Under normal conditions cells and tissues performs their normal functions but in abnormal conditions like diseased condition or any other abnormality conditions of unknown origin cells and tissue shows abnormality and because of this cells morphology gets changed. This is called as Pathogenic changes. Pathogenic changes in tissue are studies under the branch of medical science known as “Histopathology”.

In diseases condition part of organ or whole organ sometimes complete system is involved. Generally it shows inflammation, infection, unusual changes of maturation cells, malignant changes etc.

For detail study of this condition specimen is collected from patient and kept in preservative and send for investigation is known as biopsy. There are various methods of biopsy. Common methods are as follows.

1)      Tissue Biopsy

2)      Needle Biopsy

3)      Endoscopic Biopsy

4)      Espiration Biopsy

5)      Sternal Biopsy


1)      Tissue Biopsy:  In this tissue biopsy organ or complete system is removed by surgery and send for its detail study.

2)      Needle biopsy: This is latest technique based on ultra sound sonagraphy and laproscopy for soft tissue biopsy. With sonagraphy area is selected and with the help of needle bits of tissue are removed. This saves lengthy operative procedure on patient.

3)      Endoscopic Biopsy: Instrument called endoscope which is having a device of viewing at one end and at the other end. There is a device of clamp and lamp attachment and inside combination of lences and prisms. After viewing with endoscope, area is selected and tissue is picked up with the help of clamp. This also saves lengthy procedure of operation. There is also attachment of camera with instrument which takes photograph of internal parts with latest instrument video attachment is also their.

4)      Espiration Biopsy: In this method of biopsy body fluid from cavities are collected and study for any abnormal formation of cells. The collection of fluid is done by the process of espiration either with the help of syringe or with the help of suction pump device. This espirated fluid is examine by a special technique of “EXFOLIATIVE CYTOLOGY”.

5)      Sternal Biopsy: This biopsy method is used for bone marrow studies. Generally for study of heamatological disorder and sometimes for born marrow study for RATICULO ENDOTHELIAL CELLS(R.E.Cells). Here by special technique selected area of sternum is punctured and born marrow specimen is collected for histopathological study using syringe.

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