Addiction and Trauma Connection
Is there a connection between addictions and trauma?
Many are not aware that there is a relationship between an addiction and the post effects of experiencing a traumatic life event? Research have discovered that the answer is yes and research has shown that it is a strong relationship between addiction and the symptoms of Post traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD. In fact research have proven that there is a true cause and effect relationship.
The Connection was ignored
The connection between addictions and trauma was ignored and went un-noticed for many years because of the following two reasons:
1. Initially the field of addictions was isolated and not accepted by the helping professions (medicine, science, psychiatry and psychology).
2. The trauma field was not acknowledged into the mainstream addiction professionals until the last five years.
Over the years both the fields addictions and trauma have come into their own. The “addiction treatment system” has finally accepted that experiencing the aftereffects of trauma is a precursor for the development of an addiction. The forth coming addiction can be to a substance, emotion, thought or behavior.
I remember getting reports after clients who had come into my inpatient trauma treatment program from an addiction program who had stated, “When I would bring up my history of abuse or trauma in an individual or group session, afterwards I would be pulled away in private meeting and told not to speak about abuse or trauma while in the addiction program”.
Today the relationship is more accepted and actually addiction treatment facilities are adding trauma components to their programs as an adjunct. Facilities are recognizing that both need to be addressed to achieve treatment success.
PTSD symptoms are a natural response
As everyone knows the post effects of experiencing abusive or traumatic life events is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a natural aftereffect of going through such life threatening situations. 95% of all people who face abusive, combat or traumatic events have to some degree or another PTSD. Yet the medical and psychiatric professions classifies PTSD as a mental disorder.
In the main cluster of PTSD symptoms is “re-experiencing recollections of the traumatic event” is considered by survivors to be the worse and most troubling symptom. Re-experiencing or clinically known as “re-living” means that at sometimes after a traumatic situation, the memory of the event might get triggered and a portion of the memory surfaces from the subconscious mind to conscious awareness. This portion of a memory that breaks off and surfaces is called a “flashback”. A flashback is a very frightening experience. The survivor feels as though he or she is experiencing the situation all over again and has lost control.
So in an attempt to control and suppress the flashback or its effects, a survivor turns to something that will either eliminate the images, suppress negative thoughts associated or numb out the extreme pain surfacing into consciousness. Survivors will do whatever it takes to stop the flashback even to the point or endangering his or her life or acquire an addiction that will assist out defeating the horrible images. Survivors will take illegal or legal substances (pain medication, alcohol, anxiety medication), participate in unhealthy behaviors (not eating or over eating, self-harm, self-sabotage, and excessive exercise), engage in repetitive distracting thoughts and/or get involved in destructive relationships.
How does this happen?
Well ask yourself the following questions?
If out of nowhere, you began to experience disturbing images in your mind, thoughts or emotions and you take a drink of alcohol and they diminish, then will you take another drink?
If you are feeling unexplained painful emotions and you use a substance like cocaine and the pain goes away; would you use that substance again to “kill” the pain?
If you heard scary noises that you know are not happening in the here and now, and that you know were only occurring in your head and you took a substance or did a behavior or focused on a thought and the noises went away, would you then do it again?
The answer to all three questions is a resounding - yes. That is human nature to seek relief from post pain of abusive and traumatic situations.
So from the individual’s point of view with a history of abusive or traumatic experiences that began experiencing PTSD symptoms afterwards, the pain was real and overwhelming, causing him or her to seek immediate relief. So the decision to use a substance is the best solution. Unfortunately when the symptoms are successfully reduced a bond is established.
Over time a relationship forms. The relationship grows with every episode of use and control remains in the hands of the individual.
Regrettably the once the joy of the relationship with the addictive pattern is only a fleeting. At some point the relationship turns and the addiction gains control, reverse tolerance occurs and the relationship becomes toxic. A false sense of security grows as well.
Trauma Robs Self-love
Experiencing a life threatening event of abuse or trauma causes another reaction that enhances the relationship between trauma and addiction. Trauma robs a victim of many things but a major human ability is robbed is that of self-love. Once self-love evaporates then confidence, self-worth and esteem leaves right behind. At that point self-love is replaced by the sensation of emptiness.
This emptiness is commonly referred to as feeling like there is a hole in the chest. No one does well with feeling empty and abandon by self. The now survivor carries strong resentment against self, so validation is sought from the outside and self is ignored. That is where addiction steps in and creates a false sense of fullness and becomes the substitute for self-love. Success is felt when the emptiness sensation is gone and as long as he or she continues to use, the empty feeling stays away. The thought is “better to have a bad relationship with something outside of me than be left with someone I do not like”.
The survivor continues to invest in the relationship with the addiction. The need for the relationship grows stronger even when toxic conditions set in. For a trauma survivor it is easier to focus on the symptoms (addition) than have to face the cause of the emptiness. Ignoring the cause (trauma) can make the symptoms (addiction) worse or just treating the "symptoms" can make the "cause" more intense.
Addictions can be the direct result of attempting to stop or control the surfacing mental, emotional and/or physical post unprocessed emotions of past traumatic experiences. Based on this viewpoint, the traumatic event is the cause and the addiction is the symptom. The addictive pattern is used to attempt to cover the surfacing pain, extreme fear and the ensuing confusion.
Traditional modes of treatment such as AA or NA, though very successful and add a tremendous amount of support, are only treating the symptoms and therefore the root cause goes ignored and not mentioned. Participants in such meetings are not allowed to face or even talked about abuse or trauma he or she experienced and caused them to begin to use in the first place. In fact AA or NA ignored the root causes. Therefore to increase the chance of a longer and more successful sobriety, the helping professions should address both the addiction and the symptoms of root cause, abuse or trauma experiences, with a holistic approach rather than a segregated approach to achieve a great degree of success and a decreased rate of relapse.
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