Apartheid's Mental Diseases - No Educative Health System-Mental Health Decline Of African South Africans Under The ANC

President Mbeki under placard and protestors attack for dragging the country under and exacerbating the AIDS pandemic. A Kid Encapsulates the fighting spirit of the African people in this picture
President Mbeki under placard and protestors attack for dragging the country under and exacerbating the AIDS pandemic. A Kid Encapsulates the fighting spirit of the African people in this picture
African woman laboring in a citrus with a baby on her back. Many african women worked as domestic servants, others as slaves as seen below with the woman in the citrus field
African woman laboring in a citrus with a baby on her back. Many african women worked as domestic servants, others as slaves as seen below with the woman in the citrus field
African children and their parents' living condition inside the house and outside their slum houses
African children and their parents' living condition inside the house and outside their slum houses
Slum living along with  alongside malnutrition and lack of proper diet alongside dilapidated slum environment; note the unsanitary condition outside the homes- which posed a health and mental hazard
Slum living along with alongside malnutrition and lack of proper diet alongside dilapidated slum environment; note the unsanitary condition outside the homes- which posed a health and mental hazard
Steven Bantu Biko, was assassinated by the Apartheid security forces, naked and handcuffed both feet and his hands handcuffed to his back
Steven Bantu Biko, was assassinated by the Apartheid security forces, naked and handcuffed both feet and his hands handcuffed to his back
P.W. Botha made some changes in South Africa since he became head of government in 1978. But he was unwilling to take steeps for establishing equality in South Africa
P.W. Botha made some changes in South Africa since he became head of government in 1978. But he was unwilling to take steeps for establishing equality in South Africa
Van Vuuren, known as the Electrician worked from Vlakplaas with the but controlled by the Northern Transvaal security department
Van Vuuren, known as the Electrician worked from Vlakplaas with the but controlled by the Northern Transvaal security department
Wouter Basson who used chemical warfare and distributed ecstasy, mandrax and other drugs into the African communities and headed the CCB
Wouter Basson who used chemical warfare and distributed ecstasy, mandrax and other drugs into the African communities and headed the CCB
Abahlali baseMjondolo represent many shck dwellers in areas which look like the slum above. the represent the largest autonomous and militant group of poor people in the country, and have successfully they fended the shack dwellers from the ANC.
Abahlali baseMjondolo represent many shck dwellers in areas which look like the slum above. the represent the largest autonomous and militant group of poor people in the country, and have successfully they fended the shack dwellers from the ANC.
Abahlali baseMjondolo, holding a rally, and the shack dwellers ramshackle houses in the background, and they were holding a sign that read: "No Land! No Houses! No Vote
Abahlali baseMjondolo, holding a rally, and the shack dwellers ramshackle houses in the background, and they were holding a sign that read: "No Land! No Houses! No Vote
Grave concerns about the Etention without Trial of the Kennedy thrirteen who were arrested in the aftermath of the attact of the Abahlali baseMjondolo, as seen on the photograph in the Kennedy Road Settlement who are demanding equality for all people
Grave concerns about the Etention without Trial of the Kennedy thrirteen who were arrested in the aftermath of the attact of the Abahlali baseMjondolo, as seen on the photograph in the Kennedy Road Settlement who are demanding equality for all people
Protester gaining strength and numbers i South Africa for better housing, sanitation and treatment
Protester gaining strength and numbers i South Africa for better housing, sanitation and treatment
Poster held by protesters against forced removals from their slums
Poster held by protesters against forced removals from their slums
Remember the days of Apartheid. The more things change the more they stay the same, if not worse. A protester being led away by a cop.
Remember the days of Apartheid. The more things change the more they stay the same, if not worse. A protester being led away by a cop.
Costsof artificial feeding in a selection of Third World Countries. It iw well worth noting that Soweto is among the "countries" to be using artificial feeding using a baby bottle and powdered milk.
Costsof artificial feeding in a selection of Third World Countries. It iw well worth noting that Soweto is among the "countries" to be using artificial feeding using a baby bottle and powdered milk.
A long and huge line of protesters
A long and huge line of protesters
Former and Ousted President Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma, the present President of South Africa
Former and Ousted President Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma, the present President of South Africa
Scribbled on a sheet are the
Scribbled on a sheet are the
The President of south Africa, Jaacob Zuma, doing an "Indlamu", Zulu traditional Dance, during his run for election. He still is trying to clear the mess - people are looking at him and hope for change.
The President of south Africa, Jaacob Zuma, doing an "Indlamu", Zulu traditional Dance, during his run for election. He still is trying to clear the mess - people are looking at him and hope for change.
The police routinely shoot unsuspecting  residents unsuspecting residents and their children without warning. the police justify their actions by saying resident are throwing rocks at them(this is often a lie). The truth only comes out when the cops
The police routinely shoot unsuspecting residents unsuspecting residents and their children without warning. the police justify their actions by saying resident are throwing rocks at them(this is often a lie). The truth only comes out when the cops
Students from a white University,Wits, in Johannesburg and below, Colored students in the University of Cape Town demonstrating against the state of emergency
Students from a white University,Wits, in Johannesburg and below, Colored students in the University of Cape Town demonstrating against the state of emergency
SADF Soldier taking care of African Children
SADF Soldier taking care of African Children
Map showing the Homelands as designed by the Apartheid regime dotting the landscape of South Africa
Map showing the Homelands as designed by the Apartheid regime dotting the landscape of South Africa
Women and Children's Health under Apartheid
Women and Children's Health under Apartheid
A way of blaming the victims of apartheid's deliberate health mismanagement
A way of blaming the victims of apartheid's deliberate health mismanagement
The use of skin lightening creams has been one of the things that affected peoples psyche and lack of self esteem and the promotion of white skin as the ideal for Africans
The use of skin lightening creams has been one of the things that affected peoples psyche and lack of self esteem and the promotion of white skin as the ideal for Africans
Children under apartheid were exposed to all sort of dangers and ills due to lack of recreation and other amenities. Even today, with the ANC in power, children are still neglected
Children under apartheid were exposed to all sort of dangers and ills due to lack of recreation and other amenities. Even today, with the ANC in power, children are still neglected

Colonial and Post-Colonial/Apartheid Mental Disorders and Dysfunctional Decrepit Social Existence In Mzantsi

Wilson captured the essence of what this hub is going to be about succinctly when he stated: "People who manipulate the past and present manipulate one's mentality, sanity,contact with reality and the ability to deal with reality. In other words, the manipulation of history creates real effects in the individual personality. Our history by not being taught to us correctly ensures that our potential will be forever undeveloped as a people and that we will not challenge those who rule over us. Intellectual structures and powers are undeveloped when we suffer from Amnesia; they are restricted and alienated.

Some of my black students say, "Hey, I know nothing about Black History; but I know math, I know Computer Science, and I know this and that. So apparently it didn't do me much harm. Being cut off from your past only means that you have gained knowledge at the cost of being alienated, you have gained alienated knowledge. alienated knowledge can only be used in the interest those who taught you that knowledge. Look at who you work for once you know Computer Science and don't know your history!

That's one of the unwritten rules. they will teach you Math and Science and so forth to the degree that you forget what and who you are - your History - and forget your connectedness with our people. Because it's only when you are unconnected that you can be of use to your Master. You cannot use alienated knowledge for yourself. Knowledge must be connected and contained in a historical structure, in a cultural structure, it is to work for a particular people.

That's why you can get degrees in Business Administration and build no business. You can be a CEO of Xerox yet you won't build your own.." Ignorance of ones' history leads to one being a slave of the others' manipulations forever. (Wilson) If one stands for nothing, one is bound to fall for anything', as someone once wryly observed.

Colonial Mental Disorders

By being able to trace and look much deeper into the health and and health institutions in South, we have now begun to become aware that working conditions in South Africa are a serious health hazard. But the factors that make them so are rarely seen, thoroughly investigated and clarified. What one sees are the physical results of the long term injury incurred over the centuries by African society. These are individual, medical problems, which appear to result from each individual's carelessness, or a society that cannot cope and is backward,t that coming from the victimizers and African people's detractors.

Focusing on the individual medical problem draws our attention away from the more important social and economic determinations of health. In this hub, I took time to trace the health of Africans under colonial rule and what these institutions are doing with their personnel and technical know how, or are not doing. It can be clearly seen that since since TB hit the health scene in South Africa, industrialization and International Capital has made Africans ill, crazy and slavishly depended on their Masters; mining, socio-economical Apartheid and environmental apartheid and an Apartheidized parliamentary system with its Apartheid laws, and the use of 'fear' dealt a deadly blow onto the African Community.

The creation of the migratory labor system and overcrowded ghettoes and 'Homelands or National States", although the stats are hard to come by, the little that we have gleaned help us realize the extent and extant of the different diseases affecting Africans historically have weakened and sickened Africans; and in this Hub we are viewing the African society and the causes of mental health from an inadequate health system, and the infusion of different drugs and other serious attacks made by military 'special forces' and 'death squads' who brutally tortured, killed and distributed drugs like, Ecstasy, Mandrax, cocaine within the African committees, which has resulted a large number of youth and some adults being addicted and others going crazy and so on. We will also delve a little deeper into the continuation of the Apartheid operation as carried-out by the Present ANC government to its own people.

Diseased Minds

"Sociopathology precedes Psychopathology", writes Wilson. "Collective pathology precedes individual pathology. That is, diseased social interactions between groups generate diseased social interaction within groups, and furthermore, diseased social interactions within groups generate diseased psychological interactions within individuals who are their constituents. The discontents of individuals reflect the the discontents of groups; and these, the discontents of the societies and and cultures they constitute. The Great Chain of Discontents inextricably binds together individual, group society and culture." (Wilson) Everything in south Africa is diseased for the oppressed, depressed, suppressed and stressed-out African multitudes.

The character and conduct of groups and individuals however labeled and categorized, whether judged to be good or evil,superior or inferior, are the products of historic inter group, intragroup, and interpersonal relations, and can only be meaningfully understood in terms of these relations.

The character and behavior of Africans individuals, whether labelled 'normal' or 'abnormal,l' can only be fully and accurately comprehended, along with the process and purpose of labeling itself, in terms of the historic power relations between dominant Whites and the subordinate Africans which mediate the White socioeconomic, sociopolitical, sociopsychological manipulation and construction of African consciousness and behavior. Under White Supremacy, African Consciousness and behavior are socially manufactured. labelled and judged by Whites in ways consonant to their social control and expropriation of African natural and acquired human resources.

The "normality" and "abnormality" of African Consciousness and behavior are so classified with reference to the degree to which they supportive or opposed to the continuity of White supremacy. Under different regimes of White dominance, African Consciousness is characterized by habitual thought patterns and behavioral tendencies which render them pliable to White authoritarian/authoritative social control with minimal resistance; which induce Africans to accept their subordinate status as natural, perhaps actually to misperceive their oppression as freedom.

"Abnormal" African consciousness and behavior under White supremacy involve habitual thought patterns and behavioral tendencies in Africans which make their social control by Whites intolerably difficult or ineffective; which induces them to protest, resist and reject their subordinate status as destined or natural, to perceive the oppression as unfreedom.

In continuing a vantage point from the stance of a White supremacist, the basis of labeling African consciousness and behavior by white as normal or abnormal depends not on the discovery by Whites of discrete states of consciousness and their correlated behavioral tendencies in Africans, but on the discovery of the degree to which African consciousness/behavioral tendencies are perceived as serving or not serving their(White peoples') hegemonic interests.

Disturbance of thought, emotions, motivational and values priorities, and psychological processes in Africans are the unavoidable outcomes of their oppressions by Whites. To be oppressed is by definition to have one's thought processes ; emotions impaired; motives and values inverted; and one's body functions imbalanced. There can be no "normality" of consciousness and conduct for Africans as long as they remain dominated by Whites - merely socially acceptable or unacceptable adjustments to the ever-changing demand characteristics of 'white supremacy.

The normality of Africans under White domination is by that circumstance,above all, a "pathological normalcy" - disturbances in African consciousness and behavior which are deemed serviceable and beneficial to the needs of their White Oppressors.

There are White people who are obviously not included as part of the Apartheid machinery, but in this case, we are referring more to the White-run Apartheid government. In the Hub, "Apartheid's Colonial Mental Disorders:Fractured Consciousness and Shattered Identities" we traced the origins of TB and the effects of Industrialization, Mining and Apartheidized environment, and how these contributed to illnesses, dissolution of families, communities and society through the migrant labor system and the influx control laws, and Apartheidized Medical practices and institutions; in another angle, we were also looking at the collusion between Big Business(bot internally and externally) and the Apartheid law -makers, in that, Big business made it possible for the expansion the Apartheid economy, army and White society' and, and they also profited from the Cheap Labor and, by not paying for medical health for the affected African in the mines and their domicile. These practices, we interrogate in in this Hub, have created Mental disorders that are still affecting Africans today.

Blaming the Victim

Consciousness in Perspective

It is therefore my contention that the true history and culture of African peoples must be rediscovered, reexamined, and reintegrated by African peoples. These approaches to African history and culture must conjointly become the vehicles which facilitate the collective and cooperative action Africans with a realistic supportive vision of reality; with self-knowledge, self-esteem, self-confidence, self acceptance and self-control'; with the ability to form empowering affectionate relationships and the ability to engage in proactive, self-interested productive activity; and with a self-enhancing sense of purpose and existential meaningfulness.

It also important that other races in South Africa respect the African perspective and learn about them than try to distort and attack historians as if they saying bad about other races in South Africa, either than Africans. No. These Hubs relate and narrate the events that affected Africans form their own point of view, untainted by any form of jingoism or any form of alienation of other culture.

They too have the right to narrate their history as they see fit. Africans have the same right as everyone else to tell about their historical experiences as they fit, without 'fear' or 'intimidation' from anyone or any race.

Biko on Rebuilding African Consciousness

We just discussed African Consciousness as it had been preset and implanted by the White people in the African psyche and consciousness. Steven Bantu Biko puts all what we have been discussing above more succinctly and to the point:

"One needs to understand the basics before setting up a remedy. A number of the organizations now currently "fighting against Apartheid"" are working on an over simplified premise. They have taken a brief look at what is, , and have diagnosed the problem incorrectly. They have almost completely forgotten about the side-effects and they have not even considered the root cause. Hence, whatever is improvised as a remedy will hardly cure the condition. Apartheid - both 'petty' and 'grand' - is obviously evil.

Nothing can justify the arrogant assumption that a clique of foreigners has the right to decide on the lives of a majority. Hence, even carried out faithfully ad fairly, the policy of Apartheid merited the condemnation and vigorous opposition from the indigenous peoples as well as those who see the problem in its correct perspective. The fact that Apartheid has been tied up with White Supremacy, capitalist exploitation, and deliberate oppression makes the problem much more complex. Material want is bad enough, but coupled with spiritual poverty, it kills

And this latter effect is probably the one that creates mountains of obstacles in the normal course of emancipation of the African people. One should not waste time here with manifestations of material want of the African people. A vast literature has been written on this problem. Possibly a little should be said about spiritual poverty. What makes the black man fail to tick? Is he convinced of his own accord of his inabilities? Does he lack in his genetic make-up that rare quality that makes a man willing to die for the realization of his aspirations? Or is he simply a defeated person?

The answer to this is not a clear-cut one. It is, however, nearer to the last suggestion than anything else. The logic behind White domination is to prepare the Black man for the subservient role in this country. Not so long ago this used to be freely said in parliament even about the educational system of the Black people. It is still said even today, although in a much more sophisticated language. T

o a large extent the evil-doers have succeeded in producing at the output end of their machine a kind of a Black man who is only in form. This is the extent to which the process of dehumanization has advanced."

Biko Continued: "Black people under the Smuts government were oppressed but they were still men. They failed to change the system for may reasons which we shall not consider here. But the type of Black man we have today has lost his manhood. Reduced to an obliging shell, he looks with awe at the White power structure and accepts what he reads as the "inevitable position".

"Deep inside his anger mounts at the accumulating insults, but he vents it in the wrong direction - on his fellow man in the Townships, on the property of Black people. No longer does he trust leadership, for the 1963 mass arrests were blamable on bungling leadership, nor is there any trust.

In the privacy of his toilet his face twists in silent condemnation of White society, but brightens up in sheepish obedience as he comes out hurrying in response to his master's impatient call. In the home-bound bus or train he joins the chorus that roundly condemns the White man but is first to praise the government in the presence of the police or his employers. His heart yearns for the comfort of White society and makes him blame himself for not having been "educated" enough to warrant such luxury.

Celebrated achievements by Whites in the field of Science - which he understands only hazily -serve to make him rather convinced of the futility of resistance and to throw away any hopes that change may ever come. All in all, the Black man has become a shell, a shadow of a man, completely defeated, drowning in his own misery, a slave, an ox bearing the yoke of oppression with sheepish timidity."

Biko observed: "This is the first truth, bitter as it may seem, that we have to acknowledge before we can start on any program designed to change the status quo. It becomes more necessary to see the truth as it is if you realize that the only vehicle for change are these people who have lost their personality. the first step therefore is to make the Black man come to himself; to pump back life into his empty shell; to infuse him with pride and dignity, to remind him of his complicity in the crime of allowing himself to be misused and therefore letting evil reign supreme in the country of his birth.

This is what we mean by the inward-looking process[italics mine]. This is the definition of Black Consciousness. One writer makes the point that in an effort to destroy completely the structures that had been built up in the African Society and to impose their imperialism with an unnerving totality, the colonialist were not satisfied merely holding a people in their grip and emptying the Native's brain of all form and content, they turned to the past of the oppressed people and distorted, disfigured and destroyed ]italics mine].

No longer was reference made to African Culture, it became barbarism[savagery -my addition]. Africa was the "Dark Continent". Religious practices and Customs were referred to as 'Superstition'. The history of African society was reduced to "tribal" battles and "internecine" wars. There was no conscious migration by the people from one tyrant who wanted to defeat the "tribe" not for any positive reason but merely to wipe them out of the face of the earth." Everything which was everything as is in the African cultural vibe, became all nothing and meaningless "childish gibberish" in some quarters, when it came to African culture and customs.

Biko Adds some more: "No wonder the African child learns to hate his heritage in his days at school. So negative was the image presented to him that he tended to find solace only in close identification with White society. No doubt, therefore,part of the approach envisaged in bringing about 'Black Consciousness" has to be directed to the past, to seek to rewrite the history of the Black man and to produce in it the heroes who form the core of the African background. To the extent that a vast literature about Gandhi in South Africa is accumulating, and it can be said that the Indian Community already started in this direction.

But only scant reference is made to African Heroes. A people without a positive history is like a vehicle without an engine. Their emotions cannot be easily controlled and channelled in a recognizable direction. They always live in the shadow of a more successful society. Hence,in a country like ours, they are forced to celebrate holidays like Paul Kruger's Day, Heroes Day, Republic Day, Day of the Covenant(During Apartheid era it was held on December 16th, commemorating the Slaughter of the Zulus by the Boers in the Battle of "Blood River[my addition]"), and so on, - all of which are occasions during which the humiliation of defeat is at once revived."

Biko's words were published in 1972, and now it is 2009, after he was brutally murdered as the autopsy report by Chief State Pathologist, Dr. J D. Loubser who stated categorically that "Steven Bantu Biko had died of 'extensive brain injury' resulting from the centralization of the blood circulation to such an extent that there had been intravasal blood coagulation, acute kidney failure and uremia. The report mentioned the abrasion to the left forehead, injuries on the chest wall and other "numerous but superficial" injuries.

What emerged from the Killing Of Steven Bantu Biko, is the savage force used by the the Security police in Port Elizabeth. The security policemen stripped Biko Naked, handcuffed him with his hands on the back and put his legs in iron shackles and five of them, led by Snyman and van Vurren on the night of the 6th, killed Biko, and left him for dead on a cold cell floor.

They made sure he died when they transported him 700 miles to Pretoria in a police van shackled in the back, naked and with no windows. Biko's death was brutal and humiliating, and this, in a nut-shell gives a picture of what happened and is still happening to all those who dare challenge the Apartheid or former Apartheid regime, or dared tell the truth about the atrocities committed upon people of African descent in South Africa. Donald Wood's book, "Biko" is worth reading because in it we begin to see how the security state with its operatives functioned.

Biko was covering a very large area of the mental abuses that Africans have gone through and are still going through. His work was an effort on his part to re-connect Africans with the reality and history in the 1972, when Apartheid ruled supreme and seemed invincible, Now that he has been murdered, what he was saying is slowly revealing itself today as Apartheid's colonial mental disorder within the African population. There are a lot of people who have been tortured, maimed, drugged, killed, an families terrorized, beaten to pulp, made scared through Fear and Intimidation and Death.

Even today in Rainbowstan united Free South Africa, it is till "Inappropriate for Africans to reclaim their history, culture that will support them with a realistic and supportive vision of reality; it is viewed as casting aspersions against the "minorities" in South African for Africans to try and acquire self-knowledge, self-esteem, self-confidence, self-acceptance and self control; it is incorrect that they should have the ability to form empowering affectionate relationships and to engage in proactive, self-interested productive activity with one another; and finally, be able to do all this with self-enhancing sense of purpose and existential meaningfulness because of fear of the unknown lurking in the shadows of the ghettoes and townhouses."

An Appropriate understanding of African History and Culture will provide Africans with an honest, accurate appraisal of their strengths and needs as well as those of their European counterparts, who might begin to understand and respect Africans. Such an understanding by both africans and the oppressor Whites will allow them to both discover the strategic and tactical means of liberating themselves from White Supremacy, of the past and Neo-apartheid rulers of today.

The former apartheid operatives today attack anyone who speaks or writes about the past of Africans with serious venom and slightly, but not completely concealed rhetoric. It is not their fault, according to the Apartheidizers, that Africans were 'tribes' who were in conflict amongst themselves; or, that there is crime and "Black on Black" violence amongst the Africans in South Africa, that the blame should be lain on the door of the African society. There is some truth in what they are saying, but overall, the "Blame the Victim" game is one old technique the colonizers of South Africa have been using for hundreds of years.

Coping and Speaking Truth To Power

"Coping for Africans in South Africa has optimized African mental and social health, and not their liberation as a free and democratic nation. It is important to note that the economic organization of Africans more so that its alleged economical impoverishment and dependency, in tandem with the repression of its African-centered consciousness and identity, are principally responsible for its vulnerability to the stresses placed on it by the Dominant White Supremacist establishment.

Because its economic institutions and resources are primarily owned, controlled, and exploited by former Afrikaners and their proxy new African government today, these have a tendency and effect that undermines their growth and reinforces oppression more . these remain compressed in position and over the centuries they become part of the 'stressors".

Institutional racism as described in South Africa generates stressors - such as inadequate family incomes, health care, education, job training, housing, employment, economic development(The much lauded and criticized) B.E.E. Black Economic Empowerment not withstanding), of which it currently very equitable in South Africa, and restricted, stereotypically-biased information and entertainment services - are some of the issues which strain the African community's coping mechanisms.

The effects of these stressors are amplified by the relatively dependent and reactive orientation of the African community. The virtual absence of a robust, independent movement in the community leaves it vulnerable to being exploited and victimized by predatory aliens, the present government[it's still to be seen what Zuma does] further increasing its vulnerability to stresses of all types. This finally leads to complications in the health of the people which manifest and presents in many ways.

To be free, the African community must continue and strengthen its tradition of truth-seeking. The omissions from the final TRC(Truth and Reconciliation Commission) report highlighted the fact that there were many more questions raised than answers provided by the report and by the whole TRC process. The TRC presented a watered-down version of the in its original intent, and the reports it presented,s some secretive and others have a blanked-out page, as in the case demanded by the Former President de Klerk and enforced by a legal injunction that threatened to sabotage the timing of the the carefully orchestrate commission objectives.

The TRC never took advantage of the powers it had to delve into these allegations of abuse and gross impropriety. But then there were many areas that were opened up and, for one reason or another, and the atrocities committed b the Apartheid machine' that and many other issues were never examined by the TRC. Individuals from lowly spies to assassins, blackmailers and the blackmailed, compromised teachers, judges, lawyers and civil servants, lie hidden within the fabric of a society where many of those who manipulated them, and know and can use their secrets, also remain at large.

This nearly crippled the TRC, which in its form as a compromise entity, at least revealed something of the horrors of the hidden past.(Bell and Ntsebeza) An opportunity was missed here whereby these people who formed the cog and operators of the machine, to have had a chance to reach out to the African people and some form of 'reconciliation' , born out of mutual trust, truth and respect of people as equals, would have advanced the healing that is sorely needed in South Africa.

People would have been able to deal better with knowing what happened them, why it did, why they are in the condition that they are in, and with this understanding and knowledge what is they could and should do so that they do for the 'common good' of all races in South Africa, thus moving ahead as a Nation.

Torture as a Cause of Mental Illness

At this juncture it is very important to begin to look at those ugly features of oppression which might be unpalatable to ordinary sensibilities. There is an urgency to quench the 'need to know' what took place throughout the country, but looking and extensively know about the action of the security forces in their efforts contain a 'perceived' threat inside and outside the country, and how they went about doling out their brand of justice and executions.

This is done in order for the people in South Africa to know what happened to a large section of the population, and maybe if both sides know what happened, might have a common ground of knowing, understanding and respecting one another.

When Botha ascended to power, the military took overall control of security and the plans for an internal "Dirty War" had already been laid down, as noted in the Hubs about "Cry The beloved Peoples" and "Apartheid Genocide Against Children". These hubs only touch on the few strategies promulgated by the security forces in their Total onslaught and using Total War against the people of African descent and how has this affected them and has done to them.

Mac Maharaj put it this way: "To shroud the horrors of the past in a collective Amnesia would leave posterity with a legacy of festering guilt and unrelieved pain." To remember and recall these events is important because some of those in this self imposed 'amnesic', the recounting of this history will sharpen and help shape the history of South Africa as it churns into the 21st century.

The pattern was set in September 1979 at a conference of security chiefs, held at a naval base of Simonstown, Known as the 'Simonstown Raad'(Simonstown Council), and it was chaired by Botha. specific tasks were allocated, areas of responsibility defined, and broad outline given of the tactics to be employed in 'taking off the gloves' in defense of Apartheid State. Here lay the origins not only of the police death squads such as that at Vlakplaas, which was exposed through TRC Hearings, but also of the 'military killer units' and their ultimate evolution into "Civil Cooperation Bureau(CCB).

It was only during the criminal trial in the year 2000 of chemical and biological warfare expert Wouter Basson that something of the scale of CCB killing was exposed. Two of the founding members of what started out as "section pseudo operations" and then became, in quick succession, D40 , Project Barnacle and finally CCB were proven responsible for the murder of perhaps hundreds of Namibian prisoners and the disposal of their bodies.

Major Neil Kriel, a pilot and former Selous Scouts, was the founding commander of the 'death squad, many of its members recruited from Rhodesian Special forces fleeing retribution in liberated Zimbabwe, were incorporated into the Defense Force. Seconded to the unit was Sergeant Trevor Floyd, a founding member of South Africa's "Dirty War" specialists, the Recce.(Bell/Ntsebeza)

The Electrician, CCB, Vlakplaas and Terrorism

The Information in the article written by Jacques Pauw is based on an interview with Paul van Vuuren. This is a very revealing interview and it puts in proper context what African people, ordinary human beings, were face-to-face with the in the CCB, Selous Scouts, Recce and some other death squad cliques who refused to give up their accounts to the TRC and thus, even today, throughout the Ghetto of Soweto, there are Swastika signs scrawled in many place in the Townships.

One thing one cannot pin on African people, is the glorification of Swastika signs because African people have never cared, nor been privy like that in their culture of using that dreaded sign; meanwhile, presently, there are many people who are dying from AIDS and other diseases already listed above; there is some growing awareness amongst the resident of Soweto that the youth is dying mysterious deaths; i.e., whenever their children step out of the house and they start missing for a night, most of those interviewed as to what caused the death of their loved ones, most shrug shoulders, and simply stated that the only other time they saw of their son, daughter, brother or sister was when they found their body in a morgue.

There are those who say the death of the youth in the Townships is due to the crime in the Ghettoes. To an extend that has a ring of truth in it, but what is not known about the conditions in the townships, ho w the people live and socialize and how the security forces operated, and what this meant to the victims, might be inclined to endorse that sentiment that the inhabitants of the Ghetto are criminal, and it is "black-n-black" violence, or in the days of apartheid, 'terrorists'.

Usually these issues are more easily understood if we glean on some history of the genesis of the Apartheid crime on the humanity of Africans in the 1980s. The article by Jacques Pauw gives us a hint and opportunity to better understand what the "Dirty Tricks Department" was up to: what was their 'modus operandi' in the Townships throughout South Africa?

The Ways of the Death Squads

Paul Jacobus Jansen van Vuuren joined the Northern Transvaal Security Branch in 1985. Section B was the Unit dealing with African activists, and it had a network of about 100 informants in the Townships who would provide the security police with information about the movement, activities and strategies of ANC and United Democratic Front(UDF) activists, student activists and comrades. Files were compiled on activists and "troublemakers" who needed the Unit's "attention". By the time van Vuuren arrived at the Security Branch, a formal 'Death Squad' had not yet been founded.

But there was a great deal of talk about a 'special unit' was needed to counter the 'unrest' in the Townships. Some, like Captain Flip Loots just wanted to "kill the bastards, and the unrest would stop". The security Branch headquarters had the same idea. One gleans from the TRC documents how Jack Cronje described the creation of the 'Death Squad' which came into being in the region: "The ANC,UDF and other black organizations were waging a war against us, and it became necessary to eliminate terrorists and activists. The legal system could not handle the situation and detention under the State of Emergency proved not to be effective," said Cronje.

Cronje said that early in 1986 he had a meeting with Gen. Johan Viktor, who was second-in-command of the police counter-insurgency unit. "He said we had to bring the situation in Pretoria area under control. It did not matter how. He said that Pretoria was burning and the country was burning. Activists had to be eliminated before they could commit acts of terror. From that point on, we waged a full-scale guerrilla war against the activists." The same methods were applied by security branches in other regions.

It was done everywhere and we were never repudiated by the Commissioner of Police, the State Security Council, the Cabinet or the government," Cronje said. Cronje also revealed the existence of a secret security police unit called the "Counter Revolutionary Information Target Center, better known by its Afrikaans acronym of "TREWITS". It was founded in 1985 to identify human target fro removal. Each month, representatives of the Security Police, Military Intelligence, Special Forces, and National Intelligence Service would hold meetings at which intelligence information would be exchanged and targets identified.

According to Cronje, "All our actions were contained in 'situation reports' that were sent to the 'Security Branch Headquarters. Further reports about our actions were sent to the State Security Council, and therefore, the Council had to know about the actions of my men," Cronje asserted.

Dirty Tricks Squads and Terrorism

F.W. de Klerk said of 'TREWITS': "What they were doing, if they actually did it, would definitely have been unauthorized. It was never part of the policy and I totally distanced myself from that. They were not acting within the framework or anything that comes near a reasonable interpretation of the policies of the government." But de Klerk could not shake-off his involvement in the North Crest Massacre, even as he went to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, the issue of his authorizing the massacres was is achilles heel.

In any event, van Vuuren tells a different story: "In the beginning we only intimidated people. If activists burnt down a house, we would get reports from informants who they were. We would go that night and burn their houses. If they burn, we burn. After a while, the 'comrades' were not sleeping in their houses anymore. we would throw petrol bombs through windows (That is why the residents of Soweto and other Townships slept away from windows, and used wet Blankets as curtains, during this time in the night period).

I suppose people, maybe women and children, could have died in the attacks. In the beginning I was scared, but after a while I couldn't wait to go out at night. It was like sleeping with a woman," reminisced van Vuuren. It is important for all South Africans to begin learning the truth from African People and how this affected them during the days of 'Death Squads Terrorism' than what they have been told by their government, and other senior government officials.

Also, it is important to take note what kind of people the African people had to deal with everyday of those horrible years. Most of the South African White Afrikaners and other Whites who share their world view, have a different take on the events of that Africans went through in the deadly hands of the 'Death Squads' Some White people did not even know that these 'Death squads' even existed or operated because they were sitting comfortably in their areas, and got their news from TV, Apartheid radio and Newspapers. But that does not mean that this never happened.

Van Vuuren said a typical day would start at half past seven in the morning, when they would go out for a cup of coffee. Later the same morning, they would ask Flip Loots which names had surfaced in the information reports. He would tell them who was politically "active and who needed attention". They would read through the files and have to decide: did he only "need a hiding"? Or "did they need to steal him"?

They had complete access to "terrorist" weapons such as AK-47s and Makarovs and could obtain explosives whenever they needed them. They had a .22 pistol with a silencer that they used to shoot noisy and aggressive dogs. "We went on operations about every second night. We would use stolen cars and would sometimes wear "Balaclavas". (See the pictures in the picture gallery of the police next to dead bodies in the Hub, and some still had their "balaclavas" on or rolled back on their heads in the "Apartheid's Genocide Against Children" Hub) Van Vuuren added: "I must have conducted at least 200 operations, but it could have been 500."

The Death Squads usually recruited informants from activists they abducted. They would drive him around in a minibus and when they came alongside an activist, they would grab him, and pull him in. In other cases, Masemela would infiltrate activist cells or units and lure activists into van Vuuren and Hechter's waiting hands. (In the Hub on Genocide Against Children, scores of children were coerced to 'sell out ' members of COSAS or other activist; others were pointed in the morning in their homes preparing to go to school, and were pointed out by hooded persons).

During interrogations, the men would evaluate the activist and decide if he might be worth recruiting as an informant. They would offer him money, up to R1,000($136) a month. Once he had given his first report, he was hooked. Interrogation and torture went hand in hand. Van Vuuren said they would always take a suspect to a remote place where he knew nobody could hear him. "We were very good at torturing people. I quickly learned that if you don't hit him half-dead, he's not going to tell you everything."

Paul van Vuuren was a master at his craft. He is one of the men who represents the 'banality of the evil' that was South Africa's Apartheid culture, as much as it had been the country's system of government since the National Party took power in 1948 and legalized what we now know as apartheid. He and others like him were Apartheid's ultimate and most secret weapon. When all else had failed - detention without trial, harassment and 'dirty tricks', State of Emergency' regulations, and criminal prosecution - the 'death-squads' were sent out to finally 'solve the problem'.

They acquired the power to decide life and death. In the process, they not only abandoned their police or South African Defense Force(SADF) oaths to serve and uphold Law and Oder, but some were also forced to abandon their morality. The system they preserved and served rewarded them richly.

Vlakplaas and Torture

The police Counter Insurgency unit based at Vlakplaas, a Farm outside Pretoria where death squads trained, stole hundreds of thousands of Rands fro the police secret fund - with the connivance of the Generals. Members of the SADF death squads paid themselves "production bonuses" for successful operations. The more The more they killed, the more they were honored, these men based at Vlakplaas, these killer policemen of the Northern Transvaal Security Branch, operatives of an SADF Death Squad blandly called the Civil Cooperation Bureau(CCB), and military Intelligence and Security Police agents.

The Death Squads culture in South Africa - it techniques, skills and methods - had much in common with those of a gang of ordinary thugs. What distinguished the squad's members from common criminals was that they believed themselves to be fighting a secret twilight war against an evil enemy. Any method that could lead to the destruction and disruption of the enemy was permitted and tacitly condoned.

In committing these atrocities, there was one golden rule: never get caught. They referred to it as the "Eleventh Commandment." Each unit and every security policeman had his own method of torturing people. Vlakplaas, for example, was fond of "tubing" people: pulling the inner tube of a car tire over a detainee's face to smother him. I "found that to 'tube' a person was not always effective," van Vuuren continued. "You got tired because you had to use both hands an pull hard. We had various methods. we would tie a detainee very tightly to a chair. we had a gas mask which we would put over his face. We would close the air supply with a plug. While the activist would struggle and gasp for air, we could sit back and have coffee(!?) It was much easier than tubbing."

Torture, Kidnapping and Murder by Death Squads

Advice for the methodology of torture, murder by the "Dirty War" by the "Dirty Tricks" Departments was sought form the Argentinean Military,which provided specialist lecturers, including a General D'Almeida and the and the notorious torturer Lieutenant Alfredo Ignacio Astiz. One of the Argentinean navy's death-squad killers, Jorge Enrique Perren, accused of murders, kidnapping and torture, was based at the Marine War School in the Muizenberg suburb of Cape town from October 1979 to February 1982.

Chile's murderous military also advised and assisted. Major Neil Kriel and Sergeant Trevor Floyd, already mentioned above along with John Theron were effective executioners and undertakers based at a remote airstrip in Namibia. working at night, they specialized in disposing of people deemed undesirable who were delivered to them as prisoners. Floyd, who had some medical training,would either poison the prisoners with a spiked drink or inject a lethal drug.

On one occasion when Kriel - who was never publicly named- had forgotten to bring the poison, the three Zimbabwean prisoners were done to death with hammers. In all cases, the bodies were stripped and loaded into an aircraft with is rear door removed. Kriel, borrowing a technique popular in 1973 with the Chilean Military, would fly straight out over the Atlantic, where Floyd would throw the bodies into the sea. They would then return to the airstrip and burn the clothes taken from the prisoners. Similar flights also apparently too place from Lanseria Airport, North of Johannesburg, which was a major undercover base.(Bell/Ntsebeza)

In July 1987, in a deserted stretch of open 'veld'(open land space), North of Pretoria, three men were lying on the ground, their hands and feet tied. Hours before, they had mysteriously disappeared from their homes in Townships around Pretoria and Witbank. They were activists, members of the then-banned African National Congress(ANC- today's ruling party and government in South africa).

According to the security files, they were all trained guerillas and deeply involved in the wave of unrest in the Township. Three members of a security 'death squad' within the Northern Transvaal Security Branch. Night after night, the three men, sometimes wearing dark ski-masks, roamed the townships around Pretoria, killing, bombing and kidnapping activists they regarded as a threat to the security of the Apartheid State.

Next to the manacled activists stood a power generator intended to pump water for cattle, but that day, it was used to extract information from the captured men. "We put wire on on his hands and feet and shocked it until his body went rigid. We only did it for a second or two," said Warrant Officer van Vuuren, one of the three security policeman on the the scene. The other two were Captain Jacques Hechter and warrant officer Joe Mamasela, the killer Askari (ANC partisans turned informer or collaborator) who had been transferred from Vlakplaas to the Northern Transvaal security police at the end of 1985.

The men of the death squad were playing prosecutor, judge, and executioner of the three men and they had decided that Andrew Makupe, Jackson Maake and Harold Sefola had to die. But they were worried that they might leave traces of blood behind if they shot them. Another method had to be found. The generator.

The previous day, Maake had been the first captured. According to van Vuuren, he was a security police informant, perhaps a double agent planning an attack against them. The policemen took the 19-year-old Mamelodi Township scholar to the stretch of open veld. "For three hour we used the generator to send shocks through him to persuade him to talk. He admitted that he was a double agent.

He had instructions to eliminate us because we were seen as a danger to the ANC. He told us that the other member of his cell was Andrew Makupe in Mamelodi, who was a courier for the ANC. Late that same night, Andrew Makupe was kidnapped as he got into his car. He was taken to the same spot, where his hands and feet were tied and a cloth stuffed in his mouth. The two men, guarded by two black policemen, were left in the open veld on a winter's night.

At dawn, the security policemen returned and questioned Makupe by starting up the generator and shocking him. Makupe spoke immediately and told the men his commander in Witbank was code named "Bra(short for Brother) H." The policemen rushed back to security police headquarters where they discovered that "Bra H" was Harold Sefola, a trained guerrilla and, according to the informants, the mastermind behind several bomb explosions, but there had never been enough thorough information to arrest and prosecute him.

That same night, van Vuuren, Hechter, and Mamasela went to Witbank, trapped Sefola, and took him to the open veld where his up and awaiting their fate. The generator was started up. He admitted that he was a trained guerrilla and that he was involved in bomb explosions and planted land mines and limpet mines. We had to force him to talk by shocking him with the generator. At one time Mamasela pushed a knife up his nose, after which he gave even more information. He pleaded for his life.

Van Vuuren said that there was something about Sefola. He was stronger than the other two and believed deeply in his cause. He asked his interrogators whether he could say anything before he died. Mamasela untied him. He stood and sang 'Nkosi Sikelel i'Afrika. " Van Vuuren went on: "He said we can kill him, but the ANC would rule one day. He said that Apartheid cannot survive and that democracy would be the end of the Boers." (J. Pauw) As usual, hindsight is 20/20...

As Sefola sang the anthem of the anti-Apartheid movement, Mamasela draped an ANC flag over the corpse of Jackson Maake. As the final notes faded, the wires of the generator were attached to Andrew Makupe, and he was electrocuted. Mamasela said in an affidavit[to the TRC] that van Vuuren ordered Sefola to pray for the other two. He went on his knees, but put his fist in the air and saluted his comrades in the name of the struggle. Shortly after, Sefola was also shocked to death.

Mamasela said he was shocked until foam and blood came out of his mouth and ears. "We had to kill them. We had to destroy the whole cell," said van Vuuren. The three hit men loaded the bodies into a minibus and took them to a dirt road in the "homeland of Bophutatswana. "We placed the land mine on the ground, put them on top of the land mine, we stood back and detonated the mine," said van Vuuren. They did this in order to make it look like the three activists tried to plant the mine, and accidentally activated the device.

When Sefola stood in the veld singing "Nkosi Sikelel i'Afrika" and told the police that the ANC would one day rule the country, van Vuuren had thought he was mad. Van Vuuren believed that the security police were winning the war. He and his death squad roamed the townships, killed and tortured activists, and bombed their houses with little thought of consequences. That is the side many White people never got to see, hear and really know its impact on the African Community.

That is why whenever Hubs like these are written, Some White people feel as if it's their right to vilify and demonize the necklacing of Africans by Africans(Putting a tire filled with petrol around the neck of a person accused of being a "sell-out", rightly or wrongly), that these same White people who either committed or were reporting or read, seen or heard about "terrorism" by Africans, tend to come out too strong against such researches.

These researches are in part to help Africans understand what happened to them from a historical perspective, and how history written from an African Perspective will help them deal with those issues they had no answers about whatever and whenever these atrocities were committed against them. And for once, they have a written record that reflects their historical experience and perspectives.

Van Vuuren stated: "I would never have done this under normal circumstances. I did it for my country and people. I was fighting communism." Magnus Malan who approved the formation of the CCB, told parliament in september 1981 put it this way: "As point of departure, we have to accept that the onslaught here in Southern Africa is communist inspired, Communist planned and Communist supported.

They want to establish a dictatorial state for elite black black Marxist in the Republic of South Africa. ... The security of the Republic of South Africa must be maintained by every possible means at our disposal." My take on this point is that the security of South Africa is in the hands of South Africans who see the nation as made up of different races but working in harmony for a Rainbow united South Africa, whose primary concern and interest is the Nation of South Africa.

An Addendum to the African Agenda

The intention of this hub is be useful as a tool for social engineering and in a small way, assist All South Africans heal some sore wounds and see some different ways of knowing, not necessarily attached to the past, and an inner belief in the possibility of change and and acquire a new way of knowing. But the African people who are victims, have to blame themselves for allowing themselves to be used in the way they have bee.

This was echoed by Biko, wherein he pointed out to the fact that poverty and oppression brought stress upon African people that they end up believing in their oppression, and see it as normal. The toxic social relations that were engendered by Apartheid, in the end, do not normalize African social relations and self realization and actualization if, even after having so much in-depth affects have been revealed, African people continue in the same mode of behavior which does not advance the African Society. A less biased approach in writing african History is a better approach towards building the new South African history of the 21st century.

.Aime Cesaire advices: "We Colored men, in this specific moment of historical evolution, the notion of our peculiar uniqueness, the notion of just who we are and what, and that we are ready, on every plane and in every department, to assume the responsibilities which proceed from this coming into consciousness. The peculiarity of our place in the world is not to be confused with anyone else's. The peculiarity of our problems which aren't to be reduced to subordinate forms of any other problem. The peculiarity of our history, laced with terrible misfortunes which belong to no other history. The peculiarity of our culture, which we intend to live and to make live in an ever realler manner."

By looking at the history of the African people, is one of the new ways to acknowledge and appreciate and respect their path of discovery. But the coming of the new African guard into power in South Africa, has made the victims of Apartheid wonder if their plight will ever be ameliorated, and if there any difference between African rulers and the past Apartheid government.

"Incidentally, there is no Black problem. There is a problem of class conflict to which the Black man lends the color of the contempt inherent in his condition; one should remember his history and see the tensions of today with objectivity." J.F.A. Ajayi observed thus: "Leaders who plan for an African future but consider the knowledge of the past irrelevant can only be presumed to be harboring the colonialist view of the African past. It was the wisdom of our fathers to emphasize that each present generation owes obligations and responsibilities to both the ancestors and the generations yet unborn.

The African elite, since independence have proclaimed in their aim to foster the economic and cultural development of Africa. The record of stasis is disappointing enough; still, we have other causes for alarm. There is a strange quisling quality about their actions which should force us to ask whether they are primarily African Nationalists or modern Black slavers serving the West just as the laving elite did centuries ago. They seem to be victims of a voluntary cultural servitude and of an economic insecurity which predispose them to serve the West rather than Africa." This seems to be the case in South Africa today.

To call them neocolonial administrators is not to say that they, like the former white colonial administrators, receive direct orders or mandatory guidelines form their masters overseas, with detailed or discretionary instructions on what to do, and when and how to do it. Maybe some do. But it is rather to say that, though they advertise themselves as serving Africa, they operate in an environment, with a mentality, and under conditioned attitudes and direct advice that all tend to yield policies that primarily serve the neocolonial power or former colonial masters, policies that often are in direct opposition to the genuine interests of the African peoples Senghor said in 1962:

"The weakness of the Nation is neither at the level of the highest state official nor at the level of the lower intermediary civil servants, many of whom are not yet decolonized, and then there are those who are still aware of the fact that independence requires an increased effort of work, discipline and also politeness."

On the negotiation for a unified government with the Nationalist Party, ANC agreed to a "Trickle-Down" theory or economics of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. The opted to not prosecute the leaders of Apartheid nor anyone associated with Apartheid in order to acquire some semblance of political power. Most of the Apartheid functionaries were retained in key position of the military, economy and society. So that, as some power was being consolidated, the ANC had negotiated form a point of weakness.

As I have shown in the Hub Cry The Beloved Peoples, even in the military, Mkhonto and APLA were integrated into the SADF, to become the SANDF(South African NAtional Defense Force, and a chart was shown in the picture gallery of the aforementioned Hub as to the military breakdown form top to bottom,that in essence, ANC was in the service of their former masters at the expense of their constituency, and they 'negotiated' from a point of weakness with the ruling Afrikaner Elite.

(Sekwanele(Enough Is Enough

The trouble with todays' leadership is that it uses the country's bounty to enrich themselves. The have been and continues to be countless governmental corruption scandals that the present government is responsible for. From the days of the formation of the Government for National Unity(even today),there has been the Gravy train, which has left many African peoples embittered as to what kind of government have they put in place.

There has been a steady rise if strikes(doctors, cops, workers and many organizations that were opposed to the Apartheid government, now are rebelling against the ANC's Rainbowstan. The effect these shenanigans that the new government has indulged in, has left many filled with despair, that at times, as weird as it may sound, some , not all the people, think that and state it openly that they were better-off under "Amabunu/Boers, comparatively speaking. The point out to services, although shabby, they concede were better.

The people suffer in hospitals when they have to wake up at four and be at the clinic earlier so as to be attended to. In most cases, they are not seen at all, on top of that, they are not given medicines but are handed prescriptions to go and buy the medicine in the expensive pharmacies in the suburbs.

Some of the main killers amongst the African peoples today are, AIDS, TB, Hypertension, sugar diabetes, malnutrition, cholera and many other debilitating diseases. Lack of good food is paramount, followed by the environment, unemployment, Alcoholism, car accidents, mental and physical stress, broken homes, families, marriages, crime, and a host of other problems and ailments too numerous to list here.

The state of health in South Africa is in dire need for improved health facilities(although Baragwanath(Chris Hani) Hospital has been upgraded, the locals are telling that it has been done so for the super rich Africans and other people either than for locals. Transportation in areas where the World Cup is being played are being upgraded; the new President, Zuma, has improved and still in the process of reforming the whole bureaucracy, but the conditions for African masses have not radically changed.

The ANC did build some RDP houses and removed corrugated iron houses from the yards in some townships, and has replaced these with concrete and zinc buildings; Roads throughout Soweto have been improved(but not all roads in the Sowetos have been worked on). People now have water meters placed on the taps and have their water rations in some Townships around Soweto and so forth. Electricity now has to be bought from electrical outlets and is limited for several days. The city of Johannesburg, for example, does not cater for places like Soweto and so forth. Water is shut-off during some of the weekdays, and most times on weekends.

The Townships around the formerly known as the "Vaal Triangle Areas" have been invaded by huge rodents which eat their doors and bite the children at night. Many residents have been and are still being terrorized by these rodents and there seems to be no end in sight. Resident s have been trying to fight off these rodents, but they are running wild in the ghettoes around the country. In some cases, there are some accounts which point a finger at the police abuses, and has been noted in the Hub of "Cry the Beloved People", police are under siege from men armed in some heavy military ware of which ANC has been accused of, not long ago trafficking in.

Many Government Officials, who have had more than enough of junkets, caviar and exotic foods and life-styles, have lost their posts. Many engage is draping themselves with "Ubuchwephe"(bling-bling) from their front teeth to adorning themselves with silver, gold and diamonds over their torsos, houses and cars. Some Africans make more millions in half or full week and some brag to their poor brethren about it.

There has been some recklessness in the treatment of African by the current government, of which, some members pulled out and tried to morph into a party called COPE, which now is labelled to some who are perceived as being its members, that some acts are now termed 'coping', to designate, subtly, one is against the 'People". The very people who say so, are cruising around in the latest custom-made American, British French and Italian cars, living in mansions all over South Africa and overseas: they are having walk in the sun and good and golden time to themselves.

Their subjects are in rags, poor, sick, poverty stricken, mentally disturbed(in very large numbers). Poverty stinks in many African households and communities; schools are barren of books, computers and properly qualified teachers. Those who can upgrade their living conditions, do so. The masses, the youth is drugged and drunk, women(raped and abused), anyone of any race who is poor is doomed. The African people's message to the government is: "Sekwanele!"(Enough is enough!")

J.A. Hobson. that early twentieth century critic of British Imperialism, said that he endorses a sensible task such as he describes below: "The test of a people's prosperity is not the extension of exports, the multiplication of manufacturers or other industries, the construction of cities. No. A prosperous country is one in which the 'great mass' of the inhabitants are able to procure, with moderate toil, what is necessary for living human lives, lives of frugal and assured comfort.

But what we are seeing in South Africa is a system of world trade that pillages the African people,allowed by the present government to fester; a system of aid that puts in the hands of others the ability to dislocate or wreck the South African economy, that enables them(both Parties: ANC/International-national imperialists and the local White elite), to restructure the South African society to their advantage and make it safe for their plundering investments, even if they call such political interference names like "Democratization,' "Modernization," or "Institution Building," or what other galvanizing euphemisms they dream up; a system of foreign enterprise, foreign bandit enterprise, that gives them total control over South Africa's vital resources, gives them the "right" to cart them away or leave them unused, or burn them if they so choose."

This is not, and cannot be in the African people's interests. African people will also be held liable if the allow this to continue, just as Biko pointed out that African people are liable for allowing themselves to be abused and used in the manner they have been under Apartheid. Ironically, the Present African-government South Africa is in cahoots with International Capital and Corporations in looting the Wealth of the country, and not really caring very well for the people who put them in power 16 years ago.

"Abahlali baseMjondolo", a homegrown indigenous social movement is working hard to draw attention to persistent governmental indifference towards the plight of Durban shack dwellers. These people are plagued and endure shack fires and the "Abahlali baseMjondolo" set these fires suffered by the people who live in these shacks in their political context. They directly equate the absence of water and electricity with the early 1990s informal negotiations between the ANC and Corporate leaders, and the shack dwellers' marginalization is a direct consequence of South Africa's post-Apartheid neoliberal leanings and the unwillingness of the ANC to make good on its original aims of equitable social redistribution, but instead, as pointed out above, opted for trickle-down economics of Thatcher and Reagan. Here is a chorus of a contemporary protest sung sung in Xhosa"

Amabhulu amnyama

Asenzeli iworry.

[The Black Capitalists

Are making us worry].

The people in the shacks have one water tap serving nearly 8,000 tightly packed residents. Far from a rarity, shack fires in these slums burn on average of 10 a day. The residents refused to accept the city's offer to resettle them, instead opted to rebuild their shacks using whatever material they could salvage from the ruins.

The "Abahlali baseMjondolo"(Zulu for Shack-dwellers"), the social movement which is based in more than 40 shack settlements,helped the residents to put out a press statement calling for food emergency, temporary shelter and building materials. They also called out for a destruction of 70% of their settlements in a broader political context: "Shack fires are a crisis and they are not something normal. The government must stop blaming the victims every time there is a fire. We have to treat fire as a crisis.

We have to act against the real causes of fire. The main cause is that people do not have electricity. Other causes are that people do not have enough taps or any fire hydrants to fight the fires. The short-term solution is to upgrade the settlement with proper brick houses.(In my hub, "The world Is a Ghetto: Global Slums - Out of Sight and out of Mind: Deterioration of the Human Condition", I made mention and observation about the conditions of the slum dwellers and their problems, plight and downgraded life- these are similar to those in many of South Africa's shack settlements. When the people of the slums were threatened with forced removals, they said: "We are urbanites. We live and work and school here. We will not be moved. If the city will not give us building material, we will rebuild the settlement ourselves. This land is ours.."

On 22 September 2008, at a fire summit, ABM, AEC, LPM, and the Rural Network formed a Poor People's Alliance called for coordinated joint action. This summit was attended by shack dwellers from All over Durban, as well s delegates from AEC, the LPM's of Gauteng(Johannesburg) and KwaZulu-Natal branches, the Rural Network, and the eThekwini region of the South African National Civic Organizations(SANCO).

In July 2008 these two movements joined together to help launch an AbM Western Cape Movement to directly address the concerns f the residents of Cape Town's numerous settlements. "We are calling it the Poor People's Alliance so our people can identify with it," explained AEC Chairman Ashraf Cassiem. "It's a solidarity alliance. If there is an action in one place, [we] will carry it forward in another area. It must be people-orientated. It must be action-based, as opposed to an NGO that sits in the office."

ANC's neoliberal agenda(along with ANC Youth League, The South African Communist Party and the Congress of South Africa Trade Unions(COSATU) still collude together to maintain a cohesive government, but the feelings of betrayal within the poor communities are looming large, as has been discussed above and within the Hub, and the government, through its recklessness has wrongly rubbed and touched into the tangible feelings of betrayal within poor communities.

Throughout the different communities there are local movements who are calling for the resignation of the sloppy and corrupt councilors to be replaced. In the 2006 municipal elections, they let out a cry: "No Land! No House! No Vote!(Toussaint Losier), and with South Africa's hosting of the 2010 World Cup serving as further pretext for the creation of cities that meet the desires of the rich(as noted above about the Baragwanath(Chris Hani) Hospital remodeling fiasco and farce as noted by the locals), the need for the popular struggles grows greater each day.

Synthesis and Synergy

At the beginning of the hub I have stated that those who control the past and the present manipulate ones mentality, sanity contact with reality and the ability to deal with that reality. What Apartheid did, has been carried on with some fervor by the present African ANC government. Looking at the picture gallery is like looking through the prism of Apartheid heinous deeds, but this time, it is being done by a government the people elected democratically.

These are the growing pains and learning steps about Democracy for the "Free" people of South Africa, who are apparently are not so free, and the police are still acting like it was yesteryear Apartheid era; the elected officials are in cahoots with big business, and are ignoring the signs that are all around them, there is a lot of unrest and displeasure amongst the army of poor in the country.

The environment, which is a health hazard along with the disease that the African people came down with the end of White rule, have not been fully upgraded. The depression, stress and feelings of being betrayed are gaining traction, and it seems like it is the days of protest and arresting and detaining of people without trial - apartheid-redux. The police lie about the abuses they are carrying out in trying to break these protests.

The people are seeing their hospitals being renovated for those who have money for top health care. The effects and affects of apartheid torture still fresh in the lives, the diseases like TB, HIV/AIDS are killing thousands along with Alcoholism and Sugar Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, poverty and unemployment continue to plague the masses of poor African people and the poor of other races within South Africa, and there seems to be no end in sight.

The ghetto and slum environment within which the poor masses live as they watch their rich brothers flaunt all the wealth and fat, is itself causing tensions and stress on the poor. The history of the African people has been bypassed and ignored by the present rulers who have had been ruling now for 16 years, but continue to be corrupt, greedy, inept, and inefficient in delivering equity as they have promised, and deaf and blind to hurting masses and their woes.

On the political level, The AFrican people's present reality, however fine and attractive the reality of others may be, can only be transformed by detailed knowledge of it, by their own efforts, and by their own self sacrifices. This quality we can see in organization like "Abahlali baseMjondolo" social organization, and those like the "Soweto Concerned Residence" headed and led by women who are making things better for their inhabitants of the ghettoes and, slums and shack settlements.

Fanon said: "Each generation must out of relative obscurity, discover its mission, fulfill it, or betray it." These organizations have become a thorn on the neck for the ANC cadre, and they are a bit flummoxed a s to hoe to act. The do detain some without charging them and send the police to disperse and arrest some, but that has not deterred the women and youth protesters one bit

In his book "Nigeria: The prospect for a Democracy", H.O. Davies advices are excerpted as follows: "When we say that parliamentary democracy has failed in a newly independent state and that an authoritarian regime has taken over the government, we are taking a sort-term view. the events which we have been considering carry with them no necessary implication that democracy has permanently failed. ...

Authoritarian regimes may be a process of adjustment whereby parliamentary democracy is arrested, pending a higher evolution or development of complementary institutions.... The new African states have to devote themselves to studying the art of democratic government and not just take hold of the steering-wheel of the parliamentary machine. ... All the materials required for building sound foundations for parliamentary democracy are to be found in the ethnic composition of the country .

This is also relevant and true for South Africa, where, from the historical perspective as laid out in this Hub, the present government is merely holding the steering wheel and driving its constituents even more crazier and distraught-full, and left with a heavy feeling of being betrayed.

Davies insists on telling us that: "All peoples can achieve and practice democracy, if they have enough faith and conviction in it values. It is not for the European only, it has a moral language which is universal. Those who have the courage and enough respect for the African to point out the shortcomings of contemporary political experiments, as measured against the accepted and avowed standards, perform a valuable service for the democracy as well as for Africa; those who fall backwards, whether out of desire to please, or fear to give offense, or contempt for the African, to defend the shortcomings and represent them as the best that can be achieved are being pernicious both to the freedom and welfare of African societies and to international relations and world peace."

Even as we blame the apartheid business, one should not fail to lay the bulk of the blame on the doorstep of big business, or transnational companies, for their part in perpetuating the Apartheid order. These entities who have helped and sustained a system that was slavery and committed crimes against humanity(Africans), owes the Victims, overwhelmingly Africans), reparations. They scoffed at the idea when required to do so by the TRC as 'a waste of time'.

The present government, in its quest to create equality amongst the races, and disburse the economic bounty fairly, should also compensate the Africans for the suffering they underwent when Apartheid was in charge. Clearly this is not the case today, in fact, the present government has gone even deeper into the financial pockets of International Capital with zest and zeal. Those who created an environment of 'gross human rights abuses' in South Africa, among them internally and externally based companies, and the countries that supported them, are liable for the reconstruction of the South African Society.

In a program of reconstruction and development, reparations should include amounts that should be paid by big business both in and outside South Africa. It is also essential to uncover the level of complicity of these corporate supra-Capitalists in the crime of Apartheid[they have left their finger-prints all over the crime-scene]. This was somehow a convoluted and weak response from an impotent government when Mbeki said about the TRC: "There shall be no general Amnesty'. Amnesty, yes, reconciliation yes, but Amnesia, no!"

Well, Amnesia is what is the agenda and strategy of the present government which is now facing many forms of uprisings, the environmental tragedy that is happening now in South Africa, upgrading the country's infrastructure to make South Africa hospitable to tourist(including soccer fans) and the nouveau rich, lack of efficiency and medicines in hospital, the AIDS pandemic, TB and other debilitating diseases; have also forgotten about the people's history and look askance with the bourgeoning the booming crack cocaine drug sales and usage amidst the poor.

They ignore the increased abuse and use of mandrax tablets mixed with marijuana amongst all ages of the African population; abuse of alcohol and lack of active and aggressive detoxification institutions for all the drug and alcohol abuse victims for whom clinics are urgently required; poverty, unemployment; lack of proper and efficient social services add more to the overly stressed-out community; malnutrition as witnessed amongst the hoards of African beggars milling along traffic lights and wherever they can beg; the thriving prostitution trade; armed robberies, local and national crime; general social tension, environmental hazards and social frustration and stress manifest themselves in many forms and ways; the latter has given rise to TB rates rising, sugar diabetes, high blood pressure, cancers of all forms, gout, eye problem(for the people of Soweto this is most of the time caused by the dust from the mine dumps blowing South-wards into the Soweto throughout the land in the August-September season).

Considering all historical sundry, mental problems persist to this day; there are scores people who have been affected by torture, beatings, electrocuted, and permanently demented, disfigured and rendered useless, and the [African]society with meagre resources has to look after them. There has been slums built to harbor the poor hordes, high child and infant mortality rate, use of skin lightening creams, blaming the victims of apartheid health system onto a people who for generations of Apartheid rule bore the brunt of "kragdadheid" of the mighty Apartheid regime.

These people, who have been subjected to all these abuses, are supposed to have overcome these centuries old abuses in just 16 years of neo-post partheid rule, and those who oppressed them are now pointing fingers at the rest of africans and coloreds as if they are not doing anything to overcome the 'little pain' caused to them by apartheid. Some Boers even go to the extend of saying that only 20,000 Africans have been killed by apartheid since 1948, therefore, why are Africans whining as if many have killed. It is disconcerting to hear those who piled the crimes against the humanity of the apartheid victims belittle what happened to Africans' mindset and health during the apartheid rule.

A Case In Point(Blaming The Victim)

A sick individual is regarded as a set of physical symptoms, rather than a a person who belongs to a social class in a particular society. This process turns our attention away fro the political roots of disease, and conceals these roots by providing us with an alternative explanation. By and large, said this explanation,people are responsible for their own health. If they get sick it is a chance occurrence, no-one is to blame, and it is their own fault. If people get cholera, it is because the did not use 'safe, chlorinated water'.

If children are malnourished, their parents did not feed them properly, and they have ore children than they can look after properly. Illness was seen as nature's revenge on people who live unhygienically and do not observe proper rules of cleanliness.

This belief was reinforced in South Africa by the racism that permeated ll aspects of the society. African people bore the overwhelming burden of diseases. This fact linked up all to o easily to the opinion, widely held amongst whites, that African people were ignorant, backward and uneducated.

From this position,it was only one step to saying that African people suffered from ill-health because of these alleged racial characteristics. The other side of the coin was that whites were 'known' to be intelligent,civilized and educated. For the racial bigots. the comparatively low level of disease amongst whites proved this 'fact'.

This argument that people were to blame for the own illnesses was widely held by Dr. C.S. Garbers, president of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, blamed the cholera outbreak on the fact that may rural Africans 'preferred drinking dirty water out of the muddy pools rather that the safe and chlorinated water supplied by the authorities'. But people did not chose to live in unhygienic conditions. They are condemned by political and economic factors to live in areas where living is impossible.

A similar point can made about malnutrition. I a survey done in Nqutu in Kwazulu, it was found that 62% of others of malnourished children knew what was necessary for a balanced diet for their children. They simply could not provide for it. It was also found that 13% of mothers of well-nourished children could not describe adequate diet.

The only conclusion that could be drawn was that nutritional knowledge was not that important in determining the level of malnutrition in a society. What was crucial, was that people should have been able to afford or produce on a wide range of food. Where this was the case, mothers would fed their children adequately without knowing exactly what proportion of protein, fat, energy, vitamins and trace elements should be in the diet.

One strand of the victim blaming argument was the one used to justify population control programs. The argument was seductive and apparently logical. It said that there are only limited resources to go around, particularly in the Homelands/Bantustans. The only way to make sure that these resources are able to meet everyone's needs, was to limit the size of the population.

In the imagery of family planning propaganda, this truth was represented by pictures of prosperous looking families with one or two children contrasted with poor, sickly looking families with five or ore children in ragged clothes, obviously underfed. The message was simple: big families cased poverty. This kind of overpopulation theory provided ample scope for stereotyped racial cliches. African people were portrayed as the cause of their own poverty by breeding hordes of unkempt children.

This belief was reinforced in South Africa by the racism that permeated all aspects of society. African people bore the overwhelming burden of disease. This fact linked up al to easily with the opinion, widely held amongst whites, that African people were ignorant, backward and uneducated. From this position, it was only one step to saying that African people suffered from ill-health because of these alleged racial characteristics. The other side of the coin was that whites were 'known' to be intelligent, civilized and educated. For the racial bigots, the comparatively low level of disease amongst whites proved this fact.

The idea that population control was an important weapon in the battle against diseases was reflected by the emphasis placed on 'family planning' in state health policy. It was the one program where both the training of personnel, and the budget available for projects had expanded rapidly despite the department of health's cost cutting exercises of the last few decades. In addition, family planning was listed as top priority for the health centers in the Health Service Facility Plan, and was the subject of a major, nationwide propaganda campaign. The "overpopulation" argument may have a kind of attractive internal logic, but it was wrong.

The Awareness of Oppressed Consciouness

There is also another aspect of mental disturbances that needs to be noted thoroughly in order to understand the African state of min in South Africa. We need to understand that from the vantage point of the continuity of White supremacy, the basis for the labeling of Black Consciousness and behavior by Whites as normal or abnormal depends not on the discovery by Whites of discrete states of consciousness and their correlated behavioral tendencies in Africans, but on the discovery of the degree to which Black Consciousness/behavioral tendencies are perceived as serving or dis-serving their hegemonic interests.

Disturbances of thought, emotions, motivational and values priorities, and psychological processes in Africans are the unavoidable outcomes of their oppression by Whites. To be oppressed is by definition to have one's thought processes disturbed; emotions impaired; motives and values inverted; nd one's body functions imbalanced. There can be no "normality" of consciousness and conduct for Africans as long as they remain dominated by Whites - merely socially acceptable or unacceptable adjustments to the ever-changing demand characteristics of White supremacy.

The normality of Africans under White domination is by that circumstances,above all, a "pathological normalcy"- disturbances in Black Consciousness and behavior which are deemed serviceable and beneficial to the needs of their white oppressors.

The alleged normality or abnormality of Black Consciousness under White Supremacy requires that Africans involuntarily and obsessively deceive themselves. This collective self-deception, which is the benchmark or oppressed Black Consciousness, is the main product of White-African social power relations in South Africa - motivated by anxiety and ignorance, founded on the denial and distortion of reality.

Both the normality and abnormality of Black Consciousness and behavior are reproduced by the power relations of White supremacy, also require that they operate against their own best interests of their White oppressors; that they be self-denying, self-defeating, and oft-times self-destructing, while convincing themselves that the opposite is true. Normality is as much a political-economic concept as a psychological-social concept.

As a political/economic construct it is the result, in large part, of the interplay of intergroup, intragroup and primary group social-economic power relations and practices which have been exercised on the bodies of persons. Normality is born of fairly systematic methods of rewarding and punishing behavior, ritual practices and indoctrination, training, correction, supervision and constraint. As societies change so do their fields of power relations,methods of rewarding, methods of socialization, and concepts of normalcy.

To paraphrase Foucault: "the normality" which inhabits a person and brings him into existence is itself a factor in the in the mastery that those in power exercise over that person's consciousness and behavior."

Normality as a functional state of being, as a circumscribed set of states of consciousness and their correlated behavioral tendencies, is the effect and instrument of dynamic political-economic relations. The "norm" is in essence a principle of coercion; a constraint of behavior, a rule to be followed. It involves the establishment of a set of values or standards, a range of behaviors to be respected which must be achieved through conformity, reinforced by social sanctions, rewards, , and punishments.

Normalizing, the process of using the values of the norm to compare, differentiate, hierarchize,homogenize, to determine the level and value of abilities and the "nature" of persons and groups; to exclude; to mark the frontier of the abnormal - and thereby ration power, wielded by those who rule and dominate others. Hence, under White supremacy, the "normality" of Africans is to a significant extent both the effect and the instrument of White power. For the subordinated African, "normality" is the prison of his mind and body.

Sociopathology Precedes Psychopathology

Wislon writes and informs us thusly: "Collective pathology precededs individual pathology. That is, diseased social interactions between groups generate diseased social interactions within groups, and furthermore, diseased social interactions within groups generate diseased psychological interactions within individuals who are their constituents. The discontents of individuals reflect the discontents of groups; and these, the discontents of the societies and cultures they constitute. the Great Chain of ?Discontents inextricably binds together individuals, group, society, and culture."

Will adds: "The character and conduct of groups and individuals however labeled and categorized, whether judged to be good or evil, superior or inferior, are the products of historic intergroup, intragroup, and interpersonal relations, and can only be meaningfully understood in terms of these relations. The character and behavior of Africans American(Africans in general), whether labeled "normal" or "abnormal," can only be fully and accurately comprehended, along with the process and purpose of labeling itself, in terms the historic power relations between dominant European and subordinate African groups."

White domination and Black(African) subordination involve special types of social power relations constructed predominantly by White in order that they might receive certain material and non-material benefits thereby. these social power relations involve social practices and processes which mediate the White American socioeconomic, sociopolitical, sociopsychological manipulation and construction for Black(African) consciousness and behavior.

Under White supremacy Black(African) Consciousness and behavior are socially manufactured, labeled, and judged by Whites in ways consonant with their social control and expropriation of Black(African) natural and acquired human resources. The "normality" or "abnormality" of Black(African) consciousness and behavior are so classified with reference to the degree to which they support or oppose to the continuity of White supremacy. (Wilson)

"Disturbances of thought, emotions, motivational and values priorities, and psychological processes in Blacks(Africans) are unavoidable outcomes of the oppression by Whites. to be oppressed is by definition to have one's thought processes disturbed; emotions impaired; motives and values inverted; and one's body functions imbalanced. There can be no "normality" of consciousness and conduct for Blacks as long as they remain dominated by Whites - merely socially acceptable or unacceptable adjustments to the ever-changing demanding characteristics of White Supremacy.

The normality of Blacks(Africans) under White domination is by that circumstance, above all, a "pathological normalcy" - disturbances in Black(African) consciousness and behavior which are deemed serviceable and beneficial to the needs of their White oppressors.

The alleged normality or abnormality of Black(African) consciousness under white supremacy requires that Blacks(Africans) involuntarily and obsessively deceive themselves.this collective self-deception, which is the benchmark of oppressed Black(African) Consciousness, is motivated by anxiety and ignorance, founded on the denial and distortions of reality. Both the normality and abnormality of Black(African) Consciousness and behavior as produced by the power relations of White supremacy, also require that they operate against their own best interests in the interests of their White oppressors; that they be self-denying, self-defeating, and ofttimes self-destructing, while convincing themselves that the opposite is true.(Wilson)

Wilson wraps this for us by stating that, "Normalization, the process of using the values of the norm to compare, differentiate, hierarchize, homogenize; to determine the level and value of abilities and the "nature" of persons and groups; to exclude; to mark the frontier of the abnormal - and thereby ration power, privilege and favor - is one of the great instruments of power wielded by those who rule and dominate others. Hence, under White supremacy the "normality" of Blacks(Africans) is to a significant extent both the effect and the instrument of White Power. for the subordinated African, "normality" is the prison of his mind and body."

If in this day and age we trumpet modernity and technological and medical advances, it would be worth it to take a second look at the soul, spirit, condition and history of the Affected Africans masses, more specifically, those in South Africa. If history is capable of repeating itself, it would be worthwhile to study the history of South Africa in the past and present, in order to get a sense of where it's headed in the further future.' Fear' is another serious hazard in the lives of Poor African people that still grips the being and souls of African people. This is one aspect that needs a whole Hub to discuss because if it is full issues that continue as part of social relations in South Africa.

There is a dire need to begin to look, learn and listen to African people on their road towards recovery, and as for the procrastinating government officials, they risk facing the wrath of the poor armies of poor Africans joined by the poor of other races. Maya Angelou sums the issues raised in this Hub nicely: "History, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived. But if faced with courage, need not be lived again." Addressing the social and all sorts of stressors can alleviating the suffering of the toiling, sick and tired masses who are hungering for equitable distribution of wealth and comfort in the land of their birth, this will be one of the many steps that can be utilized to move on with the rest of the World.

Mental Health in The Post-Apartheid South Africa

For this part on the Post Apartheid Mental Disorders, I will defer to some notes from a Masters Thesis written by David Wilding John in 2010:

"In the post-apartheid society, race relations are frequently framed within the discourse of a ‘rainbow nation’ – a term first used by Archbishop Desmond Tutu in reference to the development of a cohesive and multi-cultural South African society. Though originally invoked with good intent, as Valji warns (2003: 26), the myth of the ‘rainbow nation’ has created a national identity that has been primarily top-down in its delivery. Here the political few may be seen as exercising control over the collective majority. Through political rhetoric and appeal to a united national identity, the rainbow nation discourse has been actively promoted as the ‘political economy of truth’ within the new South Africa.

Ironically, though the rainbow nation discourse has historically aimed to enhance racial tolerance and national harmony, it may also contribute to the marginalization and subsuming of other linguistic, cultural or ethnic individualities under an “umbrella identity” (Norris et al. 2008: 53). This naturally has consequences for the realization of a plurality of knowledges within South Africa. As Cronin (1999: 20) cautions, “allowing ourselves to sink into a smug rainbowism will prove to be a terrible betrayal of the possibilities for real transformation, real reconciliation, and real national unity that are still at play in our contemporary South African reality”.

Together with societal transformation, as well as evolving national and racial identities, the attitudes of young South Africans are also in flux. Research examining the future outlook of adolescents provides a glimpse into the multiple and heterogeneous ways in which young South Africans grow up and develop their identity. In a birth cohort study entitled ‘Birth to Twenty’, researchers found that black and coloured adolescents tend to be more certain about their South African-ness, have a more collective identity, and have more positive expectations about South Africa than both white and Indian youth (Norris et al. 2008).

In contrast, white adolescents place greater importance on personal identities, and compared to blacks, coloured and Indians, place relatively less importance on unified racial, cultural and national identities (ibid 2008: 51, 56). These findings may be explained in part by the pervasive concept of Ubuntu, a humanist philosophy common in South Africa that emphasizes the value of community spirit, shared ancestry and existential interconnectedness. Though as Yen and Wilbraham caution, the holistic approach of Ubuntu should not be over-romanticized in its care for marginalized peoples, used as evidence of a homogenous African culture, nor pitted against constructions of Western individual is characterized as selfish and competitive by comparison (2003b: 567). Other research examining the future expectations of South African adolescents from

various socio-economic backgrounds found that among black and brown respondents freedom of speech and human rights figured as South Africa’s strongest assets, while HIV/AIDS, poverty and unemployment were identified as its most serious problems. In contrast white respondents identified beautiful scenery as South Africa’s biggest advantage and violent crime as its major disadvantage (Steyn et al. 2010: 184). These finding suggests that for black and brown adolescents their identities and expectations of the future may be more closely tied to conditions of adversity that affect them disproportionately relative to whites.

While conditions of poverty, crime, unemployment and HIV/AIDS have no doubt taken their toll the psyche of some adolescents, the willingness of young people to endure hardship and persevere in spite of these obstacles stresses the fact that South African adolescents are, in general, highly resilient individuals. Accounts of adolescents are not “stories of ‘failure’ or of a ‘descent’ into marginality” – rather they are narratives of success in confronting challenges of past and present (Bray et al. 2010: 22). Adolescents today, regardless of cultural background, are positive about the future expectations of South Africa (Steyn et al. 2010: 179). They remain active in social and political development, engaged in the process of constructing and reconstructing their own identities, and crucially, in cultivating their social, psychological and emotional health.

Mental Health Headache

To mark Psychiatric Disability Awareness Month, Cape Mental Health and the Cape Consumer Advocacy Body picketed in St Georges Mall, Cape Town, to protest the lack of adequate resources
To mark Psychiatric Disability Awareness Month, Cape Mental Health and the Cape Consumer Advocacy Body picketed in St Georges Mall, Cape Town, to protest the lack of adequate resources | Source

Mental Health as a Public Health Issue

In the wake of apartheid, and in the light of reconciliation efforts, mental health has emerged as a crucial public health and development issue in South Africa (Lund et al. 2008: 14; Draper et al. 2009: 342). Several factors may explain why this is so. First, the impact of apartheid on the mental health of South Africa’s citizens, and the subsequent inquiry into those effects by the TRC and other groups, have brought issues of psychological well-being out of the shadows and into the mainstream during the post-apartheid era.

A legacy of violence, exclusion and discrimination perpetuated during apartheid left many in South Africa with deep-seated emotional wounds, psychological trauma and feelings of social isolation – the consequences of which still resonate. In particular the effects of apartheid were exceptionally harmful for black children and adolescents (Hickson and Kriegler 1991: 141; Lockhat and van Niekerk 2000: 291).

As one report on human rights and mental health notes, “apartheid inflicted pain and psychological trauma on millions of black South Africans, from the violence of the regime inflicted on the young to the denial of human dignity embodied in the apartheid laws and their implementation” (American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998: online).

Though historically resilient, the self-esteem and coping abilities of adolescents have also been affected by stressors of social change and political unrest. Accordingly, these conditions have influenced adolescent development leaving young people today faced with the challenge of overcoming mental health problems, such as trauma and stress, exacerbated by systems of apartheid and colonialism (Mental Health and Poverty Project 2008).

Second, nationally representative epidemiological studies that reveal the widespread and cross-cultural prevalence of mental disorders in South Africa have enhanced awareness for the need to address psychological problems. Today, mental disorders rank 3rd in their contribution to the burden of disease following HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases (Bradshaw et al. 2007: 439). Recent epidemiological studies have also found that 16.5% of South Africans report having suffered from common mental disorders such as depression, anxiety and substance abuse in the last year (Williams et al. 2008: 214).

While no national studies assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents have been conducted in South Africa, some literature does reveal that young people suffer from mental disorders in similar proportions to adults (Kleintjes at al. 2006), and that the majority of anxiety, mood and substance abuse disorders onset before the age of 26 (Stein et al. 2008: 115).

The lifetime prevalence of mental disorders (which is comparable to other African and international rates), as well as the average age of onset of mental illness, additionally does not appear to vary between socially-defined racial or cultural groups (Williams et al. 2008; Stein et al. 2008; Kleintjes et al. 2006; Hugo et al. 2003: 715).

Like nations elsewhere, widespread evidence-based epidemiological studies have helped clearly identify the prevalence of adolescent mental health problems in South Africa, and in turn helped elevate mental health from an under-researched, misunderstood and marginalized topic to an increasingly fundamental public health issue.

Third, rights-based approaches to both health and adolescent development have advanced the awareness of mental health as a fundamental human right. South Africa’s ratification of the UNCRC in 1995, one of the ANC’s first acts following democratic elections one year prior, signalled a commitment to rectify past human rights violations and afford young people privilege to the “highest attainable standard of health” (UNICEF 1989), including mental health. The subsequent development of mental health policies also stressed South Africa’s dedication to mental health rights, as indeed the “absence of policies designed

to address the mental healthcare needs of children and adolescents stands in direct opposition to the rights established by the Convention” (Shatkin, et al. 2008: 81). South Africa’s policy guidelines for child and adolescent mental health insist that the rights of the child need to be recognized before ‘optimal’ mental health may become a possibility (Republic of South Africa 2008: 8), while South Africa’s Mental Health Care Act promotes the best interests of mental health care users, including rights to knowledge, privacy, dignity and legal representation (Republic of South Africa 2002).

Finally, within policy interventions focus on mental health has helped legitimize its significance at the political and legislative level. In a 2004 study assessing the international absence of mental health policy, authors Shatkin and Belfer found that of the 191 countries recognized by the United Nations (UN) only 35 had any mental health policy that might impact on children and adolescents; and of those only 14 met level ‘A’ criteria which required having identifiable national policies or plans recognizing the unique mental health and development problems of children and adolescents.

Among the 14 countries with level ‘A’ policy criteria, South Africa and Chile stood out as the only two low- or middle-income countries to have developed child and adolescent mental health policies or plans (Shatkin and Belfer 2004; 2008). While South Africa currently has no formally acknowledged national mental health policy, nor any clearly discernable strategy for policy implementation strategy, the mere development of child and adolescent mental health policy places South Africa at the forefront of global progress to effectively address mental health issues among young people.

Social Determinants of Mental Health

Many scholars and international organizations have recognized that mental health problems are closely associated with various social determinants of health. These determinants may include low socio-economic status, gender disadvantage, job insecurity, social conflict and physical health problems such as having HIV/AIDS (World Health Organization 2010; Mayosi et al. 2009; Prince et al. 2007; Miranda and Patel 2005). In the context of South Africa, amidst conditions of high unemployment, housing insecurity, incomplete education experiences, growing HIV prevalence, and rapid social change, mental health problems among adolescents may be particularly pronounced (Seekings 2006: 6;

Morrow et al. 2005: 25; Everatt 2000: 24). Three social determinants of mental health relevant (though not unique) to South

Africa are stigma, poverty and HIV/AIDS. Stigma may be broadly defined as: “An attribute that is deeply discrediting” such that a stigmatized individual is reduced “from a whole and unusual person to a tainted, discounted one” (Goffman 1963: 3). More specifically, stigma associated with mental illness may be defined as: “The negative attitude (based on prejudice and misinformation) that is triggered by a marker of illness” (Sartorius 2007: 2).

Markers of illness naturally differ across geography and cultures, but may include physical differences (e.g. amputation, cleft lip), moral/character ‘flaws’ (e.g. substance abuse, criminal behaviour), psychological abnormalities (e.g. hallucinations, paranoia), or marks of culture such as race, nationality, customs or religious beliefs. When deemed flawed or inferior these marks discredit the individual in the eyes of society (Yang et al. 2008: 219). Social context may therefore be seen as playing an important role in the location of stigma within the person who is being stigmatized.

The stigma associated with mental health problems, including mental disorders, has been observed worldwide (Ssebunnya et al. 2009: 6). As a major barrier to the social inclusion, quality of life, help-seeking behaviour and provision of care for individuals who experience mental health problems (Hoven et al. 2008: 261; Rose et al. 2007: 97; Sartorius 2007: 2).

Stigma not only affects those who experience mental health difficulties, but also marks family members, communities, mental health professionals, as well as institutions that provide treatment for young people. For example, young people with mental illness may be victimized by peers, negatively portrayed by media and may experience the stigma of being falsely labelled as unpredictable or socially dangerous. Stigma may also lead to practices of social rejection, isolation and abuse (Hugo et al. 2003: 716), as well as cycles of discrimination that reduce self-confidence and reinforce negative attitudes associated with mental health difficulties (Sartorius 2007: 2).

While few studies have investigated levels of stigma towards people with mental illness (Kakuma 2010: 117), a recent analysis of mental health policy development and implementation in South Africa found that stigma towards people with mental illnesses remains highly problematic (Lund et al. 2008: 52). The report cited that misconceptions about people with mental health problems included being weak, lazy, mad, insane, incapable, unintelligent, abnormal, violent, unpredictable and worthy of incarceration.

The report alsofound that the consequences of these inaccurate beliefs reinforced the practice of labelling, and in turn resulted in individuals with mental disorders feeling neglected, isolated, abused, rejected by family and peers and without basic rights (ibid 2008). Stigma associated with mental health problems may also be particularly pronounced in some societies by beliefs that mental illness is incurable and caused by evil spirits (Ssebunnya et al. 2009: 11).

As McDaid et al. highlight (2008: 79), “consequences of poor mental health in low-income countries may be even worse than in high-income ones, because of the absence of social protection safety nets, compounded by the high levels of stigma and superstition”.

Poverty too exists as an important social determinant of mental and general health (World Health Organization 2010; Mental Health and Poverty Project 2008). Poverty and mental health difficulties coexist in a recursive relationship such that poverty may precede mental health problems, and mental health problems may result from poverty (Ssebunnya et al. 2009: 6).

For adolescents, the stressors associated with absolute and relative poverty, including financial insecurity, overcrowded living conditions and access to food, nutrition, water and sanitation may impede mental and physical health. Adolescent mental health may also be compromised by indicators of poverty such as low levels of education (Patel and Kleinman 2003: 609).

In a recent study assessing perceptions of stigma and poverty in Uganda, researchers found that because of stigma and a lack of parental encouragement young people with mental illness were less likely to attend or complete school thereby enhancing risk of trans-generational poverty (Ssebunnya et al. 2009: 10).

While the relationship between poverty and mental health difficulties does not imply that all those who live in conditions of scarcity are mentally ill, for indeed one can be both poor and mentally healthy (just as one can be rich and experience mental illness), poverty nonetheless exists as a salient risk factor for mental health problems such as psychological trauma, emotional distress and social instability. Poverty alleviation programs may therefore also be seen as a form of mental and general health promotion.

A third (though by no means final) social determinant of mental health is HIV/AIDS. Relative to those uninfected, people with HIV/AIDS are more likely to suffer mental health problems that affect overall health outcomes (Miranda and Patel 2005: 0962). Currently, South Africa has one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world (Stephenson 2000: 165). Estimates suggest that over 60 per cent of new HIV infections occur among those aged 15 to 25 years (with adolescent girls most often diagnosed), and that between 1.5 and 2 million young people below the age of 15 have been orphaned by the epidemic (ibid 2000: 166).

For some AIDS orphans, threats of poverty, substance use, abuse, participation in criminal behaviour and involvement in the sex trade (Call et al. 2000: 83), not to mention the secondary psychological trauma of losing a loved one and the heavy burden placed upon young people forced to head families in the event of parental loss, may exacerbate mental health problems. Moreover the stigma associated with pandemic, described eloquently by former UN special envoy to HIV/AIDS in Africa Stephen Lewis as the “bane of progress [which] savages and ravages, ostracizes and isolates those who are living with the virus” (2005: 69), resonates as a strong deterrent of mental health promotion and a barrier to help- seeking behaviour."

The Youth and their parents are suffering form mental disorders that today, in the reign of the ANC, are a carry-over from the Apartheid era. This is important to note because, in our struggle against apartheid, as African people, we have tried to maintain our concept of ourselves within the cultural context of Ubuntu/Botho. Foreigners use the Zulu Term, "Ubuntu" and become enamored by it and work very hard to deconstruct and debunk it meaning and relevance as perceived and lived by Africans of Mzantsi.

I will not labor nor toil to break it down, but simply state that it is a concept that is new and amazing to the newcomers to it. I will break it down in this Hub, later, as to what it is and what role in plays in the life and existence of the Africans of South Africa. It is important to note that very few people who grapple with the worked or term "Ubuntu/Botho" really understand it and know it. One other thing, they have not really lived with the Africans of Mzantsi in own to really understand how Africans use, relate and live this concept. this will be a further discussion later on in the development of this Hub as to How, its absence, amongst the Africans in South Africa has contributed to the social malaise that we are observing today as social dysfunction and colonial/post-colonial mental disorders.

Some Update On Health Issue

Eastern Cape Health Coalition Want Premier To Intervene:

The Eastern Cape Health Crisis Action Coalition wants to approach the premier to intervene in its call for action to improve the healthcare system.

The Eastern Cape Health Crisis Action Coalition will approach the premier to intervene in its call for drastic action to improve the province's healthcare system, it announced on Monday.

"We are going to approach the premier [Noxolo Kievit] and hand to her the memo that we gave the [health] MEC [Sicelo Gqobana], which he still has not responded to," said spokesperson Kwazi Mbatha.

The coalition tabled and presented a memorandum of grievances to Gqobana's office and gave him 30 days to respond. That was during a march held on September 13. "The deadline passed on Friday already and we still have not received word from his office if that will happen," Mbatha said.

He said the coalition's way forward would include presenting the same memorandum to provincial leaders of the ANC and Parliament's portfolio committee on health.

"If this call for intervention from the [above-mentioned] structures proves futile, [we] would consider litigation, but only as the last resort," said Mbatha.

Gqobana has agreed to meet the coalition next month, but to discuss other matters related to healthcare improvement.

"We have a meeting with him in November, on the 22nd. It is far away."

The province's health spokesperson Sizwe Kupelo was not immediately available for comment. The coalition, which includes Section 27 and the Treatment Action Campaign, has advocated for drastic action to rebuild the province's healthcare system.

It compiled a report titled "Death and Dying. An Investigation into the Collapse of a Healthcare System", which sparked an investigation by the national health department.

Health Minister Aaron Motsoaledi last month announced findings and recommendations from the probe, which included plans for millions of rand in infrastructural development.

The suspensions of the Holy Cross Hospital chief executive and its nursing manager were also announced."

The situation is becoming desperate and drastic in the Eastern, and the lack of jobs or growth in all aspects of a developing society, a nil. so, I will from time time stitch into the Hub the relevant information the accrues from a sick health institution that needs to be highlighted in whatever way possible.

The Declining State of Metal Healthcare in south africa

Young people do not receive help for their mental sickness in South Africa. South Africans' right to proper treatment is under threat and holds long-term implications
Young people do not receive help for their mental sickness in South Africa. South Africans' right to proper treatment is under threat and holds long-term implications

gnoring and Not Helping the Mtally sick in south Africa

Nashira Davis writes that, "This is Psychiatric Disability Awareness month and it brings to the fore the issue of mental illness, the third-highest burden of disease in South Africa.

But, says a Cape Town NgO and advocacy group, only 4% of the national health budge goes to mental health services

The World Health Organisation estimates that, in seven years, depression will be the second-most-common cause of disability.

Yesterday, Cape Mental Health and the Cape Consumer Advocacy Body staged a protest to call for adequate mental health services. To highlight the shortage of beds in hospitals, they cluttered a busy walkway in the city centre with hospital beds during lunch hour.

One protestor held a poster which read: "I sat on a chair for 72 hours. [I was] Locked up all night.

"Many seriously ill, psychotic or suicidal service-users have had to wait before being admitted to hospital because of the shortage of beds," said Cape Mental Health chairman, Oscar January.

A 2008 Medical Research Council study found that 41% of those admitted to Western Cape psychiatric wards had a "substance-induced psychotic disorder".

About 31% were admitted for schizophrenia and 12% for mood disorders. Gadija Koopman, the deputy director of Cape Mental Health, said drug-induced psychosis was preventable.

"If the problem of drug abuse were addressed, we would not have that 41% eating away at limited hospital resources," said Koopman.

The two organisations cited studies in which it was estimated one in six people will develop a mental illness or psychiatric disability, with "bipolar mood disorders, schizophrenia, depression and anxiety some of the most common".

The Ignored State of Mental Healthcare in South africa

Unemployment is one of the causes in the rises of stress and depression in South Africa's  armies of the Unemployed
Unemployment is one of the causes in the rises of stress and depression in South Africa's armies of the Unemployed | Source

The Part History of Health and Ideology in Contemporary South Africa

We are informed by Zane Wilson that:

"Depression is predicted to be the second-leading disabling health condition in the world by 2020, yet mental health treatment is often inaccessible or unaffordable.

With the recent global recession, poor households have sunk deeper into poverty and many more South Africans are finding themselves steeped in financial woes.

One in five South Africans suffer from a mental disorder, but only 15.9% of them receive treatment.

According to many experts, South Africa has some of the best mental healthcare legislation in the world. But mental health is the Cinderella condition of especially the public healthcare system – it is sidestepped and certainly not a priority of the department of health. Psychiatric patients all too often are talked about in whispers in dark corridors or they are left, alone and scared, with their questions unanswered in emergency rooms and general wards.

The Mental Health Care Act (2002) is a piece of ground-breaking legislation that is unfortunately not covering much ground in the "real world". Patients are falling through the cracks in a healthcare system that is underfunded and underresourced. Attempted-suicide patients are regularly not admitted. Instead, they are sent home after a stomach pump – without therapy, a follow-up appointment, safe medication or care. It is with this in mind that the South African Depression and ­Anxiety Group has been instrumental in developing more than 200 support groups countrywide in some of the most remote areas to assist patients with their right to care and treatment.

It is common for such patients to be sent to hospital pharmacies only to be told there is no stock. They then either have to change medication or wait until the right pills are available. This is not the way to treat people who scrape together money to get to hospital, only to spend a whole day there being shuffled from department to department.

Society tends to regard depression as a "female" illness and the lack of treatment across the health sector as a "rural" problem. Neither is true. Five times as many men commit suicide as women. This means that 82% of the suicides in South Africa are committed by men, yet the subject of male depression is still largely taboo and not a topic that men are likely to chat about casually at a braai, or share with their colleagues.

<strong>Healthcare treatment</strong>
The current trends of retrenchment, unemployment and restricted medical benefits mean access to private healthcare treatment is no longer an option for an increasing number of South African men. The obvious stresses that accompany unemployment &ndash; daily worries about paying bills, putting food on the table, relationship failures and a drop in social status &ndash; can wear even the strongest person down.

To compound the issue, dealing with health problems is much harder for those with less money. There are fewer treatment options, longer times spent in waiting rooms, as well as the stigma of visiting a clinic or government hospital for help. For people who suddenly find themselves without jobs, family, money or medical aid, the harsh realities of life can be too hard to bear.

Numerous South African studies have linked family problems and interpersonal conflicts with suicidal behaviour and conditions such as mood disorders and substance abuse. Men often show their stress by working too hard, drinking or having extramarital affairs. They display aggression rather than depression.

Mental health diagnosis and recovery can be challenging. Ensuring that patients maintain treatment regimes so they can recover and stay well is often a long process and one that needs support, supervision and access to professional care. Yet, despite psychiatric conditions being ranked third in the contribution to the burden of disease, mental health issues are often "invisible" compared with physical health problems.

Although more South Africans suffer from a mental illness than any other chronic disease, fear, discrimination, misinformation, inadequate treatment services, unequal access to care and the lack of support systems for people with mental illnesses all contribute to patients' low rate of compliance with treatment as well as recovery. The mental health rights of patients are severely compromised.

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are mostly carrying the load for the mental and emotional wellness of South Africans. However, without sufficient funding or support, it cannot continue for much longer. Mental illness costs individuals, companies and communities billions of rands every year because of absenteeism and loss of employment, medical bills, worsening of chronic illnesses and hospital visits, abuse and imprisonment. South Africa can no longer afford to be insensitive about mental healthcare and nor can we afford to keep mental illness hidden.

Educating the youth in schools is imperative if we intend to achieve change in our future leaders. With 21.4% of youths in South Africa attempting suicide, this is where NGOs can be an integral part of the government's efforts.

Never has there been a more important time for society as a whole to send a clear message that mental health matters, and for the government to make it a priority. It is time we are judged by how we treat the most vulnerable members of our society."

Health, among the many controversial issues not given enough coverage

Thousands of health activists from 13 organizations march in protest against the government in Cape Town, South Africa, March 13, 2014.
Thousands of health activists from 13 organizations march in protest against the government in Cape Town, South Africa, March 13, 2014. | Source

The ANC Barometer on Corruption and Neglect of the Poor view

With less than two months to go before South Africa’s 2014 elections, there have been enough signals to suggest that these polls will be markedly different from previous campaigns and elections. The most obvious difference is that this will be the first election without the presence of the father of South African democracy, Nelson Mandela, who passed away on Dec. 5, 2013, at the age of 95. Yet, perhaps even more consequential, the elections will take place at a time when the fortunes of the African National Congress (ANC), which has ruled South Africa since 1994, have been declining due to a series of political scandals and a stagnant economy; critical allies of the ANC have defected; and the ‘born frees,’ – those born after South Africa’s first democratic election in 1994 — will be eligible to vote for the first time. None of this means that the ANC will lose its grip on power; however it does suggest that the ANC may emerge weaker than at any other time in the past 20 years. The end result may be a very different political landscape than exists today.

The ANC’s declining political fortunes

The ANC today is seen as more corrupt and ineffective than at any time in recent years. A 2011 Afrobarometer survey showed that 50 percent of respondents saw government officials as corrupt and 25 percent thought that corruption was one of the country’s most pressing problems; this is the highest concern for corruption since 2002, when only 13 percent thought of corruption as significant.

The Pulse of the People poll of randomly selected voting-age South Africans (18+), taken by Ipsos in November 2013 reveals that only 53 percent of eligible voters would vote for the ANC. This is 10 points less than in November 2008 (six months before the 2009 election); moreover, 80 percent of the decline in support took place between November 2012 and November 2013. In the /Ipsos Government Performance Barometer, a poll of 3,564 adult South Africans, also taken in November 2013, only 46 percent of respondents rate President Jacob Zuma as doing his job well; 50 percent think he is not doing his job well.

It is a substantial decrease from 2009, when 77 percent of those surveyed said he was performing well. The latest blow to President Zuma is the Nkandla scandal: the R215 million ($20 million) in public funds that President Zuma used for security upgrades to his private residence in Nkandla. The national government has not fared much better than President Zuma: 47 percent said it was not performing well, down from 70 percent in 2009.

What might have precipitated such a decline in the ANC’s support and image? What does it mean for South Africa? One important reason why the ANC declined in popularity is its failure to deliver basic government services and the perceived inadequate government’s response to citizen’s grievances. A report by Municipal IQ shows that in the first eight months of 2012, the number of service delivery protests was higher than at any point since 2007.

Furthermore, the Municipal IQ study shows that the probability that protests would turn violent also increased steadily: whereas between 2007 and 2011 approximately 50 percent of protests turned violent, in the first eight months of 2012, 79.2 percent of protests ended violently. The trend toward violence has been epitomized in the media by the regular protests in Bekkersdal, a township outside of Johannesburg; on March 13, 2014, ANC campaign workers were pelted with stones, prompting the security agents to fire live ammunition at the protesters. Of course, the most dramatic example of such violence was the August 2012 Marikana mines massacre, where 34 miners protesting their living conditions and wages were killed by police. With the South African police firing at the protesting miners, many publicly questioned if the ANC had abandoned its principles and support for South Africa’s working class.

Reflecting these frustrations, perhaps, the ANC has suffered very public internal splits. Julius Malema, the leader of the Youth League, the ANC’s most powerful wing, began to question the ANC’s commitment to development and economic prosperity for its poorest members, calling in particular for a nationalization of mines as a means to distribute wealth to the excluded black majority.

In February 2012, the ANC expelled Malema, Zuma’s erstwhile supporter. Malema went on to found the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) party, symbolically launching it at Marikana, the site of the massacre, in October 2013. The expulsion of Malema also resulted in the dissolution of the ANC Youth League, which is the primary method by which the ANC reaches out to young people. The Ipsos Pulse of the People survey revealed 4 percent of voting-age South Africans supported the EFF.

Nomaphelo Finini from Alexandra.

The Suffering Victims of malpractice and Health dysfunction in Mzantsi
The Suffering Victims of malpractice and Health dysfunction in Mzantsi | Source

The damaged generation: ‘Keep quiet because you chose to be pregnant’

The following article has been writtn by Zinhle Mapumulo

Nomaphelo Finini (32)

Child’s name: Elihle Finini (8)

Born at: Charlotte Maxeke Academic Hospital in Joburg

Cause of cerebral palsy:Birth asphyxia

Case: Sued the state last year. Matter has been referred to the state attorney

As Nomaphelo Finini’s contractions worsened, her partner rushed her to the Hillbrow Clinic.

After she arrived at around 8pm, a nurse examined her and told her that her cervix had not dilated enough, and that she was in the early stages of labour.

As it was already late, she was admitted to the busy facility.

The contractions intensified during the night and she cried out for help, much to the annoyance of the nursing staff who insulted her, telling her they were not there when she decided to have a child.

“A nurse examined me again and said the baby was not going to come out any time soon. So I must just keep quiet because I chose to be pregnant and let them do their jobs in peace,” she said.

A terrified Finini tossed and turned all night, alone in the labour ward. The pain was unbearable but she endured it for fear of being reprimanded again.

At around 2pm the next afternoon, she was checked by another nurse who discovered that the baby’s heart rate had slowed down and he was in foetal distress.

Finini was then taken by ambulance to Charlotte Maxeke Academic Hospital, where, in the labour ward, doctors had to use forceps to help her deliver.

When Elihle emerged, he didn’t cry. Doctors took him to another room where Finini said she heard him cry faintly and slowly after a few minutes. She later learnt that he had suffered several seizures.

“The next day, I was discharged and the baby who I had carried for nine months and was yearning to hold, stayed behind,” she said.

“I was told he needed further medical care because he suffocated due to prolonged labour and his brain was damaged.”

Elihle spent about two weeks in hospital. At six months, he was diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy, unable to hold his head up. He remains unable to sit, walk, talk, or feed himself.

Finini, who lives in a back yard shack in Alexandra, had to leave her job as a cook at Pick n Pay because everyone she hired to look after him would quit within a week.

His father, who died three years ago, did not provide for the family.

“He had difficulty accepting that his son was disabled, I guess,” she said.

Determined to provide for her children, Finini is now training to become a firefighter. Her son lives with her sister.

The damaged generation: What the health department says

This article below was filed by Zinhle Maphumulo:

The Gauteng health department ­admits that it is facing a large number of lawsuits as a result of medical negligence in its hospitals.

However, it says the problem is not as bad as it is portrayed.

After being told that Health MEC Hope Papo was unavailable for an ­interview this week, City Press sent a list of questions relating to 336 ­lawsuits amounting to R1.9 billion, 35% of which concern poor maternal care that led to hundreds of children being brain damaged.

When asked if the department ­believed that the number of children brain damaged at birth reflected its standard of care, department ­spokesperson Simon Zwane said it did not.

“Underlying factors such as ­socioeconomic challenges and preconditions of patients contribute to the number of lawsuits,” he said.

“It is also important to note that the number of children delivered in provincial hospitals is more than 200 000 per year and almost all of them do not sustain injury. Those who sustain injuries are a tiny minority.”

However, Zwane said: “We have prioritised the employment and ­training of midwives as a key intervention to address the situation.

“Last year 120 nurses were trained in midwifery and 79 were trained in advanced midwifery and neonatology.

The training of nurses on neonatal ­resuscitation was also carried out to improve the survival of babies and prevent injuries.

“And equipment such as cardiotocography and fetal monitors were ­also purchased.”

Zwane said 34 staff members in the province had been disciplined for negligence last year.

The department had introduced a system of clinical ­audits to ensure continual improvement in the quality of care.

“There is ongoing training in all ­facilities to improve attitudes and communication between staff and ­patients,” he said.

In the 2012/13 financial year, 188 doctors and 203 nurses were trained to manage obstetric emergencies, and nurses were trained to use early ­warning charts, he said.

Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital faces the highest number of birth-related lawsuits related to babies who sustained brain injuries at birth and later developed cerebral palsy.

The department defended the ­facility’s performance, saying: “It is ­important to note that Chris Hani Baragwanath is a referral hospital and therefore deals with complicated ­cases, so it is not alarming if they have more obstetric litigations than other hospitals.”

Early last year, the hospital brought in advanced midwives from the ­military medical corps to help.

And Zwane said they were doing something about it.

“The hospital has employed more midwives and improved the availability of equipment to address factors that lead to obstetric litigation,” he said.

City Press and Media 24 Investigation’s probe revealed a number of ­cases in which medical devices such as forceps and vacuums were used to tragic effect during deliveries.

Both ­instruments can increase the risk of brain injury if used incorrectly and many countries, including Britain, no longer use them in state hospitals.

Zwane said the department has stopped its doctors from using forceps, but they continue to use the vacuum method as they believe it to be safer.

“There are operational guidelines and standards that conform to ­well-researched international ­standards. Such methods are still ­successfully applied with a high rate of successful deliveries,” he said.

About the R1.9 billion in claims it faces, Zwane said: “While we ­acknowledge there are potential ­liabilities, some of the cases have been successfully concluded, settled and closed at lesser amounts.”

The damaged generation: Human factor, birth trauma leading causes of disabilities

Several senior state obstetricians and paediatricians say working conditions in state hospitals, coupled with a marked decline in the quality of nursing training and a dire shortage of midwives, put mothers and newborns at grave risk.

Dr Hein Odendaal, a leading obstetrician and emeritus professor at Stellenbosch University, said significant numbers of newborns suffered avoidable brain damage.

This was either because their births were dragged out for too long, their mothers’ uteri were overstimulated or because foetal distress was not recognised in time or at all.

Odendaal’s research has flagged the incorrect use of the birth-assisting drug oxytocin – a synthetic hormone used to induce labour or speed up the birth – as a grave hazard to mother and baby.

He and others in the field say more research is needed to establish how many babies end up with avoidable cerebral palsy due to birth complications.

Other experts, who spoke on condition of anonymity as they are employed by the state, agreed.

A paediatrics professor at one of SA’s leading medical schools said up to 50% of children with cerebral palsy in South Africa have the condition because of avoidable birth complications.

The experts pointed to the findings of the Medical Research Council of SA’s annual Saving Babies research programme, which they described as “the tip of the iceberg”.

This research found that the vast majority of full-term babies of normal weight die in their first week of life due to asphyxia or oxygen deprivation.

This shows that it is an alarmingly common occurrence in state hospitals.

The latest Saving Babies report, which analysed data of infant deaths in 588 public health institutions in the 2010/11 financial year, found the leading cause of perinatal deaths to be asphyxia and birth trauma, and also noted the quality of care was poorest in the district hospitals.

“But not all babies subjected to loss of oxygen at birth die,” says one veteran paediatrician who is employed by the state.

Those who don’t suffer consequences for the rest of their lives.

In an editorial for the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum journal, Odendaal noted that unchanged ratios of babies dying from birth asphyxia and trauma showed that “the management of labour has not become safer during the last seven years”, and it was likely that some of the deaths could have been due to the “unsafe use of oxytocin during labour”.

He also pointed out that oxytocin was recently added to the list of high-alert medications by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, an international NGO.

One Gauteng obstetrician said the health department’s policies and guidelines for handling childbirth were excellent, but problems stemmed from the “human factor” in their implementation.

Another state doctor put it more bluntly: “The nurses just don’t listen to the mothers and they don’t administer the correct treatment at the correct time.”

What the health department says
The Gauteng health department ­admits that it is facing a large number of lawsuits as a result of medical negligence in its hospitals.

However, it says the problem is not as bad as it is portrayed.

After being told that Health MEC Hope Papo was unavailable for an ­interview this week, City Press sent a list of questions relating to 336 ­lawsuits amounting to R1.9 billion, 35% of which concern poor maternal care that led to hundreds of children being brain damaged.

When asked if the department ­believed that the number of children brain damaged at birth reflected its standard of care, department ­spokesperson Simon Zwane said it did not.

“Underlying factors such as ­socioeconomic challenges and preconditions of patients contribute to the number of lawsuits,” he said.

“It is also important to note that the number of children delivered in provincial hospitals is more than 200 000 per year and almost all of them do not sustain injury. Those who sustain injuries are a tiny minority.”

However, Zwane said: “We have prioritised the employment and ­training of midwives as a key intervention to address the situation.

“Last year 120 nurses were trained in midwifery and 79 were trained in advanced midwifery and neonatology.

The training of nurses on neonatal ­resuscitation was also carried out to improve the survival of babies and prevent injuries.

“And equipment such as cardiotocography and fetal monitors were ­also purchased.”

Zwane said 34 staff members in the province had been disciplined for negligence last year.

The department had introduced a system of clinical ­audits to ensure continual improvement in the quality of care.

“There is ongoing training in all ­facilities to improve attitudes and communication between staff and ­patients,” he said.

In the 2012/13 financial year, 188 doctors and 203 nurses were trained to manage obstetric emergencies, and nurses were trained to use early ­warning charts, he said.

Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital faces the highest number of birth-related lawsuits related to babies who sustained brain injuries at birth and later developed cerebral palsy.

The department defended the ­facility’s performance, saying: “It is ­important to note that Chris Hani Baragwanath is a referral hospital and therefore deals with complicated ­cases, so it is not alarming if they have more obstetric litigations than other hospitals.”

Early last year, the hospital brought in advanced midwives from the ­military medical corps to help.

And Zwane said they were doing something about it.

“The hospital has employed more midwives and improved the availability of equipment to address factors that lead to obstetric litigation,” he said.

City Press and Media 24 Investigation’s probe revealed a number of ­cases in which medical devices such as forceps and vacuums were used to tragic effect during deliveries.

Both ­instruments can increase the risk of brain injury if used incorrectly and many countries, including Britain, no longer use them in state hospitals.

Zwane said the department has stopped its doctors from using forceps, but they continue to use the vacuum method as they believe it to be safer.

“There are operational guidelines and standards that conform to ­well-researched international ­standards. Such methods are still ­successfully applied with a high rate of successful deliveries,” he said.

About the R1.9 billion in claims it faces, Zwane said: “While we ­acknowledge there are potential ­liabilities, some of the cases have been successfully concluded, settled and closed at lesser amounts.”

The damaged generation: 'I went back because we don't have another hospital'

The damaged generation: Human factor, birth trauma leading causes of disabilities

Several senior state obstetricians and paediatricians say working conditions in state hospitals, coupled with a marked decline in the quality of nursing training and a dire shortage of midwives, put mothers and newborns at grave risk.

Dr Hein Odendaal, a leading obstetrician and emeritus professor at Stellenbosch University, said significant numbers of newborns suffered avoidable brain damage.

This was either because their births were dragged out for too long, their mothers’ uteri were overstimulated or because foetal distress was not recognised in time or at all.

Odendaal’s research has flagged the incorrect use of the birth-assisting drug oxytocin – a synthetic hormone used to induce labour or speed up the birth – as a grave hazard to mother and baby.

He and others in the field say more research is needed to establish how many babies end up with avoidable cerebral palsy due to birth complications.

Other experts, who spoke on condition of anonymity as they are employed by the state, agreed.

A paediatrics professor at one of SA’s leading medical schools said up to 50% of children with cerebral palsy in South Africa have the condition because of avoidable birth complications.

The experts pointed to the findings of the Medical Research Council of SA’s annual Saving Babies research programme, which they described as “the tip of the iceberg”.

This research found that the vast majority of full-term babies of normal weight die in their first week of life due to asphyxia or oxygen deprivation.

This shows that it is an alarmingly common occurrence in state hospitals.

Jeanne van der Merwe filed the following article:

The latest Saving Babies report, which analysed data of infant deaths in 588 public health institutions in the 2010/11 financial year, found the leading cause of perinatal deaths to be asphyxia and birth trauma, and also noted the quality of care was poorest in the district hospitals.

“But not all babies subjected to loss of oxygen at birth die,” says one veteran paediatrician who is employed by the state.

Those who don’t suffer consequences for the rest of their lives.

In an editorial for the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum journal, Odendaal noted that unchanged ratios of babies dying from birth asphyxia and trauma showed that “the management of labour has not become safer during the last seven years”, and it was likely that some of the deaths could have been due to the “unsafe use of oxytocin during labour”.

He also pointed out that oxytocin was recently added to the list of high-alert medications by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, an international NGO.

One Gauteng obstetrician said the health department’s policies and guidelines for handling childbirth were excellent, but problems stemmed from the “human factor” in their implementation.

Another state doctor put it more bluntly: “The nurses just don’t listen to the mothers and they don’t administer the correct treatment at the correct time.”

What the health department says
The Gauteng health department ­admits that it is facing a large number of lawsuits as a result of medical negligence in its hospitals.

However, it says the problem is not as bad as it is portrayed.

After being told that Health MEC Hope Papo was unavailable for an ­interview this week, City Press sent a list of questions relating to 336 ­lawsuits amounting to R1.9 billion, 35% of which concern poor maternal care that led to hundreds of children being brain damaged.

When asked if the department ­believed that the number of children brain damaged at birth reflected its standard of care, department ­spokesperson Simon Zwane said it did not.

“Underlying factors such as ­socioeconomic challenges and preconditions of patients contribute to the number of lawsuits,” he said.

“It is also important to note that the number of children delivered in provincial hospitals is more than 200 000 per year and almost all of them do not sustain injury. Those who sustain injuries are a tiny minority.”

However, Zwane said: “We have prioritised the employment and ­training of midwives as a key intervention to address the situation.

“Last year 120 nurses were trained in midwifery and 79 were trained in advanced midwifery and neonatology.

The training of nurses on neonatal ­resuscitation was also carried out to improve the survival of babies and prevent injuries.

“And equipment such as cardiotocography and fetal monitors were ­also purchased.”

Zwane said 34 staff members in the province had been disciplined for negligence last year.

The department had introduced a system of clinical ­audits to ensure continual improvement in the quality of care.

“There is ongoing training in all ­facilities to improve attitudes and communication between staff and ­patients,” he said.

In the 2012/13 financial year, 188 doctors and 203 nurses were trained to manage obstetric emergencies, and nurses were trained to use early ­warning charts, he said.

Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital faces the highest number of birth-related lawsuits related to babies who sustained brain injuries at birth and later developed cerebral palsy.

The department defended the ­facility’s performance, saying: “It is ­important to note that Chris Hani Baragwanath is a referral hospital and therefore deals with complicated ­cases, so it is not alarming if they have more obstetric litigations than other hospitals.”

Early last year, the hospital brought in advanced midwives from the ­military medical corps to help.

And Zwane said they were doing something about it.

“The hospital has employed more midwives and improved the availability of equipment to address factors that lead to obstetric litigation,” he said.

City Press and Media 24 Investigation’s probe revealed a number of ­cases in which medical devices such as forceps and vacuums were used to tragic effect during deliveries.

Both ­instruments can increase the risk of brain injury if used incorrectly and many countries, including Britain, no longer use them in state hospitals.

Zwane said the department has stopped its doctors from using forceps, but they continue to use the vacuum method as they believe it to be safer.

“There are operational guidelines and standards that conform to ­well-researched international ­standards. Such methods are still ­successfully applied with a high rate of successful deliveries,” he said.

About the R1.9 billion in claims it faces, Zwane said: “While we ­acknowledge there are potential ­liabilities, some of the cases have been successfully concluded, settled and closed at lesser amounts.”

The damaged generation: Tragedy strikes after nurse panics

Botched births worsen plight of young mothers, writes Zinhle Mapumulo.

Beauty Nkosi’s son was born inside his ­ruptured amniotic sac. The sac is a thin membrane filled with protective fluid that holds the baby inside its mother’s uterus.

The sac is harmless and is simply wiped away.

But when the nurse who helped Nkosi give birth saw the sac, she panicked and left the mother and the baby, who remained inside the sac, to go off and call a doctor.

When the doctor arrived in the labour ward minutes later, he was furious when he saw what the emergency was, saying the nurse should have torn the sac and taken the baby out immediately.

When baby Nhlanhla was eventually ­removed, he didn’t cry. The nurse then placed a ventilation bag and mask over his nose, and placed him in an incubator.

The next day, Nkosi was discharged, but Nhlanhla remained in hospital for more than a week. It was not explained to her why her son needed further medical attention.

Nkosi, a mother of six, said she only ­realised when Nhlanhla was about six months old that he wasn’t like other children.

“He could not sit on his own or lift his head,” she said.

When he was 11 months old and still ­unable to sit, Nkosi took him back to ­Pholosong Hospital, where she learnt that her son had cerebral palsy.

“The doctor only told me it may cause problems with his development and that I had to bring him for physiotherapy. Nobody cared to explain what this condition was or what caused it.”

Nhlanhla is now four and cannot talk, walk, feed himself or sit on his own.

Nkosi and her partner, who are both ­between temporary jobs, take turns to look after him. Her elder son, who is 18 years old, also helps when he can.

What the health department says

The Gauteng health department ­admits that it is facing a large number of lawsuits as a result of medical negligence in its hospitals.

However, it says the problem is not as bad as it is portrayed.

After being told that Health MEC Hope Papo was unavailable for an ­interview this week, City Press sent a list of questions relating to 336 ­lawsuits amounting to R1.9 billion, 35% of which concern poor maternal care that led to hundreds of children being brain damaged.

When asked if the department ­believed that the number of children brain damaged at birth reflected its standard of care, department ­spokesperson Simon Zwane said it did not.

“Underlying factors such as ­socioeconomic challenges and preconditions of patients contribute to the number of lawsuits,” he said.

“It is also important to note that the number of children delivered in provincial hospitals is more than 200 000 per year and almost all of them do not sustain injury. Those who sustain injuries are a tiny minority.”

However, Zwane said: “We have prioritised the employment and ­training of midwives as a key intervention to address the situation.

“Last year 120 nurses were trained in midwifery and 79 were trained in advanced midwifery and neonatology.

The training of nurses on neonatal ­resuscitation was also carried out to improve the survival of babies and prevent injuries.

“And equipment such as cardiotocography and fetal monitors were ­also purchased.”

Zwane said 34 staff members in the province had been disciplined for negligence last year.

The department had introduced a system of clinical ­audits to ensure continual improvement in the quality of care.

“There is ongoing training in all ­facilities to improve attitudes and communication between staff and ­patients,” he said.

In the 2012/13 financial year, 188 doctors and 203 nurses were trained to manage obstetric emergencies, and nurses were trained to use early ­warning charts, he said.

Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital faces the highest number of birth-related lawsuits related to babies who sustained brain injuries at birth and later developed cerebral palsy.

The department defended the ­facility’s performance, saying: “It is ­important to note that Chris Hani Baragwanath is a referral hospital and therefore deals with complicated ­cases, so it is not alarming if they have more obstetric litigations than other hospitals.”

Early last year, the hospital brought in advanced midwives from the ­military medical corps to help.

And Zwane said they were doing something about it.

“The hospital has employed more midwives and improved the availability of equipment to address factors that lead to obstetric litigation,” he said.

City Press and Media 24 Investigation’s probe revealed a number of ­cases in which medical devices such as forceps and vacuums were used to tragic effect during deliveries.

Both ­instruments can increase the risk of brain injury if used incorrectly and many countries, including Britain, no longer use them in state hospitals.

Zwane said the department has stopped its doctors from using forceps, but they continue to use the vacuum method as they believe it to be safer.

“There are operational guidelines and standards that conform to ­well-researched international ­standards. Such methods are still ­successfully applied with a high rate of successful deliveries,” he said.

About the R1.9 billion in claims it faces, Zwane said: “While we ­acknowledge there are potential ­liabilities, some of the cases have been successfully concluded, settled and closed at lesser amounts.”

Malpractice as A weapon of Mass Destruction In The Health Field

Nelisiwe Mthuli, the mother of Fikani, who has cerebral palsy.
Nelisiwe Mthuli, the mother of Fikani, who has cerebral palsy. | Source

The damaged generation: ‘A sight that haunts me forever’

The following aricle was posted by Zinhle:

Botched births worsen plight of young mothers, writes Zinhle Mapumulo.

A trip to a clinic for her monthly antenatal checkup ended in hospital for Nelisiwe Mthuli.

When the mother of four arrived at the Dlephu Clinic in Tsakane, her vital signs were checked, as usual. Soon after her examination, a nurse handed her a referral letter for ­Pholosong Hospital.

The doctors at Pholosong read the letter and performed an ultrasound scan. Mthuli says she was then told that she was 10 months pregnant and would have to be admitted to give birth.

She spent a week in hospital waiting for her contractions to begin. When they didn’t start, her admitting doctor prescribed 10 pills, which were supposed to induce labour.

She endured excruciating pain before giving birth, and when her son finally emerged he wasn’t breathing and doctors resuscitated him.

“I thought he was dead, but then I heard him cough,” she said.

An oxygen mask was placed over the little boy’s nose before he was put in an incubator and wheeled to the ­neonatal unit.

Hours later, Mthuli saw her son for the first time. The sight will haunt her ­forever.

“There were tubes coming from his tiny nose and I had to feed him through them. It was terrifying.”

The next day, Mthuli was discharged, but was told she couldn’t take her baby home because he needed further medical care.

Two weeks later, when she fetched him, none of the staff told her what was wrong.

When Fikani was six months old, Mthuli realised he wasn’t like other children.

“He could not sit on his own. He also started ­having seizures and episodes of fits.”

She took him back to Pholosong, where she learnt that he had suffered brain damage because he was deprived of oxygen during birth.

He turned four this year. He still can’t walk, sit, talk or eat on his own.

Failing Limpopo Hospials in South Africa Today

A windowless and UNINHABITABLE Hospital at Empilisweni Hospital in Sterkspruit has broken windows.
A windowless and UNINHABITABLE Hospital at Empilisweni Hospital in Sterkspruit has broken windows.

Hospitals in Limpopo on the verge of collapse

We are informed by the City Press that:

Limpopo hospitals are teetering on the brink of disaster as they bear the brunt of the provincial health department’s financial collapse.

Official documents obtained by City Press this week show that the health department blew R400 million on irregular expenditure and it couldn’t show who was to receive some R2.8 billion which it had committed to paying for contracts.

The report reveals a litany of collapsed or non-existent controls involving millions of rands. It also exposes a flagrant disregard for financial management, public finance laws and legal obligations.

The report with its damning revelations was compiled by the Auditor-General last March, but City Press only managed to obtain a copy this week.

It is unclear what, if anything, was done over the last year to rectify the mess outlined in the audit report.

In the next two weeks, the accounting officers of various provincial departments, including health, face a grilling before the Limpopo legislature’s public accounts oversight committee as the search for answers continues.

This week at Lebowakgomo Hospital, 40km outside Polokwane, staff spoke of how they were so desperate for basic supplies that they had raided the institution’s emergency room, meant only to be used in case of dire emergency.

“We have no choice because we have to do our jobs. We even have to hide gloves from each other because they are fast running out,” said one doctor.

Another doctor spoke of the critical shortage of medicines for chronic illnesses such as hypertension and diabetes, as well as basic supplies like painkillers running out.

Media24 Investigations spoke to doctors who asked not to be named at hospitals in rural Limpopo as well as in Polokwane.

All had desperate tales to tell.

“I saw one patient transferred to Polokwane Hospital from a hospital in the rural areas who had not urinated for six hours because they don’t have catheters there,” said a Polokwane Hospital doctor. “You can imagine the agony that person went through.”

The doctors said they were also running out of life-saving equipment such as intercostal chest drains, used to drain blood in punctured lungs and broken ribs.

One doctor at Lebowakgomo Hospital said they were battling to perform major bone operations as the “C-arm” machine (used for imaging during surgical procedures) was not working and could not be serviced as all procurements and services are on hold.

Nehawu Limpopo chairperson Mike Shingange said conditions in hospitals were deteriorating because of poor procurement practices by the department.

“We wouldn’t be in this situation if there were proper controls and measures in place. This problem has been ongoing since 2009 because there was no regard for processes. Instead people gave tenders to politically connected individuals who were paid as they pleased,” said Shingange.

Limpopo Standing Committee on Public Accounts (Scopa) chairperson, Derrick Ngobeni, said accounting officers would be hauled before the committee on February 27 to account for the shocking state of affairs.

“We are extremely worried that the department has engaged in unauthorised, irregular, fruitless and wasteful expenditure as stated by the A-G. We are going to demand answers from the accounting officers and drastic action must be taken.

“There is the possibility that there is more to what the AG discovered,” said Ngobeni.

The provincial health department is one of five which have been placed under administration by Treasury after it ran up a budget deficit of some R2 billion.

The Limpopo health department did not respond to requests for comment.

When things go wrong, the official response is non-response-or ignore the reality facts. The treatment of patients is the violation of their Bill of rights and Patients Rights by the institutions and workers. This is the problem today: an inefficient, inept and maladministered governing, that in the end we, the poor end up being in the receiving end of a bad situation. the other thing is that, those having access to Social Media and have some 'edumaion' are far removed from these issues, and they sometimes feel and act like they are not concerned or affected by what is happening all around them,

Others ignore such posts and do not even care whether they are there or not. that is fine and dandy. but this does not make the problems listed in this apart of the article go away or disappear, and no more exist. They remain in place, and are gnawing and like a cancer, eating away of what's left of what we think we are, know, are doing, will want to be, and so forth. That is our downfall-Our inability to wrap our minds and heads around the very important issues that are and will continue to affect us because of our on-action and ignoring nor caring about what is being written about by ourselves and is happening in our milieu. I say what is right, and What I say is right-unless proved otherwise.

The health of our people is in a jeopardy and we need to write about it, talk about and bring it to the forefront of our contemporary talking points, and work on finding and implementing, plus applying the solutions decisively and with a solid finality.

A Dysfunctional Health System Under The ANC In South Africa..

Most of the hospitals – and the worst among them – were in the OR Tambo District, centre for one of the pilot programmes of the National Health Insurance [NHI]. Our investigation revealed a health system that is critically ill – findings supported by
Most of the hospitals – and the worst among them – were in the OR Tambo District, centre for one of the pilot programmes of the National Health Insurance [NHI]. Our investigation revealed a health system that is critically ill – findings supported by | Source
DISINTEGRATING: Nessie Knight Hospital is in a state of collapse.
DISINTEGRATING: Nessie Knight Hospital is in a state of collapse.

Post Apartheid Dysfunctional Health System

I think if I were to solicit official response to the plight of the woman above, it will be the same fluff response, admitting glibly that there was something wrong with the nurses and their delivery, but the institutions that have to see to it that everything runs smoothly, are wall woking well and correctly. A load of balderdash and double-speak!

Now, let's take a brief look at the malpractice charges allayed against the health corporations.The story of Nelisiwe, the mother of Fikani, struck by cerebral palsy because when he was born, he was not breathing, and had to be resuscitated by the doctors. Nelisiwe said that he thought he was dead-and when he was brought to her, he had tubes coming from his nose they were also used to feed him. The reader can view her video above. The infant was discharged two weeks later, and when she fetched him, the nursing staff did not talk to her or tell her anything. At the Pholoshong hospital that she learned that he had brain damaged because he was deprived of oxygen during birth.. Fikani is now four years old, and he still can't walk, sit, talk or eat on his own. I will sum up the responses of the Health Department below.

Then there's the story of Busiswa, her son is suffering from epilepsy, and he spent a month fighting for his life at the neonatal ward after birth. she was taken Dunnotar, and was later transferred to Pholoshong in a hired car. she says the baby was too big and a cesarean was needed, and when she made the nurse aware of this, she rudely given a 'tongue-lashing and the nurse questioned her question her when was it that she was now an expert on child birth.

Busiswa was then taken to the maternity ward after she was examined, which showed that she was not fully dilated. Massive contractions were rocking her body, and she felt the baby coming, that hours later a nurse wheeled her to the labor ward. Busiswa tells us that,[the nurse]“She told me to push and I did, but the baby didn’t come out. She eventually inserted her hands in my vagina and pulled the baby by the head.

“The baby came out, but he didn’t cry. I asked her if my child was alive and she said, ‘What do you think?’ before putting him in an incubator.”

The nurse left Mbengo with no explanation.(Zinhle). Another nurse came, and on reading her chart, told Busiswa that her child had a problem and summoned the doctor.

Although Busiswa was discharged from the maternity ward the next day, baby Sibusiso spent a month fighting for his life in the neonatal unit.

“Doctors told me the injury was caused by inadequate oxygen supply, either during labour or birth,” she said.

Sibusiso can’t sit, talk or walk, and suffers from epilepsy.

Busiswa was in and out of hospital with him. Her husband was earning poverty wages, but tried to keep the family together. Busiswa had another who died in her sleep in December.

I will sum-up the Health department's report below.

This is the story of Beauty Nkosi from Duduza and her son Nhlanhla. Her son was born inside a raptured amniotic sac. This is a sac that 's filled with protective fluid that holds the baby inside the uterus. The doctor who came and attended to her got furious because the nurse should have taken the baby out immediately.

On being birthed, Nhlanhla did not cry, and a ventilation bag and mask was put over his mouth, and he was placed in an incubator. When she was discharged, Beauty was not informed as to why her child needed medical attention.. Beauty, who had six other children, noticed that at six months, he could not sit on his own, and could neither lift his head. The doctors recommended physiotherapy and she was never told as to what caused this condition or what it was. Nhlanhla is now four years old, cannot talk, nor walk or either feed himself and still cannot sit down on his own."

My reciting the articles in brief above is to begin to talk about what is going on here. My whole Hub has been apartheid HealthCare System for Africans during Apartheid. My subtopic for the article is about the Mental Decline Of Africans Under The ANC. This is a serous statement and I will give a synergy as to what is my take below in this Hub.

One other heart-wrenching story is the one of Nomaphelo Finini of Alexandra, and her child's name is Elihle. Nomaphelo was rushed to hospital and the contractions were, were coming-on strong and states, and she cried for help. the nurses got annoyed with her, and they insulted her that they were not there when she decided to have a child:: "“A nurse examined me again and said the baby was not going to come out any time soon. So I must just keep quiet because I chose to be pregnant and let them do their jobs in peace,”

So, on being born, Elihle did not cryshe bore the pains scared of being reprimanded again, and since last when was admitted at 8pm the previous, she was only checked at 2pm the next day, and it was found that the baby had a slowed-down heart-rate. she was transferred to Charlotte Maxeke Academic Hospital where the doctor had to use forceps to help her deliver her baby who was also suffering foetal distress. Then she heard him cry after a few minute, very faintly. she was to learn later that he had also suffered several seizures. she was discharged and the baby left at the hospital for 'medical' care. He stayed two weeks in the hospital, and in six months he was diagnosed with sever cerebral palsy. could not hold his head up, unable to walk, sit walk or feed himself, his. She could not a keep babysitters because of his condition. His father died, maybe from a broken heart that his son was diable, so thinks Beauty.

Vuyiswa reports the following:

The neglect that confronted the Dispatch was, in some cases, severe and revealed the enormous task confronting Bhisho.

Among those findings we witnessed:

  • Acute shortages of medical staff;
  • Broken windows covered with plastic in patient wards;
  • Nurses infected with TB owing to poor disease control;
  • Grass growing inside wards;
  • Patients walking around in discoloured pyjamas with no buttons;
  • At least two hospitals without essential medication;
  • Long queues in out-patient departments where poor people slept on the floor to be attended to the following day; and
  • Toilets so filthy they were unusable;

Last year the health portfolio committee recommended the department be placed under administration.

But health officials rejected the recommendation, saying they could see “light at the end of the tunnel”.

Health MEC Sicelo Gqobana was upbeat in a recent interview with the Dispatch, listing his achievements since taking office in 2010.

Among them he claimed that all clinics would undergo renovations and that in a first for the department, no part of the infrastructure budget had been returned to National Treasury.

But Wednesday’s release of the health coalition’s report was enough for Health Minister Dr Aaron Motsoaledi to send five of his officials to the Eastern Cape to investigate.

The coalition comprises the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), Section 27, Democratic Nurses’ Organisation of South Africa (Denosa) and the Rural Doctor’s Association of SA.

Today, concerned healthcare workers will march to Gqobana’s offices to protest against working conditions and to emphasise the perilous state of health in the Eastern Cape.

Mark Heywood, executive director of Section 27, said in an interview earlier this year that the Eastern Cape was possibly the most dysfunctional, corrupt and disorganised healthcare service of any province in the country.

“We have been contacted by numerous doctors, nurses, patients and other types of healthcare workers basically coming to us pleading ‘Can you help us get drugs into our facilities; can you help us get the proper number of healthcare workers,’ etcetera,” said Heywood.

COPE spokesman on health, Nkosinathi Kuluta, chimed in: “We have witnessed the fast deterioration of health services in the far flung areas of the Eastern Cape since time immemorial and it worsened … it has reached now a crisis situation.”


Silence Is Not A Right...

The Contravention Of The Rights Of The Poor Enshrined in Bill Of rights of the Constitution.

First of All, I will like to look at the Bill Of right of South Africa what it has to say on the matters Health Rights for South Africans.

Health care, food, water and social security 271) Everyone has the right to have access to ­ a. health care services, including reproductive health care; b. sufficient food and water; and c. social security, including, if they are unable to support themselves and their defendants, appropriate social assistance. 2) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realization of each of these rights. 3) No one may be refused emergency medical treatment.

Children 281) Every child has the right ­ a. to a name and a nationality from birth; b. to family care or parental care, or to appropriate alternative care when removed from the family environment; c. to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services and social services; d. to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse or degradation; e. to be protected from exploitative labour practices; f. not to be required or permitted to perform work or provide services that i.are inappropriate for a person of that child's age; or ii.place at risk the child's well-being, education, physical or mental health or spiritual, moral or social development; g. not to be detained except as a measure of last resort, in which case, in addition to the rights a child enjoys under sections 12 and 35, the child may be detained only for the shortest appropriate period of time, and has the right to be i.kept separately from detained persons over the age of 18 years; and ii.treated in a manner, and kept in conditions, that take account of the child's age; h. to have a legal practitioner assigned to the child by the state, and at state expense, in civil proceedings affecting the child, if substantial injustice would otherwise result; and i. not to be used directly in armed conflict, and to be protected in times of armed conflict. 2) A child's best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child. 3) In this section "child" means a person under the age of 18 years.

Now, having read the articles by Zinhle Mapumulo and Jeanne van der Merwe, A lot of points come to the fore: Nothing has changed from what I wrote about Apartheid, but now, It is the African elected ANC government that has taken the whole Health system to the Dogs-worse than Apartheid.

The Bill of Rights, under Health Care, Food, Water And social Security, No. 27 1), clearly and unequivocally states that Everyone has the right to Access to :

a. Health care services, including reproductive health care.


This statement does not need one to be a Constitutional Scholar, lawyer or judge to understand what it says. As simple as it sounds, it is the not known nor respected or applied if one were to read the articles and the summaries I provided about the women their children. These infants were born not crying, not breathing, unable to lift their heads, and in the later months, all could not talk, walk, lift their heads or feed themselves.

The nurses negligence comes into sharp and focused attention in the way they comport themselves, their negative demeanor when speaking to patients, verbally abusing and talking down to, and berating their patients who end up not complaining for fear of this verbal intimidation, that in the end, from being also neglected, when the time of birth,the incompetence of the nurses looms large and the results are the catastrophic cases that have been discussed above.

The doctors complain and become angry at the ineptness and lack of professional and medical skill and knowledge of the nurses who still cannot help many women give birth properly, as competent, experienced and knowledgeable maternity staff, and health-care givers. There are no more nurses colleges being trained or built. The nursing education and training has been outsourced to private agencies and degree issuing universities like Unisa. so, some of this poorly trained nurses from the agencies, and the ones who get their nursing degrees in universities, lack the hands preparation, and they have no technical skill and experience to work in a very busy environ of a hospital setting.

We have here a situation where nepotism and "tribal" loyalties-plus the scurge of the tenders-which are a devastating diversion and side-show, and these are put before the patient care that is so sorely needed. One can take for instance the newly opened clinic in Jabulani, Soweto. Its construction was done by a number of people with government tenders, who did a sloppy and shoddy job of building this hospital, that when it was supposed to be opened this year, was delayed because the inspectors would not give it accreditation and license to be opened for the public service.

By that time, the opening was delayed, and the newly recruited nurses were redirected to the outer clinics and some hospitals to keep them working and busy because the hospital in Jabulani lacked proper equipment, the walls were deigned to dangerous and might collapse; the plumbing was done unprofessionally; needed hospital equipment was not there; Many nurses lacked experience in matters like patient care, unable to read and write the medical reports and read patient carhs. One can at least see from the articles above how the patients rights, and the bill of rights of the patients have been bridged and contravened with shameful arrogance and mien, shrouded in dismal ignorance of the role, rules and professional comportment service offerings that fail and kill so many children and their mothers, both physically and spiritually and financially.

The Nurses do not the Constitutional side of the bill of rights of children and women who give birth to them. They are also poorly prepared and not well trained to deal with the patients in a hospital. The authorities often cover-up their side and blame the nurses; the government has let corruption determine how hospitals like the one in Jabulani should be run, as i have already pointed to many of the discrepancies above, There are unhealthy smells, and leaking pipes, mould and other unhealthy issues that still need to be addressed. Some nurses are more concerned with flaunting their education rather than delivering professional, intelligent and matured help to the patients; there is a general dislike, disrespect and disdain for the poor; there is this culture of segregated underdevelopment, whereby, those who were fortunate to be 'edumacated' look-down upon their illiterate and poor brothers and sisters, mothers and fathers, grand parents and community. they, the self-styled elite, maintain this division and fiction just so teat they feel like they are powerful and more important for and to the people, than it is the other way round.

The critique above is what is setting us back and never advancing as a democratic nation. The nurses are ignorant of the Bill of Rights and Patients Rights; children are being killed because of the incompetence, lack of knowledge and poor trained nurses; there are not nurses college that are being built, and the ones like Baragwanath(Chris Hani Hospital) are not really producing many trained nurses; the health care officials administering over these failing hospital are always running for cover, defending their fiefdoms, and blaming the nurses for all the negligence and malpractice; the issues of nepotism, cronyism, favoritism, and so forth, are the determining factors that are what the staffing is all about; children are maimed, crippled, made cabbages from infancy, and the parents are ignored and not told what is happening to their children, and left with the disabled child who could have been saved and born well were it not for the way the nurses botched and exacerbated the situation with the birth giving of these children. the Bill of Rights and Patients rights are not important and these are dealt with in a cavalier and laisez faire attitude of vain and poorly trained nurses.

This is what we need to look at, all the points I have raised above, and this would be for another Hub. but for now, we are failing as a nation that is still emerging and merging from the Apartheid hangover, which is still affecting us today,with no let-up-and also, this is helped along and promulgated by the Ruling ANC, which has lorded over this failing Institution it inherited from the Apartheid regime. We need to read and know our bill Of rights in our Constitution, very well.

Because, as this section I have been dealing with, just to reiterate, states from the beginning that:

Every Child has a right to:

"To family care or parental care, or to appropriate alternative care when removed from the family environment; c. to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services and social services; d. to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse or degradation".

This has not been the case in contemporary South Africa. If the articles above are anything to go by, we need to overhaul the personnel that has been placed in these critical spots irresponsibly, and people with skills, knowledge and education should be place into these positions, by the majority of the people, and serve the need and basic material aspects of these collectivities we call the poor or South Africa.

The rights of the children talked about in the articles above have been violated and abused-if not totally ignored or the perpetrators are ignorant of, that we have this social cataclysmic miasma. We need to begin paying attention to issues affecting and refrain from paying lip-service to these deadly trends, and report honestly so on them, maybe the dialogue will eventually change and we will begin to see more enlightening and erudite narrative that are about us, written by, from an Africa-Centered perspective.

We have to marry the written constitution with the action we want to take concerning the people of south Africa. We have to know how to write and be ruthlessly truthful about our condition and suffering that it does not really matter what others will say or not say about what is being written by us for us(meaning The Poor of South Africa, and will not apologize to anyone for anything I say, knowing it will go into the viral soup, and stay there forever. That will be a good thing to do-flush and splurge the viral motto, trend and speed by infusing our own 'memes' and 'zines' into the Internet metadata and its datasphere.

We have to be clear when we are talking about those things that affect us in such devastating, that as we right, we must make sure that our people also see and discover themselves in our writing as about us and them, and that this in the process will trend toward be the main talking points that concern and affect us. We can also learn about why we are insane as we are today.

"If we look at the history of Imperialism, we see their psychology. As I have said on numerous occasions, the psychology of the rulers of this world,the psychology of European centered and orientated people is not the psychology in the books, but in the History books; and one merely needs then to read their history to get their psychology."

In order for us to come to terms with our present decrepit and existential condition, we shall have to study and know European history of Medicine in this particular and specific case: South Africa. In this way we may configure why we have so much craziness and insanity found in all sectors of South African life.

I have studied and written about this subject in the Hub above, from the point of view of critiquing and writing a history/story of Health under Apartheid, and now of late Health Under the ANC.. Therein, we are going to find answers to our present dilemma, contradictions, health short-comings and government dysfunction, and incompetence. so, that, our reading and being able to bring to the poor, and the 'supposedly' "edumacated African elites", that through a synthesis of both angles , maybe in the middle we might find some pertinent, relevant and people accessible and people-user-friendly. Maybe if the masses were to be educated by a cadre of independent and well-meaning core that will do this pedagogical undertaking for no renumeration, but that the people, in droves, will be introduced to many of the educational, because that will be the good we can do for our Nation-building effort and our poor and dejected.stressed/depressed/repressed. made-igornat, and attempted to be 'Dumbed-down masses...

The Time Wheel Keeps Revolving - Same Old, Same Old - Things Change More So That Everything Remains The Same Or Worse..

There is no Revolution when you are involved in voting. It is a fallacy many seem to overlook, intentionally, I suppose-or through ignorance and arrogance unsurpassed. So that, when you go and involve oneself or as a group and vote, this is different from abstaining to vote, and thus talk about carrying out all types of revolution, for the is not one typical one dimensional Revolution-is another matter and task. A Revolution is multi-dimensional and very deadly and dangerous. My point is then, if we are going to vote, we are going to have a serious heightened level of clearly and concretely knowing and reading the South African Constitution: more specifically, The Bill Of Rights.

So, if one votes, this should be done from having read at least, have read and have a firm grip and understanding of some parts of the Constitution. This is important, because embedded and also enshrined in this Bill Of Rights are our Rights, and they are not difficult to understand.

The importance of knowing the Bill of Rights by those for whom it was intended for,(Us, Africans and other ethnic groups), can be gleaned from the posted stories above. They all have one common element: professional health givers, along with the patients are ignorant and do not know their Rights as healthcare workers, patients and as Citizens for whom these Rights were intended for, (both Patients and Health worker as citizens of South Africa), and the patient's right when they are given or receiving Health Care; and the Rights of workers as workers in a labor Market and having Union representation, and patients as patients and citizens of Mzantsi-All are protected.

But because the people that are ushered into and selected to run/work in these institutions are underperforming in their duties are beholden to someone, and may have gotten those position because of Nepotism, cronyism, "tribalism',, favoritism and so on-continue to bungle and endanger the patients. so that, just because you know someone or someone knows you, makes one's chances of getting into a position that one is ill-fitted to execute and ends up under-performing, and never being close to being flawless and being professionally competent and deliver with successful result. this has had disastrous and deadly outcomes and effects/affects on the general public and population os the citizens of Mzantsi-which is bad news for the poor. We need to begin to read and learn/know, at least, our Bill Of Rights

This is what the Bill of Rights states In the Section:

CHILDREN

281) Every child has the right ­ a. to a name and a nationality from birth; b. to family care or parental care, or to appropriate alternative care when removed from the family environment; c. to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services and social services; d. to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse or degradation; e. to be protected from exploitative labour practices; f. not to be required or permitted to perform work or provide services that i.are inappropriate for a person of that child's age; or ii.place at risk the child's well-being, education, physical or mental health or spiritual, moral or social development; g. not to be detained except as a measure of last resort, in which case, in addition to the rights a child enjoys under sections 12 and 35, the child may be detained only for the shortest appropriate period of time, and has the right to be i.kept separately from detained persons over the age of 18 years; and ii.treated in a manner, and kept in conditions, that take account of the child's age; h. to have a legal practitioner assigned to the child by the state, and at state expense, in civil proceedings affecting the child, if substantial injustice would otherwise result; and i. not to be used directly in armed conflict, and to be protected in times of armed conflict. 2) A child's best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child. 3) In this section "child" means a person under the age of 18 years.

So we now know a child has a right to a name andnationality. That a child has a right to sub-setion b. above which states:

"To family care or parental care, or to appropriate alternative care when removed from the family environment; c. to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services and social services. whis followed by sub=sectionb. which further adds:

"To be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse or degradation."

Obviously these rights have been breached, flaunted, ignored, those inovled -the patients and nurses-were ignorant of these rights stated above. The nurses, too, did not even know nor understood the Patient's Right from the Health Department, and what the consequences would be if these were contravened. The Health Care institutional administrators are only interested in safe-guarding their fiefdoms, and they have extensively leased their governmental responsibilities and have instead outsourced this crucial responsibilities to private agencies and universities. So that, distancing themselves from the chaos on the Hospital theater(pun meant to be literal and figurative), using obfuscating statistics, has been their modus operandi in this health-related cataclysm ever since taking over from the Apartheid Nazis.

One can see from the surmised and full articles above that, f,parental, family care; as for protective care when removed from their family environment to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services and social services, well, these the mothers above did not indicated was made intelligible to them, in fact, they were hustled away by being discharged the following day and never told or have anything explained to them as to what happened to their children, themselves, and what steps to take.They were left to their own selves, save for their families who propped them up during this dangerous and very stressful and confusing time when they have just given irth. The informants above indicated this as being the case, and we live in an environment where they have now to come to the community and these are some of the recurring abuses, unprotected from maltreatment, having been neglected and degraded, humiliated.

And as we read the Bill of Rights Further, we see that, under a child being protected from being required to provide services that:

i. i.are inappropriate for a person of that child's age; or ii.place at risk the child's well-being, education, physical or mental health or spiritual, moral or social development...

A child's best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child.

3) In this section "child" means a person under the age of 18 years..

I have left out some few section in the interest and to keep the focus on the Children's/parent's Bill of Rights.

The child's 'well being, "physical or mental health or spiritual, moral or social development," is what is written in the Sub-section CHILDREN, in the Bill Of Rights. Which further adds that The Interests[well being] of the Child are "of paramount in 'every' matter concerning the Child. the further define that in this section I have been dissecting, "Child" means a person[human, in this case], under the age of 18 years.

And here in this piece we are talking about articles that are talking about the yet to be born, and when they are, have their rights, as explained above, totally, and completely rejected, ignored, unknown, flaunted, before and during when they are brought to earth, and those that do not become asphyxiated, survived to live a life of not being able to raise their heads, get up themselves from where they are sleeping or sitting; not able to talk' or 'walk; cannot feed or wash themselves.

This means then that the nurses, doctors and the administrators and the whole government structures that are related and inter-linked have been

Unprotecting towards the children and the mothers and families;

placed the well-being of the child at risk(with devastating effects);

They(The Health Crew Apparatus) compromised and were careless in ensuring the safety and mental health, spiritual,moral or social development; they were instead corrupt, insensitive, ignorant, callous, rude, unprofessional and put the life and health of the children in the articles above in deathlike existence- and in all this dysfunction, there are not actions of improvement one can talk of, and I have indicated about the "long-time-being-built-Jabulani-Hospital, which when it opened as new hospital, had even far more problems, and is presently barely functioning as a proxy to Baragwanath(Chris Hami) Hospital...

I just wanted to touch up on the Bill of Rights Tenets of the constitution of South Africa, that, if we are going to be talking about Revolution, whilst on the other side of the coin we are involved int he voting process,that whenever those who formed the opposition to the ANC lost, run back to the Facebook talking memes and announce an eminent and actually imagined Revolution.

And yet, the ANC will rule, and in 2018, will go back to power becasue they are good at cosmetic remmediateion of our perils and ills; akin to the institution of "Petty Apartheid" during that dreadful era, where prestense was made as if Apartheid was gone(from the many signs,and thatnow it is no mor there-same as the ANC is doing, applying a strategy that seemed to stop the removal of Apartheid by a substantive number or years since the Impementation of Petty Apartheid to the coming into power of the presntly ruling ANC government. They will convince their voting polity by pointing out to changes they have wrought in the [24 years] they have ruled, and now they are even much more better and have a handle on the South Africa situation and are the only party with solutions and bettering the poor. That is the by-line that's going to be used in 2018.

Those who will be pounding and haranguing for Revolution, will have spent all the next four years, advocating for Revolution on Tweeter, on Facebook, and so one, and when the tme comes for voting, they will hedge their bets with one spin-off party or new Party(a time wasting fad,if I my point), which has predictable results, the ANc in power, and ack to the social media for the losers to vent out.

Meanwhile, the health of the people will keep on worsening, and what some of us are beginning to observe and tabulate the level and depth of insanity, madness that has become endemic to and is enveloping a large section of our communities and all strata of the African people here in Mzantsi.

Is Religion Right And Are There Rights For Religion?

The Religious God Concept, And The South African Constitution

I would like to first of all post an article by Vinayak Bhardwa below and I will offer my own response to it:

To place ourselves “in humble submission to Almighty God” or not? This question faced the drafters of the preamble to South Africa’s Constitution during negotiations in the anteroom of its birth. Struggle hero and later Constitutional Court justice Albie Sachs recalls the incident in a memoir as yet another juncture of contentious debate during the negotiations process.

Those in favour of divine invocation argued that, without it, South Africa’s foundational document would lose force for the country’s religious majority. For those against, however, says Sachs, “the idea of opening the most worldly of all documents, the most people-centred, the most human-created, with an invocation of that kind would have been profoundly oppressive”.

The dilemma was resolved in part by Sachs himself. As a member of the Constitution-drafting committee, he proposed that the preamble contain the phrase Nkosi sikelel’iAfrika (God bless Africa) in all of South Africa’s 11 official languages. The proposal was adopted in full.

This was one of many principled compromises on which the Constitution was built. A transformative process that began with Pixley ka Seme’s Bill of Rights in the early 1900s through to the Women’s Charter, the “African claims” document and the Freedom Charter reached culmination in the Bill of Rights we have now.

The Constitution offers an empowering vision of social transformation that protects civil liberties, socioeconomic rights and ultimately even lays the basis for “third generation” rights such as access to a clean environment. As the product of broad public consultation and painstaking compromise, it is rightly among South Africa’s proudest – and hardest-won – achievements.

Discordant note
Against this backdrop, Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng’s recent remarks on morality at a conference on religion and law in Stellenbosch struck a discordant note.

Although his views may (deservedly) attract vehement criticism, the chief justice must be lauded for ignoring the advice of legal academics such as Professor George Devenish, who would rather he keep his strongly held religious views private – purportedly as a way of appearing unbiased and thus upholding confidence in the judiciary. Yet it is by publicising his views, including in a two-hour press conference this week specifically on his speech, and by provoking debate on his religion’s relation to the law that Mogoeng opens himself – and, by extension, the office of the chief justice – to criticism, debate and engagement, which can only strengthen confidence in the judiciary.

Indeed, there is much to criticise in Mogoeng’s remarks.

Despite acknowledging, with some feeling, the importance of religious tolerance and freedom of conscience, Mogoeng believes “we can only become a better people if religion could be allowed to influence the laws that govern our daily lives, starting with the Constitution of any country”.

He sees the malaise afflicting the country, from crime and corruption to price-fixing and fronting, as likely to be vanquished if laws circumscribing them are “infused with religion”. In a telling illustration of his judicial philosophy, Mogoeng approvingly quotes the late British judge Lord Denning: “Without religion there can be no morality; and without morality there can be no law.”

“Religion”, here, and for Mogoeng, means Christianity (though he claims that most religions have a common core). Mogoeng fails, however, to define narrowly a Christian conception of how we ought to conduct our public and private lives as the basis for making laws. He ignores the fundamental tenets of the Constitution, which envisage the state’s role as facilitating an individual to determine and pursue her own conception of the good life, rather than imposing one upon her.

In part, the speech echoes the powerful, 2 000-year-old influence of Christianity on the moral intuitions of Western society. These intuitions, of course, have been instrumental in many aspects of religious individuals’ public life, from charity programmes, including hospitals and schools, to poverty-alleviation efforts.

Central to this version of the good life – as in the ethically correct life – is the notion that moral teachings simply hang in the air if left unanchored by religious belief. Without God, there can be no good. Yet this idea has been repudiated often in a rich and extensive body of scholarship dating back as far as Plato’s dialogues.

Morality cannot be dependent on the will of a god. Though it may be prudent to follow the dictates of a powerful person, including God (indeed, fear of divine wrath is critical to the success of Mogoeng’s prescripts), it does not follow that such obedience is morally obligatory.

This would render morality arbitrary and entirely dependent on the whims of a god. If morality were solely dependent on the will of a god and that god willed brutal mass rapes to be moral, then brutal mass rapes, according to the Denning formulation through Mogoeng, would be moral. And that is repulsive.

It is notable therefore that, when pressed to answer whether religion was essential for morality, Mogoeng emphatically – though not substantively – answered in the negative. “There are many people in the world who are not religious but when examined from all sides you can say ‘this person is good’.”

Although he may develop this point further, on this evidence the chief justice clearly contradicts Lord Denning’s and his own philosophical thinking on the matter.

Imposition
Even if, as Mogoeng acknowledges, “[religion] cannot be imposed or legislated into the hearts and minds”, the result of “a legal framework that frowns upon adultery, fornication, separation and divorce” would result in precisely that – an imposition. In fact, this proposal is particularly troubling in a country where divorce or separation can provide, for many women, lasting refuge from perilously abusive marriages.

More broadly, Mogoeng’s public pronouncements suggest a disjunction between his religiously inspired judicial philosophy and the incipient jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court itself.

He characterises the doctrine of the separation of powers as one that requires “institutional parity in relation to allocation of resources” and suggests that “co-equal partners in governance … should [not] unduly intrude in the terrain of the other”.

Yet the purpose of the “people-oriented” Constitution, as described by another of its drafters, Kader Asmal, was to “check and balance” the legislative and executive branches of government, “not out of a lack of trust but in order to ensure that the principle of transformation is sustained and that the rights enshrined in the Constitution … are respected by all”.

Separation of powers does not mean that the judiciary should stay out of government’s way; it means, precisely, that it has the power to act as a constraint on any unconstitutional actions of government.

One of the Constitutional Court’s landmark judgments offers a profound rebuke to any proposal to infuse theology into South Africa’s legal framework. Writing for the court in Lesbian & Gay Equality Coalition vs the Minister for Home Affairs, Sachs’s majority judgment says: “It is one thing for the court to acknowledge the important role that religion plays in our public life. It is quite another to use religious doctrine as a source for interpreting the Constitution. It would be out of order to employ the religious sentiments of some as a guide to the constitutional rights of others. Between and within religions there are vastly different and at times highly disputed views …

“Judges would be placed in an intolerable situation if they were called upon to construe religious texts and take sides on issues which have caused deep schisms within religious bodies.”(Mail & Guardian -June 6th, 2014)

The are various and several answers that have been given to the article above, Anyone can find these in the M&G above. But I will offer mine according to what I understand from the article above.

Church And State Pole

Separation Of Church And State: The Question Is That Sould that Be so so Or Not

This is one of the fundamental building blogs of the American Constitution. Thee is nothing unique and South African about the so-called and touted as a people centered Constitution, is essentially a copied and transplanted version of the American Constitutional founders worked on because they have had a long history of historical zealots and Constitutional Court/scholars and scholars being at logger heads on issues of morality, God and whether Religion should have a Congressional Court and the like(as in the case of Boston).

These emerging States in America, in late 1700s, dealt with these issues as they manifested themselves in the day to day life and activities. They determined, as in North Carolina, that, Christians of denominations of the time could hold public offices, but atheist were not allowed to hold public office. The court upheld that these 'clauses constituted a religious test incompatible with First and Fourteenth Amendment protections."

If we look at this excerpt, we learn that:

Colonial Support For Separation

The Flushing Remonstrance shows support for separation of church and state as early as the mid-17th century. The document was signed December 27, 1657 by a group of English citizens in America who were affronted by persecution of Quakers and the religious policies of the Governor of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant.. Stuyvesant had formally banned all religions other than the Dutch Reformed Church from being practiced in the colony, in accordance with the laws of the Dutch Republic.

The signers indicated their "desire therefore in this case not to judge lest we be judged, neither to condemn least we be condemned, but rather let every man stand or fall to his own Master." [US State Department, 2003] Stuyvesant fined the petitioners and threw them in prison until they recanted. However, John Bowne allowed the Quakers to meet in his home. Bowne was arrested, jailed, and sent to the Netherlands for trial; the Dutch court exonerated Bowne.

New York Historical Society President and Columbia University Professor of History Kenneth T. Jackson describes the Flushing Remonstrance as "the first thing that we have in writing in the United States where a group of citizens attests on paper and over their signature the right of the people to follow their own conscience with regard to God - and the inability of government, or the illegality of government, to interfere with that."[CBS News, Dec 23, 2007]

Given the wide diversity of opinion on Christian theological matters in the newly independent American States, the Constitutional Convention believed a government sanctioned (established) religion would disrupt rather than bind the newly formed union together. George Washington wrote a letter in 1790 to the country's first Jewish congregation, the Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island to state:

"Allowing rights and immunities of citizenship. It is now no more that toleration is spoken of, as if it were by the indulgence of one class of people, that another enjoyed the exercise of their inherent natural rights. For happily the Government of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance requires only that they who live under its protection should demean themselves as good citizens, in giving it on all occasions their effectual support." [Library Of Congress]

There were also opponents to the support of any established church even at the state level. In 1773, Isaac Backus, a prominent Baptist minister in New England, observed that when "church and state are separate, the effects are happy, and they do not at all interfere with each other: but where they have been confounded together, no tongue nor pen can fully describe the mischiefs that have ensued." Thomas Jefferson's's influential Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was enacted in 1786, five years before the Bill Of Rights.

Most Anglican ministers, and many Anglicans, were Loyalists. The Anglican establishment, where it had existed, largely ceased to function during the American Revolution, though the new States did not formally abolish and replace it until some years after the Revolution.

I would like to add a bit more on this issue of "Separation Of Church And State as envisaged and enshrined into the Constitution by by the founders of America.

Jefferson, Madison, and the "Wall Of Separation"

The phrase "[A] hedge or wall of separation between the garden of the church and the wilderness of the world" was first used by Baptist theologian Roger Williams, the founder of the colony of Rhode Island, in his 1644 book The Bloody Tenet of Persecution.["Mr. Cotton's Letter Lately Printed, Examined and Answered," The Complete Writings of Roger Williams, Volume 1, page 108 (1644)] The phrase was later used by Thomas Jefferson as a description of the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government, in an 1802 letter[Noah Feldman (2005) to the Danbury Baptists (a religious minority concerned about the dominant position of the Congregationalist church in Connecticut):

Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his god, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their "legislature" should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between church and State. Adhering to this expression of the supreme will of the nation in behalf of the rights of conscience, I shall see with sincere satisfaction the progress of those sentiments which tend to restore to man all his natural rights, convinced he has no natural right in opposition to his social duties.

Jefferson's letter was in reply to a letter[Danbury Baptist Association's letter to Thomas Jefferson, October 7, 1801. that he had received from the Danbury Baptist Association dated October 7, 1801]. In an 1808 letter to Virginia Baptists, Jefferson would use the same theme:

We have solved, by fair experiment, the great and interesting question whether freedom of religion is compatible with order in government and obedience to the laws. And we have experienced the quiet as well as the comfort which results from leaving every one to profess freely and openly those principles of religion which are the inductions of his own reason and the serious convictions of his own inquiries.

Jefferson and James Madison's conceptions of separation have long been debated. Jefferson refused to issue Proclamations of Thanksgiving sent to him by Congress during his presidency, though he did issue a Thanksgiving and Prayer proclamation as Governor of Virginia.[Official Letters of the Governors of the State of Virginia (Virginia State Library, 1928), Vol. II, pp. 64–66, November 11, 1779]. Madison issued four religious proclamations while President,[James D. Richardson-1897] but vetoed two bills on the grounds they violated the first amendment.[James Mason's veto message] On the other hand, both Jefferson and Madison attended religious services at the Capitol.[Library of Congress, 1779] Years before the ratification of the Constitution, Madison contended "Because if Religion be exempt from the authority of the Society at large, still less can it be subject to that of the Legislative Body." [James Madison] After retiring from the presidency, Madison wrote of "total separation of the church from the state."[Letter to Robert Walsh, 1819] "Strongly guarded as is the separation between Religion & Govt in the Constitution of the United States," Madison wrote,[James Madison] and he declared, "practical distinction between Religion and Civil Government is essential to the purity of both, and as guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States." [1811 letter to Baptist Churches] In a letter to Edward Livingston, Madison further expanded, "We are teaching the world the great truth that Govts. do better without Kings & Nobles than with them. The merit will be doubled by the other lesson that Religion flourishes in greater purity, without than with the aid of Govt."[Madison's letter to Livingston, 1822) Madison's original draft of the Bill Of Rights had included provisions binding the States, as well as the Federal Government, from an establishment of religion, but the House did not pass them.

Jefferson's opponents said his position was the destruction and the governmental rejection of Christianity, but this was a caricature.[see Morison and Commager In setting up the University Of Virginia, Jefferson encouraged all the separate sects to have preachers of their own, though there was a constitutional ban on the State supporting a Professorship of Divinity, arising from his own Freedom Some have argued that this arrangement was "fully compatible with Jefferson's views on the separation of church and state;"Dumas Malone] however, others point to Jefferson's support for a scheme in which students at the University would attend religious worship each morning as evidence that his views were not consistent with strict separation.[Ashley M. Bell, 2001] Still other scholars, such as Mark David Hall, attempt to sidestep the whole issue by arguing that American jurisprudence focuses too narrowly on this one Jeffersonian letter while failing to account for other relevant history[Mark David Hall - Oregon Law Review 85],

Jefferson's letter entered American jurisprudence in the 1878 Mormon polygamy case Reynolds v. U.S. in which the court cited Jefferson and Madison, seeking a legal definition for the word religion. Writing for the majority, Justice Stephen Johnson Field cited Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists to state that "Congress was deprived of all legislative power over mere opinion, but was left free to reach actions which were in violation of social duties or subversive of good order.(Reynolds v. U.S. 148 (1878) Considering this, the court ruled that outlawing polygamy was constitutional.

Religious Maxim...

In The Eye Of The Religious and Legal Political Storm

During their run to the elections, the ANC was using religious admonishing, exploring and exploiting the various religious ministers and church going people, the majority poor, but offering them all sorts of handouts, wand used what they did for the world Cup as part of their improvement project; Mandela was used effectively to garner the vote, and may other means and ways, tricks and bending of rules , and so on.

So that,if the Constitution offer empowering social transformation that protects civil liberties, socioeconomic rights and access to clean environment, and it is said that the public was consulted and compromises made to achieve what is considered a model of a Constitution, but this does not jive with he material and other necessary conditions of the poor on the ground.

This is more insidious when judges retort religious uttering, whilst trying to, in an unbiased way, apply the Constitution in exclusion of, but inclusion of religious beliefs. Mogoereng believes that religion should influence the laws the laws that govern us daily in our lives. , he quotes the late British Judge Denning: "“Without religion there can be no morality; and without morality there can be no law.” Well, this brings us up to something different.

I have cited a bit of the American history of the writing of the Constitutions and the problems they faced, and above in the article, I have spoken about the role that was played, by the Dutch Reformed Church Apartheid, and this church was working for the same ideas and ideals that Mogoereng is toying around with, and the Americans finally settled for the Separation of Church and State. The Boers an the Dutch reformed Church push for religionizing the government, but, according to the article fails to say how we ought to conduct public and private lives as the basis of remaking laws

Mogoereng's critics charge that he "ignores the fundamental tenets of the Constitution, which envisage the state’s role as facilitating an individual to determine and pursue her own conception of the good life, rather than imposing one upon her." So that, others note that these assertions by Mogoereng of a religious nature and tone, and wanting to marry the Religion and the State laws are false when stating that:

"Without God, there can be no good. Yet this idea has been repudiated often in a rich and extensive body of scholarship dating back as far as Plato’s dialogues.

"Morality cannot be dependent on the will of a god. Though it may be prudent to follow the dictates of a powerful person, including God (indeed, fear of divine wrath is critical to the success of Mogoeng’s prescripts), it does not follow that such obedience is morally obligatory.

"This would render morality arbitrary and entirely dependent on the whims of a god. If morality were solely dependent on the will of a god and that god willed brutal mass rapes to be moral, then brutal mass rapes, according to the Denning formulation through Mogoeng, would be moral. And that is repulsive."

Too many issues are being raised in the quote above, and in the broader scheme of things, the laws have had a chance to try and fashion this morality, dependency on god and fear of the divine wrath apparent in the views of the judge, which really takes me back to Bikos' views on what this religious-falsehood has meant for Africans, and if Mogoereng has not read what Biko was talking about, I suspect it is something either he does not know about his history, or that he is trying hard to be like his British Judge counterparts. This is the dilemma here too.

I think, at this point, whatever has been cobbled-up by the South African Constitutional scholars, and in it, the British Law has been adopted, and even the Parliamentary system(Short of white Wigs and Black gowns to cap it all), that, to be dabbling with trying to imposed religion on the laws of the country is pining for an very explosive and devastating conflict.

Medical Malpractice Gone Awry...

The neglect that confronted the Dispatch was, in some cases, severe and revealed the enormous task confronting Bhisho.

Among those findings we witnessed:

Acute shortages of medical staff;
Broken windows covered with plastic in patient wards;
Nurses infected with TB owing to poor disease control;
Grass growing inside wards;
Patients walking around in discoloured pyjamas with no buttons;
At least two hospitals without essential medication;
Long queues in out-patient departments where poor people slept on the floor to be attended to the following day; and
Toilets so filthy they were unusable;
Last year the health portfolio committee recommended the department be placed under administration.

130912investigation4sm
UNINHABITABLE: Empilisweni Hospital in Sterkspruit has broken windows.
But health officials rejected the recommendation, saying they could see “light at the end of the tunnel”.

Health MEC Sicelo Gqobana was upbeat in a recent interview with the Dispatch, listing his achievements since taking office in 2010.

Among them he claimed that all clinics would undergo renovations and that in a first for the department, no part of the infrastructure budget had been returned to National Treasury.

But Wednesday’s release of the health coalition’s report was enough for Health Minister Dr Aaron Motsoaledi to send five of his officials to the Eastern Cape to investigate.

The coalition comprises the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), Section 27, Democratic Nurses’ Organisation of South Africa (Denosa) and the Rural Doctor’s Association of SA.

130912investigation7sm
GRAZING AREA: Livestock roam around Tafalofefe Hospital in Centane.
Today, concerned healthcare workers will march to Gqobana’s offices to protest against working conditions and to emphasise the perilous state of health in the Eastern Cape.

Mark Heywood, executive director of Section 27, said in an interview earlier this year that the Eastern Cape was possibly the most dysfunctional, corrupt and disorganised healthcare service of any province in the country.

“We have been contacted by numerous doctors, nurses, patients and other types of healthcare workers basically coming to us pleading ‘Can you help us get drugs into our facilities; can you help us get the proper number of healthcare workers,’ etcetera,” said Heywood.

COPE spokesman on health, Nkosinathi Kuluta, chimed in: “We have witnessed the fast deterioration of health services in the far flung areas of the Eastern Cape since time immemorial and it worsened … it has reached now a crisis situation.”

Daunting Heatlh Statistics In Mzantsi(South Africa)

Charles Hongoro, Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa..

1. Managing Social transitions forHealth: The Experience from SouthAfricaCharles Hongoro8thGlobal Symposium on Health Promotion12thJune 2013Social science that makes a difference
2. Social science that makes a differenceOutline• Global social transitions with healthimpacts• Resulting Demographic &epidemiological transitions• Transformation of the South Africanhealth system towards UHC
3. Social science that makes a differenceSocial Change ?• Mr Mohammed Iqdal Chaudhry defines is asthe reorganisation of society in terms of timeand space• Horton and Hunt defined is as change inoverall societal structure and relationships ofa society. Social change is the alternation ormodification that takes place in a socialstructure or function of a society. It is thechange in both material and non-materialculture• Social change effects on health?
4. Social science that makes a differenceGlobal social transitions with healthimpacts• Industrialisation/development/growth oftechnology -• Globalisation/global Capitalism -• Global recession -• Urbanisation -• Migration -• War/conflict -• Environment/global warming -
5. Social science that makes a differenceResulting Demographic and epidemiological transitions• North:– Declining populations– Aging populations:• Increase in NCDs• Impact on economy & less resources for health– Increasing refugee/immigrant populations(migration)• Poor health outcomes among refugee/immigrantpopulations (often living in poverty, credentials from homecountry not approved, food insecurity, stress, etc.)– Decline in funding for health (global recession)• Decline in funding for health research, slows pace oftechnology development, etc.
6. Social science that makes a differenceResulting Demographic & epidemiological transitions• South:– Increasing life expectancies (addressing burden ofcommunicable disease, increase in health technologies)• Increase in NCDs• Double burden of communicable & NCDs (e.g. more people livingwith HIV/AIDS)– Increasing populations in urban areas (urbanisation)• Poor health outcomes in urban slums– Decline in funding for public health (global recession)• Shrinking global resources for health– Poverty and poor conditions for workers (global capitalism)• Poverty, poor health outcomes
7. Social science that makes a differenceThe Experience of South Africa• 1994, political freedom but massive social and economicinequalities• Growth in public investments in health, education, housingwater and other economic sectors such as mining, etc.• Significant economic growth but limited employmenteffects and equitable benefits• The budget for health is 8.6% of GDP by 2011/12 (almostsplit 50:50 public versus private)• BUT–health outcomes not commensurate with spend• Mixed health system itself a major determinant of healthoutcomes• Health Promotion, disease prevention/control key toaddressing the high disease burden - multi-sectoralinteraction a must -HiAP
8. Social science that makes a difference
9. Social science that makes a differenceFinancing mechanisms in countries with universal healthsystems compared with South Africa and the USA (2009)Source: McIntyre (2012) using data from WHO National Health Accounts

AustraliaAustriaBelgiumCanadaDenmarkFinlandFranceGermanyIrelandItalyJapanNetherlandsNewZealandNorwayPortugalSpainSwedenSwitzerlandUnitedKingdomCostaRicaCubaThailandSouthAfricaUSAPercentoftotalhealthcare expenditureMandatory pre-payment Voluntary pre-payment Out-of-pocket
10. Social science that makes a differenceGovernment Ministries and Inter-sectoral SolutionsHealth in All PoliciesAgriculture,Forestry& FisheriesEducationDefense &MilitaryVeteransHealthEnvironmentalAffairsTrade &IndustryTransport Sport &RecreationHealth PromotionFinance
11. Social science that makes a differenceTransformation of the South African Health System• The high burden of disease and health careneeds require changes (inter alia) to the healthsystem to ensure:• Improvements in health status• Integration of public & private sectors (2 tiersystem)• Cost containment and improving efficiency inresource use across sectors• Improving sustainability of financing healthservices
12. Social science that makes a differenceTransformation of the South African Health System• In 2011, Green Paper on NHI– health systemreforms published for public comment• Public comments received and documentrevised into a white paper (Technical TaskTeam)• Draft White paper being finalised by NDoH• Two key elements:• Improving service delivery & quality of healthservices especially in the public sector• Improving health system financing in terms offairness and financial risk protection• NB: 11 pilot districts started in 2012
13. Social science that makes a differenceOverarching Principles• Constitutional Right to access health care –– Section 27 of the 1996 Constitutional Bill of Rights states that“everyone has the right to access health care services, includingreproductive health care, and that the State must takereasonable legislative and other measures, within its availableresources, to achieve the progressive realisation of these rights.”• Social Solidarity-– All regardless of their socio-economic status will benefit fromNational Health Insurance, which is based on income cross-subsidies between the affluent and the impoverished, and riskcross-subsidies between the healthy and the sick. Such cross-subsidisation will also ensure that the cost burden of ill health isequitably distributed across the life-cycle.
14. Social science that makes a differenceGoals of UHC• To ensure that the entire population isentitled to benefit from needed, qualityhealth care;• To extend over time the range of services towhich the population is entitled; and• To reduce the extent to which the populationhas to make direct, out-of-pocket paymentsfor health services.
15. Social science that makes a differencePopulation coverage & Service Benefits• Who is covered? All South Africansand legal permanent residents.• What is covered? Comprehensive listof services with emphasis on healthpromotion, disease prevention andcontrol activities• Who will provide services? Bothpublic and private providers
16. Social science that makes a differenceServices Delivery Platforms• Emphasis on PHC to ensure access, andaffordability and sustainability of the systemthrough disease prevention and healthpromotion activities at that level.• Three PHC teams established:– 1) Ward based PHC teams– 2) Integrated School Health programme– 3) District Clinical Specialist Support Teams
17. Social science that makes a differenceWard Based PHC teams• To be deployed in each municipal ward, supported by anurse and linked to a PHC facility such as a clinic.• Each PHC agent will be allocated households to visit on aregular basis.• Purpose is to provide health promotion education, identifythose in need of preventive (e.g. immunisations), curativeor rehabilitative services, and refer those in need ofservices to the relevant PHC facility.• Also facilitate community involvement and participation inidentifying health problems and behaviours that placeindividuals at risk of disease or injury and implementappropriate interventions to address these problems at acommunity level.
18. Social science that makes a differenceIntegrated School Health Programme• ISHP to improve the physical and mental healthand general well-being of school age children.• It provides a range of promotive, preventive andcurative services and will include a focus onchild abuse, oral health services, visionscreening services, eradication of parasites,nutritional services, substance abuse, sexual andreproductive health rights including familyplanning services, and HIV and AIDS relatedprogrammes.• Initial phase- quintile 1 and quintile 2 schools (i.e.the poorest 40%) will be prioritised.
19. Social science that makes a differenceDistrict Clinical Specialist Support Teams• Each team includes seven specialists namely:obstetrician and gynaecologist; paediatrician;anaesthetist; family physician; advanced midwive;advanced paediatric nurse; and PHC professional nurse.• The teams will undertake the following four functions:– Develop guidelines and protocols to provide qualitycare for maternal, neonatal and child health services;– Identify training gaps and conduct training to fill thesegaps;– Solicit clinical from specialists in the private sectorwhenever necessary; and– Conduct mortality assessments and regularly reportoutcomes within specified periods.
20. Social science that makes a differenceInstitutional Arrangement for NHI• Largely tax funded plus other taxes (Treasury)• National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF)– singlefund and single payer• To actively purchase services from both publicand private providers• District Health Authorities – to be establishedto coordinate and manage district healthservices• Mixed payment mechanisms
21. Social science that makes a differenceKey Messages• Managing health effects of social transition only possiblethrough multi-sectoral action• Health in All Policies – applauded but sectoral interestsremain – require a new leadership – SA New DevelopmentPlan – provides a real opportunity for HiAP• Societies are constantly in transition and therefore needfor adaptive policies and systems approach to planning &implementation• Lessons can be drawn from the experience ofmainstreaming HIV/AIDS in all sectors• Achieving sustainable UHC only possible in the context ofsustained disease prevention and health promotionactivities• The Health Sector must also put its house in order byimproving health systems capacity and resilience!
22. Social science that makes a difference• I THANK YOU

Drugs In The Land Of Mthaniya...

Drugs And Alcohol Adding To The Unhealth And Serious Mental Diseases Amongst the Majority Of Africans.

Drugged Up Mzantsi...

PREFACE
We are soon headed for the Commemoration of June 16th 1976, Revolution, and the outcomes, the end results of what we have acquired thus far, are a sad testament on our part that we are in this position. With the advent of the Web, information has no longer been arrested and coloniazed as before, and many of our people here inside the country have gone overseas to further their Education, and in the end, we are left holding or living the life I am about to discuss below.

We are at the crossroads of our demise, and we are willing participants in all of it. We are protecting our socially acquired postions and power(earning power), that we have become complacent and seriously passive, at worst, when it comes to dealing with our here and now problems. What we have to show for efforts of the Day we are now commenting, is what this article is all about. Wilson in the Video below Makes the whole article much clearer.
Drugs, Gun And Death In The African South African Communities: Ugh! Azania...
Not All Of Us See politics in the same way... But we all Undergo The same

Experiences...According to Jose Marti:

"We must state categorically that there is no salvation for our people unless we turn our backs on all the models that charlatans of all types have tried to sell us for twenty years. There is no salvation outside of this rejection. There is no development separate from a rupture of this kind. All those new intellectual giants who are emerging from their slumber — awakened by the dizzying rise of billions of men in rags, aghast at the threat of this hunger-driven multitude weighing on their digestion — are beginning to rework their speeches/[writings].

"Far it being for me to ridicule the patient efforts of honest intellectuals who, because they have eyes to see, are discovering the terrible consequences of the devastation imposed on us by so-called specialists in the development of the Third World. My fear is to see the fruits of so much energy co-opted by Prosperos of all kinds who — with a wave of their magic wand — spirit us to world of slavery dressed up in today's "fashions.

"My fear is justified even more by the fact that the educated petty bourgeoisie of Africa - if not the entire world — is not prepared to give up its privileges, either because of intellectual laziness or simply because it has tasted the Western way of life. Because of these petty bourgeois forget that all genuine political struggle requires rigorous, theoretical debate, and they refuse to rise to the intellectual effort of conceiving new concepts equal to the murderous struggle that lies ahead of us. Passive and pathetic consumers, they wallow in terminology Fetishized by The West, Just As They Wallow In Western Whiskey And Champagne In Shady-Looking Lounges.

"Ever since the concepts of negritude and African Personality, now showing their age, the search for ideas that are genuinely new produced by the brains of our "great" intellectuals is in vain. Our vocabulary and our ideas come from elsewhere. Our professors, engineers, and economists are content to simply add color — from often the only things they brought back with them from European/American universities that have produced them are their degrees and their velvety adjectives and superlatives!(Sankara is confirming what Andre Gunder Frank was saying above).

Sankara:

"It is both necessary and urgent that our trained personnel and those who work with the pen learn that there is no such thing as neutral writing. In these stormy times we cannot give today's and yesterday's enemies monopoly over "thought," "imagination," and "creativity."

"Before it too late — and it is already late — this elite, these men of Africa and of the Third World, must come home to themselves, that is, to their societies and to the miseries we inherited. They must understand that the battle for ideology that serves the needs of the disinherited masses is not in vain. but they must understand, too, that they can only become credible on an international level by being genuinely creative — by "Portraying A Faithful Image Of Their People, An Image Conducive To Carrying Out Fundamental Change In Political And social Conditions And To Wrenching Our Countries From Foreign Domination And Exploitation, Which Leave Us No Other Perspective Than bankruptcy."

The citation above is an introduction to the piece I am posting below. The Drugs are decimating our people and everything, worse than Aids, with the same powerful destructive effect/affect, and devastating impact on us: especially in the community I am about to talk about.
Before I do, I want to preface my comments, again, on the article above by saying: we might try very hard to play the game of the Ostrich burying its head in the sand, but, we are even more exposed by doing that, and cannot even see and deal with the dangers facing us, today.

In the Township of Orlando, the oldest one of all the various Soweto Townships that expand from it; drugs are wreaking havoc, and piercing at the core of the community more than many here on all the Social Media are willing to accede or acknowledge. I have written extensively here on Facebook about the drug pandemic that has assailed us, and promised will come back with new information and update about the Nyaope that is wiping us out. Seriously. I will post the earlier post on Maponya again, at the end of this piece.

I have posted the fact that the ANC government has acknowledged that ''drug abuse'' poses an even bigger threat to its young people'(the children and youth of Mzantsi), than the HIV/AIDS pandemic. I think both are huge, and are really furiously gnawing away at our people and us. Many diss and deride these users, but many of us today, who have to live with and amongst our African people in Orlando and witnessing first hand what is going down-We feel/see it; what is happening to us on a much grander and macabre state that many really nor care to know-it is what is our reality…

When I write such articles, the supposed-elite-African-intelligentsia and other such opportunists, keep quite, and do not even do anything. Some pick up ideas and apply themselves and their newly found ideas in trying to do something for the people. Be as it may, this present article is present a report, news that is not reported, and stories from the Township of Orlando, that are swirling throughout the denizens of Orlando, but are tangentially known by the rest of our edumacated elite-and they are national in scope.

Orlando is but just a window into the whole cesspool and morass that is our decrepit existence, That is why I will not stop writing about these sad chapters in our lives, but, am writing them for posterity, and to preserve them as historical record for our children and people/Nation.
There are two things I would like to take a look at, and lastly try and interrogate the whole social miasma as it is shaped, to date.

We have a rat-rodent problem which is being exacerbated by the corrugated iron shacks patched/made of boards, plastics and anything to build a dwelling for our people. Orlando is very well-known to have legions of this structures in their yards, and these have created this formidable rat invasion and other creatures, which causes that the people say things about their presence bordering on conspiracy theories. Nonetheless, it is a fact that these rats and rodents are biting the people's doors; also, they are biting the children sleeping and creating a host of other ailments we have not even begun to deal with.

The most recent posts I have dropped on all sorts of Social Media, are geared towards us beginning to write about our real realities and maybe many of us will begin to learn and see something that we had not even thought about, before. Creating a literature from the grassroots reporting as I am about to do, is one way to go, of the many that can used. I am going to make sure that this disaster that the people of Orlando are facing, as I am onto this article, is exposed and written about as clearly, and as much in a raw way as I can conjure and write it down.

I have waxed political and theoretical enough on the most recent two pieces I have posted here on Facebook and elsewhere. Now, I want to delve into the environment I live and exist in and to make an attempt to caricature its reality and effects/affects on us. What is happening as I am onto this article in our Township is unconscionable. There is no moral justification as to what is happening to our youth, and the adult(children, baby population). This is a very serious thing happening to us here, and I think I will talk about it now.

Here in Orlando we are facing a deadly and serious drug epidemic. Drugs are so rife, that we have several drug potentates planted throughout the whole Township and in many contemporary youth social events. Pretext of an event is a carte blanche operation for the drug dealers and distributors. Drugs have a unique and not so sophisticated way the travel and are disseminated in our community here in the Kasi(Township). It would at one time help us to deal with this problem better if this were to followed up and exposed.

In Orlando, we customarily call areas within Our Township of Orlando, by the first numbers of their street, in one part of Orlando, and others have their names for a general group of areas, but being Orlando too. So, in the areas of the street known as '20, we have chaos that is replicated throughout Soweto and the whole hinterland of South Africa with similar ghettoes and decrepit life-style existences. These are the throw-back and creation of Apartheid, and from these enclaves, we find similar scenes and realities that I am describing below in Orlando.

This is news that is not news in the traditionally White owned media and nor in the dialogue going on inside the country. What it is I am saying this is not important for no reporters ever take time to sit down and look at, participate in and try their darnest to bring this situation into light. We as the grown up residents and former students who were involved in the 1970 Student Revolution, are looking at our and within our own Townships, and what we are seeing is some kind of carnage: Drugs destroying and decimating our famous, friends, society and the African race. This is what is happening now as I am onto this article.

One of the general terms given to this devastating drug, it is called "Nyaope," a generic name for a killer drug that has left our youth being spooks and walking skeletons right in front of us. What a mess we are in as a people today in Orlando.. So sad to see… Heartbreaking and discouraging. What we have to live with everyday is spiritually.- soulfully taxing and seriously soul and spirit bruising. I think one has to see it to grasp my meaning. I am going to try and get some pictures, very soon. Optics do serve a relevant tool and technique in what we have to try and contain and at the moment, are at loss what we can or should do.

Nyaope Hell Holes And Meat Grinders

As I had said above, in the area of the Streets known as 20(this includes street No. 19) in Orlando, there is this wheelchair drug dealer thug called Nkesi. He runs a drug-dealing den in plain sight with tight security to go. His hirelings are destitute and jobless and lacking in education or dropouts, both girls and boys, who, even go to his hovel(home if one may say so) which is a terrible and a hell for drug-addicted girl teenagers, who would do anything for a fix.

That is where we get to see many victims come out/thrown from or these hell holes with HIV/AIDS, and other STDs that are still dismally afflicting and affecting our people, children, youth and elderly-either dead or sickly.

When you see these youth and grown ups pining and crazily craving the drug, they steal water taps, fenced gates, copper wires from the electric poles and houses-ones heart and soul/spirit sinks to its lowest ebb. They have a favorite on their menu, which is these new Plasma TV Screen. It is said if they do not sell them, they imbibe the white powder they find therein, which is fatally destructive, but it is their high pick on the menu of drugs. They also sell them to earn money to go back and buy the Nyaope.

Known as 'Grootie'(Big Brother) or Ketsi, on his wheelchair is loathed by many of the this youth, and those brave enough, tell all about him. They talk of his crude and cruel ways of their treatment by him and many others of his foot-soldiers who run the errands of buying drugs from HIV/Aids patients-they are also enforcers. Some of these people afflicted with the HIV/AIDS disease, collect their rations of the ARV's from different hospitals and outlets, using various means, by moving from one place to the other-collecting the pills.

So that, In the end, they sell these pills to the dug-lords foot-soldiers, who in turn sell them to the distributors and providers of this Nyaope for a fee. This is the cycle, of how this whole operation gets done.

Many people are affected in various dire and unknown ways by these burgeoning drugs. There are crews that operate in our midst in the trade of dealing or distributing drugs and raking in millions of Rands in their operations. The houses that they use for such illicit and illegal operations, are houses that the family in that house might have disappeared/wiped out, or is complicit in the trade, and there is no order, and some like Ketsi, have security tight operations that everyone knows, and have installed within their dens, the State Of The Art Cameras driven by some new and sophisticated technology. So that, as these mini-factories churn out corpses and walking spooks/zombies, we have to live with the scourge-and all the time feeling downright helpless.

The police are on the top of the pecking totem pole and order The bribes they get makes them look askance, and their drug-lords/partners in crime and genocide, are never arrested, but if they do, sit in front with the cop driving, and are out in a matter of hours. Bodies of young girls are found strewn in the street corners or the middle of the road, having been ravaged and no one investigates, and yet the locals know who did it-but the locals state that they are bodies thrown out of these caverns.

They dare not talk, for even the innocent ones have been killed for no other reason than that they were innocent and were never involved in anything of the kind of operations/drug-dealing or drug use, I have briefly discussed above.

If one were to see these kids and elderly, they have this menacing/angry look, and the people say they are even more wild and daring/bold when they have not smoked their stuff/Nyaope. So that, this leads them to carrying out dastardly deeds, murder and what it takes just to get a fix. They are jaded, ashen and very 'blackened' and gaunt-looking-Ghost-like, and never ever wash.
The local lore has it that they no more beat them, once they catch them stealing, they simply pour water over them, and they end up howling like wild creatures with all the water coming down on them.

Some say that this water acts like acid on them. There is some kernel of truth in that, but as to the validity of the claim, the jury is still out on that one.
The behavior of these strung-up youth is appalling and galling. It is also sad to see a wasted life moving like an ogre or zombie out of whack and stone to the max. This something to behold and it is devastating and crushing on some of our souls, mind and bodies. Our kids talk like they are having speech deformities, and they are bent and very wild-eyed-looking and are always on the prowl in search of another theft or robberies-to get another fix/high.

Hooded thugs prowl the hood and rape and abduct and rob women as they are headed off to work in the wee hours of the mornings. So many rapes, so many muggings-men are also mugged, and most times shot; assaults, murders and all kids of undeclared war on the our polity is causing a costly blow we will take many centuries to recover from, that I come here onto the Facebook collective and ask that something be done before it's too late, of which it is beginning to look like it is very late.

As a temporary tangent, we have drug dealing in the coughing medicines sold in the Pharmacies or Chemist that are laced with cocaine, and now they are selling all over the place for around R15.00-are the hot item that is proliferating in our midst. The name of that guy is Adcock Ingram, and the cough syrup is manufactured by the famous 'Broncleer' according to the presenter, and whose name, the journalist or hostess of the show is Nkepile Mabuse and the name of the show is "Check Point" on e-TV it was aired on 02. 06. 15 at 10:00 pm-and that is where I got this bit of information from.

People are now addicted to this concoction, and it is marketed by a person, whose company name appears of the cough drops for infants, and only our Ancestors know what they are putting in this old cures for babies. This is another issue I will be talking a bit about whenever I complete my researches.

In the manufactories spotting and dotting the landscape, some of these youth are telling of how they have to wear latex gloves when making this Nyaope or some obscure drug mix-because it is hot and burns the skin; they even volunteer information as to the fact that they make it inside some tires, for they do not destruct just as quickly and for whatever reason.

There's a whole of deadly mixes of rat poison, Dagga, some disinfectant, ARV's Mandrax tablets and other natural salts/chemicals and an assortment of everything to produce this drug or drugs of the same ilk.

As I am onto this piece, one of my friends just walked in complaining about the lack of electricity for the pas so many hours. He says that rumors has it that a copper cable has been stolen, just as I am writing about this issue here on this piece. We are under an attack and deluge of thefts perpetrated by these Nyaope users, and that is why some houses and sections of Orlando do not have electricity now-this was not due to power-load sharing.

People even steal water, that is in those locations that have these water meters. People are not working, and cannot afford pre-paid electricity, and metered water, which have been outsourced to foreign corporation/countries, and they are fleecing us so badly and leave us always in the cold and literally dry.

Both youthful but shredded and emaciated looks of youth, girls and boys are dropping out of schools in droves and headed into these drug dens, they are emaciated, blackened, dry-deadened physiques, drooling and zombie-like spook-looking walking dead.The poor once youthful great looking girls are smoking anything, have HIV/AIDS, sleep around with anyone and thoroughly abused sexually, sickly and bony looking with eyes drooping out of their sockets, very thin-looking, breasts sagging and wasted and gaunt faces; hair falling off, this for us is watching death incalculable and very dumbing and numbing-Daily.

Then there's Madambi. The character too lives around the 20s Street, and he too is into high tech, eking money out of the inhabitants, and he too is destroying the youth for he has created a well organized enterprise and has his henchmen, but he is not bigger than Nektsi.
Funked-Up Society - A People On The Precipe Of The Dark Hole

This brings us to the "Hell House". So dubbed because in it everything and anything happens or takes place. This is where the meat-grinder modus operandi is churning out corpses, Murders are routine and there is a general sense of intimidation that is the norm and credo. As for the Cops, they are nowhere to be seen, or the same thing happens when they arrest the Drug-lords, the thugs are always let go and they bribe their way out.

Bribery is another scourge that is endemic amongst law-enforcement people in south Africa-it has become a sort of a culture of laissez fair and a carte balance spirit that has prevailed for some decades now. In the Noordgesig Colored Township, there are Old ladies who sell what they call "Space Cookies". These are bought and eaten by the students of Noordgesig High School, and this leaves the kids High And smoked out/High. Thus the persisting problem of school drop-out rate as I have just touched upon above.

At night, the poor working women, early risers and leavers headed to work in the dark, are susceptible to lurking murderers and rapist as they walk alone towards the required transportation to work. There were patrols by local guys, but this has been sparse and sporadic at best, and the issues of being paid take precedence before anything else, let alone local people's safety. So, we have less patrols in the ungodly hours of the morning. Some Youth in our Block have been encouraged to do this till 6 am. This is not always the case, but the area is better now, for now.

The other underlying but not oft looked important issue, is the fact that we as a people have already beed deadened and conditioned by Apartheid that we are having a hard time coming out of that stalag and mental gulag. Of course we have long been in the Concentration Camps and prisons of Apartheid functioning and operating like the aforementioned Stalag and Gulag meatgiinders and psyche-hospitals that have contributed immensely to our present state of being and existence of our African of South African people.

We now have events called Marikana, a ruse and guise to distribute the drugs and consume liquor and carry on sex by its organizers, that in the end, these place end up with armies of these drug dealers: foot soldiers-who advertise and sell their drugs in these events, the illicit drugs and all forms of booze, and this ends up being an orgy of drugged-out and highly intoxicated youth, which is a setting for other things beyond the pale.

Ketsi's children and other such-like people, have their children going to the best schools in the land. This is unconscionable. This Ketsi self-styled potentate drive all sorts of cars(sits on a wheelchair, mind you) and has many girlfriends… go figure.

We have no power to fight against these interlopers, and destroyers of our youth and communities. There needs to be something the people of goodwill here in Mzantsi can do. This is going on as I speak and is not abating.

It is a fact that the drugs have decimated families, youth and elderly people. It has left destruction and ruin in the townships throughout Soweto, but in this case, I will focus on Orlando.

Drugs like Cocaine and Mandrax pills started proliferating in the Township around the early eighties and has now become a pandemic throughout different communities of Africans, Coloreds and Whites. In Orlando East(Soweto), the inhabitants have been watching with dread and fear as their youth became zombies, sick, and died from this drug-which, when imbibed, makes its victims froth at the mouth and tear-up incessantly, walking unsteadily zombie-like walk and creates an ever increasing crave, leading to all sorts of crime that has this drug-besieged Township of Orlando teetering on the brink of lunacy and genocide.

This is a problem which has been thus far so utterly ignored that the residents of Orlando, rallied by the members of the CPF(Community Police Forum which was formed by the local Orlando station police force) along with and run by the local residents-who patrol and try to keep crime at a low minimum. On the second Major Saturday of August 2013, a coalition of local Orlando residents, Their CPF Team and several policemen in their cars descended on the drug dens dotting the Township in each and every street.

Recapping and reposting of the Maponya Saga [I penned many moons ago]:

What The Citizens Of Orlando Have Attempted To Do Fighting Drugs In Their communities
"Community Action and and Exhumation of Crime/Drugs" - Drug Ground Zero Soweto and Durban and Cape Town...

As the article above aptly shows we take note on this part of the article that the same sound of singing, became protestations when the coalition I had described above descended onto to the drug houses and dens within Orlando. A very disturbing picture began to emerge.

The Jo'burg Metro police gave permission to the marchers, and provided the police force, and it was explained to the marchers that the agreement, and permission to approach the drug dealers was given. With placards and a huge number of people began advancing to the 'known' Drug dens, and those who sold from street corners or shop stoops.

The people went to the houses, containers used as phone phones booths and other illicit activities including the selling of "Nyaope"; The mob advised the police that the Zimbabweans, Nigerians, Pakistanis, and some Coloreds[along with locals] should be arrested and searched for drugs. In some houses in Orlando, they found drugs on the bodies of Old grannies, who were used as carriers.

Heading the large group was Councilor Matlaka(Councilor of Dube), along with 8(eight) police cars, about 15 policemen ant eh CPF patrollers were about 30, and the rest of the group consisted of a large number of undisclosed members of the local resident. Five young boys were arrested and were found to have drugs on their persons. Some of these dealers were women who had come from the rural areas and were very secretive as to who their suppliers were. Others were resistant to the mob but caved in when they saw the mob's menacing bearing and intent.

In the part of the Township called "Roma"[which is still Orlando], two houses were searched and drug paraphernalia was found; they also found a lot of stolen IDs and Marijuana in bags, along with credit cards and guns. Some of this stuff was found under the beds in some of these houses, or carelessly strewn all over the dirty and unkempt houses.In another areas of Orlando around a store called "Goodluck" several houses were without owners, and all sorts of evil and illicit and sordid activities have been taken place in plain sight and nobody could anything about it… In one "Pink" Big House, the occupants tried to run away, but were apprehended had had on their person both 'Nyaope' and Marijuana and two guns.

Maponya - (The Nyaope Potentate whose fiefdom is Orlando)

In the area around the Grounds and Tennis Courts(Known Generally as 'Escort'(Still in Orlando) is the headquarters of the Nyaope sales. Hoards of youth and well-off middle class Africans, along with cops(who are in the pay of this guy), who has in his employ, his grandmother, and siblings-the Police and local ANC honchos. One of the 'carriers' who serves his customers on his behalf, was found with six plastics bags and she was in a close to comatose state…

The locals who were in the march, alerted the police that Maponya's grandmother had all the drugs hidden in her body, underneath her clothes. She was very rude and arrogant and dared the police to touch her. She was arrested and searched on arrival in that the police station On seeing what's happening, Maponya attempted to escape, put on a disguise but the citizens saw to it that he was apprehended.

When he was brought into the parked police cars, he insisted that he should sit in the front with the police driver. All the time he was wagging his finger and berating the police, and none responded to his charade. From this incident it was apparent that the Police Commander and his side-kicks(police grunts) were in the pay of this lilliputian drug potentate.

The community, who have been seeing the police and other people of note come to buy or get paid by him over a period of time, lost their cool. They threatened to riot and demanded that Maponya be put in the back of the squad car with all other arrestees. Eventually he was put in the back with all other small-time drug dealers, and he was clearly miffed about this and he carried on his protestations.

What got him off the hook, was the directive the police said that he could not be arrested if he did not have any drugs on him. Those who worked for him refused to snitch or rat out on him. They all denied having received or brought this stuff from him-and the junkies were intimidated into denying that he supplied or sold them the "Nyaope"... This technicality, helped set him free and he was released without being charged.

The crowd moved to an area in Orlando too, called 'Paramount,' and they went into the ramshackle shacks filling up the yards of most houses in Orlando, and in them they found and routed drug dens , prostitution harems, and 3 people were arrested there-considered to be the main bosses. As far as one can tell, "Nyaope" is sold in each and every street in Orlando.

The denizens of Orlando were disgruntled and felt betrayed, because everyone knew who(Maponya) was really distributing drugs wholesale in the Township, and he walked scot-free, due to a flimsy technicality in the law so that, in the end, the people wanted the Minister of the Police, Mrs. Raphiyega and the government to become involved.

The people finally decided to call a meeting in a week of two, to report back to the community these events, and have decided to take the case to the Provincial government and they want the Premier to take this case over.Most of those residents who partook in the raid, have to go around the Township armed

"Drug And Chemical Warfare On the People Of Mzantsi"

Below I will link an article which no longer talks about "Nyaope, but "Whoonga" which is a potent and highly addictive mixture of Marijuana, heroin, and HIV Medications. The same with "Nyaope" and other concoctions, which also include the life-saving pills for HIV-Aids, and literally makes waste of the users and death, sickness, crime, homicide, rape and so forth have spiked.

This is a crisis, and it needs to be addressed aggressively, or we stand to loose not only generations, but a whole nation of people high on home-made designer drugs which are decimating communities throughout South Africa with unequaled impunity.

Until the day we Africans of Mzantsi stop thinking of and for our individual selves only, until they day we Africans of Mzantsi say enough is enough; and, until we come to our senses and go and see for ourselves what I am talking about or everyone is writing about what these drugs are doing to us, our people, relatives and communities[Nation], we will forever be in our cocoons and do nothing, and we are clearly facing something more dangerous than HIV AIDs(Which is still battering and wiping the core of our communities), we will in the end taken-snuffed by the genocide we are now facing.

There is more to the story as to how these drugs came into the country, and I will be writing an article tracing the origins of this scourge and addiction.

We are really much better than this, lest we forget that.... We can all 'wax political' to our egos content.. But this, is not going away, instead, it is threatening our very existence as the indigenous of the country of South Africa... We are in the clutches of a very dangerous and deadly grip of a drug epidemic whose likes has never been seen before in our country.

We need to begin to help ourselves and come to these communities and route the drugs and dealers consistently and brutally, or it is they, as we are seeing, who will run our Townships(they already are) or either its us who will have the finally say, and control and run our townships and communities... Whither Mzantsi....

The article above was made possible by the people of Orlando I talked to. All I did was cobble up all the interviews, and these are what I formed into the narrative above. This is seriously Grassroots news and Grassroots intelligence, which is out there for all who wish to report on the events and issues that are taking place amongst our own people.

The newspaper will not put it in the way that Malcolm explained above as I cited him. We have to begin to write our own news and stories, and talk to the people Face-To-Face, and can then afterwards post it on Facebook. Our people have the information as to what's going down in the Township… We just need to get out there, be amongst them, and write these stories, and show them what we have written, in order to get even more gruesome accounts of the lives of our African People Of Mzantsi, today,here on the Viral soup.

One more point, it should not be thought that it is ony Africcans who using andabusing and being abused and decimated by Drugs.. A lot of White people and other races of South Africa are equally as devastated and affected and effected by the drug pandemic. The sooner we begin to wrap all our diferent ethnic heads around this threat, we will end up with no people and no country.

More by this Author


Comments 2 comments

Ike 5 years ago

All your articles are great in the way they give us a picture of South African society. If it's okay to you i would love to feature you in my linklist in my german languagewordpress blog.


ixwa profile image

ixwa 5 years ago Author

Ike: Welcome to the Hub above. I appreciate your accolades and appreciation of the articles I have already published. I was also hoping that the Hubs on South Africa would give readers an approximate reality of what's happening within South Africa. I do accept your offer to 'feature me in your linklist of your german languagewordpress blog'. I would also like to know what the linklist and feature entails, if it pleases you to tell me. Anyway, I hope you keep on visiting my Hubs, and there is still more that is going to come out on South africa, I hope to hear from you. Thanks.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.


    Click to Rate This Article
    working