Irish Potato Famine Morphs Into Food Sustainability

This potato variety is the Irish Lumper, to which the Great Irish Famine is commonly attributed.
This potato variety is the Irish Lumper, to which the Great Irish Famine is commonly attributed. | Source

According to Wikipedia, "Ireland's main economic resource is its large fertile pastures." Recognized early on by English colonizers, it didn't take long for them to buy up the land, and use it to raise beef and dairy cows for shipment to England and elsewhere for their own enrichment. Irish farmers worked the good lands for the absentee landowners, and retained the marginal lands to grow barley and potatoes for their own subsistence, both of which eventually caused famines.

But once Ireland got its own government and ownership of the land, and that government started thinking in terms of sustainability and carbon footprint, a new life dawned for its citizens. Whereas barley and potatoes both deplete Ireland's soils, natural grasses replenish the soils, don't need constant plowing and planting, and are great for growing healthy cattle, dairy cows, and sheep. With sustainable practices and land ownership, Ireland's farmers now have the potential to both feed themselves and expand their food exports to a growing, hungry world.

Dublin, Ireland Takes the Country Sustainable

In 2009 Bord Bia, the Irish agricultural trade board headquartered in Dublin, took a survey of the European countries to which they exported food to discover how those countries viewed Ireland's food trade. As expected, they found that Europe saw Ireland as a primarily "green" country supplying them with fairly healthy food.

Source

Bord Bia decided to up the ante. They had heard the predictions that the world would soon run out of food. They also took seriously warnings about climate change, and the need to cut back on carbon dioxide and methane production.

Bord Bia decided to heed both of those warnings by enabling more efficient production of high quality meat and other food and drinks, both for its own populace and for export to Europe, the Middle East, and China. They developed a unique government program called "Origin Green" to make their entire food and drinks industry sustainable - currently the only such program in the world.

What is Food Sustainability?

Sustainability is a method of production that allows for a country's natural resources to be sustained over time, so they are available to generations down the road; so nothing is used up or defaced to the point that it can't replenish itself and continue to exist. The definition has grown to include other things too, like the health and well-being of workers, their families and communities, and efficient financial management, so human life and culture is also sustained.

This is different from subsistence. Sustainability implies an egalitarian sort of thriving of the earth and all of its inhabitants, including humans. Subsistence is just barely making it. And that's how the majority of Ireland lived for hundreds of years.

Potato fields spread across marginal lands, providing food for the peasants. Grasslands were used by English absentee landlords to raise beef, dairy cows, and sheep for export to England.
Potato fields spread across marginal lands, providing food for the peasants. Grasslands were used by English absentee landlords to raise beef, dairy cows, and sheep for export to England. | Source

Humans were divided into classes then, with the peasants and labourers being the lowest classes. They subsisted on foods grown from marginal lands, like barley and potatoes, while the upper classes and foreigners owned most of the land and exported what they produced.

With the advent of Origin Green, Ireland committed to helping farmers make grasslands the country's primary natural resource, with grass-fed meats and dairy products its primary food export. The production of potatoes was downsized in favor of what grows naturally in Ireland.

This doesn't mean Ireland's farmers have completely dumped the potato, since the potato is a staple of their national cuisine. However, Origin Green changed the country's focus to producing healthy, sustainable foods indigenous to Ireland's environment, which the potato is not.

There are thousands of varieties of potato now in existence, 99% of which can be traced directly back to early Chilean and Peruvian wild potatoes.
There are thousands of varieties of potato now in existence, 99% of which can be traced directly back to early Chilean and Peruvian wild potatoes. | Source
Baileys Chocolates, Milk Chocolates filled with Baileys The Original Irish Cream Liquor, 7oz Tube
Baileys Chocolates, Milk Chocolates filled with Baileys The Original Irish Cream Liquor, 7oz Tube

According to one reviewer, "These amazing little chocolates have a small amount of liquid Bailey's Irish Cream in the centers. If you like Bailey's, you'll love these chocolates. The alcohol is not overpowering, but all the flavor of Bailey's Irish Cream is there. Mixed with the chocolate shell outside, it almost like you put a little Baliey's in your hot cocoa."

 

Potatoes are Indigenous to South America

Potatoes came originally from South America. There they were grown high in the Andes Mountains by the Inca people, who cultivated them from wild potatoes 7,000-10,000 years ago. Potatoes are one of the crops the Aztecs experimented with on Machu Picchu, growing them at different heights with different amounts of water and degrees of temperature, to see what would happen. They produced hundreds of different kinds of potatoes.

How did potatoes get from South America to Ireland? In the mid-1500's Spanish conquistadors didn't just take gold and silver from the Incas and other ancient Americans. They took everything of interest they could find, including food. They took chocolate, peanuts, tomatoes, peppers, beans, corn, .. . . and potatoes. They shipped great loads of them from the Americas to Europe, currying favor with royalty, trying to get them to experiment with these exotic foods and maybe even grow them, if only to feed the military. Many Europeans did, but the potato was generally spurned. Because it came from under the ground, it was considered food for the lowly.

Ireland was a grower of barley in those days - a grain originally imported from the crescent of Western Asia to North Africa. Barley provided grain for cereals, breads, and especially liquor. Ireland is still known for its Irish whiskey, beer (Guinness), and liqueurs (Bailey's Irish Cream).

But then Ireland had a famine. As often happens when growing imported foods, soils were not adequate to sustain production over the years, and local predators could not control the insects and viruses that attacked the crop. Barley went belly up and people went hungry. What saved the people from starvation was potatoes.

This popular Irish dish called "Boxty" consists of grass-fed beef wrapped up in a potato pancake.
This popular Irish dish called "Boxty" consists of grass-fed beef wrapped up in a potato pancake. | Source

The Growth of the Irish Potato

Potatoes were a savior crop. They liked cold, hard winters and summers with long hours of sunlight, which Ireland had. Barley's destructive insects were uninterested in eating potatoes, and there were lots of different ways potatoes could be cooked.

Barley replaced potatoes in favorite dishes and then new dishes developed especially for potatoes: Potato pies, breads, pancakes, soups, fried and boiled potatoes, apple potato bread ( a dessert), even vodka. Although potatoes themselves were difficult to export, some of the products made from them could be, like alcohol and potato chips/crisps. Potatoes quickly grew to be Ireland's new staple crop.

The Irish Potato Famine

In 1845 the same thing happened with potatoes that happened with barley. Because only a few varieties of potato were shipped to Europe from the Andes, there was not enough genetic diversity to keep them healthy, so they succumbed to disease. The Irish Lumpur, a prolific grower used as much for feeding stock as it was for the average Irish cropper's family, was especially vulnerable to a fungus infestation called "late blight," accidentally imported from Europe.

The disease "late blight" ruins potatoes for eating. Irish Lumper was especially vulnerable to this disease, and was primarily responsible for the "Great Irish Famine" in 1846-48.
The disease "late blight" ruins potatoes for eating. Irish Lumper was especially vulnerable to this disease, and was primarily responsible for the "Great Irish Famine" in 1846-48. | Source

The disease spread quickly through the potato fields of Western Ireland and beyond, resulting in the "Great Irish Famine." Two fifths of the population had become totally dependant on potatoes, mostly the peasant and laborer classes, and suddenly they had nothing to eat.

Absentee landowners ignored their plight, continuing to export beef, dairy, and other food to England and beyond, instead of feeding the Irish people. Because only 616 landlords owned 80% of Ireland's land then, local people had no control over what was grown there or who the land fed.

England set up food and public works programs to help for a few months, but farmers could not benefit from those programs if they owned more than 1/4 acre of land. Peasants had to sell the land they had left in order to eat or work.

At least two million people emigrated. Over one million people died. The island lost almost a quarter of its population. Some called the famine genocide. I call it a land grab. In either case it made England, as the governing country, look really bad.

Ireland's Recovery

In 1879, with the world pressing for reform, England passed the Irish Land Act and then the Wyndham Act in 1903. They also set up a Land Commission to enforce the Acts, which was disbanded in the year 2000, having done its job. Now 87% of the Irish people own their own homes and/or agricultural land, and the country has its own government too.

Potatoes remained Ireland's staple crop for the lower classes, but Ireland started developing varieties of potatoes more resistant to blight (like Rocks and Champion). In 1879 there was another outbreak of blight, but without the disastrous results of the first one. Over time it became clear that potatoes could not stay a major crop, if Ireland's land and people were to stay healthy.

Meanwhile, the rest of the world was becoming aware of the concept of sustainability, and how crops could thrive more easily when matched with local soil and weather conditions, especially crops that were already indigenous (or varieties of them).

Potatoes, Weather & Sustainability in Ireland

Eventually the need for agricultural sustainability grew worldwide to the point that it became an insistent prod to action. Analysis showed that Ireland's most abundant, most natural indigenous crop was grass. The country's weather was cool and rainy, when not rainy then misty, and grassland soils were rich, giving cattle, sheep, goats, and dairy cows plenty of healthy food to eat year round. Not much was needed in the way of supplemental grains.

Ireland already had a history of exporting grass-fed meat and dairy products to their neighbors. Now that the world was waking up to how much healthier grass-fed meat was than grain-fed, and the human population was exploding globally, Ireland saw the opportunity for expanding those exports to the rest of the world too.

The Prepared Pantry Bread Machine Mix, Summerhill Irish Potato White, 22 Ounce
The Prepared Pantry Bread Machine Mix, Summerhill Irish Potato White, 22 Ounce

Potato bread tastes somewhat like sourdough, but without quite as much tang. It's moist, soft, and flavorful with a smooth texture and nice crust. You can make it in a bread machine or by hand and it tastes equally good.

 

The only question was, how could Ireland avoid the mess it was in before? Would the average farmer have enough to eat, if land were used for exports? For when a country exports goods needed at home, it sets itself up for disaster - a slow emptying of the glass that feeds it.

Sustainability was the answer. Sustainable practices require that local farming thrive, both for the physical health of families and the psychological health of communities. So Bord Bia built that concept into their sustainability paradigm and the statistics they used for the Origin Green program. They added an independent verification program to make sure that all sustainability practices were adhered to.

Balancing Local vs. Export Markets

Most of the land in Ireland is now owner-occupied, including the 64% of the country that is agricultural (10.4 million acres), containing over 140,000 farms. Of that, 80% is left as grasslands to grow meat and dairy cows, according to Bord Bia.

On the non-grasslands portions farmers grow barley, potatoes, wheat, apples, cold-season vegetables, and mushrooms (in that order of prevalence). Over 50% of meat and dairy products and 92% of apples (apple juice) are exported, putting Ireland in a wee bit of imbalance. The food and drinks industry comprises almost 10% of Ireland's exports.

To sustain the local economy, farmers are encouraged to diversify, to expand their businesses into non-traditional agricultural activities using existing products. Apples that make juice for exporting, for example, could also make frozen apple pies for home use. Many farming communities have developed organizations to solve local problems and make decisions such as this, and there are numerous local wholesale and retail outlets already existing to help with distribution.

Ireland is learning to balance exports with the production of food for local consumption, even as export markets grow. This includes producing locally some of what Ireland is currently importing, like meat and dairy products not yet made in Ireland.

Increasing the production of indigenous foods for local consumption, decreasing imports, and exporting mainly excess production is what will reduce the danger of future famines, and help the country's economy become more sustainable (and stable) as a whole.

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Comments 2 comments

Chuck profile image

Chuck 15 months ago from Tucson, Arizona

An interesting and well written Hub.

However, it wasn't exports of food products from Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom (which Ireland was a part of at the time of the famine) that resulted in the famine and emigration of millions of Irish.

Instead, it was the Corn Laws which were high taxes on imported wheat (known as "corn" in Europe in those days). The Industrial Revolution was in full swing in England and the opportunity for relatively higher pay and somewhat better life available in cities resulted in many people leaving rural areas for cities. This loss of labor in rural areas forced landlords to compete with factories for labor which increased the cost of growing food and these increased costs forced food producers to increase prices of these products and put them at a disadvantage to cheaper grain imports from abroad. The Corn Laws put a high tax on grain imports which retailers added to the final price which resulted in their final price being equal to or greater than locally produced grains.

Poor people throughout the UK were hurt by these high prices. Due to centuries of misrule and discrimination by the British in Ireland meant that the masses in Ireland were mostly poor and forced to limit their diet to cheap and abundant potatoes. When the blight hit and destroyed the crop mass starvation resulted.

In the absence of the Corn Laws, inexpensive grain imported from abroad would have prevented the Irish Famine. So, it was not a lack of sustainable local production but the crony fascism that results from governments trying to manage economies by the use of import restrictions, subsidies and other tactics that seek to maintain the livelihood of politically connected groups at the expense of the rest of society.


Sustainable Sue profile image

Sustainable Sue 14 months ago from Altadena CA, USA Author

Yes, including so much of the land being owned by Brits who wanted to grow meat for export to England, rather than domestic use in Ireland. There were a lot of factors contributing, most of them designed to benefit the upper classes. I sure hope we're not headed in that direction again with the new trade world agreements and the ever-widening income gap (at least in the U.S.).

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