Preventive Health Schedule

Preventive steps and screening recommendations

Preventive Steps to Start Your Child on a Long and Healthy Life: Birth to Age 6 (female)

  • Keep all recommended well-child visits.
  • Have your child receive all childhood vaccines and keep a record of them.
  • Limit the amount of fat and cholesterol intake and emphasize grains, fruits, and vegetables in meals given  to children two and older.
  • Breastfeed if you can. If not, use iron-enriched formulas and foods for infants and toddlers.
  • Lie infant on his/her back for sleeping.
  • Avoid tooth decay - don't put infants to bed with a bottle.
  • Make regular dental visits. Children should see a dentist either within six months after their first tooth emerges through the gum (usually at six to eight months) or by their first birthday. Floss and use fluoride toothpaste daily. Check with your dentist or doctor about the need for additional fluoride and vitamins.
  • If you smoke, quit smoking for your child's health. Exposure to passive smoke is harmful.
  • Always use safety car seats in the back seat for children under five and lap/shoulder belts for children over five years. Selection of appropriate seat is dependent on child's weight.
  • Install and maintain smoke detectors in your home.
  • Use flame-retardant sleepwear.
  • Make sure water heater temperature is set below 120° to 130º degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Keep the poison control number on hand for accidental poisoning.
  • Store drugs, toxic substances, firearms and matches safely.
  • Install guards for windows and stairs.
  • Surround your pool with a fence.
  • Keep emergency phone numbers by the phone.
  • Consider taking CPR training if you are a parent or caretaker.

Screening Recommendations: Birth to Age 6 (female)

Below is a summary of preventive services recommendations for healthy children with normal risk. Talk with your doctor to find out what preventive services are right for your children and when they should have them. A full list of the most current screening recommendations can be found on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) website at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm .  Vaccine schedules change often.  The most current recommendations for vaccines can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at www.cdc.gov/vaccines. A catch-up vaccine schedule is also available at the CDC website for children who have fallen behind or started late.

SCREENING TEST*

RECOMMENDATIONS

PKU, sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, hypothyroidism

Once--Newborns

Hearing

Once--Newborns before 1 month of age

Vision

Periodically-- 0-5 years of age

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Periodically-- 6-18 years of age

VACCINES**

RECOMMENDATIONS

Hepatitis B

3-4 Doses--1 dose at birth; 1 dose 1-2 months later; 1 dose at 4 months of age1; and 1 dose between 6-18 months of age

Hepatitis A

2 Doses-- 2 doses 6 months apart between 12-23 months of age

Rotavirus

2-3 Doses-- 1 dose each at age 2, 4, and 6 months of age1

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP)

5 Doses-- 1 dose each at age 2, 4, and 6 months of age; 1 dose between 15-18 months of age; and 1 dose between 4-6 years of age

Inactivated Polio (IPV)

4 Doses-- 1 dose each at age 2 and 4 months of age; 1 dose between 6-18 months of age; and 1 dose between 4-6 years of age

H. Influenzae type b (Hib)

3-4 Doses-- 1 dose each at age 2, 4, and 6 months of age1; and 1 dose between 12-15 months of age

Pneumococcal Conjugate

4 Doses-- 1 dose each at age 2, 4, and 6 months of age; and 1 dose between 12-15 months of age

Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR)

2 Doses-- 1 dose between 12-15 months of age; and 1 dose between 4-6 years of age

Chicken pox (Varicella)

2 Doses-- 1 dose between 12-15 months of age; and 1 dose between 4-6 years of age

Influenza

Every flu season-- Beginning at 6 months of age2

*The preventive health screenings are based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) found online http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm as of 2/1/10.

**The vaccine recommendations are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines as of 2/1/10.

1 Dependent on vaccine type.

2 All children younger than 9 years of age getting the vaccine for the first time should receive two doses. If only one dose was given in the first year, two doses should be given in the following year. Household/close contacts and out-of-home caregivers of children age 0-59 months and children who have high-risk conditions should also receive the influenza vaccine.

Preventive Steps to Start Your Child on a Long and Healthy Life: Ages 7 to 12 Years (female)

  • Keep all recommended well-child visits.
  • Have your child receive all adolescent vaccines and keep a record of them.
  • Avoid unintentional injuries in the home by making sure your home has smoke detectors and buying flame-retardant sleepwear for your children.
  • Make sure firearms are locked and safely stored away.
  • Pay attention to speed limits.
  • Never drink and drive, for your child's sake, as well as your own.
  • Teach your child to avoid bicycling near traffic.
  • Make sure your child always wears a helmet when bicycling, rollerblading or riding a scooter or all-terrain Vehicle (ATV).
  • Limit the amount of fat and cholesterol in family meals and use lots of grains, fruits and vegetables.
  • Make regular dental visits; floss and use fluoride toothpaste daily. Check with your dentist or doctor about the need for additional fluoride and vitamins.
  • Encourage your children to engage in regular physical activities.
  • Teach your children about the danger of smoking, and if you smoke, improve your health and set a good example for your children by quitting.
  • Consider taking CPR training, if you are a parent or caretaker.

Screening Recommendations:

Below is a summary of preventive services recommendations for healthy children with normal risk. Talk with your doctor to find out what preventive services are right for your children and when they should have them.  A full list of the most current screening recommendations can be found on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) website at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm .  Vaccine schedules change often. The most current recommendations for vaccines can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at www.cdc.gov/vaccinesRoutine childhood vaccines should be completed by this age.   A catch-up vaccine schedule is also available at the CDC website for children who have fallen behind or started late.

Ages 7 to 12 Years (female)

SCREENINGS*

RECOMMENDATIONS

Depression

Routinely-- 12-18 years of age

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Periodically-- 6-18 years of age

VACCINES**

RECOMMENDATIONS

Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap)

1 Dose-- 1 dose between 11-12 years of age if the childhood DTP/DTaP series is complete and the child has not received the Td booster dose

Meningococcal

1 Dose-- 1 dose between 11-12 years of age

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

3 Doses-- First dose between 11-12 years of age; second dose 2 months later; third dose 6 months after the first dose

Influenza

Every flu season-- Beginning at 6 months of age1

*The preventive health screenings are based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) found online http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm as of 2/1/10.

 **The vaccine recommendations are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines as of 2/1/10.

1All children younger than 9 years of age getting the vaccine for the first time should receive two doses.  If only one dose was given in the first year, two doses should be given in the following year. Household/close contacts and out-of-home caregivers of children age 0-59 months and children who have high-risk conditions should also receive the influenza vaccine.

Preventive Steps for a Long and Healthy Life: Ages 13 to 18 Years (female)

  • Keep all recommended well-child visits.
  • Have your child receive all adolescent vaccines and keep a record of them.
  • Limit the amount of fat and cholesterol in family meals and use lots of grains, fruits and vegetables.
  • Encourage your children to engage in regular physical activities.
  • Make regular dental visits; floss and use fluoride toothpaste daily. Check with your dentist or doctor about the need for additional fluoride and vitamins.
  • Don't smoke. If you do, quit.
  • Avoid alcohol and illegal drugs.
  • Never drink and drive.
  • Pay attention to speed limits.
  • Encourage open and frank discussions regarding sexual activity.
  • Ensure adequate calcium and folic acid intake.
  • Always wear lap and shoulder belts when driving or riding in a motor vehicle.
  • Always wear a helmet when rollerblading, or riding a bicycle, scooter, motorcycle or all-terrain vehicle (ATV).
  • Make sure firearms are locked and safely stored away.
  • Make sure smoke detectors are installed and maintained in your home.
  • Consider taking CPR training, if you are a parent or caretaker.

Screening Services: Ages 13 to 18 Years (female)

Below is a summary of preventive services recommendations for healthy children with normal risk. Talk with your doctor to find out what preventive services are right for your children and when they should have them. A full list of the most current screening recommendations can be found on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) website at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm . Vaccine schedules change often.  The most current recommendations for vaccines can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at www.cdc.gov/vaccinesRoutine childhood and adolescent vaccines should be completed by this age.  A catch-up vaccine schedule is also available at the CDC website for children who have fallen behind or started late.

SCREENING TESTS*

RECOMMENDATIONS

Blood Pressure

Every 2 years-- 18 years of age and older

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Periodically-- 6-18 years of age

Cervical1

Every 1-2 years2-- Beginning at age 21 or earlier if sexually active; if 30 years and older, either a Pap smear every 2 to 3 years after 3 consecutive normal results or HPV DNA test plus a Pap smear every 3 years if results of both tests are negative. Talk with your physician to discuss the method of screening that is right for you

Chlamydia

Routinely-- 24 years of age and younger and sexually active

Alcohol Misuse

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

Depression

Routinely-- 12-18 years of age

Tobacco Use

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

VACCINES**

RECOMMENDATIONS

Influenza

Every flu season--Beginning 6 months of age through 18 years of age3

*The preventive health screenings are based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) found online http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm as of 2/1/10.

**The vaccine recommendations are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines as of 2/1/10.

1 Based on the cervical cancer screening recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS) at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_2_3X_ACS_Cancer_Detection_Guidelines_36.asp?sitearea=PED as of 2/1/10.

2Every two years when using the newer liquid-based Pap test.

3 Household/close contacts and out-of-home caregivers of children age 0-59 months and children who have high-risk conditions should also receive the influenza immunization.

Preventative Steps for a Long and Healthy Life: Ages 19 to 39 Years (female)

  • Avoid driving, swimming, boating, etc. under the influence of alcohol or drugs 
  • If you are planning or capable of pregnancy, take a multivitamin with folic acid. Folic acid supplements have been shown to reduce the risk of congenital malformations of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Improve your ability to detect breast cancer early by performing monthly breast self-exams. 
  • Visit your dentist regularly. 
  • Floss and brush with fluoride toothpaste daily. 
  • Always wear lap and shoulder belts while driving or riding in a motor vehicle. 
  • Always wear a helmet when rollerblading, or riding a bicycle, scooter, motorcycle or all-terrain vehicle (ATV). 
  • Install and maintain smoke detectors in your home. 
  • Make sure firearms are locked and safely stored away. 
  • Limit the amount of fat and cholesterol in your diet; emphasize fruits, grains and vegetables. If you have high cholesterol, other known risk factors for heart disease or diet-related chronic conditions, follow the dietary recommendations provided by your physician. 
  • Get adequate calcium intake, which is especially important for women. 
  • Lose weight to reduce your risk of developing heart disease, hypertension and other diseases if you are overweight. 
  • If you smoke, quit smoking to reduce your risk of irreversible lung damage, cancer and heart disease. 
  • Get regular exercise. Ask your doctor before starting any new exercise program. 
  • Consider taking CPR training, if you are a parent or caretaker. 
  • *Women planning or capable of pregnancy should take a daily supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg (400 to 800 µg) of folic acid.

Screening Recommendations: Ages 19 to 39 Years (female)

Below is a summary of preventive services recommendations for healthy adults with normal risk. Talk with your doctor to find out what preventive services are right for you and when you should have them. A full list of the most current screening recommendations can be found on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) website at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm . Vaccine schedules change often.  The most current recommendations for vaccines can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at www.cdc.gov/vaccinesRoutine childhood and adolescent vaccines should be completed by this age.  A catch-up vaccine schedule is also available at the CDC website for those who have fallen behind or started late.

SCREENING TESTS*

RECOMMENDATIONS

Blood pressure

Every 2 years-- 18 years of age and older

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Periodically-- 18 years of age and older

Cervical1

Every 1-2 years2-- Beginning at 21 years of age or earlier if sexually active; if 30 years of age and older, either a Pap smear every 2 to 3 years after 3 consecutive normal results or HPV DNA test plus a Pap smear every 3 years if results of both tests are negative. Talk with your physician to discuss the method of screening that is right for you

Chlamydia

Routinely-- 24 years of age and younger and sexually active

Depression

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

Alcohol Misuse

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

Tobacco Use

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

VACCINES**

RECOMMENDATIONS

Tetanus-Diphtheria-Pertussis (Td/Tdap)

1 dose Td every 10 years-- 19 years of age and older; for 19-64 years of age, substitute a single dose of Td booster with Tdap

*The preventive health screenings are based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) found online at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm as of 7/27/09.

**The vaccine recommendations are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines as of 1/21/09.

1Based on the cervical cancer screening recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS) at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_2_3X_ACS_Cancer_Detection_Guidelines_36.asp?sitearea=PED as of 1/21/09.

2 Every two years when using the newer liquid-based Pap test.

Preventive Steps for a Long and Healthy Life: Ages 40 to 64 Years (female)

  • If you are overweight, lose weight to substantially reduce your risk of developing heart disease and high blood pressure.
  • Limit the amount of fat and cholesterol in your diet and emphasize grains, fruits and vegetables.
  • If you have high cholesterol, other known risk factors for heart disease or diet-related chronic conditions, follow the dietary recommendations provided by your physician.
  • Avoid driving, swimming, boating, etc., under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
  • Get regular exercise. If it has been years since you have exercised regularly, start slowly. Always check with your doctor before starting a new exercise program.
  • Perform monthly breast self-exams to improve your ability to detect breast cancer early; also get regular mammograms.
  • Always wear lap and shoulder belts while driving or riding in a motor vehicle.
  • Always wear a helmet when rollerblading or riding a motorcycle, bicycle, scooter or all-terrain vehicle (ATV).
  • Install and maintain smoke detectors in your home.
  • Make sure firearms are locked and safely stored.
  • If you smoke, quit smoking to reduce your risk of irreversible lung damage, cancer and heart disease.
  • Visit your dentist regularly.
  • Floss and brush with fluoride toothpaste daily.
  • Consider taking CPR training, if you are a parent or caretaker.
  • *Women planning or capable of pregnancy should take a daily supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg (400 to 800 µg) of folic acid.
  • *For women 55-79 years old, talk to your doctor about the potential harms and benefits of using aspirin for the prevention of heart disease to find out what is right for you.

Screening Recommendations: Ages 40 to 64 Years (female)

Below is a summary of preventive services recommendations for healthy adults with normal risk. Talk with your doctor to find out what preventive services are right for you and when you should have them. A full list of the most current screening recommendations can be found on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) website at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm . Vaccine schedules change often.  The most current recommendations for vaccines can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at www.cdc.gov/vaccines.  A catch-up vaccine schedule is also available at the CDC website for any vaccines that may have been missed.

SCREENING TESTS*

RECOMMENDATIONS

Blood pressure

Every 2 years-- 18 years of age and older

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Periodically-- 18 years of age and older

Mammogram1

Every 1-2 years -- 40 years of age and older

Cervical2

Every 1-2 years3-- May have a Pap smear every 2 to 3 years after 3 consecutive normal results or HPV DNA test plus a Pap smear every 3 years if results of both tests are negative. Talk with your doctor about what type of screening is right for you

Colorectal

Beginning at 50 years of age to 75 years of age--yearly screening with high-sensitivity stool test for blood, OR sigmoidoscopy every 5 years with high sensitivity stool test for blood every 3 years, OR colonoscopy every 10 years. Talk with your doctor about what type of screening is right for you and any benefits of screening over 75 years of age.

Depression

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

Alcohol Misuse

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

Tobacco Use

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

VACCINES**

RECOMMENDATIONS

Tetanus-Diphtheria-Pertussis (Td/Tdap)

1 dose Td every 10 years--19 years of age and older; for 19-64 years of age, substitute a single dose of Td booster with Tdap

Influenza

Every flu season -- 50 years of age and older

Zoster

1 Dose -- 60 years of age and older

*The preventive health screenings are based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) found online at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm as of 2/1/10.

**The vaccine recommendations are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines as of 2/1/10.

1Based on the breast cancer screening recommendations of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Detection/screening-mammograms as of 2/1/10

2Based on the cervical cancer screening recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS) at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_2_3X_ACS_Cancer_Detection_Guidelines_36.asp?sitearea=PED as of 2/1/10.

3Every two years when using the newer liquid-based Pap test.

Preventive Steps for a Long and Healthy Life: Ages 65 and Over (female)

  • Make sure you have been vaccinated against pneumonia and influenza, which can become life threatening in older persons.
  • You should be vaccinated against pneumonia once at age 65 or older. If the pneumococcal vaccination is given before age 65, after five years a booster is recommended.
  • You should be vaccinated against influenza starting at age 50 every year in the Fall.
  • Limit your intake of fats and cholesterol and include plenty of grains, fruits and vegetables in your diet to reduce your risk of heart disease and cancer. If you have high cholesterol, other known risk factors for heart disease or diet-related chronic conditions, follow the dietary recommendations provided by your physician.
  • Perform monthly breast self-exams to improve your ability to detect breast cancer early; also get regular mammograms.
  • Make sure you have adequate calcium in your diet to reduce your risk of developing osteoporosis.
  • Ask your doctor about things you can do to reduce your risk of falling, including exercise (particularly training to improve balance), safety-related skills and behaviors and removing falling hazards at home.
  • Stay active and get regular physical activity. Exercise can improve your balance and prevent or reverse weakness and debilitation. Always check with your doctor before starting a new exercise program.
  • Avoid driving, swimming, boating, etc., under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
  • Always wear lap and shoulder belts while driving or riding in a motor vehicle.
  • Always wear a helmet when riding a motorcycle, bicycle, scooter or all-terrain vehicle (ATV).
  • Install and maintain smoke detectors in your home.
  • Make sure all firearms are locked and safely stored out of the reach of children who may visit you.
  • Make sure each of your doctors knows what medications the others have prescribed for you; this will help prevent harmful drug interactions.
  • If you smoke, quit smoking. Even if you have been smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer and lung disease by quitting now.
  • If you are overweight, lose weight to reduce your risk of developing heart disease, hypertension and other diseases.
  • Make sure water heater temperature is set below 120° to 130º degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Consider taking CPR training, if you are a caretaker.
  • *For women 55-79 years old, talk to your doctor about the potential harms and benefits of using aspirin for the prevention of heart disease to find out what is right for you.

Screening Recommendations: Ages 65 and Over (female)

Below is a summary of preventive services recommendations for healthy adults with normal risk. Talk with your doctor to find out what preventive services are right for you and when you should have them. A full list of the most current screening recommendations can be found on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) website at  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm . Vaccine schedules change often.  The most current recommendations for vaccines can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at www.cdc.gov/vaccines.  A catch-up vaccine schedule is also available at the CDC website for any vaccines that may have been missed.

SCREENING TESTS*

RECOMMENDATIONS

Blood pressure

Every 2 years-- 18 years of age and older

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Periodically-- 18 years of age and older

Mammogram1

Every 1-2 years -- 40 years of age and older

Cervical2

Every 1-2 years3-- May have a Pap smear every 2 to 3 years after 3 consecutive normal results or HPV DNA test plus a Pap smear every 3 years if results of both tests are negative; Women over 70 years of age and older may stop screening; Talk with your doctor about what type of screening is right for you.

Colorectal

Beginning at 50 years of age to 75 years of age--yearly screening with high-sensitivity stool test for blood, OR sigmoidoscopy every 5 years with high sensitivity stool test for blood every 3 years, OR colonoscopy every 10 years. Talk with your doctor about what type of screening is right for you and any benefits of screening over 75 years of age.

Osteoporosis (Bone Density Test)

Routinely-- 65 years of age and older

Depression

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

Alcohol Misuse

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

Tobacco Use

Routinely-- 18 years of age and older

VACCINES**

RECOMMENDATIONS

Influenza

Every flu season-- 50 years of age and older

Pneumococcal

1 Dose-- 65 years of age and older

Tetanus-Diphtheria (Td)

Every 10 years--19 years of age and older

Zoster

1 Dose -- 60 years of age and older

*The preventive health screenings are based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) found online http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm as of 2/1/10.

**The vaccine recommendations are based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines as of 2/1/10.

1Based on the breast cancer screening recommendations of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Detection/screening-mammograms as of 2/1/10

2 Based on the cervical cancer screening recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS) at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_2_3X_ACS_Cancer_Detection_Guidelines_36.asp?sitearea=PED as of 1/21/09.

3Every two years when using the newer liquid-based Pap test.

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