
Any of the many varieties of hot peppers

Chili con queso

A melted cheese sauce with green chilies. Served with tortilla chips


Chilies en Nogada
Poblano chilies, stuffed, usually with seasoned ground pork and baked in a sauce made of walnuts

Chimichanga

Deep-fried burrito filled with meat and or beans


Chipotles -
Smoke dried jalapeno peppers, chipotles are dark brown to black and shriveled. Popular in Tex Mex and Mexican cuisines.

Churros -

Strips of deep fried pastry sprinkled with sugar

Chorizo -

Spicy pork sausage, the Mexican version is different from what originated in the Iberian Peninsula, Mexican Chorizo is a fresh sausage which may be prepared and cooked at home. It is seasoned with chili peppers, garlic, comino and other herbs and spices. In Europe, Chorizo is usually a fermented, cured sausage which can be eaten without further cooking.

Cilantro -

Coriander's herb form, a popular herb, powerful, earthy and pungent when fresh, dried loses a lot of potency.

Cocina -

Kitchen

Comal -

The round griddle used to cook tortillas

Comino -

Spanish name for cumin; seeds of the cumin plant are earthy, and warm with distinctive flavor and aroma, cumin is the second most popular spice after pepper worldwide.

Coriander -

Seeds of cilantro. Used alone or ground, different flavor from cilantro herb, coriander tends to be a bit more pungent with hints of citrus.

Cotija -

A hard cheese also known as queso añejo. Known as the "Parmesan of Mexico" Good for grating and used like Parmesan



Cremas
The Hispanic versions of sour cream.

Crema Mexicana - Slightly thickened and slightly sour cultured cream. Similar to a crème fraîche

Crema Centroamericana, thicker and sweeter than crema Mexicana,

Crema media, like whipping cream,

Crema Mexicana agria, thicker and more sour than crema Mexicana

Crema Salvadoreña, which is thick like sour cream

Cucharada -

Tablespoon

Cucharadita -

Teaspoon

Fideo
Fideo | Source

Glossary D E F

Derretir -

Melt

Desayuna -

Breakfast

Deshuesar -

Debone

Desvenar -

Devein

Dulce -

Sweet

Durazno -

Peach

Duroblando
A sharp, firm, slightly smoky cheese, used for grating in a manner similar to Cotija

E

Ejote

String bean

Elote

Corn.

Empanada -

Sweet or savory turnover

Enchiladas -

Corn tortillas are softened by frying in oil, filled with meats, cheeses and or beans and baked with red (rojo) or green (verde) salsa

Enfrijoladas -

Corn tortillas filled and topped with thinned frijoles and baked

Entrada -

Main dish

Enrollado

Rolled

Ensalada

Salad

Envueltos -

Fried tacos

Epazote -
Leafy plant used as both a vegetable and an herb for its pungent flavor. Raw, it has a resinous, medicinal pungency, similar to anise, but stronger. Difficult to find except in Hispanic stores epazote is worth finding to lend authentic flavor to certain Mexican dishes.

Escabeche -

Refers to a pickling mixture used on poached or fried fish (Or poultry and others) or to the entire dish of fish marinated in vinegar or citrus juice with olive oil, herbs and spices. Escabeche is served cold after being refrigerated overnight. Also sometimes served as a side dish of vegetables without any fish. Escabeche makes a wonderful dish for a warm summer night.

Escurrir -

Strain

F

Fajita -
Fajita are a dish in Tex-Mex cuisine, not a true Mexican dish. Grilled meat served with flour or corn tortilla separately. The term originally referred to the skirt steak cut of beef used in the dish. Now it may have any type of meat that a restaurateur wants to sell. The meat is often cooked with onions and bell peppers and served with typical Mexican condiments.

Fideos -
Pasta, generally angelhair, used is soups. There are a wide many recipes, but the basic recipe calls for lightly browning the fideo in oil, adding broth and other ingredients and cooking till the pasta is done.

Flan -

A baked custard dessert with a caramel sauce baked into the bottom, this is inverted on the serving plate so the caramel drips over the top

Flauta -

Deep fried, flute shaped stuffed corn tortillas

Freir -

Fry

Fresadilla -

Spanish word for the tomatillo. This fruit is surrounded by an inedible, paper-like husk. As the fruit matures, it fills the husk and can split it open by harvest. The husk turns brown, and the fruit can be any of a number of colors when ripe, including yellow, red, green, or even purple. Tomatillos are the key ingredient in fresh and cooked Latin American green sauces.

Fresas -

Strawberries

Frijoles -

Beans

Frijoles Refritos -

Refried beans

Frijoles Negros-
Black beans typically seasoned with salt, ham hocks, onions and garlic, tomatoes, cumin, oregano, chili peppers, vinegar, and other ingredients. Mexican style vegetarian black bean stew makes a delicious and inexpensive dish.

Granadilla, Passion flower fruit

Granadilla
Granadilla | Source
Passion flower
Passion flower | Source
Chicken Mole sauce
Chicken Mole sauce | Source

Glossary G Thru M

Granada -

Pomegranate

Granadilla -

Several species of passion fruit may be called granadilla, also called parcha and aracuya. Incredible flowers that remind some of the Passion of Christ gave this plant its English name. he pulpy flesh which surrounds the seeds is the part that is eaten as well, sometimes, as the seeds themselves. Grows widely as a weed in subtropical climates.

Gorditas -

A thick tortilla, made with masa harina, deep fried and stuffed with meats or cheese

Guacamole -

A mashed avocado condiment often served as a dip

Guisado -

Stewed

Guava -

Small green or yellow egg shaped tropical fruit, when ripe, resembles

taste of peaches.

Gusanos de Maguey
Worms living in agave plants that are considered a delicacy when fried. Also found in bottles of mezcal to denote the particular type of agave plant

H

Habenero -

Hottest pepper available.


Helado

Ice cream.


Helote
Corn

Hervir -

Boil

Horchata -

A sweet rice drink Horchata is the name of several kinds of traditional beverages, made of ground almonds, sesame seeds, rice, barley, or tigernuts (chufas).
1See also agua fresca

Hoja

Corn husk used to wrap tamales

Hornear -

Bake

Huevos -
Eggs

Huevos motuleños

Tortilla topped with ham, fried eggs and a sauce made with cheese, peas and tomatoes

Huevos Rancheros
Eggs cooked with a tomato salsa

Huevos revueltos
Scrambled eggs

Huicoy -

A round, winter squash. It's similar to butternut squash

J

Jalapeño -

Type of chili pepper

Jamón

Ham

Jicama -

Crisp, tan skinned white fleshed, root. Excellent eaten fresh or in

salads

Jugo -

Juice

Jugo de Naranja

Orange juice


K

Kahlúa

Coffee-flavored liqueur made in Mexico


L

Langosta -

Lobster

Leche -

Milk

Leche de Enco -

Coconut milk

Leche Quemada - (Burnt Milk Fudge)

This Mexican fudge is a rich mixture of evaporated milk, corn syrup, vanilla, butter and pecans.

Lechuga -

Lettuce

M

Maíz -

corn

Malanga -

Two plants are known as Malanga.
1) The plant used as a starch in Mexico and Latin America is Xanthosoma. These are tropical and sub-tropical arums plants native to tropical America. Several species are grown for their starchy corms, also known as malanga, otoe, new cocoyam, tannia, tannier, yautía, macabo, taioba, dasheen, and quequisque,

2) Mostly in Asia, Eddoe is a tropical vegetable, a variety of Colocasia esculenta, closely related to taro (dasheen), requires careful cooking to remove the acrid taste.

Mango -

Tropical fruit, orange flesh

Manioc- . Also known as Cassava, Yuca and Tapioca

Tropical root crop, cultivated for its starchy root this has to be carefully prepared to remove the cyanide compounds present in some plants. In spite of this danger Manioc is a major source of carbohydrates for much of the world

Manteca -

Lard

Mantequilla

Butter

Manzana

Chili pepper, Medium to hot at its peak.

Maracuya -

Granadilla, passion fruit

Margarita -

A tequila based cocktail made with lime and triple sec

Mariscos

Shellfish

Masa -

dough almost always made of Cornmeal

Masa Harina -

Is a very finely ground corn flour made from corn that has been dried, cooked in lime water, ground up and dried again. The cooking water always contains slaked lime which gives masa harina its distinctive taste.

Menudo -
A traditional spicy Mexican soup of beef tripe, and hominy in a seasoned broth

Metate -

A rectangular stone grinding bowl

Mexican rice also known as Spanish rice, , is a side dish made from white rice, tomatoes, garlic, onions, parsley, cilantro. What we see here is probably a Tex Mex dish but a similar dish is served throughout Latin America.

Mezclar -
Mix

Mole
-
Mexico’s famous national sauce, known worldwide, is a blend of chocolate, chilies, garlic, onions and nuts and much more. To someone who s unfamiliar with mole, the inclusion of chocolate may be surprising but in the hands of a skillful cook the chocolate disappears into a blend of flavors, leaving only hints of chocolate in the finished sauce. There are endless versions of mole depending on regional varieties and individual cook preferences.

Mole Poblano-
has also been called the "national dish" of Mexico, contains about twenty ingredients, including chili peppers and chocolate most often served over turkey at weddings and at Christmas.

Moros con cristianos (Moores and Christians)

Adish made with black beans and rice, garnished with fried plantain

Nopales
Nopales | Source
Pico de gallo
Pico de gallo | Source
Piloncillos
Piloncillos | Source
Quesillo_de_Oaxaca.
Quesillo_de_Oaxaca. | Source

Glosssary N Thru Q

Names -
Yams

Naranja

Orange

Nogada -

Sauce made from ground nuts

Naranja Agria -

sour orange

Nixtamal

Hominy

Nopal -
Edible cactus, prickly pears, Nopales are very rich in insoluble and soluble dietary fiber. They are rich in vitamins; vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin K, as well as riboflavin and vitamin B6, and minerals; magnesium, potassium, manganese, and iron and copper and antioxidant flavonoids. Prickly pear cactus may be an acquired taste as they are somewhat slimy like okra with a similar flavor. Available raw in Hispanic groceries as well as canned


O

Oja

Cornhusk, used to wrap tamales


Olla de Presion -

Pressure cooker

Ostión -

Oyster

P


Paella
Spanish dish with rice, meats and seafood depending on the cook.

Pan
Bread

Pan Dulce -

Sweet rolls

Panela -

A soft white crumbly cheese, like queso blanco it does not melt when heated

Papadzules
Yucatan dish of corn tortillas filled with varying ingredients and topped with pepitas (pumpkin seeds) and tomato sauce.

Parcha -

Granadilla

Parrilla -

Cast-iron grid or grate is used for grilling or making tortillas

Pato
Duck.

Pavo
Turkey.

Pay

Pie

Pepino

Cucumber

Pepitas -

Pumpkin seeds

Pescado -

Fish

Pico de Gallo -

A fresh minced salsa of tomatoes and onions, sometimes with chilies or peppers, cilantro and other ingredients.

Picada -
Picada is a cooking technique from Spain where bread, almonds and liquid are pounded together and used as a last minute seasoning in some stews

Picadillo

CUBAN, Meat hash

Piloncillo -

Pressed, unrefined dark brown sugar. Other common names are chancaca, papelón, panocha, rapadura, atado dulce or empanizao

Pimienta

Black pepper

Piña -

Pineapple

Piñon -

Pine nut

Piquin Pequin-

Chili pepper often used to flavor vinegars, Very Hot, 50 to 100 thousand Scoville units

Plantain -

Fruit that looks like abig hard banana, more starchy and less sweet than a banana plantains are almost always cooked although very ripe plantains can be eaten raw. Plantain Maduros: Recipe

Poblano -

Popular chili, not very hot, used for for chili rellenos. Ripe, red poblanos are hotter than green unripe peppers. Dried poblanos are called chili Anchos. Essential part of chilies nogada.

Pollo -

Chicken

Posole

A soup made from beef or pork, chili, hominy and spices

Postre -

Mexican Desserts, Recipes

Puerco -

Pork

Pulpo -

Octopus

Pulque -
is a thick, white-colored drink of 3-4% alcohol made by fermenting the sap of the maguey plant, (an Agave ).

Q

Quesadillas -

Grilled or pan fried tortillas stuffed with various ingredients and folded in half.

Queso -

Cheese

Queso Añejo -

A hard cheese also known as cotija


Queso Blanco -

Mild white cheese that becomes soft and creamy but does not melt when heated

Queso Blanco con Frutas -

Mild white cheese with added pineapple and mango, good on broiled skewers because it does not melt

Queso Fresco -

Homemade fresh cheese

Queso Oaxaca -

white, semi-hard cheese, similar to un-aged Monterey Jack but with a stringy texture

Quinoa - Nutritious grain, originated in the Andes Mts.

Sapodilla
Sapodilla | Source
Serrano Peppers
Serrano Peppers | Source
Tomatillos
Tomatillos | Source

Glossary R Thru Z

Rajas -

Rajas means strips in Spanish but in the kitchen it refers to roasted peeled poblano peppers cut into strips and frequently sautéed with onions, herbs and seasonings. Used as a condiment with meats or as a vegetable side dish.

Rallar -

Grate

Refrescos

Soft drinks

Repollo

Cabbage

Relleno -

Filled or stuffed

Ristra

String of dried red chilies

Rocotillo -

This is a tiny chili that looks like a miniature patty pan squash. Originated in Peru, these usually have from 1,500 to 2,500 Scoville units, which means they are modestly hot.

S

Sal

Salt "Sin sal" means without salt,

Salchicha

Sausage

Salsa -

is the Spanish word for sauce. Although there are many varieties of salsa, what we usually think of as salsa in the US are fresh sauces served as a condiment. These uncooked sauces might be pureed until smooth, semi-chunky, or the uniformly chopped as in pico de gallo. Salsa has replaced ketchup as America’s favorite condiment.

Salsa Cruda -

Uncooked salsa

Salsa Fresca -

Uncooked Salsa

Sapodilla -

Round fruit with a thin, brown skin and off-white flesh, tastes like a sugared pear, grainy texture, with a sweet, malty flavor. Many believe the flavor is similar to caramel. The unripe fruit is hard to the touch and contains high amounts of saponin, which has astringent properties similar to tannin, drying out the mouth. Sapodillas ripen off the tree

Seca -

Dry

Serrano -

Peppers red and green The serrano pepper is a type of chili pepper that originated in the mountainous regions of the Mexican states of Puebla and Hidalgo. These are hot peppers with a rating of from 10,000 to 25,000 Scoville units.

Sofrito -

Mexican mirepoix, sofrito consists of garlic, onion, and tomatoes cooked in olive oil, and used as the base for many dishes. Essential to Mexican cooking.

Sopa -

Soup

Sopa Seca - (Dry Soup)

soups called sopas seca s that are dry and can be served as a mound. The "dryness" of the soup comes from a large quantity of thin, short noodles (called fideos ) that are added to a thin broth in the last few minutes of cooking. As the noodles cook, they absorb much of the liquid and give the soup its texture and shape.

Sopes

Miniature fried corn-dough bowls filled with beans and sauce and topped with cheese

T

Taco -

True Mexican tacos are soft, heated or lightly fried corn tortillas, and can contain any number of different traditional Mexican meats or fish. Served with many different condiments, The crunchy tacos we see in Taco Bell and the grocery stores are a Tex Mex invention made for the convenience of the manufacturer

Tacos al Pastor -

Pork tacos

Tamal -

Singular of tamales

Tamales -

Can be any meat or cheese filling surrounded by a dough made of masa harina, then wrapped in corn husks and steamed. Unwrap to eat and serve with condiments like salsa and pico de gallo.

Tapioca -
See Manioc

Taquitos -

Small flautas

Té Caliente

Hot Tea.

Té Helado

Iced Tea

Tejolote -

Pestle

Tequila -

Liquor from the blue agave

Tex-Mex
Is a a regional American cuisine that blends food products available in the United States by the cuisines of Mexico. Un fortunately Tex Mex may be the only exposure some of us receive to Mexican foods. True Mexican foods are part of a wonderful and varied cuisine that is only hinted at by restaurants which sell tacos and burritos.

Tlacoyos -

Tortilla dough encloses a simple filling and is grilled on a comal

Tomatillo -

This fruit is surrounded by an inedible, paper-like husk. As the fruit matures, it fills the husk and can split it open by harvest. The husk turns brown, and the fruit can be any of a number of colors when ripe, including yellow, red, green, or even purple. Tomatillos are the key ingredient in fresh and cooked Latin American green sauces.

Topopo

A salad shaped like a volcano or pyramid

Torta -

A sandwich served on a bolillo

Tortilla -

A flat Mexican bread made of cornmeal or flour.

Tortilla - In SPAIN a tortilla is an omelette

Tripas -

Tripe

U

Uva -

Grape

Uva Pasa -

Raisin

V

Vains de Vanilla -

Vanilla bean

Al Vapor -

Steamed

Vino -

Wine

X

Xnipec -

A type of chili sauce, The Mayan word for this mixture means "nose of the dog," it will clear your sinuses. Made with Habanero chilies this sauce is hot

Y

Yautia -

See Manioc

Yuca -
See Manioc

Z

Zanahoria -

Carrot

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Comments 6 comments

flagostomos profile image

flagostomos 5 years ago from Washington, United States

You are right when you say Mexican Restaurant are inaccurate. I have been spending time with a Mexican family and you would not believe the amazing stuff she cooks up.


chefsref profile image

chefsref 5 years ago from Citra Florida Author

Thanx Flagostomos

We used to have a local Mexican restaurant run by a Mexican family and the food was fantastic, nothing like we usually see.


Jillian Barclay profile image

Jillian Barclay 5 years ago from California, USA

Dear Chef,

You always provide so much information! Thank you! Most of the Mexican food that I like comes from friends that are Mexican, and you are right. The meals and ingredients are different that those you would find in a typical Mexican restaurant in the US.

Alot of people make jokes or snide remarks about the street food vendors in Tijuana, but let me reassure anyone, the street tacos are incredible! And real carnitas? Oh, my gosh! The best food you have ever tasted! And NO! You will not get sick and die! The food is wonderful!


chefsref profile image

chefsref 5 years ago from Citra Florida Author

Thanx Jillian, You're making me jealous, we don't have any authentic Mexican food here, just chain restaurants that serve Tex Mex junk food. Oh well, we do have Miami and Tampa for incredible Cuban food


Fay Paxton 5 years ago

Chef, your hubs are always an education and this one is no exception.

I was lucky. I had a good friend who taught me how to prepare authentic Mexican food. We seem to always adjust and change food for the American palate and convenience. It's too bad, because "ain't nothin like the real thing".:)

voted up/useful,awesome and bookmarked


chefsref profile image

chefsref 5 years ago from Citra Florida Author

Thanx Faye, I worked on this one for a long time

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