Ebola: Hemorrhagic Disease: The ThirdWorldization Of A Deadly Plague

Ebola Virus

Initial sequencing showed strong similarity to the Zaire strain, the most lethal of the five Ebola subtypes.
Initial sequencing showed strong similarity to the Zaire strain, the most lethal of the five Ebola subtypes.

Musings And Aphorisms On Health

There is evidence there will be a major epidemic this comng Fall. The indication is that we will see a return of the 1918 Flu virus that is the most virulent form of Flu. In 1918, a half a million people died. The projections are that this virus will Affect and Effect one million Americans in 1976[and beyond].

- F. David matthews, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Improvement in health is the likely to come, in the future as in the past, from the modification of the conditions which led to the disease, rather than from intervention into the mechanisms of disease after it has occurred.

- Thomas McKeonwn, 1976

The Microbe Is Nothing; The Terrain, Everything.

- Louis Pasteur

Men who never have had the experience of trying, in the midst of an epidemic, to remain calm and keep experimental conditions, do not realize in the security of the laboratotries what one has to contnend with.

- Dr. MartinArrowsmith, from Arrowsmith, Sinclair Lewis

The Ebola Disease Keeps On Coming Back

I have thus far written couple of articles here on HubPages regarding Health Issues in south Africa. I am not a doctor by training, but I do serious research if the topic does not only deal 'specifically' with health, but includes politics, economics, massive refugee migrations, Changing social environments, local and regional warfare; issues of unpurified water, improper use of antibiotics and syringes, and decrepit health-care conditions in the existing health facilities and lack of protocol in their being run by local or foreign health-givers.

As a researcher, most of the issues I have listed and mentioned above, gives me the authority to address what is a scourge, then deemed to be emerging in the earlier decades, but today, is a scourge and threat to the rest of humanity, no matter where we are on the Planet earth. Migration and refugees feeling they wars in their countries enable and spread. So that, to date, we now are aware from various researches that the past 100 years has seen conditions such as I have listed above giving rise to the spread to and recurrent outbreaks of very rare and strange diseases, epidemics, and those that have mutated and are no longer curable.

One note I would like to make about the source of my Hub is Laurie Garrett whose work I will cite from heavily to demonstrate what I call the ThirdWorldization of the Emerging and present-day Plagues. She is a New Yorker and writer on health and science. I will defer to her later on in the Hub because, according to Mullan, she, Garrett, has contributed to our awareness of human ecology and the fragility of the relative biological well-being that many of us enjoy. For now, that well--being in the US, has caused a euphoria and fear in the US, that people from Africa are now sidelined and stigmatized, because on one Liberian patient who came to the States, was not treated well, and died as a result... Mullan adds:

"Garrett has mastered an extraordinary amount of detail about the pathology, epidemiology, and human events surrounding dozens of complex diseases… She writes engagingly, carrying her theses as eel as the readers interests from outbreak to outbreak." I am citing her because as the present media fuss and environment in the US has made this sun a big issue, which caught them unprepared, made me come to the conclusion that many shenanigans that the US and its allies have been involved in through i=out its outbreak has been characterized by negligence, and the fact that it is them that(meaning Africans) that are being affected, and not Us(The US and its partners that are not affected and effected).

Garrett writes:

"The Great Ebola drama went almost unnoticed in the United States in 1976, even in the hallways of the Centers for Disease Control. The nation was preoccupied. And Africa was, in the american consciousness, far away."

Garrett further states that:

"We(The US) ant to believe that history happened only to 'them, in the past" and that we are somehow outside history, rather than enmeshed within it. Many aspects of history are unanticipated and unforeseen, predictable only in retrospect… Yet, in one vital area, the emergence and spread of new infectious diseases, we can already predict the future-and it is threatening and dangerous for us all."

According to Garrett, "The world has brome more vulnerable to the eruption and, most critically, to the widespread and even global spread of both new and old infectious diseases. This new and heightened vulnerability is not mysterious. The dramatic incases in worldwide movement of people, goods, and ideas is the driving force behind globalization of disease. For not only do people travel increasingly, but they travel much more rapidly, and go to many places than ever before.

"A person harboring a life-threatening microbe can easily board a jet plane and be on another continent when the symptoms of illness strike. The Jet plane itself, and its cargo, can carry insects bringing infectious agents into new ecologic settings. Few habitats on the globe remain truly isolated or untouched, as tourists and other travelers penetrate into the most remote and previously inaccessible ares in the search for new vistas, business, or recreation."

So that, Garrett has "provided us with a history full of real people, sweat and grit, of the discoveries which have led us to realize that infectious diseases have not been vanquished-quite the contrary. It was in these places, Bolivia, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zaire(Liberia, Nigeria, etc), that a group of highly trained, dedicated, and courageous people met the plague) on its own ground. Facing the unknown, at the frontiers of science, they struggled and wrested from nature an insight, that, diseases will remain a threat, that disease and human activity are inextricable, and that nature has many hidden places and surprises still in store(Mann)

For all intense purposes, I should state that this was written when the book was published in 1994… Now that we are in the year 2014… the plague has flared-up again, this time in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the neighboring, and the observation and words plus researches of Garrett are even more relevant today as they were when she wrote about the "The Coming Plagues".. So far, all these places we have seen since then, affected people all over the world; all these plagues are the hot topic today in the present-day social media and old media.

The government of the US was caught unprepared, and it is now that they are trying to catch-up, because they had 'one' infected person coming through a plane and died here in the US, because theory hospital staff were ill-prepared and not trained to handle the scourge, because, like I have said and cited above… It is only affecting"them", and that Africa is far away… well, Two or more people in the US have been affected, and there is a lot of blame, scurrying around, and as usual, the CDC was not even ready nor prepared, neither trained the health givers in the States training to deal with the scourge of Ebola… And this is only from one person.

It is at this juncture that I will have to trace the story and history of the countries that are affected and infected with the Ebola plague. This is important for me to try and give a historical brief about the countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and so forth so that the reader can have a sense and a general idea what is going or has been going on in this beleaguered countries, that they should in the end be the bearers of such a deadly plague.

These diseases did not just happen to be there today, as we are all now reading about and paying, some attention to. There are many issues that have given rise to such a condition, and it is important that we begin to look at these countries, albeit briefly, in order to have a better understanding as to why and what it is that makes such a plague get a devastating and deadly grip on its populace.

These countries are not just happening to be around in the world scene and affairs… There has been a gradual evolution that has given this opportunistic disease a fertile ground to spread. Before I deal with the emergence of Ebola in Zaire, according to the way Garrett saw and wrote about it, I want to first of all give a brief synopsis about these countries and their historical internal situations below.

President Samuel Doe

President Tolbert Of Liberia

President Ghankay Taylor Of Liberia
President Ghankay Taylor Of Liberia

A Shortened History Of Liberia

July 23, 1971: President Tubman dies, and Vice President Tolbert takes office.
In office for 27 years, Tubman headed a regime that went from democratic to dictatorial. He is succeeded by his vice president of 19 years, William R. Tolbert, Jr.

1972: Tolbert adopts a more nonaligned stance in the Cold War.
Liberia establishes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, Poland, and several other Eastern bloc countries, and takes on a more nonaligned posture, thus breaking away from the Cold War agenda followed by President Tubman.

1973: Liberia severs diplomatic ties with Israel.
Following the Yom Kippur War in October 1973, which pits Israel against Egypt and Syria, Liberia becomes one of 29 African countries to sever diplomatic ties with Israel.

May 28, 1975: ECOWAS is established.
Liberia, under Tolbert's presidency, is a signatory to the treaty which establishes the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in order to create a common market in West Africa and promote regional economic integration and stability in 15 West African countries, with the intention that it would mirror the success of the European Common Market (now the EU). In 1990, ECOWAS member states will establish the ECOWAS Monitoring Group, or ECOMOG, as a multinational peacekeeping/peace enforcement group responsible for the restoration of peace in Liberia. ECOMOG is the first armed force to be established by a regional organization.

September 21, 1976: During the United States' bicentennial celebration, President Tolbert addresses the joint session of the U.S. Congress.


1978: U.S. president Jimmy Carter conducts the first official U.S. presidential visit to Liberia.
During the same year, President Tolbert encourages young student and opposition leaders living in the U.S. to return home to Liberia to participate in the political process.

April 14, 1979: The "rice riots"
A proposed increase in the price of imported rice, suggested in order to stimulate local growth, results in riots which lead to many deaths and enormous infrastructural damage to the capital city of Monrovia. The leaders of the demonstration are the same student leaders whom Tolbert had invited home to Liberia some months before.

April 12, 1980: Samuel K. Doe, a master sergeant of Krahn descent in the Liberian army, overthrows the government in a bloody coup.
President Tolbert is assassinated, 13 Cabinet ministers are executed, and dozens of other government officials are imprisoned.

1985: Samuel Kanyon Doe becomes Liberia's 20th president.
Doe claims victory in a presidential election under a cloud of controversy and charges of vote-rigging. Despite the allegations, the United States accepts the results of the election and offers support to the new president.

November 1985: Thomas Quiwonkpa, Doe's former second-in-command, is killed after his failed attempt to depose Doe's government.
The coup attempt leads to government-led violence against the Gio and Mano people of Quiwonkpa's native Nimba County.

December 24, 1989: The National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) enters Liberia.
Civil war breaks out, and Charles Taylor becomes the first of several Liberian warlords.

1990: Taylor's troops capture most of the country.
The brutal civil war, which will last another seven years, pits tribe against tribe and leads to the death of more than 200,000 Liberians, the displacement of hundreds of thousands of others, and the destruction of the country's infrastructure.

August 24, 1990: Three thousand ECOMOG forces arrive in Liberia.
During the same month, ECOWAS holds a meeting in Banjul, Gambia, where Dr. Amos Sawyer is appointed as president of an Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU). Sawyer's Monrovia-based IGNU is not recognized by rebel leader Charles Taylor, who is based outside Monrovia and controls the rest of the country. The country is divided, with two effective seats of government and two effective currencies.

September 9, 1990: Samuel K. Doe is executed.
President Doe is captured and killed by a rebel faction led by Prince Johnson. In spite of his execution, civil war continues to rage.

October 30, 1991: The Yamoussoukro IV Accord
ECOWAS brokers the Yamoussoukro IV Accord in the Ivory Coast. It is the first major accord and outlines steps to implement a peace plan that includes the encampment and disarmament of warring factions under the supervision of an expanded ECOMOG, as well as the establishment of transitional institutions to bring about democratic elections.

July 25, 1993: The Cotonou Peace Agreement
The Cotonou Peace Agreement, which calls for the establishment of a government of inclusion and a UN-sponsored cease-fire, is signed in Cotonou, Benin, by the IGNU and the two warring factions -- the United Liberation Movement for Democracy in Liberia (ULIMO) and the NPFL -- following peace talks in Geneva, Switzerland.

March 7, 1994: The first Liberian National Transitional Government, the LNTG, is installed.
Liberian attorney David Kpomakpor is appointed head of the LNTG.

September 12, 1994: The Akosombo Peace Agreement
Signed in Akosombo, Ghana, the agreement supplements and amends the Cotonou Peace Agreement and is signed by the NPFL, ULIMO, and the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL). The agreement meets with widespread disapproval from civil society groups and church leaders because it effectively partitions Liberia, and does not include all Liberian factions.

1995: The 16-member ECOWAS brokers a peace treaty between Liberia's warring factions.
This treaty comes after several attempts at peace fail. An interim state council establishes a tentative timetable for elections.

August 19, 1995: The first Abuja Accord is signed.
The Abuja Accord is signed in Abuja, Nigeria, and includes installation of an interim Council of State -- a national ruling body composed of various faction warlords and headed by a neutral chairman (this represents the second Liberian National Transitional Government, LNTG II) -- and a cease-fire, which is intended to come into effect one week later, on August 26.

April 6, 1996: The Siege of Monrovia
An estimated 3,000 people are killed when five factions converge in an intense battle in Monrovia, in what comes to be known as the Siege of Monrovia. The crisis begins when the Council of State attempts to arrest Roosevelt Johnson, an ethnic Krahn and leader of ULIMO-J (ULIMO-Johnson branch), on murder charges. Johnson takes refuge in the military barracks of the former AFL. ULIMO-J, Liberian Peace Council (LPC), and remnants of the AFL, all largely consisting of ethnic Krahn fighters, rally at the barracks and engage the combined forces of NPFL and ULIMO-K (ULIMO-Kromah branch).

August 17, 1996: Abuja Accord Supplement
Further signatories to the agreement usher in a new Council of State, the third Liberian National Transitional Government (LNTG III), with former senator Ruth Sando Perry appointed head. The accord provides for an immediate cease-fire, disarmament of all combatants by the end of January 1997, reintegration, and nationwide elections scheduled for May 1997, with an elected government to be installed by June 15, 1997. The accord also provides for sanctions for any faction which does not comply with the terms of the peace accord; sanctions include travel restrictions, exclusion from the electoral process, and the establishment of a war crimes tribunal. This is the last accord which finally leads to elections.

July 19, 1997: After seven years of mayhem, Charles Taylor is elected president of Liberia.
The election is monitored by ECOWAS and other international observers, including former U.S. president Jimmy Carter, and is declared fair.

September 1998: Liberian government forces fire into the U.S. Embassy in Liberia when opposition leader Roosevelt Johnson seeks refuge in it.
Johnson is ultimately airlifted out of the country. The violence prompts the U.S. to close the embassy. Two months later, Liberia offers an apology for the incident, and the Embassy is reopened.

February 2000: Liberia is accused of supporting Sierra Leone's rebel movement against the government by trading arms and other resources for diamonds.
President Taylor denies the charge, which is levied against him by the United States and other countries. Sierra Leone's Revolutionary United Front (RUF) has by this time destabilized Sierra Leone and begun to undermine the government in neighboring Guinea; Taylor is implicated by the international community in both actions.

July 2000: The United Nations bans diamond exports from Liberia and reinforces its ban on arms exports to Liberia.

President Charles Taylor

Liberia: America's Stepchild

This African State became independent on July 1847. For more than a century Liberia just existed along, on a seemingly highroad to nowhere. But now there is a hustle and bustle for progress in their land. As recently as 19954 it could be said that Liberia was still one the most backward countries of the West African countries. It had no railroads and very few roads worthy of the name. By the end of the 1960s, the picture was quite different. An authority on this subject wrote:

"Liberia should be regarded as a rather special case among African nations, if economic expansion and political stability are valid indices. .. Thirteen years ago, there was one bank in Liberia. There are seven now. Twenty years ago, there were no roads, no railways, no airports and no industry; now the road, rail and air networks are serving a growing industry. With its economy booming, Liberia enjoys a rare privilege; that of having a substantial surplus. ... An improvement in living standards, the development of hygiene and the systematic elimination of illiteracy are part of Liberia's daily life efforts."

Liberia was one of the founders of the OAU(organization Of African Unity), and an initiator of a free exchange zone founded in August 1964 with Sierra Leone, Guinea and Ivory coast.(This partly gives the reader why Ebola has spread along the later regions mentioned above. Their present in 1968 was one of the most determined adversaries of Portuguese (and had declared a total embargo against them, as well as Apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia's Smith's regime, Now called Zimbabwe).

Liberia's exports are rubber and iron ore, which together account for 90% of the nation's exports. Its iron ore production is exceeded only by the outputs of Canada and Sweden. There were further plans to establish an iron industry complex in the port city of Buchanan and for the construction of an oil refinery in Monrovia.

Diamond and gold mines were now being worked in the mid-sixties. In 1965, 244,000 carats of diamond were produced, and in 1966 the total number of carats row to 555,000. Gold production in 1965 was 116 pounds, which in 1967 rose to 297 pounds. Liberia had nearly 14,000 square miles of forests, which might , maybe have proven, if events didn't change, to be of great wealth to them(and their chief trading partner in all this was America).

Liberia is the Oldest "Republic" in Africa, the only country on the continent never to have been a colony or part of an empire, and a "Step-child of the Americans" who had serious vested interests in the minerals as just noted-that these were manifest with strong cultural and financial ties with the Americans. The rest of Africa has often regarded Liberia as a peculiar place and very different from the rest of the African countries… the Americans and the early rulers of Liberia thought of it as sophisticated and would never be overthrown-and it's leaders were totally schooled in the American ways. There was also this false notion that it was an outpost, for Americans,

Its American-style institutions and the familiar idiom in which the country conducted its business was ready-made fro Americans to have their interests entranced and lacking the crises endemic in amy other African countries, But this did not help nor stop the explosions that took place. For 133 years, An African-Settler elite, which was five percent of Liberia's population, monopolized all political and controlled access to the country's natural resources-also, this grow or class of around forty-thousand people, were members of the Americo-Liberian families, made decisions for and controlled the lives of one and a half millions indigenous African Liberians. Those who were admitted into this clique, was through marriage or patronage by this African settler community of returned African slaves from America.

This class subjugated the local Africans of Liberia and they humiliated them badly, and this put Liberia of the 1980s on a revolutionary edge, evolving soldiers brutally murdered Tolbert, their president, in his luxury mansion, and they disemboweled him, stuck a bay one through his head, and displayed his dead body in the John F, Kennedy Hospital, and was buried in a mass grave with 27 others((Unger)

Unger adds: "These rogue soldiers, in 1980, arrested the wealthy Americo-Liberian officials, marched them naked through the streets of Liberia past jeering crowds, tied them at the post of the Barclay Training center and executed them at point-blank range. A crowd of thousand revelers gathered at the beach to watch and cheer as the officials-some whimpering and collapsing, others fairly smiling-were cut down with rifle shots and they limp bodies sprayed with machine-gun fire. By all accounts, there was jubilation throughout the country, literally dancing in the streets.

"The executions took place within sight of Master Sergeant Doe's new home. These run-down hovel without running water barracks became a symbol of Liberia's revolution, and Doe and his friends liked to show-off to visitors. Many of these soldiers, who lived in these decrepit donation, made themselves into a self-styled elite and moved into the homes of the Americo-Liberians who had fled the slaughter-they also confiscated the Mercedes Benzes of their former abusers, harassed businessmen and merchant-they also were freely brandishing their weapons, and they went on an unorganized reign off terror and brought the country to the brink of paralysis."

Alexander Crumwell further informs us that:

"The love of liberty brought us here." That was the motto of the early African Settlers of Liberia, who believed they were not only leaving behind the bonds of slavery in America, but also undertaking a civilizing mission by returning to the continent of their origins and imparting western knowledge. Liberia was a creation of the American Colonization society, a quaint institution founded in 1816. The society sought to emulate sierra Leone, just to the west of Liberia, which was developing as a haven for freed British slaves(including Africans who fought on the British side during the American Revolution and later retreated to ova Scotia)… Some members of the Colonization society were motivated by humanitarianism, but others were simply practical; America slave owners wanter former slavers out of sight, lest they provoke discontent on the remaining plantations. The civilizing mission was taken very seriously by successive waves of African Slave emigrants to Liberia."

This is one history which needs to be told at length, but for now, will pause it here. But a fact that needs to be pointed out here that Liberia was a satellite of America in more ways than one, rather than being African inspired and symbolized.

Ahmadu Ahidjo

Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo, Nationalist, Pan-Africanist, freedom fighter and the first President of Cameroon.  He was one of the youngest Presidents of a newly independnent African State
Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo, Nationalist, Pan-Africanist, freedom fighter and the first President of Cameroon. He was one of the youngest Presidents of a newly independnent African State

Cameroon: A Fallen African Star

Cameroon

A country of 10 million people, it has evolved with strong-armed leaders who didi not want to plan for the future, and it is a country that is strategically located at the hinge of Africa. Ahmadou Ahidjo was leader since 1960, even before independence from France, and he consolidated virtually all political forces within his ruling Party. Over time he has spoken about 'resting,' but he never stepped down, because there was no adequate procedure to make him do so.

He was 20 years younger than Houphouet-Boigny, who when he visited Guinea, gave the pragmatic rule of Ahijo his blessings. But in NOvember 1982, citing ill-health, Uhiddjo suprprised his country by resigning as President. Like Senghor, he turned power over to a long time prime minister, 49 year-old Paul Biya, who was little known outside the country, but had a reputation for honesty and competency…

When Ahidjo left power, this was not well broadcast, because there was a Coup d' etat in Upper Volta.While the world was watching, Cameroon enjoyed considerable success as a young nation. It nits first twenty years of independence, it nearly doubled its per capita gross national product. Like Ivory Coast, Cameroon first concentrated on agricultural developments, then moved on to basic industry, and finally had the good fortune of off-shore oil finds/fields.(Unger)

According to Unger, Cameroon is in many respects a microcosm of the African continent, a country compost of at least two hundred separate ethnic groups, watch with own language, none large enough to dominate the country's affair(But, I contend that they have many similarities than differences). The land is also as varied a s the people who live on it, ranging from coastal swamps and tropical rainforests through Savannah's to desert areas.The different groups have been separated by the legacy they have to contend with of two different colonial heritages.

We also learn from Unger that Cameroon was originally a German protectorate, and then the country was split between France and Britain after World War I, and the two parts developed individually. Most of what had been British Cameroon voted to join a federation with French Cameroon (rather than Nigeria) just after Independence, but there were still tensions.

"Officially the country conducts affairs in English and French (the only other language spoken by enough people to be considered a national language is Cameroonian "pidgin"), but 20 percent anglophone minority is chronically discontent, much in the manner of the French-speaking minority in Canada. Very little English is actually used in the languid capital city of Yaounde, where most of the political power is concentrated, or in Douala, where most of the country's financial business is transacted.

The nature of the roads, the uniforms of the police, the music, even mannerisms of the people change once one has crossed the undermacated cultural and linguistic frontier. Political discussions take place on one side at sidewalk cafes, on the other in the pus. Here and there, a German built castle can be seen in the hills, a remnant of an earlier era and yet another set of political and cultural traditions. (There are other reminders: hotelkeepers in some remote areas still speak only German and Goethe Institute does a booming business in Yaounde among people who want to learn the language so they can better understand the country's past), [and be Fluent in German].

Five years before independence, the Cameroonian government fought a withering insurgency, based not so much on linguistic or 'tribal' complaints as ideological differences. The rebels, who wanted to establish a Marxist system in Cameroon, were openly aided by China, and it was only with French assistance that Ahidjo finally prevailed in 1972. He not only neutralized much of the domestic opposition that remain by coopting it into the government, but also turned the Chinese into friends.

"By the late 1970s, Cameroonian shops were full if inexpensive Chinese consumer goods (whose Western equivalents would have been much costly in terms of hard currency outlays), and China was building a palace of culture on a hill int e center of Yaounde. The Chinese also constructed a dam in the north, and Ahidjo was able to play well enough on international rivalries to attract other substantial development aid from the United States, the soviet Union, Saudi Arabia, Canada , and members of the European community,

"Although one of the two central banks of the French African Community is located in Yaounde, Ahidjo managed to downplay Cameroon's French connection, and over the objection of French Bank Interests, he encouraged the Chase Manhattan Bank to open a branch in Douala. The First National Bank of Boston and Bank of America followed suit. Cameroon's ties with France remained very close, but the president cast himself as an individualist, staying from the periodic summits of former French African colonies, for example, on the grounds that their symbolism was inappropriate.

"Cameroon for years seemed the essence of stability compared to some of its close neighbors. Equatorial Guinea, where the regime of Nguema Masie Biyoto ruled by terror and reintroduced forced labor; Nigeria, where military coups and civil war had the country in disorder for year; the Central African Republic, where a despotic ruler crowned himself emperor and slaughtered schoolchildren; and Chad, where the ostensibly insoluble civil war was stoked by Libya and dragged on for decades.

But Cameroon could not always keep as much distance as it wanted from these crises. Various parts of the country endured crosscurrents of refugees and Ahidjo had to worry constantly that outspoken exile leaders from neighboring states who sough asylum in Cameroon would end up dragging his government into disputes. (The recurrent trouble along Cameroon's border with Nigeria was enough of a problem, aggravated as it was by the Cameroonian's' envy of the Nigerians' wealth and influence in Africa-[I think there's more to the story than this one-liner.)

"Ahidjo did not turn the refugees away, and although he had his own political prisoners, but he had made material improvements for his people, and he removed urban slums and instituted renewal programs. His international policy, he was regarded as pro-western, but in reality, Ahidjo was more interested in building and encouraging Pan Africans in Cameroon. He provided sufficient funds to build a school of journalism in Yaounde, and it welcomed students from throughout Africa.

Ahidjo made Cameroon the Capital and arena of exchange of ideas and the development of a new generation of African leaders and intellectuals. But it also made it a logical crossroads for the intelligence agents from various countries. Yaounde became one of those places in the Third World where various competing powers watched each other watching each other.

"But in 1983, Biya, the new president fired some members of his cabinet, including his prime minister, because he said that there was a plot "against the security of the Republic." And he came to logger-heads with the retired Ahidjo. Ahidjo claimed that Biya had turned Cameroon into a "police states" where telephones were tapped and arbitrary interrogations carried out.

"The former president also contended that he was tricked into stepping down through a false doctor prognosis and report. Biya denied Ahidjo from transferring his money out of Cameroon. Moslem ethnic groups from the Northern part of the country, the home of Ahidjo, represented the growing power of the Christian southerners like Biya.

"The situation deteriorated quickly. A Cameroonian court sentenced Ahidjo to death, in absentia, and then Biya, hoping to appear conciliatory, pardoned him. But in April 1984, units of the presidential guard, an elite unit, had been formed by Ahidjo, rebelled against Biya's order that they be transferred. The army quelled the mutiny by mostly northern soldiers only after three days of fighting in the streets of Yaounde.

"Ahidjo insisted he had nothing to do with the revolt, in which as many as a thousand people were estimated to have died, but the country seemed perilously divided. This time Biya showed little generosity; hundreds of guard members and civilian sympathizers were tried in secret by military tribunals and executed. Within a spate of a few months, Cameroon was taken off the list of stable African countries where development was on track and investments would be safe.

Sekou Toure

Guinea: Sekou Toure-Dr. Jackyl And Mr. Hyde Of Africa

I would like to give a historical and short background on Guinea, and to do this, I will cull heavily from Unger in order to give the read a better sense of the country which, too, was afflicted by Ebola, along with Liberia and Cameroon, for the purpose of discussion in this Hub.

This is what Unger has to tell us about the Country of Guinea:

"Guinea was regarded as a potential model of independent, Black(African) ruled African; achieving independence early, as a kind of Francophone counterpart to Ghana, it was led by Sekou Toure, a young, charismatic trade unionist, who was said to understand the need to meld the best parts of the French heritage with nationalistic impulses, in order to create a successful modern state.

"But in 1958, in the name of nationalism, Toure voted against joining the political and economic community envisioned for France's colonies under the new constitution prescribed by Charles de Gaulle for the Fifth French Republic. Toure said would choose "poverty in freedom" over "riches in slavery." He might or might not have realized how accurate the first part of his statement was-he was living the second part.

"The French were furious with Guinea since it was the only African country to resist the new arrangement, and the reprisals were immediate and thorough… All of the French representatives in the capital city with Conakry, government officials and business men alike, pulled immediately, taking with them everything from colonial archives and government plans to light bulbs and the dishes in the governors' palace.

"They emptied out pharmacies and burned medications, rather than leave them behind. De Gaulle offended and vengeful, persuaded other Western governments to take his side in the dispute, but and so, overnight, Guinea found itself not only poor and backward, but also totally isolated in Africa and the rest of the world. Toure appealed for outside help, and the Soviet Union, sensing a rare opportunity, was alone in responding.

"What appears to have happened, however, is that in accepting Soviet largesse, Toure also adopted all the least efficient and most repressive aspect of the Soviet economic and political system. Despite an extraordinary natural wealth in bauxite, iron ore, uranium, gold, copper, cobalt, manganese, diamonds and hydroelectric power, guinea went from poor to poorer. Almost no element of the new nation's economy functioned smoothly, and even the traditional network of market women was gradually restricted in favor of stage-managed trading companies.

"Every bit of Soviet aid came with strings tatted, and Guineans often found some of their own precious food resources being canned and shipped out in order to help pay off the country's debt to Moscow, while other food was being imported at premium prices. The government still must had to pay the soviets Union, at that time, $25 million a year, and some observers accused the Russians of having smuggled out vast quantities of diamonds over the years.

Meanwhile, Cornarky became notorious as a headquarters for KGB activity in Aric, and the Soviets used Guinea as a base for reconnaissance aircraft. Cornarky's airport was useful to the Soviets during the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, and later for shuttling Cuban troops to Angola…

"What Toure did for Democracy in his country, on paper, it looked like the world's purest Democratic system. He divided the country into minute administrative units through which the citizens would theoretically be consulted constantly on every imaginable issue of national policy.

"In reality, the people of Guinea suffered an insidious, uncompromising repression, managed by Toure's immediate relatives and members of his clan. Toure relentlessly pursued his opponents and detractors establishing detention camps whose population was carefully concealed; some of the inmates were tortured , others simply starved to death.

"He wrecked the independent trade union movement, his own former power base, and he broke the influence of Moslem, Christian, and traditional African religious leaders. Guinean exiles-perhaps a fifth of the population fled-told stories of purges and disappearances, but the president rejected appeals for objective, outside inspection with cries of self-righteous indignation. The persecution and executions often extended to members of the ruling circle.

"Those who fell out of favor, including at least two former Guinean ambassadors to the United States, and Diallo Telli, the first secretary general of the OAU. The main precept of Guinea's system became the worship of the paranoid Toure, who was known as the "Supreme Guide of The Revolution." Guinea, nonetheless, retained a circle of admirers and Toure-worshipers in the West, who paid attention to his theories and ignored his record.

"Toure's Guinea per capita income was around $230 per annual, and her people were the poorest in the world. In his own way of decision-making, Toure began to reconsider his economic decisions during the late 1970s, but it would take more than a change of heart to affect the national fortunes. Much of the country's resources were beyond the reach of investors, because the logistical transport infrastructure(roads and bridges) and train, etc., had never been built or arranged; to construct them later was more difficult and expensive, because of inflation and world-wide recession.

"Almost no one was being educated, and there was a chronic shortage of food. The country's agricultural development was set back by sheer neglect(Guinea produced 100,000 tons of bananas in 1960, but only 162 tons in 1982). They also damaged the forest by cutting forests for firewood, creating environmental mayhem and disasters. The failure to replant trees led to severe erosion of the soil and may have reduced the flow of rivers in the region, on which many countries depended on for their basic livelihood.

"Toure made one of the Third World's most remarkable and awkward about-faces. He embraced Islam more fervently than before and still claiming to be true to his original principles of socialism and nonalignment-offering himself as a political and philosophical successor of Yugoslavia's Tito - Toure opened his arms (and his country) to western business and diplomacy. He reestablished relations with France in 1975 and welcomed French President Valery Giscard d' Estain for a visit in 1978… He also travelled to France in 24 years. His frequented the United States, and flirted with American business, and Guinea was placed into hands of Chase Manhattan Bank, which sponsored seminars for American businessmen to negotiate personally with Toure.

"All of this culminated in a news conference that Toure gave at the Guinean embassy in Washington after a meeting with President Reagan, in the summer of 1982. He fancied and dressed himself up with his usual flowing white robes, and extolled the virtues of 'his dear friend David Rockefeller, former chairman of Chase, who had just been his host in New York.

"Sekou Toure played his role very well... Still hooked to the Soviet Union, Toure resumed diplomatic relations with some of the more conservative African States, including Senegal and Ivory Coast, he came out of his self-imposed isolated to play a greater role in such multilateral organizations like the OAU and ECOWAS. He even took a bold sep opposing the Polisario guerrillas in their war with Morocco over Western Sahara.

"Internal economic liberalization was also an obvious need. The country resumed a more normal commercial life, complete with market stalls, kiosks, and other small entrepreneurial businesses. As a result, the World Bank took a new interest in Guinea and began to encourage greater Western aid and private investment. This eventually caused turbulence in Guinea's political life, and those who believed in his doctrines were being asked to trade one orthodoxy for anotherSome in his inner-circles wanted him to remain to his original principles. Others pressed for faster change, and not only were outsiders wary and cautious of his fickleness, but he had credibility problems at home.

"With 90 percent illiteracy and an average life expectancy of only forty-one years, Toure's people were still far from the fulfillment they had been promised at independence. The best they could hope for in the short run was some relief from their hunger and despair. The decline continued even during the period of economic opening, with government revenues falling by 30 percent between 1982 and 1983; Toure was ill and increasingly out of touch, and even the narrow Guinean elite and favored units within the military became restless.

"Toure resisted being taken out of the country for medical treatment, but finally in March 1984, he permitted Saudi Arabia to fly him to Cleveland Clinic in Ohio for heart surgery. He died there on the operating table.

Postscript

Unger sums this whole saga this way:

"During several days of national mourning, Guinea remained calm and, on the surface, respectful of Toure's 26 years in power. Dignitaries from all over the world, including the U,S. Vice President, George Bush, attended hi funeral. But a week after Toure's death, anticipating aa power struggle, within the Toure family and party's politburo, a group of military officers bloodlessly took charge.

"The opened the doors of the prisons and detention camps, and only then did some horrors perpetrated by Toure in the name of "revolution" become widely known. In death, the man, the man who portrayed himself as a 'god' was revealed to be a genuine villain. The new military regime promised the cities true economic liberalization,u under a free enterprise system, as well as free speech and liberty to travel inside the country and abroad. The firsts signs were encouraging; but with hospitals thad had no medications and other public facilities completely broken down, the soldiers had a daunting task ahead of them.

Ebola Drones

The US Department of Defense (DoD) is funding Ebola trials on humans, trials which started just weeks before the Ebola outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. The reports continue and state that the DoD gave a contract worth $140 million dollars to Tekm
The US Department of Defense (DoD) is funding Ebola trials on humans, trials which started just weeks before the Ebola outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. The reports continue and state that the DoD gave a contract worth $140 million dollars to Tekm

Ebola And the Poor Africans

A humanitarian aidworker assists in controlling Ebola in the West African nation of Guinea
A humanitarian aidworker assists in controlling Ebola in the West African nation of Guinea

Ebola Environ

Thomas Dempsey Academic Chair for Security Studies at the Africa Center For Strategic Studies (ACSS) writes:

The most recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa is different—and the difference matters not just to the afflicted nations but to all of us. The outbreak is a manifestation of a public health threat to the vital national interests of the entire international community. Even as it is in the midst of a truly heroic response to the outbreak, that community—and the NGOs and humanitarian assistance actors that collaborate with it—must learn the right lessons from the current outbreak, and must do so quickly. Developing better disease monitoring, better early warning systems, more rapid public health response mechanisms, and more robust local public health infrastructure and institutions in at-risk areas throughout Africa are all essential takeaways from the ongoing spate of Ebola cases that continue to multiply across broad areas of West Africa. An additional and important lesson of this outbreak may be that public health stakeholders will themselves require substantial support, primarily of a military nature, in order to access many of the areas in which the outbreak is occurring and to undertake the sustained medical relief effort necessary to contain it. The speed with which this support can be marshaled and deployed may have just as critical an impact on controlling the outbreak as the activities of health professionals combating the disease on the front lines.

This outbreak differs from previous Ebola epidemics in terms of the extent of the afflicted area, how rapidly and how widely the disease has spread, and the degree to which it has frustrated attempts at containment. Many of the reasons for these differences have less to do with the medical characteristics of the disease than with the chronic underdevelopment, lack of adequate health services, poor governance, insecurity, and endemic poverty native to the areas in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea to which the recent outbreaks have been localized. These same features also characterize the areas in Central and East Africa where previous Ebola flare-ups have occurred, however. Cataloguing and responding to what has changed since past incidences may prove key to containing this one.

In the past, the remote villages most susceptible to Ebola were isolated from each other and from larger surrounding communities, both geographically and in terms of communication. Past outbreaks thus remained largely localized to the villages in which they occurred. Today, Africa is a smaller place, with accelerating migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants to cities from rural areas are concentrated in equally underdeveloped urban peripheries, which have grown so quickly that they have overwhelmed the capacity of African municipalities to provide basic services. As a result, the conditions of chronic underdevelopment, poor health, inadequate services, and insecurity of rural and remote areas have migrated to major urban centers.

Electron micrograph of an Ebola virus environ (from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Public Health Image Library, made available on Flickr Commons by Global Panorama)
Electron micrograph of an Ebola virus environ (from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Public Health Image Library, made available on Flickr Commons by Global Panorama)

At the same time, the increased use of cell phones on the continent has enabled news of Ebola cases and local outbreaks to spread rapidly, widely disseminating horrific accounts of the disease’s symptoms and high mortality rate. The combination of a continuous stream of firsthand accounts describing the accelerating outbreak and the inability of national and local administrations to respond effectively has generated widespread fear and uncertainty. Local mistrust of deeply corrupt and ineffective state institutions—particularly related to security, but also health services and even a decreased faith in modern medicine itself—have contributed to a “flight” response among communities in which cases of Ebola have appeared.

The movement of what might be termed “health refugees” out of outbreak areas appears to be contributing significantly to the persistence of the most recent Ebola flare-up. Some refugees are no doubt fleeing deeper into the West African bush, using remote paths and tracks that straddle border areas throughout the Mano River region, knowledge of which is ubiquitous due to their use as highways for the fighters and weapons that have accompanied past armed conflicts. Because these pulses of health refugees are remote from seaports and international airports, their movements do not threaten to spread the disease beyond the Mano River region in the immediate future. Unfortunately, they carry a significant—and far more difficult to counter—longer-term risk of spreading the disease more gradually across West Africa, into regions that will be extremely difficult for health workers to gain access to and in which it will be extremely difficult for them to operate effectively.

On the other hand, the mass migration of African citizens to the urban sprawl that surrounds the cities of Monrovia, Freetown, and Conakry is moving the epicenter of the affected region to areas with immediate access to global transportation networks. The international community, national public health organizations, and international health bodies were slow to recognize this risk. (Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia has recently called for a more urgent and effective response.) Even now, that recognition is largely limited to restricting sea —, air— and ground-travel across international borders. The humanitarian assistance and disaster response (HADR) community confronts major challenges in combating the outbreak in the dangerous, difficult to access, and poorly served shantytowns that surround national capitols and major cities in the outbreak areas. Population concentrations in these areas are far higher than in their rural counterparts; sanitation problems are correspondingly greater, and options for flight more limited. A major risk given this situation is the potential for a second or even tertiary Ebola outbreak to gestate in these poorly governed and insecure urban areas and gather renewed momentum.

The answer to the question of why the most recent Ebola outbreak should galvanize the international community into action is neither self-evident nor simply humanitarian in nature. It is a question the major actors on the world stage—those nations with the resources, institutions, and capacity to generate the necessary response quickly—must examine and answer critically. After all, as horrific as Ebola is, the number of infected individuals is still fairly limited, and the impact on the developed world—including the nations of Europe and North America, as well as global economic powerhouses like China—has been minimal. On a straightforward yet universally sobering level, however, the international community should move to address the latest outbreak because the same conditions that fostered the rapid spread and persistence of Ebola are likely to have a similar effect on other diseases, which may be far more communicable and pose a much greater threat. Imagine if the disease in question had been similar to the SARS or MERS virus, or even as mundane as a new and particularly virulent strain of influenza. The Spanish Flu infected some 500 million worldwide in 1918, ultimately killing between 50 and 100 million of those afflicted. Were such an outbreak to occur under similar conditions to those of the recent spate of West African Ebola, especially absent early recognition of the extent of the outbreak and timely measures to limit it, a global pandemic could result. In addition to the terrible suffering and loss of life within West African nations, the ongoing epidemic delivers a dire warning about how much worse things could get.

International Aid workers enter a West African village to combat Ebola

International Aid workers enter a West African village in Guinea to combat Ebola (© European Commission DG ECHO/EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection/Jean-Louis-Mosser, Flickr Commons)

On a level that should be encouraging to the international community, however, the current outbreak also offers an opportunity to develop a better understanding of how pandemic diseases manifest in the dynamic world of the 21st century. As international actors marshal the resources to support the courageous doctors, nurses, and local health workers who are laboring selflessly—and at great personal risk—to contain this outbreak, they must quickly learn how to distribute those human resources more swiftly to the affected areas of greatest need. The world must more rapidly furnish and deploy the equipment, personnel, security, communications, and logistics necessary to enable the effort to contain the outbreak. In the hardest hit areas of West Africa, this will probably require military support: rotary winged aviation, heavy air lift, trucks, fuel, power generation, and shelters, all of the resources necessary to enable an effective public health response. The world can and must learn from this opportunity, as it learned from the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, to collaboratively build more effective mechanisms to quickly identify major outbreaks with pandemic potential and efficiently respond to contain those outbreaks.

A cautionary note must be sounded with respect to deploying military forces in support of the containment effort, however. The use of military forces should be undertaken to support health workers combat the outbreak, not in an attempt to isolate entire affected communities. Unfortunately, the latter appears to have been the initial response of both the Sierra Leonean and Liberian governments. Isolating these communities with military or police forces is likely to further increase the fear and suspicion with which local populations in the area already regard state security services. Moreover, it is unlikely to prevent the continued flight of refugees from affected areas, and may in fact exacerbate them if local residents perceive the state to have abandoned their villages and communities. Instead, both national and international military forces can and should play critical roles in helping health workers reach vulnerable communities. Police officers and military personnel can also collaborate with health workers to better inform the public of common-sense measures to increase infected family and community members’ chances of survival while minimizing the likelihood of immediate caregivers, family, or community members themselves contracting the disease. The cell phones that are ubiquitous in even the most remote villages could become an important tool in this effort.

In the longer term, the states most at risk of serious outbreaks must effectively reduce their vulnerabilities to such diseases. Improving governance, particularly at the local level and in the area of public service delivery, will be essential to realizing this goal. Public health capacity, infrastructure, and surveillance must all improve as well. Security sector reform, focused not just on traditional physical security (including police, justice, and military forces) but on human security for the most at-risk communities, will be a key enabler of more immediate local response efforts. While addressing these issues is the primary responsibility of the states most at risk of a pandemic outbreak, every nation has a vital interest in assisting those states—and the communities within them—to reduce the risk of outbreak and increase regional and global resilience should an outbreak occur. When one’s neighbor’s house is on fire, it is a foolish homeowner who does not run to help put out the flames. And in today’s globalized world, everyone is our neighbor.


Ebola, The Facts, Not Hype

Everywhere you look, Ebola is on the news. Scary images of dying, bleeding West Africans are overplayed alongside scenes of medical personnel in space suit-looking isolation gear.  Movies like “Outbreak”, “28 Days Later”, and “Contagion” heighten our
Everywhere you look, Ebola is on the news. Scary images of dying, bleeding West Africans are overplayed alongside scenes of medical personnel in space suit-looking isolation gear. Movies like “Outbreak”, “28 Days Later”, and “Contagion” heighten our

Health Care Workers in Sierra Leon

A healthcare worker in protective gear sprays disinfectant around the house of a person suspected to have Ebola virus in Port Loko Community, situated on the outskirts of Freetown, Sierra Leone, Tuesday, Oct. 21, 2014
A healthcare worker in protective gear sprays disinfectant around the house of a person suspected to have Ebola virus in Port Loko Community, situated on the outskirts of Freetown, Sierra Leone, Tuesday, Oct. 21, 2014 | Source

Who Survives Ebola? Analysis Of First Cases In Sierra Leone Reveals Insights

Julie Steenhuysen writes

An analysis of the first Ebola cases in Sierra Leone helps draw a clearer picture of why some people survive the disease, while others do not, including their age and the pace at which the virus replicates within their body.

The study published Wednesday is based on data gathered from 106 patients diagnosed with Ebola at the Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone from May 25 to July 18. Some of the data on this group was incinerated because of fears that the nurses’ station where the records were kept became contaminated.

But the team managed to analyze detailed clinical records from a total of 44 Ebola patients, the biggest trove yet from the outbreak in West Africa that has killed nearly 5,000 people.

“This is the first time anybody has had this much data collected on any Ebola patients,” said Dr. John Schieffelin of Tulane University in New Orleans, an author of the study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

He said the findings help confirm some of the observations seen by doctors treating patients with Ebola.

It shows, for example, that 57 percent of people under age 21 who were treated for Ebola died from their infections, compared with 94 percent of those over the age of 45.

In the cases studied, the virus took six to 12 days to incubate before patients developed symptoms, and 74 percent of the patients in the study died, similar to what has been seen in prior outbreaks.

Fever was the most common symptom, occurring in 89 percent of patients, followed by headache (80 percent), weakness (66 percent), dizziness (60 percent) diarrhea (51 percent), abdominal pain (40 percent) and vomiting (34 percent).

However, there were some big differences in how individual patients responded to the virus, Schieffelin said.

“There were people who had very mild cases, and there are people who have very severe cases and they go downhill quickly,” he said.

One surprise was the significant difference in the amount of virus present in patients when they came in for treatment, a factor that affected whether or not they survived.

For example, 33 percent of patients with less than 100,000 copies of the virus per milliliter of blood at diagnosis ultimately died, compared with 94 percent mortality in those whose had more than 10 million copies per milliliter.

Among the various symptoms in this outbreak, Schieffelin said diarrhea is a “really big feature of it,” suggesting that doctors treating Ebola patients need to be very aggressive in administering intravenous fluids.

Bleeding, a key feature of Ebola in prior outbreaks, was rare among this population, with only 1 patient having this symptom, the study found.

Some researchers have questioned the value of spending resources on studying Ebola during the outbreak rather than using those funds to help curb the epidemic directly. Schieffelin said the analysis offers important insights for healthcare workers fighting the current outbreak, including data that can be used to determine new treatment and diagnostic approaches.

President Of Guinea Asks For Help to fight Ebola

President of Guinea Alpha Conde, center, listens as the heads of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank discuss the Ebola outbreak at the World Bank in Washington, Oct. 9, 2014.
President of Guinea Alpha Conde, center, listens as the heads of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank discuss the Ebola outbreak at the World Bank in Washington, Oct. 9, 2014.

President of Guinea Call for doctors To Come And Help With Ebola

Karim Camara informs us that:

The world’s response to Ebola is its own sort of tragedy

Two facts make the point clear:

After nearly getting Ebola under control in August, Guinea’s outbreak is worsening – as new cases in previously virus-free areas are being reported daily.

Guinean President Alpha Conde has called on the nation’s retired doctors to serve in the fight against Ebola. Conde said the collective experience is needed to educate health workers – who are at risk or spreading the risk to others.

Efforts to spread awareness of how Ebola is spread continues to be met with resistance by many Guineans, who either don’t believe Ebola is real or are fearful that medical personnel are actually spreading the deadly disease.

Lack of health care workers

Another major issue in Guinea is a lack of health care workers. And many of those in the field do not have the experience or training to contain the outbreak.

There have been numerous cases reported where doctors are refusing to put on medical gloves or take other precautions.

Ebola is spread by contact with body fluids from a sick person or the bodies of those who died from the virus.

Speaking in Conakry Tuesday, the president tapped into patriotism to inspire Guinea to tackle Ebola like Nigeria, which has been declared free of the virus.

Conde said Guinea is at war with Ebola and during a time of war, no one retires. He is calling on retired health care workers to think of themselves as soldiers.

In case his appeal to a sense of duty to the country isn’t enough, Conde said he is prepared to make it compulsory.

He said, “I am recalling you and most of you are heeding that call. But for those of you who resist, you will be forced to join the Ebola fight.”

Many willing to help

Many retired medical personnel expressed their willingness to join in the fight and those, like Professor Amara Sesay, said this move will save lives.

Sesay said the method in the fight against Ebola must be systematic and this is an opportunity to achieve that by improving our health sector.

Conde this week also has met with a cross section of medical students to recruit their skills.

Guinea has recorded more than 1,500 cases of Ebola, with more than 860 deaths.

The outbreak began in Guinea in December has spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria and Senegal.

However, both Nigeria and Senegal have been declared Ebola-free this month – raising hopes the outbreak can be contained and stopped.


Ebola Copy

Victims Of Ebola Shown Less Empathy

Ebola survivors prepare to leave a Doctors Without Borders treatment center after recovering from the virus in Paynesville, Liberia, on October 12.
Ebola survivors prepare to leave a Doctors Without Borders treatment center after recovering from the virus in Paynesville, Liberia, on October 12.

Bill Gates The Cybegeniscist On Health

TABU: Because the CDC owns the patent to Ebola and all strains within 70% of the original pathogen, they will make money on all treatment of Ebola through royalties because treatment would constitute a violation of their intellectual property rights
TABU: Because the CDC owns the patent to Ebola and all strains within 70% of the original pathogen, they will make money on all treatment of Ebola through royalties because treatment would constitute a violation of their intellectual property rights
The nurses have threatened to strike on several occasions during this outbreak over the lack of protective gear and the danger pay that has been promised but never delivered. Each time, they are slowly brought back to work, through conciliatory gestu
The nurses have threatened to strike on several occasions during this outbreak over the lack of protective gear and the danger pay that has been promised but never delivered. Each time, they are slowly brought back to work, through conciliatory gestu

Ebola Scurge In West Africa

Ebola Billboards in Abidjan: EBOLA Outbreak in West Africa The Ebola outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of its geographical scope and numbers, making it a major global concern. Unless action is urgently and massively increased, the Ebo
Ebola Billboards in Abidjan: EBOLA Outbreak in West Africa The Ebola outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of its geographical scope and numbers, making it a major global concern. Unless action is urgently and massively increased, the Ebo

Facts: Ebola Virus Treatment

The important information about Ebola virus disease which include the history of Ebola virus, signs and symptoms, transmission, risk and exposure, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, new research on the virus, latest news etc.
The important information about Ebola virus disease which include the history of Ebola virus, signs and symptoms, transmission, risk and exposure, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, new research on the virus, latest news etc.

Ebola Virus Notifications

The latest Ebola outbreak has exposed rotten governments and a parlous state of health care in many African countries. But the media seem more interested in profiteering out of the dread factors of the dis
The latest Ebola outbreak has exposed rotten governments and a parlous state of health care in many African countries. But the media seem more interested in profiteering out of the dread factors of the dis | Source

Ebola Politically

On 21 August, South Africa banned travellers from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from entering the country, except for South Africans and they would be specially screened.

Since Ebola once again resurfaced in Africa, there has followed an outbreak of dozens of media reports of suspected cases across the world. Individuals are quarantined off and news networks wait feverishly for the results. But time and again the result is negative. Governments keen to show that they are doing something and taking the potential risks seriously are happy to collaborate in the media circus. This kind of non-event reporting is unhelpful and even holds dangers for public health.

The world would be better off if media outlets only reported to the public if and when they did find a confirmed case. Instead, reporters, talk show anchors, columnists and journalists have idiotically drawn sensational analogies to the 1995 movie Outbreak with Dustin Hoffman and the 2011 film Contagionwith Jude Law.

Unlike screen fantasies that involve fast mutating viruses that spread in the air like flu, Ebola has neither of these characteristics. People with Ebola also don’t die with blood spurting out of their eyes. And the only thing airborne about Ebola is possibly fruit bats and the eventuality of a person infected getting on an aeroplane.

Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism

One does not wish to be dismissive of risk, but the chances of getting infected by sitting next to someone on an airliner infected with Ebola are low. To contract the disease, you need to be in contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids – blood, shit, semen and vomit

"Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged With Racism"

Ebola has a staggering mortality rate ranking it (lower but still) in the class of such diseases as anthrax, smallpox, rabies and untreated HIV.

But Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism. It has an African-sounding name that gives North Americans shivers, and it has emerged from the remote forest malignly clouded in Western imaginations by Joseph Conrad’s novel, The Heart of Darkness.

The potential overreaction cannot be discounted. Recall that not that long ago, every homosexual who lost weight was suspected of having AIDS and communities in the U.S. wanted dead gays buried in cement blocks.

Ebola was actually first isolated in the USA in 1989 when it arrived with a shipment of infected monkeys from the Philippines. There were no human casualties. Monkeys do not harbour the virus; they die just like untreated infected humans.

A poll released by the Harvard School of Public Health on 21 August showed that 68% of people surveyed believed Ebola spread “easily”, that four in ten adults in the U.S. are concerned that there will be a large outbreak in the U.S., and a quarter are concerned that they or someone in their immediate family may get sick with Ebola over the next year. The poll also found the lower the education level of people the more likely they were to be concerned about an outbreak.

The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East.

The media should be casting its spotlight firmly on the politicians who are frankly the biggest vectors helping spread disease to the world. The first point of attention has to be the sorry state of health care caused by decades of government neglect. The politicians themselves are of course well cared for in their public funded but publicly inaccessible VIP facilities. Mugabe and many other African leaders fly themselves around the world to the best clinics and doctors on the planet to receive medical care costing the state millions.

A quarantine officer checks the body temperature of a passenger as a precaution against the Ebola virus at the Incheon International Airport in South Korea. The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East. South Korea has stepped up monitoring of citizens returning from West Africa. Photo: Choe Jae-koo / Associated Press

Recall to, that when the HIV epidemic was spiralling out of control in South Africa, members of parliament were taking hellishly expensive ARV courses even as the official line was that HIV didn’t cause AIDS and ARVs were a money-making conspiracy of big pharma.

As the politicians whiz about in their blue-light brigades living their lives effectively in luxurious quarantine from the rest of us, public health facilities are hopelessly inadequate, thanks to a cocktail of neglect, carelessness, lack of accountability and corruption. The dangers and fatal consequences of having an unprepared and under-resourced health care system are now becoming tragically obvious.

T

On 21 August, South Africa banned travellers from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from entering the country, except for South Africans and they would be specially screened.

Since Ebola once again resurfaced in Africa, there has followed an outbreak of dozens of media reports of suspected cases across the world. Individuals are quarantined off and news networks wait feverishly for the results. But time and again the result is negative. Governments keen to show that they are doing something and taking the potential risks seriously are happy to collaborate in the media circus. This kind of non-event reporting is unhelpful and even holds dangers for public health.

The world would be better off if media outlets only reported to the public if and when they did find a confirmed case. Instead, reporters, talk show anchors, columnists and journalists have idiotically drawn sensational analogies to the 1995 movie Outbreak with Dustin Hoffman and the 2011 film Contagionwith Jude Law.

Unlike screen fantasies that involve fast mutating viruses that spread in the air like flu, Ebola has neither of these characteristics. People with Ebola also don’t die with blood spurting out of their eyes. And the only thing airborne about Ebola is possibly fruit bats and the eventuality of a person infected getting on an aeroplane.

Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism

One does not wish to be dismissive of risk, but the chances of getting infected by sitting next to someone on an airliner infected with Ebola are low. To contract the disease, you need to be in contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids – blood, shit, semen and vomit.

Ebola has a staggering mortality rate ranking it (lower but still) in the class of such diseases as anthrax, smallpox, rabies and untreated HIV.

But Ebola is terrifying to the world for other reasons; reasons tinged with racism. It has an African-sounding name that gives North Americans shivers, and it has emerged from the remote forest malignly clouded in Western imaginations by Joseph Conrad’s novel, The Heart of Darkness.

The potential overreaction cannot be discounted. Recall that not that long ago, every homosexual who lost weight was suspected of having AIDS and communities in the U.S. wanted dead gays buried in cement blocks.

Ebola was actually first isolated in the USA in 1989 when it arrived with a shipment of infected monkeys from the Philippines. There were no human casualties. Monkeys do not harbour the virus; they die just like untreated infected humans.

A poll released by the Harvard School of Public Health on 21 August showed that 68% of people surveyed believed Ebola spread “easily”, that four in ten adults in the U.S. are concerned that there will be a large outbreak in the U.S., and a quarter are concerned that they or someone in their immediate family may get sick with Ebola over the next year. The poll also found the lower the education level of people the more likely they were to be concerned about an outbreak.

The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East.

The media should be casting its spotlight firmly on the politicians who are frankly the biggest vectors helping spread disease to the world. The first point of attention has to be the sorry state of health care caused by decades of government neglect. The politicians themselves are of course well cared for in their public funded but publicly inaccessible VIP facilities. Mugabe and many other African leaders fly themselves around the world to the best clinics and doctors on the planet to receive medical care costing the state millions.

A quarantine officer checks the body temperature of a passenger as a precaution against the Ebola virus at the Incheon International Airport in South Korea. The biggest overreaction appears to have come from Asia, with travel agents reporting massive cancellations by tourists to Africa from China and the East. South Korea has stepped up monitoring of citizens returning from West Africa. Photo: Choe Jae-koo / Associated Press

Recall to, that when the HIV epidemic was spiralling out of control in South Africa, members of parliament were taking hellishly expensive ARV courses even as the official line was that HIV didn’t cause AIDS and ARVs were a money-making conspiracy of big pharma.

As the politicians whiz about in their blue-light brigades living their lives effectively in luxurious quarantine from the rest of us, public health facilities are hopelessly inadequate, thanks to a cocktail of neglect, carelessness, lack of accountability and corruption. The dangers and fatal consequences of having an unprepared and under-resourced health care system are now becoming tragically obvious.

It ranges from lacking the laboratory facilities to even test for the disease to not even having basic medical equipment such as an IV drip bag. The fact that malaria is still common more than a century after mosquitoes were identified as the culprit, means that people contracting Ebola are often misdiagnosed as simply suffering from endemic malaria.

The Nigerian government’s lackadaisical response to the outbreak has allowed the disease to penetrate its borders.

The media should be casting its spotlight on the politicians, the biggest vectors helping to spread disease

In Sierra Leone, an Ebola ward filled with patients and not 30 kilometres from the Liberian border was found almost abandoned. There was no proper sanitation service; underpaid nurses had given up and gone home, several of them sick with the disease themselves. There weren’t even clean needles. (Tentative mortality statistics suggest that infection by needle has a 100% mortality rate, while there is some chance of survival if infected by other means).

In Guinea, rumours and fears spread that it was the white international health workers themselves spreading the disease. Doctors and health teams have been blockaded from entering villages.

In Liberia, a lack of trust between the people and the government which rules over them has many questioning whether there is such a thing as Ebola and led to youths attacking a quarantine facility because Ebola patients from outside were being brought to the facility without informing the locals. The government then sent in heavily armed security forces to brutally lockdown West Point slum in a badly orchestrated manner, making it look like war on the poor.

The vacuum caused by distant, uncaring and dishonest authorities has allowed certain religious, traditional and faith leaders to prescribe quack treatments with deadly results. In rural areas, families have been hiding bodies of victims to prevent them ending up in plastic bags instead of being buried in the honourable customary manner (which involves contact with the body fluids when cleaning the corpse).

These last examples are pretty definitive proof that flying in international teams of medical experts every time there is a health emergency is a very poor substitute for building adequate capacity at a local level to deal with a crisis.

"One must add that where traditional chiefs have co-operated with health care workers containment has been greatly enhanced."

Apart from providing some ghoulish entertainment, the world didn’t care that much about a few Africans in a remote forest dying from some abominable disease. The disease had until recently affected too few people all of which were too poor to attract the attention of profit-driven companies. The most interested party was an arm of the US Department of Defense and the Canadian Public Health Authority. Without these government funds, there would not have been the experimental ZMapp drug today.

But making political capital out of bashing the West isn’t helpful either. ZMapp was first used experimentally on two US citizens (it would have been seen as racist had it been used in Africa and failed). The entire available world stock was shipped for free to Africa. But now, some African officials and politicians are claiming that the West had a cure but didn’t want to share it; nonsense that will surely be more grist to the media mill.

Viruses are more democratic than any government. They infect indiscriminately and they do not care for manmade national borders. The only way to deal with contagion in today’s globalised world is to build international solidarity together with local capacity and to arm the public with facts.


Why Is Africa Having Problems Dealing with The Ebola Pandemic

A boy's temperature is taken using an infrared digital laser thermometer at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja.
A boy's temperature is taken using an infrared digital laser thermometer at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja. | Source

Ebola’s damning revelations

The Ebola outbreak has revealed the under-funding and inadequacies of many of our health systems. The VIP wing of the Nigerian president’s clinic gets more funds than two federal teaching hospitals combined. Why can’t more African countries follow Rwanda's lead?

A boy's temperature is taken using an infrared digital laser thermometer at the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja. Photo: Reuters/Afolabi Sotunde

The recent Ebola outbreak that’s been plaguing West Africa has revealed to Africans and the rest of the world the unpreparedness of African leaders, as well as just how dangerous things can get when countries neglect their healthcare systems. When the first cases of Ebola were reported in Guinea, appropriate steps should have been taken by neighbouring countries to prevent it from spreading beyond Guinea’s borders. Instead, there was a collective ‘it’s not our problem’ attitude, which ultimately led to further outbreaks in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and most recently Nigeria.

Armed men stormed and raided a quarantine centre, no doubt unwittingly infecting themselves

In Nigeria’s case, there was plenty of time to take preventive measures against a possible Ebola outbreak after it had spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone, but nothing was done until it was too late. For starters, the Nigerian government should have suspended all flights to and from infected countries, especially with the knowledge that such an outbreak occurring in mega city like Lagos (which is a hub for all regional flights) may prove enormously difficult to contain. But judging by the Nigerian government’s track record of handling critical issues, their slow response wasn’t surprising.

The outbreak has also revealed just how toxic ignorance can be, especially when tainted with fear. Within days of the first reported case of Ebola in Nigeria, a ridiculous text message, advising people to bathe with salt water or drink a highly concentrated salt-water solution for protection against Ebola, had spread like wild fire. Needless to say, some hapless persons heeded the erroneous advice and ended up either dead or hospitalized.

Nigerians went scrambling for salt water after a call from the ruler of the Igala Kingdom, the Attah of Igala (pictured), prescribing salt solution as a magical vaccine against Ebola went viral. The salt solution bath remedy was reinforced after claims that a Catholic priest, Ejike Mbaka, also asked his followers to perform some religious rituals, which included drinking salt water. The Nigerian government had to issue a statement warning that bathing with salted water is not a cure for the virus. Four people have died from excessive consumption of salt.

Assuming salt water was the vaccine against Ebola, wouldn’t WHO have announced it eons ago? Moreover, anyone with some secondary school education or access to the internet should know that osmosis will occur when a cell is placed in a solution of differing concentration. It’s the logic behind why people adrift at sea don’t imbibe sea water, as it will only make them thirstier.

Ignorance also took the form of a well-known pastor based in Lagos. He made a proclamation urging Ebola stricken patients to visit his church for healing. Why would anyone attempt to endanger public safety by making such a comment? Fortunately, officials from the Lagos state government intervened and advised the pastor not to admit anyone with the disease. Meanwhile, somewhere in Liberia’s capital, Monrovia, armed men stormed and raided a quarantine centre. What they’ve achieved by committing such an inexplicable act remains to be seen, but there’s no doubt that some have unwittingly infected themselves.

Apparently, thinking has become such an arduous task that people no longer process information.

An inconvenient truth that’s been brought to the fore by this Ebola outbreak is that African governments generally do not invest in healthcare, and on the rare occasion when they do, it’s for the elite. Take for instance the 705 million naira ($4.3 million) that was earmarked in the 2014 budget for the addition of a VIP wing to the presidential clinic in Aso Rock (the official residential area and workplace of the Nigerian president). Is it logical to invest such funds in a clinic that’s only accessible to a few individuals, when teaching hospitals are in dire need of medical equipment and well-trained staff? Moreover, it’s common knowledge that the President will be flown abroad, on taxpayer’s money, for any ailment that’s more than a headache.

President Goodluck Jonathan and his colleagues in government are enjoying first class medical treatments while ordinary Nigerians make do with rundown hospitals with dilapidated facilities.

If Rwanda can achieve this feat, then other African countries have no excuse to not follow suit

Conversely, the Rwandan government mandated that any government official seeking medical attention abroad will be solely responsible for expenses incurred. Essentially, this approach would incentivize Rwandans, especially those in government, to invest in their healthcare infrastructure. Furthermore, the Rwandan government has been able to provide health insurance coverage for all Rwandans. If Rwanda can achieve this feat, then other African countries have no excuse to not follow suit.

Africans are slowly paying the price for their government’s negligence to healthcare. Not only are they dying from inadequate medical care, they have inadvertently become guinea pigs for drugs that have yet to undergo clinical trial. What’s more, the World Bank has offered $200 million to countries battling Ebola, which seems like a sweet, genuine gesture until pay back time comes around.

Consequently, there are three basic questions African governments ought to answer: Firstly, when will Africa stop playing Lois Lane to the West’s Superman? Secondly, when will they start investing heavily in pharmaceutical research and development, and adequately train and equip healthcare workers? And lastly, at what point will Africa take charge of her affairs, like Batman, and harness all the wealth, human resource and modern technology at her disposal for the betterment of Africans?

Yambuku in the Bomba Region/Town

The Bomba Region; As Piot and another doctor examined an infected couple in one small hamlet, the man died as they drew blood from his wife. Afraid that locals might think they were responsible, they departed quickly, leaving gloves and explaining th
The Bomba Region; As Piot and another doctor examined an infected couple in one small hamlet, the man died as they drew blood from his wife. Afraid that locals might think they were responsible, they departed quickly, leaving gloves and explaining th

Why don’t we tell that story in our capacity as African media and disseminate that information?

Canada and Australia, as at the time of writing this article, have placed a Travel ban on “West African countries in the grip of the Ebola outbreak.”

The Telegraph (UK) of 2nd October 2014 published an article with a speculative, panic-mongering headline titled, “Ebola ‘could become airborne’: United Nations warns of ‘Nightmare scenario’ as virus spreads” (a headline that thrives on small-minded speculation to catch the attention of the reader and subsequently creating a panic).

Why don’t we tell that story in our capacity as African media and disseminate that information?

In the article, it declares, “There is a nightmare chance that Ebola could become airborne if the epidemic is not brought under control fast enough”. After creating panic amongst their western audience, it makes sure to point fingers at exactly who is causing a disruption of their peace: “The longer it moves in the virulent melting pot that is West Africa, the more chances increase that it could mutate.’ After raising these unfounded speculations with the aid of a sensational vocabulary, shaming Africans and probably frightening the scores of people who would read only a headline and make their conclusions, the article dillydallies about the issues, then squeezes in the actual facts of the situation in the conclusion, that Ebola cannot be airborne after all, therefore, all worry should be dispensed.

The most infuriating thing about an article like this is that the writer was aware from the beginning that Ebola being airborne was a falsity, because she had done her research (evident in the article) but, instead, she chose a false headline to attract readers. Thus, in a bid to garner more views, in one swipe, in a very respectable news outlet like the Telegraph, she wrote without regard for the lives and reputations that would be destroyed by her misrepresentation. But then again, this is no news. For decades, Africa has been at the centre of debasement, creating the illusion and delusion of a cursed Africa in the minds of westerners who will not bother with proper research and (I suspect) feel more comfortable in believing a narrative that places them as the world’s saviours. No news at all.

It is time to take charge of our own narrative. We must destroy the single story. And through the most powerful mode of our time: The media.

BBC This World - Outbreak, The Truth About Ebola

Carricature of A village Afflicted With Ebola

Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko
Many of the tiniest villages had built barricades at their entrances, setting up a quarantine system — something village elders had learned to do when smallpox epidemics had torn through the region in the past.
Many of the tiniest villages had built barricades at their entrances, setting up a quarantine system — something village elders had learned to do when smallpox epidemics had torn through the region in the past.

The Ebola Virus Attacks and Destructs

Above, in this Hub, I have collated several articles on trying to update the outbreak of Ebola in Africa. But for now, in this part of the Hub, I would like to trce the origin and emergence of Ebola in the early 1970s ahd how it came about. In this narrative below, I would like to use as my authority, Laurie Garrett. For me, thus far, to be able to give my readers a heads-up about Ebola, I found her work very authentic and more relevant, because, I contend, it is not from the present, in the 21st century that we get to know about Ebola. Garrett has a different and more original and serious historical take and analysis of the the Ebola virus. We go back into the 20th century, and we will pick it up from the 1970s and work our synergy to the present.

Whenever one reads Garerett's works of the her book The Coming Plague, I chose the Chp\ater she Calls Yambuku in the Congo. The story will be cited and in some instances, paraphrased.

In the story, Garrett narrrates an accout of the first or price patient and she writes:

On August 28, 1976, a thirty-year old man came to the Ymbuku Mission Hospital complaining of terrible diarrhea. Though nobody at the mission recognized the msn, he told the Sisters that he came from the nearby village of Yandongi. His origins were no matter,; the Sisters treated any needy soul who crossed their threshold, sometimes 400 a day, manyof whom wlaked and hitched rides distances of fifty or sixty miles to reach the mission.

Most of the sick got injections of one kind of another, antibiotics, chloroquine, vitamins - whatever supplies might be on hand in the modestly funded remote Catholic hospital. And usually that was enough for the people, who would, in any event, supplement whatever the Belgiannurses gave them with potions, incantations, and injections from local sorcerers ad medicine men.

But the case of the man fom Yandongi was odd, and Sisters Beata Emdona and Myriam werent' quite sure what was the source of his illness. They put the man in one of the 120 beds in the hospital and, for two days, debted his diagnosis, finally wiring in his medical chart a vague "dysentry epistaxis."

After two days the man left the hospital against the Sister's wishes, his diarrhea and epistaxis, or severe nosebleed unresolved. He was never seen again, and the events after his disappearance would prompt dozens of investigators from all over the world to scour the villages throughout the Bumba Zone in search of this elsusive patient."

They covered region and countries thrughout Congo, Sudan and Cameroon. Accroding to Garrett, "Some 275,000 of fewer than 500 people. They earned their living growing crash crops for export to the Zairan capital, Kinsasha, and by hunting. The Bumba Zone lay in Zaire's northern frontier, spanning the savanna and dense rain forest lands between Ubangi and Zaire(formerly Congo) rivers.

The equatorial jungles and grasslands were rife with game that included such marketable delicacies, pelts, and riches such as green monkeys, chimpanzees, spotted-necked otters, mongooses, civets, elephants, hippoppotamuses, bush pigs, buffaloes, bongos, sitatunga antelopes, bushbucks, reedbucks, and oribi.

Since 1935, the major hospital and dispensary for some 60,000 villagers living in the central Bumba zone was that operated by Belgian Catholic missionaries in the Village of Ymabuke. A staff of seven "nurses" - so designated, though none of the Sister had attended a certified nursing school - and medical assistants tended to the health and needs of the community out of a rather modest set of cinder-block buildings.

On entering the front of hospital, administrative offices were in a roon on the right, followed by a pharmacym and a surgical block comprised of an operating theater, scrub room, and facilities for for "sterilizing" instruments: a thirty-liter autoclave and a Primus stove atop which watter boiled.

Outside the surgical block one entered a long alleyway. to one side of the alley ws a pavilion bisected by a hall, off of whichwere large hospital rooms: one common ward with eighteen beds men's wards, and three larger women's wards. As was common throughout Central Africa., the beds were flat metal ones made tolerably comfortable with thin mattress and ancient linen. Additional comforts and foods to supplement the basic rice or mealier-meal menu were provided by patients' relatives

There was no doctor in Yambuku, taptients were treated by the staff of four Belgian nuns who had received a modicum of training in nurse-midwifery, a priest, one Zairian female nurse, a nd seven Zairian men."

The situtaion in the hopsital was dangerously compromised by the operation porticos(if any) of the hospital, and the relatives were treated furthermore by their relatives. Patients like Antoine had returned to the hospital criticlly ill. He was vomiting and had acute diarrhea, leaving him so dehydrated that he had eyes surrounded by pale, parchmentlike skin, stretched tightly over pronounced facial bones. His chest hurt, he had a terrible headache, fevers contued, he ws deply agitsted and confused. And he was bleeding: his nose bled, his gums bled, and there was blood in his diarrhea and vomitis.(Garrett)

Thhis was not an isolted case, and some were fighting for their lives in their home after visiting the hospital. the children and relatives were becoming affected and begining to show ssymptons of fever and headaches having come in contact with those affected, as in the village of Yamasikolo. Those like Sebo who had been tending and taking care of her husband, began showing signs of being semi-delirious, vomiting blood and bleeding from his eyes, was her usband too.. Many of the patients were pumped with antibiotics, cholrquine, vitamins and intravenous fluids to offset their dyhydration, as we are being informed by Garrett.

This is how Garrett paints a peicture of death visited upon the the people of Yambuku in one family:

"Nothing worked, of all the medicine used above,. On Septe,ber 8, Antoine die. Unbenknownst tot eh Stisters, Yombe died the day before in her village home. On September 9, her little sister. Euza succumbed. That week Lozenge and her husband died. Ekombe die int eh hut in Yaekenga-and all this the Sisters did not know.

One of the early understanding as to the cacause of such maultiple deaths and the spread of the disease so far was the fact that "the tradition of readying for burial required evacuating all food and escreta, procedure that was generally performed by bare-haded women. As a result of this, In a matter of days,sAntoine's mtother, gizmo and sophie we suffering the same ghstly disease; Sophie and Gizi survived,but antoine's mother died on September 20, as did his mother-in-law, who had assisted in the preparations. Sophie wo was pregnant and survived those hellish days, her baby was still born - another hemorrhagic victim. In all, twenty-one of Antoine's friends and faily members got the disease; eighteen died. (Garrett)

We learn further from Garrett that:

"Soon the hospital was full of people suffering eith the new symptoms. Panic spread as village elders spoke of an illness, unlike anything ever seen before, that made people bleed to death. In Yambuku the Sisters were already close to the breakingg point, not knowing why, or how of the new disease.. The horror was magnified by the behavior fot eh many patients whose minds seemed to snap. Some tore off their cloting and ran out tot eh hospital, screaming incohrently. Others cried out to unseen visitors, or starred out fo gost eyes without recognizing thier wives, husbands, or children at their sides. Word, and the disease, spread quickly to villages throughout the Bumba Zone. In some, the huts of the infected were burnt down by hysterical neighbors.

"On September 12, Sisster Beata developed the sudden fever, muscle aches, nausea, diarrhea, and bleeding gums that she and her fellow nurses now recognized only too well. Sisters Myriam and Edmonda prayed for a miracle and radioed urgent pleas for assistance. Dr. Ngo medial director of the Bumbaa region, who could not help the ailing sister, with great clinical care, gathered information as much as possible, and on September wnet back to Bumbaa in order to cable his report to authrities in Kinsasha. This was his report:

Republique du Zaire - Region of the Equator - S/Region of Mongala - Bumba Zone - Bumba Medical Service

Inquiry into alarming cases in the community of Yandongi, Bumba Zone, 15-17 September 1976

I receved an urgent call from Yambuku on September 15 from the medical assistant Masangaya Alola Nzanzu of Yambuku Hospital becasue of alarming cases in community since September 5, 1976; I went to determine the reality of the satuation.

Findings:

"The affliction is characterized by a high temperature around 39 degrees Celsius; frequent vomiting of black digested blood, but of red blood in a few cases; drivel emission initially sprinkled with blood, with only red blood near death; epistaxis[nosebleeds] now and then; retrosternal and abdomial pain and a state of stupor, promotion with heaviness in the joints; rapid evolution toward death after a period of about three days, from a state of general health."

Gaarretts continues:

Ngoi's report described the frist case, that of Mabalo Lokela, and then listed twenty-six of the strange illness, giving the names of the patients, noting tht fourteen had died, ten were still sick, and four had fled the hospital in terror, their whereabouts are unknown. Eerily, Ngoi corrected his report just befroe sending it to Kinsasha to note that two individuals on his "ailing" list had died by the time he reached Bomba. He listed the treatments, without success, at Yambuku Hospital; aspirin. chloroquine, nivaquine, blood coolants, calcium, cardiac stimulants, caffeine, camphor. And he noted that the hospital had used up all its antibiotic supplies.

Nothing helpdul had been discovered in the Yambuku Hospital group's microscopic studies of blood, urinem, and stool samples, ngoi noted. And he tactfully added that protective measures by the hospital to isolate patients with the disease "are not strict." Warning that "there is already panic" in all the villagesNgoi requested and recommended assistance fromKinsasha authorities. He left Yambuku having recommended that the Sisters take three measures immediately" "(1) Hospitalize the cases. (2) Use Public cemeteries. (3) Boil potable water

"What Ngoi had written, though at that time he did not know it, was the firsst historic description of a new disease of the twentieth century. Federal authorities dispatched two professors from the National University of Zaire to Yambuku: microbiologist Myembe Lintak and epidemiologist Omombo. They reached the mission on 23, intending to conducta six-daystudy of the problem, but cut their visit short and beat a hasty retreat from Yambuku after just twenty-four hours.

"When they arrived at Yambuku Hospital, Muyembe and Owombo saw despair and horror everywhere they turned. Just hours before they arrived, twenty-six-yrear -old mission nurse. The problem for the professors ws that they did not take Dr. Ngoi's. The professor first fouced on a small child who was writhing in agony i a hospital crib. While they discussed wht might be done, the child died before their eyes. The academics were shaken from their intellectualizing, and immediately set to work on collecting blood and tissue samples from the patients and cadavers, interviewing ailing patients and reviewing their medical charts.

These acdemics did not pay attention to the report of Dr. Ngoyi, and they did not bring with them protective gloves, masks, or gowns for their use during procedures that put them in contact with the infected blood. Still, they worked around the clock, examining five blood samples for signs of malaria, parasites, or bactria. They found nothing. When they performed autospsies, Muyembe and Owombo were aghast at the extensive damage inflicted by the disease, and removed liver samples to sent to sphisticated laboratories for further analysis.

The professors ran away from Yambku, and on sept 30, Sister Myriam died in the kinsasha hospital.

While working through a handle of Kentucky bourbon one night, they looked at a poorly drawn map and saw the Ebola River — somewhat nearby, but not as close as they thought. But that’s the name they chose. They’d been calling the disease the Yambuku v
While working through a handle of Kentucky bourbon one night, they looked at a poorly drawn map and saw the Ebola River — somewhat nearby, but not as close as they thought. But that’s the name they chose. They’d been calling the disease the Yambuku v

Transporting The Ebola Infected Blood To The World Laboratories

The events that took palce in Yambuke,set a stage of cascading events that led the World's scientiist en route to the Congo region.The transportation of the accumulated biological material went through many twists and turns. The political sitution and operatives, government or otherwise, got exposed for the ineptness and lack of protocal discipline.

According to Garrette:

"Over the years [the world] has witnessed Mobutu's transformation from a sort of George Washington to a tyrannical and corrupt depot enamored of the works of Machiavelli and surrounded by family and associates who treated Zzire's National Bank as their pPersosnal Cash Register.

"Grown cynical, [those who observed Mabotu over time], Dr. Ngwete Kikhela, Zaire's Minister of Health, called his [associates] in Wyoming to notify the American authorities, requesting assistance. [These contacts] immediately contacted the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, apprising the agency of the situation and formally requesting laboratory support to determine the cause of the Yambuku Outbreak.

"After Sister Romana died at noon on October 2, sicx hours later Father Lootens died, and raadio messages were relayed and ordered the area placed under strict quarantine and "cordons sanatoria" established around Yambuku.

"At Minister Ngwte's request, a team of mecical experts had been assembled and flown to Bumba by the Zairian Airfare. From there they drove to Yambuku. The tree-man team arrived shortly after the deaths of Sister romana and Father Lootens. Ministry officials, notified of the deaths by radio relay messages, ordered the area quaranteened..

"President Maboutu expressed concern, when briefed, and put his personal Hercules C-130 traspport jet at the diasposal of the medical effort(I think he should have donated it to the health institution). He also ordered the entire Bumba Zone placed under strict isolation. All roadways, waterways, and airfields in the region were placed under martial law, and the transport of goods and people in and out of the area came to a full stop within a week.

"Sudan and Karthoum were having cases of Ebola in their enclaves, Kartoum has a a la carte of politics brewing within its confines. So transporting Blood samples from one region to the next nearly comprised the Blood samples who were to be handed to the WHO, who when they received them, immediately sent them to the laborattories in the United States and the United Kingdom for analysis.

The Precarious Path of the Blood Samples Befroe reaching repsonsible hands in brief, below:

Garret paitns the following peicture for us:

WHO enlisted high-security laboratories all over the world in the effort,.It wasn't hard, really becasue everybody wanted a piece of the acction. though the best guess was that the disease was caused by the yellow fever viru, the outbreaks were something new, intellectually exciting. Throughout October and November bllod tissue samples from disease victims in Yambuku, Kinsasha and Sudan were sent to laboratories al over the world.

"The were sent to the Untied Sttes (Centers for Disease Control-CDC-Atlanta, the U.K. (The microbiological Research Establishment, Porton Down, salisbury), Belgium (the University of Anvers and the Prince Leopold) Institute of Tropical Mdedicine) West Germany (Bernard Nocht Institute for Naval and Tropical Diseases), and France (special pathogens branch of the Pasteur Institute).

[The blood sample from Kinsasha] until it reached its destination in a thermos flask containing seral Vacutainer tubes of blood surrounded by dry ice - a commonly used freezing protective, was a note from Dr. G. Raffier of the Fench Embassy in Kinsasha, dated October 10, 1976:

"Sir, the enclosed tubes contain blood samples collected at a mission October 4 to 9 inpatients and illness contacts at the hospital of the Catholic Mission of Yambuku, Bumba Zone, Equatorial Region of the Republic of Zaire. This village of Yambuku and another close neighbor, Yandongi, are currently seized by a deadly epidemic of indeterminant nature. It began September 5. It is now in regression(10-9-76). ...

The first assumptions were that the region was hit by yellow fever (but four of the dead Belgin missionaries were vaccinated) or typhoid fever. The first analysis done at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (IMT) of anvers eliminated yellow fever and typhoid; a virus not seen before was isolated at Anvers. We have not yet received results of a liver biopsy sent to Dakar. A diagnostic assumption of Lassa has been advanced, but not proven to date. The fresh blood samples have been preserved on dry ice."

It is at this point that I begin to llik much more deeper, utilizing Garrett's writing, to at least get to the point of what the lab experts found out as they examed the blood, that I will have to cut out too many events and narratives leading from one episode to the other.

The Ebola Virus Breakdown

Looking back I believe this was probably the right decision because the children now understand that if the Ebola Virus made it to our shores they could take precautions to prevent becoming infected.  I can see that, for them, the fear of an unknown
Looking back I believe this was probably the right decision because the children now understand that if the Ebola Virus made it to our shores they could take precautions to prevent becoming infected. I can see that, for them, the fear of an unknown

The Virus Worm-like looking Is Identified

The outbreak in Ymabuku caught the world of health and diseases with their pants down. They were now scrambling to find out what, if it is new, is this desease all about. Also, they wanted to go ahead and find a cure. But these things needed first for them to find out what is happening, where does it emerge from? What caused it.. And they were now on the read towards ascertaining as to what it was they were dealing with.

Garrett writes:

A fearless and youthful enthusiastic young lab expert and ambitious Belgian in the week of October saw when he looked at the samples was a wonderous mystery. He and Van der Groen first prepared samples for standard yellow fever antibody tests, using antibodies that would react with the contents if the virus was present. Negative. He repeated they yellow fever test. Still Negative. The he tried typhoid Antibody. Also Negative.

"But van der Groen confirmed that whatever was in that odd blue thermos from Zaire ws quite deadly by putting droplets from the intact test tube into larger tubes containing so-called Vero monkey cells. Within eleven days, the vero cells were dead, and when van der Groen withdrew liquid from the dead Vero tubes and put it in tubes full of fresh vero cells, they too died within ten to eleven days.

"The conditions within which the Belgians labored was nomore sophisticated or secure than might be found in a typical high school lab. An accident nearly happened of which in their later years, reminiscing, they would realize tht they escaped with their lives and were flirting with ddangerous death and germ. The lab in which this work was doe had no special security or containment facilities, no fancy hoods to draw dangerous bugs up into ducts, away from schientists' mouths. Indeed, the Belgians labored under conditions not vry sophisticated and with a deeadly and dangerous bug.

"Indeed, three days into their research, the much older Pattyn removed a rack full of incubating infected Vero cells for examination. Tilted the rack to get a clearer look, and the tube slid out, crashing to laboratory floor.Delgadillo and van der Groen stared in panic at the wet floor, the Bolivian noting that liquid ha d splashed his shoes, looked at his feet as well: fluid splatttered his wing tips in deadly little beads. Both exchanged worried glances.

"Aateer few moments, Pattyn suggested that van der Groen "clean it up," and left the laboratory. With gloved hands, van der Groen and Delgadillo gingerly wiped up the floor and their shoes, then liberally spread disinfectant around the facility.

"Shortly afer the Belgian group's Vero cell confirmed the dangers of the Mysterious Zairian microbes, their government began questioning the wisdom of continuing the Antwerp research effort. They were instructed to pass the samples on to higher-security laboratories outside Belgium. Van der Groen convinced Pattyn to save one small sample, reasoning that it should be used as a backup, in case the primary samples were damaged or lost in shipment to Porton Down.

"Having ruled out the easy answers, Piot eagerly prepared the sample for analysis under an electron microscope. He gasped as he stared att he strange viruses; they were shaped like question marks.

"This is a new virus! It's something we have never seen before," he exclaimed, feeling thrill of discovery. The virus was a long worm-like tube that coiled at one end and left the other etended. Piot imagined that when asked, "What is this?" the virus simply answered back: "????"

"Thoroughly committed to solving the Mystery of the "???? viruses," Piot was disappointed when WHO telexed on October 7 that the group should cease all research immediately, saying, "Investigations indicate that this may be Myburg." Piotpacked the last sample, wrote up his findings, and, as per WHO instructions, shipped the lot off to Karl Johnson at the CDC. He was intrigured by the diagnoses and wanted to go to te scene and see for himself. More tests were carried out.

Bola Virus

International Scientist

This is the team that first went looking for the source of the Ebola virus in Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
This is the team that first went looking for the source of the Ebola virus in Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

International Mobilization Fighting Ebola

Further tests were done in a much more professional and controlled environment of the samples. Garrett informs us thusly:

On October 10, Webb and her co-worker, Fred Murphy, officially informed WHO that "the illness is caused by a virus that resembles Marburg (Marburg-like), that the epidemics are probably caused in Zire and Sudan by an etiological agent that is similar, but represents a new immunotype that is in the family of Marburg.

"Webb's Marburg specilation prompted and international escalation in scientific security. Thereafter the CDC and Porton Down - the world's most secure labs in 1976 - received virtually all samples of the muystery agent.

"At Porton Down it ws Geoffrey Platt who handled most of the mystery virus research. His lab wasn't exactly an American-standard P3 facility; rather, it was uniquely English mix of P3 and P2 elements.

"Since 1964, Platt had worked at Porton Down with dangerous viruses, particularly Lassa, taking precautions to protect himself, though the microbes were not ket safely inside glove boxes, as was done at the CDC. The rooms were pressurized, and the air was decontaminated before being releasedinto the English countersued; but Platt's personal protection was limited to a cloth surgical gown, a double layer of latex gloves, and an old World War II-era gas mask.

"Though the respirator had been thoroughly tested for its effectiveness in protecting British soldiers from combat gases, it had never been proven that the mask filtered out viruses. Nevertheless, the handful of Porton Down scientist and technicians who worked with super-legal microbes were limited to using the cumbersome, often hot masks that always seemed to cloud up in the midst of delicate procedures, usually leaving researchers with headaches by the end of the day. Every night after work, Platt would scrub his mask with Lysol and spray it with formalin disinfectant.

P;att warned his colleagues about the dangers of . But he would soon worry about himself and wonder and not go to sleep, the very warning he counselled his mates with, earler in his work and research.Platt's work on the Sudan Samples prompted WHO to release , on October 15, the following urgent bulletin:

"Haemorrhagic Fever of Viral Origin

"Between July and September 1976, it was observed in the region spanning N'zara to Maridi, in southern Sudan, sporadic cases of fever with hemorrhagic manifestations. It is thought that the first cases occurred among agriuclturalfamilies. During the last week of September, the situation worsened considerably, 30 of 42 cases occurred in Maridi hospital among members of the Staff; it is thought the desease was spread from one person to another. By October 9, 137 cases, 59 deaths, were reported for the region comprising N'zara, Maridi and Lirangu. The epidemic has cause panic on the local level.."(WHO)

Garrett: "Samples from Sudan and Zaire have revealed the presence of a new virus, morpholigically similar to Marburg, but antigenically different."

We learn further from Garrett that, "Well before WHO officially released that report, the agency had confirmed from three labs, (CDC, Anvers, Porton Down) that a deadly new virus had been discovered, and had initiated an international effort to try and stop the epidemics in Zaire and Sudan, identify the virus, and determine how and why it appeared.

In a matter of days, what began as problem in a missionary hospital would involve investigators and military personnel from eight countries, sevral international organizations, the foreign ministries of at least ten nations and the entire health apparatus of Zaire. Almost overnight, events would snowball into an effort necessitating over 500 skilled investigators, and mobilizing the resources of numerous European, American, and Afric's institutions, all at an indirect cost of over$10 million. Direct cost for the Yambuku investigation alone would exceed $1 million.

The Effects And Affects Of Ebola

The first Ebola outbreak killed 88% of those infected, 280 people. It’s possible that the same infection was responsible for a Sudanese outbreak that year, which killed another 151, 53% of those infected.
The first Ebola outbreak killed 88% of those infected, 280 people. It’s possible that the same infection was responsible for a Sudanese outbreak that year, which killed another 151, 53% of those infected.

A Live And Research Of The Crime Scene: Ebola's First Forntier in 1976

A team of specialists in diffrent health fields was assembled, and they were housed in the Catholic mission in Bumba. It was here that they received radio messages from Yambuku. Several Physicans of Bumba, Ngoi, Zayemba and Makuta briefd foreigners on their clinical observations, noting that the epidemic had spread to sevral villages around Yambuku.

The following morning the grouped looked in on a handful of muystery disease patients at the Bumba hospital and mer Dr. Massamba a careful doctor with an instinct for epidemiology, had already toured the epidemic area and he told Sureau the disease was claiming residents of at least forty-four villages in a fifty -mile radius around Yambuku.

The the scientist drove along with all the Zairian doctors fifty miles to Yaambuku. In a matter of three hours, they reached Yambuku:

Ebola Ground Zero: Yambuku

"They turned off the engines and immediately felt the sad silence of the place," Garrett further informs us in the following update. "Gone were the noise and activity of typical Zairian villages, the long lines of chattering women and children waiting for vaccinations, the vendors selling their wares. Indeed gone were the people altogether.

Piot spotted Sister Genoeva odd white gauze "cordon ssanitaires" strung about the mission, and a sign in French that said: "Do Not Enter; to call the Sisteers, ring the bell." As he approached the bell, three nuns came running out of the building, calling, "Do Not Come Near! You're going to die! You WillDie! Stay Away!

Recognizing their Flemish accents, Piot jumped over the "Cordons' and shouted greetings in their shared native tongue. Overwhelmed at hearing Flemish, the nuns broke down, sobbing. Sure, Ruppol and Breman quickly joined Piot in hes efforts to comfort the women, and the Sisters were pleasd that JeanFrancois had, as promised, return to their devastated outpost. As tensions and emotions eased, the scientists unloaded their equipment and followed the Sisters to the school. Closed since the fuouth week of the epidemic, the barren classrooms became their temprary home.

"Over dinner and plent of wine the Catholic teachers and clerics poured out their stories for hours on end, while the visitors patiently listed, asked gentle questions, and occassionally jotted down notes. Sister Marcella, who had been keeping logs of the dead, presented her grim list to Sureau.

Speaking in a deliberate monotone, which seemed to help her keep her emotions in check, Sister Marcella explained that in the past moth, 38 of the 300 residents and employers of Yambuku had died, incuding all the missionary nurses, four out of six Zairian nurses, one of the three padres, and one of the two laundry workers. The she gave the scientists a sobering list of villagers afflicted. The visitors realized they would have to go to verey single village, conducting house-to-hues investigation. No other approach will do.

"Sister Marcella also volunteered that the first unusual medical peoblem at the hospital may have occurred in August, when three women died in close succession on the obstetrics ward. They had bled to death after giving birth. The Sister had checked hospital records for the same time period in 1975 and found no such cases, and she was unable to tease out of the general records cases of anything similar to the strange new disease prior to August 1976.

"It is New," she told them. "It is definately something new."

Victims And Primitive Heatlh

Nuns Burrying The Religious and health colleagues affect and effected by Ebola
Nuns Burrying The Religious and health colleagues affect and effected by Ebola
Stock photography of a heavily protected technician is shown discarding blood specimens collected during the Ebola outbreak in Zaire, 1976. Researchers hurried to identify the cause of this epidemic, pinpoint its source, and halt its spread. The dise
Stock photography of a heavily protected technician is shown discarding blood specimens collected during the Ebola outbreak in Zaire, 1976. Researchers hurried to identify the cause of this epidemic, pinpoint its source, and halt its spread. The dise

The Afflicted Villages And Their Populace: Spotting Ebola

We pick the yarn at the point where the scientist go int the villages to learn more about the source. Garrett writes:

"The following day the scientists relayed an abbreviated version of Sister Marcella's reports by radio to Bumba (from where they are ultimately relayed to Kinsasha), breakfasted and set out in a different directions in four teams to inspect the villages with the help of Sister Marcella. Saureau advised the group to limit the their numbers exposed to the this virus until they can determine how infectious it is. And he directed that he and Piot would draw the blood.

The trio arrived in Yalikonde, close by Yambuku, where they quickly learned how to gain the trust of fearful villages. A working pattern developed that was repeated in ten villages that day. It would begin with an amble about the middle of the village, during which time the leading elder of the community would introduce himself. The group would discuss the weather for a while, until the elder invited to share some 'arak'.

After th e'arak' burn had been drunk, the Yalikonde introduced the white men to Lisangi Tobago, a twenty-five-year-old man who had been struggling with the disease for six days. The visitors examined Lisangi, who was far too weak to protest, and drew a blood sample.

"Everywhere the group went they noticed the people had taken remarkably wise measures to stop the epidemic's spread. Roadblocks were staffed around the clock near village entries, virtually all traffic on the Ebola and Zaire rivers came to a halt, the ailing villages and their families were kept under quarantine, bodies were buried some distance away from they houses, and there was little movement of people between communities. The people had their act tight and together.

Van der Groen was instructed to bring along equipment and essential supplies, and amongst these things was the microscope slides he had carefully coated with infected Vero cells. Though they were fixed with acetone, he had no way of knowing whether or not those slides were covered with contagious organism.

"His plan was to diagnose infections by putting patients' blood samples on the microscope slides, waiting a while, then rinsing the slides. If patients were infected, they would make antibodies against the mysterious microbe that would latch on the infected Ver cells. He then planned to mix flouroscence — a molecule that glows under ultraviolet light — with money antihuman antibodies.

"When the fluorescent antibodies were coated onto the microscope slides, they would cling to the human antibody-attached Vero cells. And Van der Groen planned to simply shine ultraviolet light at his slides to see which people had infected blood. Though the method had been in use for Lass since Jordi Casal's days at the Tockerfeller foundation, van der Groen had never tried immunoflouresence technique, and hoped that he would be able to perform professionally in the epidemic pressure cooker.

The leader of the group, Johnson, began to inspect the blood samples that Piot had sent from Yambuku. He and Van der Groen set out to work. Van der Groen had never worked with his hands inserted inside heavy stationery gloves, and he found the process cumbersoeme and frustrating. But Johnson showed him the controls and they both worked smoothly as a team.

"Van der Groen was sweating profusely and each step was hard-going. By two in the morning, he had competed each step of the immunofluorescent process. All that remained was the ultra-violet light microscope examination to see whether of not the serum from Yambuku was Infected with the mystery microbe. For that, they needed a completely dark room.

"Van der Groen hauled a small table into the bathroom, used the toilet as his seat and turned off the electric lights. He switched on his microscope, and with Johnson holding his breadth in anticipation, Van der Groen put his eye on the lens…

"Comme le etoiles!" he exclaimed. "Like twinkling stars ... in a dark night, surrounded by red cells. Look Karl, the cells containing the virus are bright, glowing, fluorescent masses."

"Johnson peered down the lens. It was three in the morning, and they were too excited to sleep. The sum they were looking came from Sopjie in Yambuku, who had survived the disease. Finally they had a way to test who was infected, and to find people who had been infected, but successfully fought off the microbe without developing detectable disease.

"They also now had a way to test whether a particular person's blood contained potentially lifesaving antibodies.

"Meanwhile, Sureau contemplated the most awkward finding; the condition of Yambuku Mission Hospital. The previous day he, Breman and Piot examined the now empty facility, its medical records, and equipment. When they entered the compound, Sureau had been appalled. The sterilization facilities were abominable, the surgical equipment positively antique, and lined — though washed — was often covered with old bold stains.

"Yet, when he examined the medical records, he found no telltale link between people who had undergone surgery in the antiquated facility and those who got the disease. He could not wipe off the uneasy feeling that the starting point of the epidemic was — somehow the well-intended but fatally primitive hospital. And reporting back to Johnson, Sureau and Breman told him that they privately believed that the source of the most fatal cases in Yambuku's epidemic was the hospital. Bremen explained that as he strolled throughout the hospital, he had delicately removed from a pan of water, two syringes, in the outpatient clinic.

"I'll bet these are infected," Brema said, not in ghat the clinic issued only five syringes to its nurses each morning. They were used and reused on the 300 to 600 patients who required medical attention each day. When Johnson suggested it might be a bit dicey to point an accusatory finger at four now deceased missionaries, Breman said, "The villagers clearly understood that the hospital was Source. Long before it was closed, the people voted with their feet. They ran away. That place was almost empty when it closed."

"A second team was put together with Breman at the helm, and a plan to conduct a major epidemiological investigation with nearly all the International Commission directly involved. The first step required to return a small team to Yambuku to recruit and train a staff of local Zaiarians, particularly those who had survived the disease and were presumably immune.

Ebola Origins and Infeccted Tools

Infected Syringes were found in the Yambuku hospital
Infected Syringes were found in the Yambuku hospital
Chloroquine (treatment for Malaria) was indeed INJECTED into those Africans who subsequently contracted Ebola (typical symptoms manifesting within 5-7 days). It has since been given strictly in a pill form. However in 1976, in Zaire, Africa, safety p
Chloroquine (treatment for Malaria) was indeed INJECTED into those Africans who subsequently contracted Ebola (typical symptoms manifesting within 5-7 days). It has since been given strictly in a pill form. However in 1976, in Zaire, Africa, safety p

Hospital In Yambuku Responsible For the Origin And Spread Of The Ebola Virus

The Origins Of Ebola

The Microbe "????" was named Ebola after a river in the Area and region of Bumba. There is s strong suspicion that the disease is zoonosis. Monkeys did not seem to play a role in these epidemics and rodents, or bats, may perhaps be the animal reservoir," stated one of the International Commission's reports. A later WHO official report would bemoan that "since the natural reservoirs of Marburg and Ebola viruses are unknown, no control activities can be carried out in Arica.

"Perhaps the bluntest statement appeared in te commission's second report: "As in the case of Marburg virus, the source of Ebola virus is completely unknown beyond the simple fact that it is African in origin.' Beut even the assumption that all cases wouldd originate in Africa would prove naive(wrong) in years to come."The commission was, however, able to explain how the apparently extremely rare disease spread quickly throughout the Bumba Zone and Maridi. Knowing why a disease spread could allow local authorities to limit future epidemics to a handful of primary cases, preventing hundreds of deaths. El Tahir put it best

"The hospital must be viewed as an epidemic amplifier."

"Both in Maridi and in Yambuku, the poorly supplied clinics reused syringes hudnreds of times a day, injecting drugs from one person to another without sterlizing the needles."

McCormick calculated that during the monthsof September and October 1976, an individual's odds of getting Ebola virus from a single injection at the Yambuku and Maridi hospitals "exceeded 90 percent".

"Seventy-two of the primary cases in Yambuku (out of 103) were caused byunsterile needles used in the mission hospital. Sure calculated from another person survived the ailment, but only 7.5 percent of those who were injected with contaminated syringes suruved.

"At the Yambuku Mission Hospital, for example, the commission eventually found out that the majority of the early Ebola cases involved women who came to see the Sisters for pregnancy-related checkups. When women were questioned, it turned out the real draw to the mission was a miraculous injection that made pregnant women feel energetic and content. It was Vitamin B complex.

"TheSisters did not appreciated this information. Still grieving the loss of more than half their staff and colleagues, the missionaries would not countenance accusation that the very individuals who had given their lives in a saintly struggle against unknown horror should now be labeled agents of epidemic spread.

"Both van der Groen and aPiot were deeply affected by their Zaire adventures, so much so that Guido, along with Piotalong with Van der Groen marched into the headquarters of the Sisters of the Holy Heart of Maria."

It is at this juncture I will install the final installment of what Garrett wrote took place, verbatim...

"Our objective here is education," the seething Van der Groen told Piot as they entered the office of the order's other Superior The meeting began calmly enough, with the two scientists applauding the catholic education of children in the iambus area - as assignation that dated back to 1935. The men also noted the well-intenntioned origins of the order's medical effort, which stemmed from its relatively recent recognition that some 50 percent of the schoolchildren were chronically absent from classes in Yambuku due to illness. The order sought to improve school attendance by maintaining child health.

In the early 1970s, members of the order had attended several days of basic medical training at the Tropical Institute in Antwerp. That was the full extent of their nursing training before venturing into the field.

"They're not nurses!" van der Groen uncharacteristically shouted, realizing he was criticizing deceased nuns. Still, he pushed on. He applauded the holiness and devotion of the Sisters.

"But no onewas thning if you start such a medical business, and the people of the region are receiving no support from the government of Zaire, and you give out free health care, then you must be prepared to be deluged. You must be ready ro give 300 shots a day. If you build something you call a hospital, then you must do the logistic planning, provide the resources, and train your personnel accordingly.

Van der Groen's cou de grace was an accusation: "The price for your lack of planning was high"; half the dead got Ebola in the mission station. Piot insisted tat the mission hospital should be closed or be stuffed by a certified physical. And both men warned Mother Superior that the source of Ebola was never found; it could return, and spread again inside the mission if their instructions are not followed.

Africa's Leading Death Causes in 2014

Remember the Ebola epidemic? It's still not over. Exactly a year ago, health-care officials first confirmed terrifying news: there was an outbreak of Ebola in West Africa. And Franklin Umenze, a doctor living in Nigeria, knew he wanted to help. By Ju
Remember the Ebola epidemic? It's still not over. Exactly a year ago, health-care officials first confirmed terrifying news: there was an outbreak of Ebola in West Africa. And Franklin Umenze, a doctor living in Nigeria, knew he wanted to help. By Ju

What Africans Are Not Doing: The Era Of Neo-Colonialism

When I started writing this Hub, I picked up on the media's euphoria of the day, week and moths. I posted them ahead of the 'real' story about the origins of Ebola. I ended up the section above with the events that led to origins of the Ebola strain, and what caused it. Writing the Hub was an attempt to put the real story straight, without embellishing anything. People, even today, are still remembering what just happened about the Ebola pandemic that gripped Liberia, Cameroon and the outlying areas and regions. It seemed like Ebola just happened, just emerged, and now it is gone.

I have given the history and about the country of Liberia, Cameroon and Guinea above to help the reader have a much broader Geographical and historical, also economical being of these city states. So that, if one were to keep up with the current situation, one will notice the consistency by which these states exists: total corruption. Mabutu was very corrupt, so are the past and present leaders of these states. There's war and destruction and no funding of health facilities and a lot of social unrest and poverty. The combination of all these elements creates a situation we have just discussed above in regards to Yambuku

.A common strain and theme runs the gamut of all the three flag-independent countries, the had leaders who turned out to be despots. They were self-exiled self-styled dictators who imposed their evil will on their fellow country-men. The has the military on their side, the Western interest to prop-up these tin-pot dictators, and invited everyone to come and loot heir countries.

Meanwhile, they could not run nor rule their countries excerpt through use of brutal force. The United States and other Western countries looked askance whenever human rights were violated, and murders on a large-scale are committed. The West's vested interests was to facilitate and support the whims and wants of the dictators, in return to have their investments permitted to exploit and suck dry the natural resources of these countries as I have indicated above what they possessed goods and services that would have interested the involvement and investments by foreign corporations and governments.

So that, when we begin to see the explosions of deadly microbes as has been discussed above, one can't help but see too many similarities in these countries that Ebola, will keep on returning, because the conditions on the ground are not conducive towards human living and propagation. The Wars, the corruption, the poverty, murders, displacement of entire population, drought, no national unity or cohesion, nor function and proper state-bureaucracy of system, cabals and quislings rule and reign supreme; I am talking here about chaos and dysfunction on steroids.

When hospitals cannot dispense properly their care-giving because the hospital cannot afford to buy needles that would be one for each of their patients, but use as few as 5 needles for 600 people in one day, this calls for many things. Amongst which, we are going to have to look much closer and deeper at African's social miasma and make it concrete reality to all and sundry of African origin.

We have here a pattern that has been repeating itself, even as I am onto this part of the Hub, here in Mzantsi, 20+ year of democratic abuse and mis-rule. They all have one thing in common, mu own country included, they have heavy reliance on their armies(armed by the West), and being a client of the West as an underdogs. These despots and crooked rulers in all these four countries, are very happy and unashamedly lackeys and running dogs of Western interests. They do so at the expense of the power-bases; their polity.

Our lot is imported inclined and orientated because in our lands of our birth, we manufacture nor create anything-but reduced to assembling all things. One can see the big role played by Chase Manhattan as the main Kahuna in these countries. The World Bank and the IMF are key into giving a go-ahead of private and western investment to a country they consider as 'Safe". These despots, as I have posted their mugs above, did more harm than good for their countries and Africa as a whole. The whole Ebola pandemic, is because these tin-pot despots aggrandize themselves to the hilt through looting the public coffers and stifling/killing off any opposition-starving a nation of impoverished people in the process...

Ebola flared-up now in the 2014 timeline, and it shook the world. This, the reader can glean through the articles I posted above in the opening of the Hub. This was in keeping up with the zeitgeist and introducing the disease as it was spreading. Americans were aghast and scared, and they started training their health staff in being able to deal with the pandemic. They managed to have to deal with about 4 cases, and I think one died. To me, it seems like the euphoria was a one-sided explanation and talking about the Ebola disease, and why it is present and a deadly bug.

The Hub then was conceived give a different perspective about the deadly virus. What I did then, was to try and give a historical account of the countries affected-whose citizenry is afflicted with and by the disease. I go into their history since their newly found independence in the 1950s and 1960s from the clutches of colonialism. When its leaders awoke and found themselves in political power, they hauled their families and relatives into the governance/riches of these new Flag independent countries. The outcome was disaster and maldevelopment of the entire populace. Many were killed, others incarcerated, and many tortured and killed. The rest left hungry and hopeless: deliberately impoverished.

Professor Clarke writes:

"Perhaps the greatest political mistake that has been made in Africa in relation to the Independence Explosion is the European training of the African heads of state and the respective supporters, whose ideas of the state are negatively influenced by this very training. Whatever system the African use for themselves must be reshaped by the concept of Africa for Africans. Neither the communists nor the capitalists have a master plan for African freedom.

" While there are strong ideological differences between the capitalists and the communists, their intention is Africa is the same. Both of them would like to rule over African people and their resources by any means necessary. ... I know no case in history where the Europeans shared power with Africans. When Africans look toward their future, they must envision an Africa that is as African ruled as France is French ruled and England is English ruled. No one needs to apologize ever for wanting to be the master of his own house. The total liberation of Africa must involve a commitment from all the Africans of the face of the earth."

De Kwame Nkrumah put it this way:

"The essence of neocolonialism is that the State which is subject to it is, in theory, independent ad has all the outward trappings of international sovereignty. In reality, it economic system and thus its political policy is directed from outside…"

Clarke adds that"

"Until Africans throughout the world begin to tell their own story, the story will not be properly told. Africa and its people are figuratively and symbolically knocking at the door of the early twenty-first century. Africans caught in the crossfire of the struggle for world power are learning some painful lessons they should have learned long ago:"Mainly, Freedom is not free. Freedom is something you take with your own hands. You maintain it with your own hands. Freedom is not handed down from one generation to another.

"Each generation must assume the responsibility of securing their manhood,their womanhood, the definition of their being on earth that in the final analysis is nationhood. In knocking at the front door of the twenty-first century, the Africans of the world are saying the progression of cirumstances has us from being a people begging and pleading to people insisting and demanding. It is futile for anyone to say that African people are not ready to rule themselves. They are as ready as any people in the world. But ready or not, here they come."

So far, I buttress the points made by Clarke. But what has happened is that many of the leaders talked about above, have taken a short-cut. The have opted for clientelism and took a subordinate role of servicing International capital and nations. In fact, the freedom of their people, was carte balance robbery of the public coffers. It was an opportunity for them to kow-International tow to the International. deep pocketed interests, so that, in their doing so, were expecting the International fiscal milieu to look askance to their indiscretions and corruption

Self-Rule And Governance...

The words Independence, Autonomy, Freedom and Self-Reliance on four road sign arrows pointing and directing you to a life of liberty and self determination
The words Independence, Autonomy, Freedom and Self-Reliance on four road sign arrows pointing and directing you to a life of liberty and self determination

We Should Do For Ourselves: Nationhood, Peoplehood, And Autonomy And Power/Freedom

Clarke continues:

"It is important for us to learn who our friends are and who our enemies are and how to make the best use of both of them. The principal concept of nation structure, nation formation, and nation building have been taken away from us as well. The ability to examine adversaries, to move among them, and still to advance learning something of their technique has also been taken away from us. We have been rather naive in our interaction with people and we have overlooked too many items in relationship to our freedom. We have not developed a technique for dealing with our own traitors. But if we cannot do anything else, we can at least isolate them. Why do we let so many known traitors to the African cause walk amongst us unharmed?

"Who is loyal to this House? Too many people walk among us, live amongst us, but declare no loyalty to us. They eat our bread and sleep in our beds. No one asks whether they are loyal to the cause of our liberation. Africans throughout the world must begin to practice the essential selfishness of survival.Our open-mindedness and our hospitality to strangers have been turned against us.

"I believe inn socialism (and I do), why do we believe just as much in Black(African) ownership of Black(African) communities, which seems like Communism? To me, Black(African) ownership of Black(African) places in the hands of Black(African) people the economic means to affect social change in our favor. We can build a private school if we don't like the public school; use our politics to bring more pressure on the public school.

"Remember, always look back in order to look forward. How did African people rule states before this enchroachment? They are as African as you, and if they did this, they had something you do not have, and that is self-confidence — self-confidence based on an understanding of both your culture and your religion. And your understanding should be that your religion and your politics are all one and the same and that all these things have to come together to advance you in total.

"People rise and fall within the context of the nation institution. When they lose the ability to master and control the nation institution, they lose their freedom. This is where we are: a nation within a nation(s) searching for nationality. We must master our communities, controlour basic in our communities, and see that a Dollar(Rand) turns over eight times before it leaves our community (and sometimes make sure that it doesn't leave at all).

"Everytime we need a shore repaired, we go to another brother, get the shoe repaired. Another brother is fixing the car, etc. It's a built-in economic system in our own community based in our own community, based on anin confidence in ourselves, and based on making sure that the techniques, the basic skills and the basic crafts in the community, are forever sharp. You got to do the job if you want to keep the job.

"look back and see. When we (as Africans) had all thse skills for running nations and running them well and weren't asking for any outsiders to educate our children, how did we lose it and will we regain it? Because, no matter how we look at it, no matter if we try to avoid it - our next assignment in history is "Nnation Management" and Nation Structure. No matter how we try to avoid doing so, so we have to llok again at Sobukwe, Marcus Garver, Biko, Du Boios, etc,. These men were all saying the same things, using different vantage points, different words, different organizsational structures.

"As a people, we must pull on the total good, yesterday's good, in order to create today's nation structure, in order to shape the kind of people we will have to be tomorrow. We will have to leatn that the carbon copy of our oppressor's originality is wearing out, if indeed, he ever had any originality at all.

"we have to study yesterday in order to create today. Now these states existed concurrent with the beeginning of the Slave Trade. These States in Inner West Africa, existed conurrent with the ccoast of West African Slave Trade. Let's examine what went wrong with our family communication. If we are going to have a whole Revolution for social change, we have to llk at when we had it as against when we lost it. We ave to draw on thst in order to make the present and the future. What can we long from how we got into this trap? What can we learn from the Europeans of that day and the intentions towards us that we have not radically changed in this day? Europeans have not changed.

"Today when the Russiaond and United States meet, they're not talking about liberation; they are not talking about liberating anyone. At their summit(s) conferences, they decide which of the will control what part of the world and how to stay out of each other's way so that the confict between them won't weaken them to the point where people can escape from their control. They are discussing 'Power"; who will have it and will will dispense it. They do not envision the world free of domination of the West, i.e., the United States, Russia, Europe [and today the Chinese]."

It is important at this juncture to tie down the Ebola issue, the history of Africa and what will or might help stop the microbe's carnarge of the African poor people.

Key statements on freedom of expression, such as Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, identify limitations and thus effectively compromise the principle. This is unlikely to be sufficient to satisfy both parties in disputes over the
Key statements on freedom of expression, such as Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, identify limitations and thus effectively compromise the principle. This is unlikely to be sufficient to satisfy both parties in disputes over the

In this Hub, I purposely choose to wear my historical hat, for it is from whence I speak. Looking at the brief historical realities of the aforementioned countries, one gets a picture of a people Clarke is talking about above. A people who are trying to find their Nationalities, their freedom and autonomous rule. It that struggle, the first leaders, from independence have usurped the power to serve their own ends.

Some come under the cloak of Pan Africanism, others are Marxist socialist, and there are those who turn out to me reformed Muslims, those like the Mobutu are crass and very crazy despots, the ANC is a motley crew of wanna-be Mafia thugs, but all doing the same thing: oppressing, suppressing, dressing. And repressing their own power base. I

They impoverish, torture, and deny all basic human rights to their collective with impunity. They turn a deaf ear to the please of the poor, and create dungeons to further humiliate and kill off/assassinate all opposition. The social construction are dysfunctional; joblessness endemic; health of the people a hazardous and dangerous undertaking; the economy in the hands of foreigners; our leaders are content if the world they save ignores their ruling methods; or screw their populations; make them sick and crazy; allow drugs to infiltrate the core of the people; and deny basic service and health care to millions.

When cases of Ebola emerge, and the bug has been discovered, what is left staring at us, is the lack of medical care for the poor, one of the functions of the flag-States of Africa: poor and inadequate health care and medicines. This is the case of Yambuku which I have dealt with extensively above. These cruel leaders, depend on oppressing their own people in order to legitimize the rule and power over the, They all do the same thing: they involve their families, relatives and close cabal of friends in order to rule over and control the poverty-stricken and sick/unemployed peoples.

Ron Klain - Ebola Czar

Ebola’s ebola czar called overpopulation the top leadership concern of the world, Gotnews.com has learned. Democratic operative Ron Klain and his wife, Monica Medina, spoke with a Georgetown interviewer in 2008. “I think the top leadership challenge
Ebola’s ebola czar called overpopulation the top leadership concern of the world, Gotnews.com has learned. Democratic operative Ron Klain and his wife, Monica Medina, spoke with a Georgetown interviewer in 2008. “I think the top leadership challenge

Domination And Misleading Behavior: The Case Against Dictators and Despots

If and when a people have been totally dislodged from the cultural, historical, economical and social moorings, the results of that is madness, sicknesses never ever experienced by the oppressed and purposely made dysfunctional people. A dominated people are conditioned to be what the dominant group will in the end able as backward, and ill-equipped to be fully human.

The oppressed, in that state, end up believing in their hopelessness, amnesia sets in-in regard to their own potential; in the long run, pathological anxiety sets, leading to Apathy and alienation. Alienation allows the opportunistic diseases like Ebola to pounce, given the rickety health infrastructure,and broken social mores/anomie, and confusion about a people's identity, worth and ability. This leads to dysfunctional and an anomie-filled society-and instead, they copy-cat any lifestyle that they have been conditioned to be, and their own ground roots reality ignored and discarded.

Wilson writes:

"Domination as a social fact and situation necessarily disorders and reorders the thoughts, feelings, emotions, motivations, values, psychological states, and consequently the consciousness and behavior of the dominated. This disordering and reordering of consciousness and behavior necessarily involve their politically functional labelling and classification by their instigators.

"Classifying and labelling the consciousness and behavior of the oppressed by their oppressors provide the means by which the abnormality and pathology generated by oppression are 'normalized" in the oppressed,i.e., made to appear to follow the natural order of the universe.

The normalization of pathology is exquisitely functional for oppressive regimes. It is for this productive reason that White supremacy(African Despots) always attempt to rationalize [their] oppression of the African people by normalizing their reactionary, pathological,Europeanized consciousness and behavior and simultaneously abnormalizing both the reactionary and precautionary, non-pathological and pathological Afrocentric consciousness and behavior with regard to their political-economic functionality for maintaining White And African Despotic dominance.

"In their attempts to normalize the oppression the White Supremacists and African Despotic regimes seek to deceptively, yet convincingly, demonstrate that the modal consciousness and behavior of subordinated Africans represent the spontaneous, natural, and normal products of original African character and culture. Thus, under White Supremacy and African Despots, the concept off the normal, abnormal and pathological in human consciousness and behavior is revitalized — i.e., defined in terms of the degree to which they are or are not supportive of White And African Despotic rule."

The cause of Ebola has been engendered by ruthless and cruel Despots who oppress and kill their people; who do not build health institutions nor equip them who do not care how the masses of their subjects live, but care about their own accumulation of wealth by emptying the public coffers. The International media projects the poor as responsible for their social malaise, but they rarely give their readers background information about the regimes that these poor and sick African live and toil under: unemployment is rife; poor and very much neglected health clinics and hospital; ill-equipped health institutions, poor education, housing, and nonexistent public and no social amenities, and so on. This is the outcome of the effects of Ebola as reported by BBC News:

However, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea have some of the worst-funded healthcare systems in the world.

We know people are contracting the disease, and dying from it, without being noticed.

The International Business Times informs us about The Ebola Death Toll in 2014:

"The number of Ebola cases so far this year: 9,936. How many people have been killed by Ebola: 4,877. These are the official figures put out by the World Health Organization, widely regarded as the authority on the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Those statistics have been widely circulated, reported, tweeted and retweeted, but the number of deaths related to Ebola is based largely on speculation, not concrete evidence, according to a spokesman for WHO.

“We don’t really know how many deaths their have been, because there are a lot of people who have died alone … or out in the bush,” WHO spokesman Dan Epstein said. Those deaths go unreported, Epstein noted, so the agency uses statistical models to account for what they estimate is the number of unreported cases. Health workers on the ground in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone often rely on anecdotal evidence to estimate the number of Ebola deaths in a particular village or town. During field studies, locals might tell disease trackers that their village has had 20 deaths from Ebola, but “no one is verifying it,” Epstein said.

"WHO most recently said it believes the actual Ebola death toll is about three times higher than the roughly 4,900 confirmed or suspected cases. That would bring the number of people killed in the current Ebola outbreak to about 15,000. The startling figure is just one of many from WHO since the outbreak in West African began in March. Earlier this month, the organization said the weekly infection rate of Ebola could reach 10,000 new cases by December, which would be a sharp spike from the current infection rate of about 1,000 cases per week. In early September, WHO said as many as 20,000 people could become infected with the virus by the time the outbreak is over.

"How the death rate can escalate from about 1,000 new Ebola cases per week to a suspected 10,000 new Ebola cases per week within two months is still unclear. For WHO assistant director-general Bruce Aylward, who is leading the research on the outbreak, estimating the number of future Ebola cases is “both art and science,” Epstein said. “Part of it was based on modeling and part of it was a guess,” he said. Estimating the number of unreported Ebola cases involves using a correction factor of 2.0, according to Science Mag. That means WHO doubles the number of confirmed cases to roughly approximate its figures.

"WHO gets its Ebola death numbers from three main sources: clinics and medical centers, laboratories doing Ebola tests, and burial teams. In any outbreak, there are always some cases that slip through the cracks. These patients are not counted in official disease tallies, leaving health researchers with the difficult task of figuring out just how many cases are not reported and factoring that into their "official" numbers. The health agency said the discrepancy comes down to underreporting.

"Keeping track of Ebola in West Africa is particularly difficult, health experts say, given that so many patients either never visit a health facility or are turned away because of overcrowding. Also, health workers have had to combat widespread distrust of health care workers among many victims of the disease who feel stigmatized and may not come forward when they are feeling symptoms. They might die quietly in their homes, unknown to WHO. “In the African nations currently experiencing the outbreak, patients don’t trust their local health care systems — sometimes with good reason,” Reuters reported in July. Locals often turn to traditional healers, meaning their official diagnoses are never recorded.

"WHO has acknowledged that its numbers are “vastly” underestimated. But without properly verifying the number of reported deaths, there is still “a tremendous amount of uncertainty,” WHO epidemiologist Christopher Dye told Science Mag."

"Based on small trials, agencies including the WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control are taking an "educated guess" that the figure is around twice that.

"The widely reported estimate of 10,000 cases per week by December uses this doubling to account for under-reporting.

"How many people have died from Ebola in West Africa?
It sounds an easy question, but the answer is certainly not.
The most recent official figure from the World Health Organization puts the number of deaths at 4,493.

"But 12,000 could be a better estimate. Getting to this figure highlights a number of issues with the Ebola data.

"How many cases?
First of all there is a fair bit of uncertainty about how many people have Ebola.

"The ones we know about stand at 8,997 - this is made up of confirmed, suspected and probable cases.

"We get that because 5,000 is the midpoint of our modeling scenarios and if we allow for under-reporting [by a factor of two] then that's 10,000," said Dr Christopher Dye, the director of strategy in the office of the director general at the WHO.

"Use the same principle and the number of cases now could be around 18,000."

I have given a short history of these countries and who the rulers are and what they did or did not do to promote and better the lives of their people over years they ruled over these countries. So long as that remains the issue, al these unresolved problems, Ebola will continue to flare up over and over again, and as time goes, it might end up not being contained, and if these rulers, replace each other in various countries, there seems to be no end in sight.

I will try and write some other Hubs on Lassa Fever, Marburg and Other Emerging and Present And Coming Plagues that are devastating Africa Today...

Global Ebola Risk

The Ebola Story is important for us to know because it gives us insights into different countries that finally end up catching the disease. The case histories I have pointed out to above bear this out. It is important that if we are going to talk about Ebola, we should not look only at the devastation wrought upon this poor countries by the hemorrhagic disease, but we should also make sure that we use a holistic approach from all disciplines to link its repetitive nature. A look at the rulers and their governance is one; a peek at the academic pros of the field another; still, the press run of the reportage is another factor to be considered. All of this issues are found and raised in this Hub.

It's when Ebola keep on popping ever so often and spreading throughout Africa that interests me. I did cull heavily from Laurie Garrett to give a concise picture of what happened when the Ebola disease hit Iambus. It is for the benefit of African people, very much so, if they ever get to come across such articles, be cognizant of and fully aware as to how it came about, and what was done to deal with, for we have just experienced is rise in 2014 and 2015.

What is happening and not happening in these countries like Congo, Cameroon, guinea, Sudan, and Liberia, is the cataclysm and social miasma fisted upon these countries, that have a cascading effect-a domino-tripping effect, that it may result in affecting the entire continent. Since we live here, we are going to have to write about it in such a way as befitting our present decrepit living circumstances. We are goon to talk about Ebola from informants, and cull heavily on these, as done within the article to article these plague to our African people.

I am not writing this Hub just to make do or so, I have made sure that I utilize information bits that in tandem with the narrative, visually, orally and audio phonically. It is important I stand by my observation and cobbling together this difficult and heavily covered subject, its pros and cons, and merits and demerits, but also ensuring that there is a learning curve, of the whole shindig.

People need to know facts and statistics, and they also need to see the photos of the victims, which I have respectfully and purposely not posted here, but did a serious job of publishing the information and pictures of the areas, the professionals and bits and pieces of informational material to give a sense of what I think ought to be told to about Ebola, as I see and read about it.

With all of that said, I think I keep on coming back to the fact that the rulers of these nations are mainly responsible for the plague. I have been pointing out above that they impoverish these institutions and their people, that in the end, as the clinics try to make do with what they have, inadvertently create and cause Ebola. This fact is found in thorough deposition of a narrative about Yambuku as told by Laurie Garrett. This has been augmented with other communiques that are in the media zeitgeist.

The internecine wars that abound in these countries, roving armed bandits and terror raising mobs, the armies, ill-equipped to deal with the conflagration, corruption from the government officials, and civil servants in all sectors, general dysfunctional communities and societies, impoverished to hilt. On the other end of the feeding frenzy and chomping chart, you have motley crews of corrupt government and private sector power mongers and handlers that are feasting on the public coffers, and living exorbitant life-styles, and spreading general corruption and ignorance, fear, anomie and sowing social dislocation and dysfunction mechanisms, that in the end, the majority poor in these states, end up being wiped off the face of the earth in hundreds of thousands, that I think, the contribution by the these rulers should be focused on too in this article put in the forefront a s much as possible.

There are number and people to these statistics; there are whole communities and nation that are bearing the brunt of this scourge; it is important the that I construct a narrative, that patches together, in these days of splurging media, a much more concrete and concise narrative, made up of many citation, very long, and in the end, synergies these with the piece that I am onto to stitch together the whole mess of Ebola in Africa today...

In Africa we do not have the luxury of mass production of information as do people in the Western world. That's a fact.If one were to look at the iInternet distribution and splurging on a world Map, to get a global perspective, Africa still lags behind... Sadly. The reader can check out the Map I have posted below

Global Distribution Network Availability

Thirdworldization Of The Ebola Herrmohagic Fever.

For us in Africa, the Internet access is still poorly negligible, and it does not even-out one bit, and that, writing such heavy cited articles, is a boon for those in dire need of information in any form, in-depth, so long as they are prepared to read such droningly long articles. The upshot is that, the readers, on some level, at least, are able to get information they would not normally get in the fashion I have laid it out, in a form that is seemingly repetitive, but not redundant, also, trying very hard to manage the flow and splurging information in a world that is satisfied with truncated information that has less value and informational purposes — especially for people and countries like Africa as the disparity can be clearly seen by all and sundry.

So that, when I talk about the "Third Worldization" of the Ebola deadly plague, it is when I begin by examining the states affected and afflicted with Ebola. It is to the government I look at, its history as much as I can get it from various sources, and crediting them as required. This is important, for the volume of information and material I have to utilize, deems it necessary for the reader to be able to wrap their head around the article, and this will enable me to point out why is Ebola so dangerously endemic and prevalent/constantly in Africa and killing off so many of those State's denizens.

When one goes back into reading the cited works of Garrett, here is what can be summed up:

The lack of medical equipment and medicines caused by a callous government that imprisons, impoverishes and kills off dissidents and innocent victims, is what is cause of the disease to be Thirdworldized. It's an unusual concept, but it holds because, he leaders of these countries are complicit in the mass murder of the citizens and large swaths of populations The people, after being hit by diseases such as Ebola, have technicians come in and do chaos management, and concluded call it as they see it.

In the story above by Garrett, the Scientist concluded that the Ebola scourge started in the Hospital at Yambuku. 5 syringes were used on about 600 patients a day. this was due to what I have pointing above that, thees countries and their people are impoverished by their state, which, as I have tabulated above, are all corrupt and pussy-footing around the fact that their people are poor, and their health institution are outdated, backward and poorly run on skeleton staff, that still needs training. These despots are not building world-class colleges, health and teaching colleges,rapidly, if ever, for their people. Instead, they live an extravagant life-style, wear expensive suits and perfumes, ties and dazzling shoes; they drive in the latest mobiles, and dine in the finest restaurants globally; attend magnificent shows, and shop at high-end stores for themselves, families relatives and friends.

They incarcerate so many people for frivolous reason and with impunity. They torture their citizens mercilessly and murder, or jail them for good. We are talking here about countries where people still live in shacks, dumps and poor built houses; some without plumbing, or street drains, and everything thing around the ramshackle living, is coping with bare existence. This is not just for entertainment what I have just described, that is the daily life of decrepit existence the poor African people have to live with.

It's not like that these countries are so poor that they have no money at all to feed their citizens. These countries are rich in minerals and other natural resources. They are some of the richest countries in Africa, but these are managed by Chase Manhattan and many such entities of monopoly capital. This does not sit well with many who might read this Hub, but I am not here to doff-my hat for nobody, but to present the whole story of the beginning of this Ebola hemorrhagic plague that is dogging Africa the most, and also who is really responsible for this plague. The governments of these countries, their leaders whom I have posted their photos in the Hub above, were very much responsible for what gave rise to these fevers.

The stories and histories of these countries help the reader not to just read about the Ebola Fever in Cameroon, Guinea, Liberia and Congo, which I have not really discussed as a historical pice, but used it to help the reader come to terms with what we are dealing with here. Garrett's article is devastating because the Scientists declared that the hospitals were responsible for the creation and spread of this diseases. This will not bode well for article lime men to state, but be that as it may be, that does not alter nor change the truth.

Reading, again garrett, one sees how the events spun out of action, and what the scientist did to record and measure and trace the origins of the diseases, in the village remote and near, in the hospital, and the whole village town, and their conclusions were firm, and these scientists were angry. They point the origin of Ebola not to monkeys eaten by the Congolese/Zaireans, but by the hospital, which people were pointing to and had run away from it as far as possible.

Information is not a luxury in Africa if that map of the Internet distribution globally is anything to go by. Articles such as these are barely read in the continent, and only a few who have the wherewithal have access to such information. I write such articles so that when the day comes for African people to have the opportunity to be on board the budding global internet spread, at least evenly throughout the continent, they might come across such articles and utilize them for their understanding of this phenomena called Ebola.

Ebola Regions

WHO's Update On The Current Ebola Outbreak In the Countries Already Discussed

This is an update From the World Health Organization:

WHO response to the Ebola Interim Assessment Panel report

WHO statement
7 July 2015

WHO welcomes the report from the Ebola Interim Assessment Panel and thanks the hard-working members for their rapid review, analysis and recommendations.

The panel members divided their review and recommendations into 3 areas: the International Health Regulations, WHO’s health emergency response capacity and WHO’s role and cooperation with the wider health and humanitarian systems.

The International Health Regulations

In August 2015, the WHO Director-General will convene a Review Committee of the International Health Regulations, where Member States can discuss the recommendations of the panel, including the idea of establishing an intermediate level of alert to sound an alarm earlier than a full Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

WHO’s health emergency response capacity

The panel reiterated the need for a unified program for health emergencies as committed to by the Director-General at the World Health Assembly to unite resources for emergencies across the 3 levels of the Organization.

WHO is already moving forward on some of the panel’s recommendations including the development of the global health emergency workforce and the contingency fund to ensure the necessary resources are available to mount an initial response.

WHO’s role and cooperation with the wider health and humanitarian systems

The Ebola outbreak highlighted the separation between systems for responding to health emergencies and systems for humanitarian response, and WHO agrees they must be better integrated for future emergency responses. This includes considering ways to coordinate the grading of its humanitarian emergencies with the grading of declarations of health emergencies under the International Health Regulations.

Going Forward

The current Ebola outbreak is still ongoing and improved methods of working are incorporated into the response as they are developed. But it will take many more months of continued hard work to end the outbreak and to prevent it from spreading to other countries.

Mandela's Aphorism

When the People Lead, The Leaders follow

This needs to made clear in this Hub that, before we can even talk about Ebola, we are going to have to know the History of these countries before and after the Ebola pandemic. There is absolutely no sense in reading about such a devastating disease in these four countries that I have explored above without giving the reader the background histories of these countries along with their leadership, mineral and other potential wealth, and pretend as if these have nothing to do with the disease of Ebola. They have everything to do with Ebola. I do not want to find myself composing Hubs that do not thoroughly deal with the subject matter as it is being composed.

I have talked about the countries, leadership politics and the whole bit about these countries so that the reader can have a sense of what was happening to these countries leading up to the 1970s since their Independence. Who those rulers were who were pivotal to the stories and the pictures to go with. It is important that I give the story some strong legs, and for this, I have piggy-backed on Garrrets article and other authors to create a whole and strong narrative from a historical and health perspectives.

These Third weird countries have created their own-self-styled ruling elite ant the extremely impoverished languishing masses The overarching issue of cultural orientation still needs to be addressed. The character of the new social ethos that should guide reforms must be geared towards a human-orientated development approach. This is an ethos that is increasingly determined by cultural values. Policy changes at the macro- and micro-levels ought to be promoted as goo and desirable with one spirit directing the approach — 'human-orientated, human0faced' and the people merchant the decisions in the process. For instance, the current development efforts that are qualitative will result in increases, qualitatively or might decrease certain indicators or authoritarian political regimes.

Making choices by the people implies a search for development alternatives for the common goodWith more than two centuries of independence, of state intervention thorough a despotic developmental approach has failed to meet the basic human needs of the people. Rising expectations came together with destructive frustration, alienation, apathy, abject poverty — neocolonialism replaced nationalism, while patronage, ethnicity, corruption and clientelism overtook unity, nationalism, coherence, social justice and inclusion. In a way, inappropriate independence and failed policies ushered in affluence only for a few

In the same vein, it also destroyed a national sense of belonging. Development cannot be sustainable when people feel they are strangers in their own country, and when the State adopts a discriminatory, victimizing and punitive approach.

These are the point that are not covered by the WHO report. All is dandy, and becoming contained, that is the Ebola virus.Reports abound on the Web about the successes that are being achieved by several organizations and countries in trying to deal with the scourge of Ebola. but, the last line of the report states:

"The current Ebola outbreak is still ongoing and improved methods of working are incorporated into the response as they are developed. But it will take many more months of continued hard work to end the outbreak and to prevent it from spreading to other countries."

This is happening on many levels throughout Africa, but the report commits to talk about the social engineering that is need to begin to eliminate and stop Ebola from spreading to other regions in Africa and the world. It is a very noble effect, but as a writer, I want to see the updates on the way these countries are changing or ought to change and do in order to help and make the effort by International bodies more manageable. This Hub, at this point, above, in this section, has begun to address the very points I am raising about the updates that need to be taken of and implemented.

The report from WHO does not help in understand and beginning to solve the problems faced by thee countries, for if we dig more and pick up from where I left off above before making this tangent, I would like to add that:

If in Civil society and the despotic approach we have been talking about, these were removed from development, planning, formulation, implementation and execution of socio-economic related transformation as far back as the period of central state-driven planning of the three development decades (1960-2015). The majority of people seem worse off today than before independence largely due to the politics of exclusion, social injustice, the absence of the rule of law, and divide and tule tactics that lead to the inappropriate utilization of human and natural resources potentials.

This is important to state for if we are going to go by the progress report of the WHO organization above, I do not see why my article, in the case of the omission of the social and historical aspects of these states should not be talked about. This article is precisely and particularly about Ebola. But the disease of Ebola does not exists in a vacuum. It exists within a social, economical, political, civil society and health, etc, realities that need to be taken into consideration, fully, and just cream it off the top. I want to go deeper into issues so that when questions arise, I can relate the history and narrative of these countries to the plague of Ebola.

Some people point out to the three players that ought to take charge is the situations of these countries talked about above regarding Ebola. Well, these are named as follows: that moving the countries forward should be the trinity participation, partnership and responsibility of sharing among the key players - State, Civil society and the Private.

We know, up to this point, after reading the posted articles about the various countries that this has happened and it has not really amounted to much, according to my yarn in this section In this section, where I have noted the historical accounts and the state of these countries prior to the Ebola explosion, I am talking about what is possible and should be done. But now, I say, if that has been tried, as according to the posts about these countries, how realistic is that proposal and idea?

The idea of the type or questionable Democracy in these countries is what needs to be interrogated. Also, the institutional reforms that are needed should lead to inclusive Democracy that will secure the people's rights and liberties and sufficiently satisfied in the need for basic human good and sustenance.

The Reality Of Ebola: Looking At It Truthfully

As odd as it may seem, I was reading one article about the origins of Ebola, and they stated:

"Ebola was discovered in 1976 and was once thought to originate in gorillas, because human outbreaks began after people ate gorilla meat.

"Scientists now believe that bats are the natural reservoir for the virus, and that apes and humans catch it from eating food that bats have drooled or defecated on, or by coming in contact with surfaces covered in infected bat droppings and then touching their eyes or mouths. The current outbreak seems to have started in a village near Guéckédou, Guinea, where bat hunting is common, according to Doctors Without Borders."

I am not a physician not Lab expert, but I found this statement very much amazing. Prior to the germ making its appearance in Yambuku, there was nothing known about such a plague like Ebola. I have a bit of a bone to pick with this "stellar report," graced by graphics, maps, statistics, modern multimedia insertions, bedazzling the reader. By the way, I found this piece on a "Fit To Read" newspaper known as the "New York Times Online," Section designated AFRICA.

As would be expected, the villagers run-away from their villages because of the Plague of Ebola, thus food production was down to zero in many places of the affected countries, which were in a poverty quandrum to begin with. I have given a background of the histories and their rulers of these countries, before and partly during the reign of the above-mentioned despots.

If, the lack of infrastructure and of medical personnel make the construction and staffing of centers difficult, this is not that these countries are inherently and irretrievably poor and disorganized, but those who rule over them creates these conditions to stay in power decades on end-whilst the people languish in illnesses, poverty, joblessness, illiteracy and so forth.

One of the graphics of the NYT report, shows the rate of underdevelopment in creating treatment centers for Liberia(6 opened - 23 planned), and in Sierra Leon 7 opened(10 planned) in Guinea, 2 opened and 8 planned. That is the rate of progress that these millions of people face just to have Ebola Treatment Centers opened. These countries are presently plagued by Wars, certain forces against the government, and the wider infrastructure and farms.

The point that has been made in this Hub, is that the causes of Ebola were this dislocated features and pillars of society and countries ruled by greedy and mean despots. Statistics are shown as to how many people are affected by Ebola, and the arrival and 'spread' of Ebola in America, plus speculation as to how many people can be affected, and the author goes on to talk about how contagious was the disease, and wondered if there are any drugs to prevent Ebola.

But, if we are going to be comparing and contrasting how one era of the outbreak of Ebola is worse off than the original one in Ytambuky, without taking into the consideration what I have tabulated above as the histories of these countries, and the fact that this persists to this day, is to do disservice in talking about Ebola. Now the following part from the NYT articles flipped me over:

"Ebola was discovered in 1976 and was once thought to originate in gorillas, because human outbreaks began after people ate gorilla meat.


"Scientists now believe that bats are the natural reservoir for the virus, and that apes and humans catch it from eating food that bats have drooled or defecated on, or by coming in contact with surfaces covered in infected bat droppings and then touching their eyes or mouths. The current outbreak seems to have started in a village near Guéckédou, Guinea, where bat hunting is common, according to Doctors Without Borders."

This approach and theory has been debunked by many scientists I managed to cite above. It is interesting that the very scientists I cited above, worked on all these postulations, and eventually came to a stunning conclusion. The speculation in the NYT article cited in the paragraph above, was simply wrong and biased.

If the reader has come up to this point in this Hub, they should by now be cognizant of the fact that the origins of the Ebola disease in Yambuku, was due to poor hospital conditions, lack of clinical facilities and outdated machines and healthcare under semi-tutored health-givers, in countries that have despots who are filling their pockets with the public money to no end-killing of and starving also making ignorant a vast swath of the population who put them in power.This is endemic throughout Africa. That is why Ebola persists, since 1976, to date, the material conditions for the poor in these countries has worsened off, and Ebola keeps on springing right back.

This Hub was written with the purpose of melding and merging African history and the state of health in Africa today. This is important that such a Hub be written, for there are articles and blogs like the much esteemed NYT articles who keep on harping on the same false untruths and repeat them much oft to make them become the truth. Perfect spin on a deadly social malaise and plague killing of the poor people of Africa.

The name I briefly paraphrased and shortly cited above is from the New York Times Online version, titled "How Many Ebola Patients Have Been Treated Outside Africa?" ... An Updated Version on January 26, 2015. This Hub is about trying to ferret out as to what happened that the Ebola Plague should descend on the people in Africa, lay not in their being inherently poor, but in the state of their nations that gave rise to this plague. I have looked and written about these Flag States, and I could discern that they're responsible being underdeveloped by their despotic leaders is very much responsible for they plague that was devastating the ruled African poor.

Somehow the NYT article irks me fro it proudly displays and proclaims the success of the cases they have had, and blame the bats and monkeys as it's explaining what caused the Ebola scourge to be in Africa, and the fact that it keeps on recurring with the same conditions, over 40 years old, without changing, and this is being not addressed at all. It seems to depict, this NYT article, Africans as being helpless, and unable to cure themselves of the scourge of Ebola, that I detect some bias in presenting the true picture and facts about these countries. Stereotypes are the bane of this article from the much vaunted New Times Newspaper Institution.

In a desperate move to curb the spread of the disease, these countries have disturbed the flow of transport and goods, closed borders and cross-border trade nearly halted to a standstill. Millions of people are suffering from loss of food, medical supplies and equipment, doctors hassled for passports and permission which takes a very long time to be completed in such a situation.

Even with the little that WHO is doing to help, it is still insufficient and the despots are using these situations as some bargaining chips for whatever pleasured them.Until the Day the whole African masses in the continent learns the truth from these Histories, since their supposed independence from the Colonial rulers, is that, they will see that they have been fooled more so by their own people who were prepared to sell them for a whiff of money, and nothing less. Ebola will be only scrapped if the African countries can get their Nations together and build for the future… Otherwise, this will keep on repeating as long as these countries keep on going on the same way, without change for over 50 years now-progress will never be assured neither reached nor achieved…

Thirdworldization Of Health: The Health Divide Between Poor And Rich Countries

The concept of Thirdworldization of the African diseases, specifically, the Ebola scourge, is a multifaceted issue, which needs to be synergized as briefly as I can make it. So far in this Hub, I have tabulated the histories of these countries prior to Ebola, and now, these histories show and demonstrate for us that the priorities for the health of these nation has been misconstrued and misappropriated, even neglected to the extent that we have the Ebola plague ravaging the poor of these countries.

For Example, Ken Silverstein characterization and this Thirdworldization phenomena of the Diseases in poor countries in the following manner:

"Many people, most of them in tropical countries of the Third World, die of preventable, curable diseases.… Malaria, tuberculosis, acute lower-respiratory infections—in 1998, these claimed 6.1 million lives. People died because the drugs to treat those illnesses are nonexistent or are no longer effective. They died because it doesn’t pay to keep them alive."

Some researchers look at these diseases in the so-called Third world countries, they do so by identifying the poor; measuring health, and looking at the inequalities of health. They also go further and examine the Inequalities use of health; and they dry to identify these trends in health inequalities. Many of these researchers studied the benefits received by the poor from public health services.

In so doing, they were looking much more closer and deep at the health divide within these countries, and specifically those I have chosen to give the histories of above, and saw a need to promote and direct more befits toward the poor, and they advised that this should be done by pro primary and essential are amongst the poor people of these countries. The pointed out that there should be increased availability of health services, and these should be of improved quality and services, and the most important they indicated that developing public-private partnerships to improve reach and responsiveness. They concluded that this could be done though the mobilization of community resources, by doing away with inequity in the financing of these projects, and greater strategies for greater financial protection of the poor, to achieve any ends and create and gain progress. This, according to the specialists on these subjects, maintain that these findings will also help us see how the poor fared relative to the Well-off people.

Many of these researchers, check or talk about Countries in Asia, India, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, south And latin America, and they do so by looking at the causes of health inequalities in these countries. They dig deeper in to the types of medical deliveries that are found in these poor so-called Third world countries. We read and learn from them about the infant mortality rates; inequalities in health disbursement o health services, and they compare and contrast the lives and health of the poor in these countries, alongside their filthy rich neighbors in their domicile and overseas.

Sweeping changes in public health have transformed life over the past century. On average, people live longer, healthier lives than ever before. Even so, this past century’s revolution in human health and well-being is incomplete.

For people living on less than US$ 1 per day—and there are more than 1 billion of them1—health services and modern medicines are still out of reach. Moreover, many initiatives to improve the health of people in extreme poverty have been unsuccessful. Dara Carr informs us that:
Governments and international organizations have widely recognized the need to improve the health of the poor. In the 1970s, for instance, the World Health Organization led a global effort to achieve “Health for All” by the year 2000. Representatives from more than 130 governments met in 1978 in Alma-Ata (now Almaty, Kazakhstan) and signed a declaration stating that, “Inequality in the health status of people, particularly between developed and developing countries as well as within countries, is politically, socially, and economically unacceptable.”

More than 25 years after the Alma-Ata Declaration, however, Health for All remains an elusive goal. On average, those living in the world’s poorest countries will not live to age 50. In Africa, the leading causes of death still include diseases such as diarrhea, measles, and malaria. Large disparities in health persist both within and between countries. And the health disparities between poor and rich countries are growing. The human, economic, and societal costs of ill health are immense. Millions of people die prematurely from diseases that are preventable or curable.

At relatively little expense, many of these people could lead longer, healthier, and more productive lives. Mounting evidence also shows that the links between health, poverty reduction, and economic growth are powerful, confirming the popular notion that, “Health is wealth.” This Bulletin examines facets of the poor-rich health divide, factors that play a role in health disparities, and approaches for improving the health of the poor. In recent years, a great deal of new research has become available on health inequalities within low-income countries. These studies shed light on how the world’s poorest people are faring, demonstrating for the most part the persistence and pervasiveness of inequalities in health.

The Health Divide Between Poor and Rich Countries

Preventable and treatable diseases take an enormous toll on the world’s poorest people. In Africa, infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for more than half of all deaths in 2001, compared with 2 percent of deaths in Europe.

More than 2.3 million people, primarily in developing countries, die from eight vaccine-preventable diseases annually.
Moreover, the gap between rich and poor countries may be growing. For example, under-5 mortality declined by more than 70 percent in high-income countries between 1970 and 2000, compared with a reduction of 40 percent in low-income countries.

These health differences are reflected in average life spans. In the least developed countries, average life expectancy at birth is around 49 years. By contrast, those in more developed regions such as Europe or North America can expect to reach nearly 75 years of age.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the global poor-rich “health gap” is largely due to a small number of illnesses that disproportionately affect those in developing countries, including HIV/AIDS; malaria; tuberculosis; maternal and perinatal conditions; childhood diseases such as measles, tetanus, diphtheria, acute respiratory infection, and diarrhea; malnutrition; and tobacco-related diseases. These diseases are responsible for the highest number of avoidable or excess deaths among the poor, relative to the better-off.

What factors contribute to the health gap between poor and rich countries? High levels of absolute poverty—per capita income not exceeding US$ 1 per day, adjusted for purchasing power—make people in poor countries especially vulnerable to disease.

Nearly half the people in sub-Saharan Africa live on less than US$ 1 per day, while in South Asia, 37 percent of the population or 488 million people live in absolute poverty. Those living in extreme poverty typically lack access to safe drinking water, decent housing, adequate sanitation, food, education, professional health care, transportation, safe and secure employment, and health information.

In the least developed countries, health spending is about US$ 11 per person a year. This is well short of the US$30-US$40 per person estimated by WHO to constitute the minimum level of health spending to cover essential interventions.10 By contrast, health spending in high-income countries is more than US$ 1,900 per person annually.

The diseases that most commonly affect the poor attract relatively little research and development spending. This type of spending is largely driven by market forces, which are not as favorable for medicines to treat diseases predominantly affecting the global poor.
In one study, researchers estimated that annual global research investment on malaria in 1990 was US$ 65 per fatal case of the disease, compared with US$ 789 per asthma fatality. Between 1975 and 1997, 13 out of the 1,233 drugs that reached the global market were for tropical infectious diseases of most relevance to the poor in low- and middle-income countries.

In recent years, different initiatives— such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization—have stimulated more research and development on diseases that affect the world’s poorest people. Even so, the Global Forum for Health Research estimates that only a small fraction of research and development spending is directed toward diseases that account for 90 percent of the world’s health problems.

People living in poor countries also have less access to medical technologies than those in better-off countries. Most recently, global attention has focused on the marked disparity in access to life-prolonging AIDS drugs. In more developed countries, antiretrovirals and drugs that prevent and treat opportunistic infections have dramatically reduced deaths among patients.

These drugs are generally unavailable in the poorest countries. As a result, AIDS-related mortality rates are soaring, and average life expectancy is declining in the worst-affected poor countries. In eight African countries—Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe—average life expectancy has dropped to age 40 or less."

I thought I should just give the summary towards the Sub-heading above, that deals with the Thirdworldization of diseases in the so-called third World/Less developed or poor countries.

Underdeveloped Africa...

The basic indicators of human well-being - health, life expectancy and literacy - reveal that Africa is very badly off indeed. Worse off not only than industrialised countries but the rest of the Third World as well.
The basic indicators of human well-being - health, life expectancy and literacy - reveal that Africa is very badly off indeed. Worse off not only than industrialised countries but the rest of the Third World as well.

Another way of looking at the Thirdworldizatiion of disease and what causes it engenders and generates. It is important we get a smidgen of the whole picture and concept of Thridworldization, as not only being a political and historical matter, but includes various other social manifestations and Ying and Yang

Identifying the Poor

In many less developed countries, determining who is poor is a challenge. Economists can use income levels to define poverty lines in large, industrialized economies, but in less developed countries, income is not always a reliable or available measure. In many countries, a large portion of the population works outside the formal economy—in subsistence agriculture, for example.

In these settings, researchers might use information on consumption levels or household assets to determine poverty levels. Consumption data provide information on how much people spend for food, housing, health care, education, and other items. Household asset data also reflect socioeconomic status. Some studies suggest that household assets are a strong measure of consumption and economic status.

One of the most extensive studies to date on health inequalities in less developed countries uses household asset, services, and other data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program—a survey research project operating in Africa, Asia, and Latin America—as a measure for socioeconomic status. The resulting wealth index is based on measures such as the possession of a refrigerator, television, or radio; the ownership of a car, motorcycle, or bicycle; the household dwelling’s construction material, size, and source for drinking water; the type of toilet facilities; and the employment of live-in domestic staff. One of the drawbacks with this approach is that some of the index components, such as access to drinking water, are also determinants of health status.

In the study using DHS data mentioned above, the household wealth index provides a country-specific or relative definition of economic status rather than an absolute definition. Researchers divided the population in each country into five income groups or quintiles based on their relative standing on the household wealth index within each country. Thus, the economic status of the lowest or poorest quintile in Haiti, for instance, is quite different from that of the poorest quintile in Brazil.

For many global research activities, economists use an absolute or universal measure of poverty. This approach attempts to define poverty in terms of a minimal level of income or consumption that is universally applicable and fixed in time. Typically, economists estimate the minimal amount of money needed for food and other essentials across countries. The World Bank’s estimate of the international or absolute poverty line in the poorest countries is about US$ 1 per day average per capita income, adjusted for differences in purchasing power between countries. By the end of the 1990s, the World Bank estimates that 1.2 billion people lived on less than US$ 1 per day, down from 1.3 billion in 1990.

Another strategy is to examine whether people use health services when needed or recommended. The DHS gathers data on vaccination coverage, child health care visits, and use of family planning and maternity-related services. Interviewers ask mothers questions such as when and how many vaccines their children have received; whether they took children with symptoms of diarrhea or fever to health care facilities; whether they have ever used or are currently using a contraceptive method; whether they received prenatal care during their last pregnancy; whether they delivered their last child at a health facility; and whether their delivery was attended by a trained health professional.

Researchers may assess health by examining health facility records and the availability of medical services and personnel. In most countries, researchers derive HIV prevalence estimates from data collected at selected health clinics. To assess a community’s health status, analysts may examine the number of hospital beds or trained medical personnel available in a given area. These strategies may be less effective in measuring the health of the poorest people if the poor tend to opt for traditional providers over clinic or hospital care. "

I have already, in a paltry way, covered many of the areas above, but I just wanted to cite some other perspective either than the one I had promulgated within the Hub, to edify the Hub. The last paragraph covers the issues that were raised by Garret, concerning the scientists who were out there to fid out the source of the Virus. They found that, many of the false theories that it was from the people eating certain monkey and os forth, to be nothing but bias.

These researchers were reporting on issues of lack of health facilities, good and trained nurses and the type of health delivery afforded the poor by the rich and their corrupt governments. The decrepit contains the poor in these countries have to cope up with and live with is humanly unconscionable. This can be seen throughout East Asia, Pacific; Latin America and the caribbean; Middle East and North Africa/Whole Of Africa; South Asia. In act, the whole of The sub-Saharan Africa, one can see the dire state of children under five mortality rates; malnutrition among the women/mothers; the low percentage of children ages 12 months to 23 months who were not vaccinated; and just by looking at the women receiving delivery assistance from a doctor of nurse/midwife, is troubling.

It is when we begin to look at, and view these statistics from the Health Bulletin on the Web, that we begin to discern a very devastating picture. so that, when Ebola mushrooms as it has been doing throughout Africa and the other mentioned countries above, this is what I am trying to describe as the Thirdworldization of the diseases like Ebola. these plagues, are as a result of a non-caring government; lack of enough financial resources to upgrade and update the hospitals

One can take a look at the following excerpt:

Health Inequalities by Social and Geographic Factors

This Bulletin focuses largely on economic inequalities in health. In most countries, however, important disparities also exist by sex, race, ethnic group, language, occupation, and residence. Researchers in Bangladesh, for instance, have found multiple disparities in childhood vaccination, with girls, ethnic minorities, and children in isolated regions less likely than others to be immunized.1 The effects of poverty on health are often exacerbated by social discrimination and exclusion from health, education, and other services.

Disparities by social group can be more pronounced than differences based on income alone. For example, in 1993, under apartheid, black children in South Africa were 5.5 times as likely as white children to die before their first birthday. Poor children of either race were 2.9 times more likely than better-off children to die during this age period.2

Women and girls often face discrimination in health and special obstacles in accessing health care. In India, the mortality gap between girls and boys has been increasing over time. Presently, an estimated 2 million girls age 6 and younger are “missing” due to sex-selective abortion and neglect in health care and nutrition.3

When services are difficult to reach, travel costs may be more prohibitive for women than for men. Women generally earn less than men and have less control over how household resources are spent. Cultural norms may also restrict women from traveling long distances, especially alone, to obtain health services.

Poor communities typically face multiple health risks related to their location. The poor tend to predominate in rural and remote areas lacking infrastructure, services, and trained personnel. In cities, the poor often reside close to polluted areas, including highways and industrial sites. When natural disasters strike, the poor tend to suffer disproportionately because of flimsy housing and residence in vulnerable areas such as floodplains.

1. A. Mushtaque Chowdhury et al., “Who Gets Vaccinated in Bangladesh: The Immunization Divide,” Bangladesh Health Equity Watch (March 2002), accessed online at www.gega.org.za/download/ newsvol1_6/BHEWImmunization_brief.pdf on Nov. 21, 2003.

2. Lucy Gilson and Di McIntyre, “South Africa: Addressing the Legacy of Apartheid,” in Challenging Inequities in Health: From Ethics to Action, ed. Timothy Evans et al. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001): 198.

3. Carl Haub and O.P. Sharma, “India’s 2 Million Missing Girls” (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau), unpublished paper, June 2003.

This has been the vicious cycle that has on unabated for many centuries now, as of writing of this Hub. We are still living with, and in such decrepit condition, decade after decade, and centuries, and this has even become normal-part of the real life existence miss en scene. The problem with these conditions that they could be solved easily, but as I have point out, the despots in these countries are in cahoots with and swirling in the deep pockets of the International monied class. These Western governments and their Multi corporations cow-tow to these rulers, so that they can invest and begin controlling the natural resources of these countries.

It is the poor who lose… and that is a well-know truism And nobody is prepared to do anything about it because we have had so many centuries of this type of poverty and decrepit existence, that it ends up being the problem of the poor, and not the rich nations, who are exacerbating this torrid existence… How the Benefits and bounty of these counties could be channelled to and made to take care of the poor is still out of question. so long as these rich countries benefit for themselves, handsome profits are their only interests...

According to Dara:

In recent years, the question of how to direct benefits to the poor has taken on greater prominence as cash-strapped governments have introduced user fees to raise revenue for public health services. Higher prices, without any accompanying increase in service quality, tend to deter the poor more than the rich from seeking care. User fees also have been associated with lower use of reproductive and child health care services among vulnerable groups. In Kenya, user fees led to a reduction in the use of public outpatient services for sexually transmitted infections, especially among women. In rural Zambia, researchers linked user fees to lower hospital admission rates for girls. Identifying the poor and other vulnerable groups for fee waivers is an important objective for many targeting efforts."

Many methods and business models have bee tried and applied, but the conditions instead, of the poor, are worsening, as I am onto this piece. Ebola was as a result of the type of conditions and situations I am describing above. Ebola originated from the poor and unkempt clinics and hospitals in Yambuku, and the reasons are with all the issues I have just raised above and pointed out to-explained and caricatured in order to show why the health concerns of the poor countries are what I have dubbed to be Thirdworldized.

But as to who is determining how to target, and disperse the much need help, that is not up to the poor, but the donors and their partners in crime, the despots of the countries I have described above. Reading their short histories, one begins to get a picture as to what is going on in their countries today, and how and why the poor bear the thrust and burden of the brunt. The Thirdworldization of the present-day diseases and plagues should be laid on the foot and doorstep of rich nations and their corporations, and also, upon the feet and institutions that enable these African despots to expose to and continue to murder their people in droves.

So-Called Thirdworld... These Are Material Rich Countries

Here's the story. During the Cold War, the term First World described the Western allies (the capitalist democracies). Second World described the Eastern European Bloc (the communist dictatorships). There were some nations that wanted to be neutral,
Here's the story. During the Cold War, the term First World described the Western allies (the capitalist democracies). Second World described the Eastern European Bloc (the communist dictatorships). There were some nations that wanted to be neutral,

Witihin The Eye Of To A Turbulent Storm: Service Delivery For Colonial Imperialists

Whilst we are at it, we now take a much more seriously in-depth look at our present day social miasma we are mire in. Many of us are adept at waxing political and ranting/blowing off steam, but merely playing the newly found political expressions commonly found on the Social Media. Some of us are have been using the social media to construct and compose-theoretically assemble a solid foundation about our story without pandering to, nor paying attention as to what our masters want to see.

The point I am making above is that man of us cannot even think out of the box we have been encased in from 1652, to the present, in all aspects and respects of our decrepit existences... Some of us have bought body and soul, also, they have been 'took', and are bamboozled by the exposure they now have, and are trying their darnest to show-off their newly acquired statuses; some are trying hard to use English in order to sound 'sophisticated' and very 'erudite'.

In the end, more confusion and untruth belligerent ranting sputters out their torn and mashed-up enslaved souls, that one is left wondering, what is going on? What are these people talking about? Why are so many not writing about us, but use dumb articles and 'blurbs' to try and talk about our present situation. Many cannot even articulate the issues that arise in their own streets! Be it in the Townships or the suburbs. It does not matter how and what we do, we will forever remain "Post Apartheid Poor" copies of white enslavement we are so apt to copycat… Shamelessly.

Many of us, having seen the signs and presence of Authoritarian Apartheid 'sort of' disappear in our lifetimes, think that it is gone. Now, we say, we are Free. We have to look at this much more closely.

Eric from informs us thus:

"There is one feature of the 'authoritarian' character which has led many observers: a tendency to defy authority and to resent any kind of influence fro 'above.' Sometimes this defiance overshadows the whole picture and the submissive tendencies are in the background. This type of person will constantly rebel against any kind of authority, even one that actually furthers his interests and has no elements of suppression."

"Sometimes the attitude toward the authority is divided. Such persons might fight against one set of authorities, especially if they are disappointed by its lack of power, and at the same time , or later on, submit to another set of authorities which through greater power or greater promises seems for fulfill their 'masochistic' longings.

"Finally, there is a type which the rebellious tendencies are completely repressed and come to the surface only when conscious control is weakened; or they can be recognized ex posteriori, in the hatred that rises against an authority when its power is weakened, and when it begins to totter."

What are we talking about? Us, Africans of Mzantsi.. Pretenders, many of us... Wanna be's.. The bulk of us; fake accents and lifestyles… It's like we are trying to fit a square into a circle. We all know what time it is. We all know that many of us have got nothing; are nothing, and in fact… die in lonely and poverty stricken obscurity. Meanwhile, our elite potentates show of their ill-begotten wealth; fattening on the theft from the public coffers. Spotting pot bellies and double chins… Yes, that is us, today's prosecutors of our own poor and downtrodden people. Comical caricatures of trying to present Western cultures, languages, mores and beliefs-absent and nothing of our own indigenous cultures, languages, values and morals.

Asa intones:

"The lasting challenge that we face is the absence of information and understanding of African culture. This has been by design. The enforcers of an oppressive system work to create a cultural disorder among the oppressed, In particular, they suppress the value of other cultures, while glorifying and fabricating the history of themselves. They understand that the resulting disorder will make it impossible for the oppressed to be truly independent.

Fanon put it this way:

"The unilaterally decreed normative value of certain cultures deserves our careful attention.... The Enterprise of deculturation turns out to be the negative of a more gigantic work of economic, and even biological enslavement... The doctrine of cultural hierarchy is thus but one aspect of a systematic hierarchization implacably pursued.

"For its systems of reference have to be Broken. Expropriation, spoliation, raids, objective murder, are matched by the sacking of cultural patterns, or at least condition such sacking. The social panorama is destructed; values are flaunted, crushed, emptied. ... The lines of force, having crumbled, no longer give direction. In their stead, a new system of values is imposed, not proposed but affirmed, but the heavy weight of canons and sabers."...

This culture, once living and open to the future, comes closed, fixed in the colonial status, caught in the yoke of oppression. Both present and mummified, it testifies against its members. It defines them in fact without appeal. The cultural mummification leads to a mummification of individual thinking.

"The apathy so universally noted among colonial peoples, is but the logical consequence of this operation. Their approach of inertia constantly directed at the 'natives' is utterly dishonest. As though it were possible for a man to evolve otherwise than within the framework of culture that recognizes him and he decides to assume.

"... Thus, we witness the setting up of archaic, inert institutions, Functioning under the oppressor's supervise and patterned like a caricature of formerly fertile institutions…

"The reason, for those of us who still remember and saw, and are still seeing cultural assassination of our people, were the products and are cognizant of the removal of the British type of Education for us, which is still worse-off, are now witnessing the genocide being performed on us from angles imaginable.

This whole saga is captured very well by Walter Rodney for us, of which few really talk about this issue, for then, in this case, reading is really fundamental. Understanding is key. We are going to cull from Rodney on the clear role and definitions of Colonialism and Imperialism, and how these worked in tandem to put us in the position we are now in, today in Mzantsi. This might have happened elsewhere in Africa and the Diaspora, we were also affected, and still are, to date.

According to Frelimo:

"In the colonial society, education is such that it serves the colonialist. ... In a regime of slavery, education was but one institution for forming slaves.

"We learn the following from Rodney:

"Faced wit the evidence of European exploitation of Africa, many bourgeois writers would concede at least partially that colonialism was a system which functioned well in the interests of the Metropoles(The West). However, they would then urge that another issue to be resolved is how much Europeans did for Africans, and that it is necessary to draw up a balance sheet of colonialism.

"On that balance sheet, they place both the credits and the debits, and quite often conclude that the good outweighed the bad. That particular conclusion can quite easily be challenged, but attention should be drawn to the fact that the process of reasoning is itself misleading.

"The reasoning has some sentimental persuasiveness. It appeals to the common sentiment that, 'After all there mus be two sides to a thing.' The argument suggests that, on one hand, there was exploitation, and oppression, but, on the other hand, they developed Africa. It is our contention that this completely false. Colonialism had only one hand-it was a one-armed bandit.

"What did colonial governments do in the interest of Africans? Supposedly, they built roads, railroads, schools, hospitals , and the like. The sum total of these 'services is amazingly small.

"For the first three decades of colonialism, hardly anything was done that could remotely be termed a service to the African people. It was in fact after the last war that social services were built as a manner of policy. This was paltry. The statistics show that Africa is today underdeveloped are the statistics representing the state of affairs at the end of colonialism.

"For that matter, the figures at the end of the first decade of African independence in spheres such as health, housing, and education are often several times higher than the figures inherited by the newly independent governments. It would be an act of the most brazen 'fraud' to weigh the paltry social amenities provided during the colonial epoch, and to arrive at the conclusion that the good outweighed the bad.

"This is one part of the history we know, most of us, generally. In this piece, I will defer to Rodney below who teaches us thus:

"Capitalism did bring social services to European workers-firstly, as a by-product of providing such services for the bourgeoisie and the middle class, and later, as a deliberate act of policy. In 1934, long before the coming of the 'welfare state,' to Britain, expenditure for social services in the British Isles, amounted to 6 pounds 15 shillings per person. In Ghana, the figure was 7 shillings 4 pence per person, and was high by colonial standards. In Nigeria and Nyasaland, it was less than 1 shilling 9 pence per head. None of the other colonizing powers were doing any better, and some much worse.

"The Portuguese stand out because they boasted most and did the least. Portugal boasted that Angola, Guinea, and Mozambique have been their possessions for five hundred years, during which time a 'civilizing mission' has been going on. At the end of five hundred of shouldering the White man's burden of civilizing "African Natives," the Portuguese had not managed to train a single African doctor in Mozambique, and the life expectancy in Eastern Angola was less than thirty years. As for Guinea-Bissau, some insight into the situation there is provided by the admission of the Portuguese themselves, that, Guinea-Bissau was more neglected than Angola and Mozambique[And in all cases, illiteracy was upwards of 95 percent].

"Furthermore, the limited social services within Africa during the colonial times were distributed in a manner that reflected the pattern of domination and exploitation. First of all, White settlers and expatriates wanted the standards of the bourgeoisie or professional classes of the Metropoles(Western Cities and Countries). They were all the more determined to have luxuries in Africa, because so many of them came from poverty in Europe, and could not expect good services in their own homelands. In colonies like Algeria, Kenya and South Africa, it is well known that Whites created an infrastructure to afford themselves leisured and enjoyable lives. It means, therefore, that the total amenities provided in annoys those colonies is no guide to what Africans got out of colonialism.

"In Algeria, the figure for infant mortality was 30 per 1,000 live births among the White settlers; but it jumped to 170 per 1,000 live births in the case of Algerians living in towns. In practical terms, that meant the medical maternity, and sanitation services were all geared towards the well-being of the settlers.

"Similarly, in south Africa, all social statistics have to be broken down into at least two groups - White and African - if they are to be interpreted correctly. In British East Africa, there were three groups, firstly, the Europeans, who got the most; then the Indians, who took most of what was left; and thirdly, the Africans,who came last in their own country(this was the case in South Africa under British rule, and worse under Apartheid rule).

"In Predominantly African communities, it was also true that the bulk of the social services went to Whites… The southern part of Nigeria was one of the colonial areas that was supposed to have received the most from a benevolent mother country. Ibadan, one of the most heavily populated cities in Africa, had only about 50 Europeans before the last war. For those chosen few, the British colonial government maintained a segregated hospital service of 11 beds in well furnished surroundings. There were 34 beds for half-million Africans. The situation was repeated in other areas, so that altogether the 4,000 Europeans in the country in the 1930s had 12 modern hospitals, while the African population of at least 40 million had 52 hospitals.

"South African's large African working class population was in a sad state. The Tuberculosis Commission of 1912 reported that in the shanty towns:

"Scarcely a single family exists in which at least one member is not suffering or dying from tuberculosis. Hospital services are so inadequate, that incurable tuberculosis and other cases are simply sent home to die-and spread the infection. In some cases, a single doctor had to attend to the needs of 40,000 people. The Africans must pay for medical treatment. There is no provision for pauper patients. About 6% of the African children die before reaching two years.

"Rodney continues:

"That was as early as 1912, when the basis of South African gold and diamond Empire was already laid. After this, the shanty towns increased, the slum conditions grew worse, and the government committed itself to pursuing the odious policy of Apartheid-separation of the races so as to better exploit African people.

"Many African 'trekked' to towns, because [bad as they were] they offered a little more than the countryside. Modern sanitation, electricity, piped water, paved roads, medical services, and schools were as foreign at the end of the colonial period as they were at the beginning-as far as most of the rural Africa was concerned. Yet it was the countryside that grew the cash crops and provided labor that kept the system going. The peasants there knew very little of the supposed 'credits' on the colonial balance sheet.

"Because even the scanty social services were meant only to facilitate exploitation, they were not given to any Africans whose labor was not directly producing surplus for export to the Metropoles(The West). That is to say, none of the wealth of exploited Africans could be deployed for the assistance of the African left out of the money economy.

"The combination of being oppressed, being exploited, and being disregarded is best illustrated by the pattern of the economic infrastructure of African colonies: notably, the roads and the railways. These had a clear geographical distribution according to the extent tow which particular regions needed to be opened up to import-export activities. Where exports were not available, roads and railways had no place. The only slight exception is that certain roads were built to move troops and to make conquest and oppression easier.

"The more things change, the more they stay the same. This dictum holds true as I am about to go into a discourse of what I mean, exactly, below.

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