How to prevent type 2 Diabetes

10 Benefits of Being Active


1. Activity makes your body more sensitive to the insulin you make and can make your body work more effectively. Activity also burns glucose (calories). Both actions lower blood glucose.

2. Activity lowers blood pressure and helps your heart pump stronger and slower.

3. Activity improves blood fats. Exercise can raise good cholesterol (HDL) and lower bad cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides. These changes are heart healthy.

4. Activity can help you lose weight and keep it off. Activity burns calories and loose pounds. Stay active and you'll keep the weight off.

5. Lower risk for other health problems. Reduce your risk of a heart attack or stroke, some cancers, and bone loss and injuries from falls.

6. Activity helps you sleep better and get to sleep in less time.

7. Activity helps you have more energy.

8. Activity helps you work out or walk off daily stress.

9. Activity helps you build stronger bones and muscles. Weight-bearing activities, such as walking, make bones stronger. Strength-training activities, such as lifting weights make muscles strong.

10. Activity helps you be more flexible and move more easily when you are active.

(Taken from: http://www.diabetes.org by A. Gagliardi on Aug 3, 2011 at 10:45 PM)

10 super foods that help you reduce your risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes.

As with all foods, you need to work these foods into your individualized meal plan in appropriate portions. All of the foods in this list have a low glycemic index or GI and provide key nutrients that are lacking in the typical western diet such as: calcium, potassium, magnesium, vitamins A, C & E, and larger amounts of fiber.

Look for lower cost options such as fruit and vegetables in season or frozen or canned fish. Foods that every budget can live with year round are beans and rolled oats or barley that you cook from scratch. Buying and eating whole (organic when possible) foods, locally grown add to the nutrient value in the foods you eat. Eating foods raw or with as little preparation as possible feeds you instead of the compost heap.

1. Beans

You can’t find better nutrition than that provided by beans whichever bean you prefer (Kidney, Pinto, Garbanzo, Navy, Black, etc.). They are very high in fiber and offer about 1/3 of your daily requirement in just a ½ cup and are also good sources of magnesium, and potassium. Beans are considered starchy vegetables but a ½ cup provides as much protein as one ounce of meat without the saturated fat. To save time you can use canned beans, but be sure to drain and rinse them to get rid of as much sodium as possible. You can make up a large batch of beans and freeze them in portions for use at a later date.

2. Berries

Regardless of which berry is your favorite, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries or others, they are all packed with antioxidants, vitamins and fiber. Make a parfait alternating the fruit with light, non-fat yogurt for a new favorite dessert or add ½ cup of berries to your oatmeal to start the day right.

3. Citrus Fruit

Grapefruit, oranges, lemons and limes provide your daily dose of soluble fiber and vitamin C. Citrus fruits contain the simple carbohydrates (sugars) fructose, glucose and sucrose, as well as citric acid, which can also provide energy. The predominant type of fiber in citrus is pectin. In the body, NSP holds water-soluble nutrients in a gel matrix which delays gastric emptying and slows digestion and absorption. This tends to promote satiety, and may reduce the rate of glucose uptake following consumption of glycemic (available) carbohydrate, which helps to prevent a surge in blood glucose levels.

4. Dark Green Leafy Vegetables

Because of their high magnesium content and their low glycemic index, creates the “powerhouse” name for foods like spinach, celery, leeks, collards, kale, and broccoli. They are low in fat, high in dietary fiber, and rich in folic acid, vitamin C, potassium and magnesium, as well as containing a host of phytochemicals, such as lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene.

5. Fat-free Milk and Yogurt

Everyone knows dairy can help build strong bones and teeth. In addition to calcium, many fortified dairy products are a good source of vitamin D. More research is emerging on the connection between vitamin D and good health.

* If you are lactose intolerant remember there are alternative milks like Soy milk, Almond milk, Rice milk, Goat milk (and cheeses) and Coconut milk readily available at many stores and most co-ops. These also provide good nutritional value.

6. Fish High in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Salmon is a favorite in this category. Stay away from the breaded and deep-fat fried fish as they won’t count toward your goal of 6-9 ounces of fish per week. But, steamed, baked or grilled fish will add goodness to your diet.

7. Nuts

An ounce of nuts can go a long way in providing key healthy fats and assist with hunger management. Other benefits are a dose of magnesium and fiber. Some nuts and seeds, such as walnuts and flax seeds, also contain omega-3 fatty acids. Almonds provide healthy fats and vitamin E, high doses of magnesium and potassium.

8. Sweet Potatoes

Sweet potatoes are packed full of vitamin A, and are one of nature’s unsurpassed sources of beta-carotene. In addition, sweet potatoes have important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Replace white potatoes for yams or sweet potatoes to provide a lower glycemic index alternative.

9. Tomatoes

Although tomatoes are fruits in a botanical sense, they don't have the dessert quality sweetness of other fruits. The good news is that no matter how you like your tomatoes - pureed, raw, or in a sauce or salsa, you’re eating vital nutrients like vitamin C, iron, vitamin E and getting fiber. The carotenoid found in tomatoes (and everything made from them), called lycopene, has been extensively studied for its antioxidant and cancer-preventing properties. However, scientists are finding out that it is the array of nutrients included in tomatoes, including, but not limited to lycopene, that confers it with so much health value.

10. Whole Grains

It’s the germ and bran of the whole grain you’re after. It contains all the nutrients a grain product has to offer. Processed grains like bread made from enriched wheat flour, don’t provide the germ or bran, which provide magnesium, chromium, omega 3 fatty acids and folate.

Much of this information is taken from:

http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/diabetes-superfoods.html?

and http://www.whfoods.com

and http://www.vegetarian-nutrition.info

and http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2650T/x2650t03.htm by Annette Gagliardi on Aug 3, 2011 at 10:30 pm.

How to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes


By A. Gagliardi

The last time I visited my doctor, she said I was screamingly close to being diabetic. I really think trying to stay healthy, although expensive, is still cheaper than being sick with a life-long, progressive disease. My ancestors were Diabetic, I am a bit overweight and I don’t get enough exercise, but I’m working to rectify the last two factors. I am one of the millions of people who are at risk for adult onset Diabetes. And I think those of us in this boat aught to get a clue about what to do so we do not become a health burden to society, a financial burden to our family and have a lower quality of life for ourselves.

I have been a member of a gym for a couple of years now and try to get an hour of intense working out done at least three times a week. I also got a pedometer and aim for up to or over 10,000 steps in each day – which was harder than I thought it would be. Several health insurance companies have added incentives for getting more fit and I think that is a step in the right direction. But, our jobs may still get in the way of daily exercise and I have to constantly strategize to get my daily exercise in – even a small thing like a walk. This is an area were we really need to advocate for more exercise breaks, figure out how to get exercise into our daily routines and ask for livable work schedules that allow us time to exercise.

One thing I have noticed is that eating more healthily is a really hard thing to do in our society. There is sugar and fat in abundance. The processed foods are shoved at us at an alarming rate and tend to be cheaper than fresh, good-for-you produce. I recently ate at a restaurant with a friend, both of us trying to watch what we ate. I could not get unsweetened tea, so settled for water. We both ordered salads with the dressing on the side, but hers had candied nuts, an abundance of sliced, deep fried chips and more calories in the dressing that need be. Mine added only veggies, a hard-boiled egg, ham slices and cheese (which I put aside as I am lactose intolerant), but the salad was so big I took over half of it home.

I decided to write this Hub as research for what I, and you can do to really prevent going there. I don’t want to be diabetic. I don’t want the shots, the checking my blood glucose, the worry about infections, or the more frequent and costly medical appointments. So, here are some facts about Type 2 Diabetes and some strategies for helping you stay away from the threat of that disease. Who knows, maybe it will lead to a healthier, happier you!

1. Who is at risk for type 2 Diabetes?

· People with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG)

· People over age 45

· People with a family history of diabetes

· People who are overweight

· People who do not exercise regularly

· People with low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides, or who have high blood pressure

· Certain racial and ethnic groups (e.g., Non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaska Natives)

· Women who had gestational diabetes, or who have had a baby weighing 9 pounds or more at birth

(This last taken from: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/risk-factors/ by A. Gagliardi on August 3, 2011 at 10 pm.

2. What is diabetes?

Diabetes, is a group of chronic (lifelong) metabolic diseases in which a person has high bloodsugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst and increased hunger. Diabetes affects the body's ability to use blood sugar for energy. The main types include Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, and Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes symptoms may include increased thirst and urination, blurred vision, and fatigue.

For people with Type 2 Diabetes, whose blood sugar is uncontrolled, adding insulin replaces what your body isn't adequately making to help control blood sugar. Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans. Over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes (early Type 2 Diabetes).

Among all people with diabetes, 90%-95% have Type 2 Diabetes, which was formerly known as adult-onset diabetes. While most people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are adults, there is a rising number of children with the condition due to an increase in childhood obesity.

2a. Pre-Diabetes:

But, before a person has Type 2 Diabetes, they often have what is called Pre-diabetes. A recently completed Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) study showed conclusively that people with pre-diabetes can prevent the development of Type 2 Diabetes by making changes in their diet and increasing their level of physical activity. They may even be able to return their blood glucose levels to the normal range.

While the Diabetes Prevention Program also showed that some medications may delay the development of diabetes, in reality diet and exercise worked better.

As few as 30 minutes a day of moderate physical activity, coupled with a 5-10% reduction in body weight, produced a 58% reduction in diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association is developing materials that will help people understand their risks for pre-diabetes and what they can do to halt the progression to diabetes and even to, "turn back the clock" In the meantime, we have a wealth of resources for people with diabetes or at risk for diabetes that can be of use to people interested in pre-diabetes.

While diabetes and pre-diabetes occur in people of all ages and races, some groups have a higher risk for developing the disease than others. Diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. This means they are also at increased risk for developing pre-diabetes.

There are three different tests doctors can use to determine whether you have pre-diabetes:

  • The A1C test
  • The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG)
  • or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

The blood glucose levels measured after these tests determine whether you have a normal metabolism, or whether you have pre-diabetes or diabetes.

If your blood glucose level is abnormal following the FPG, you have impaired fasting glucose (IFG); if your blood glucose level is abnormal following the OGTT, you have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Both are also known as pre-diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association can help you determine if you are at increased risk for diabetes or pre-diabetes. A high score may indicate that you have pre-diabetes or at risk for pre-diabetes. Go to this website and take the test: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/diabetes-risk-test/

(Taken from:http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/pre-diabetes/how-to-prevent-pre-diabetes.html on Aug. 3, 2011)


3. Prevention strategies

You can prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes through a healthy lifestyle. Change your diet, reduce your cholesterol level, increase your level of physical activity, maintain a healthy weight, stop smoking and you can reduce your risk of diabetes.

You may also be interested in the book, Diabetes Problem Solver.

Making just a few small changes can make a big impact on your health. The book will show you how to make these changes step-by-step.

A. Get Active and Stay Active:

Exercise is part of a healthy lifestyle for everyone, and it's especially important for people threatened with Diabetes. But exercise doesn't necessarily mean running a marathon or spending all day exercising. The goal is to get active and stay active by doing things you enjoy, from gardening to playing tennis to walking with friends. Here are some ideas for getting moving and making exercise part of your daily life.

1. Join a health club or gym and work out hard enough, at least three times a week to raise your heart rate.

2. Get a walking buddy and make a daily date to walk, even if it’s only for 30 minutes.

3. Even doing 10 to 15 minutes of exercise several times a day, such as going up and down your stairs at home can make a difference.

4. Park your car at the far side of the lot and walk farther to and from the stores.

5. Get an active hobby and have fun with Tennis, Gardening, Biking, Skiing, Boating and more.

6. Walk your dog farther than you do now, each day, or jog with your dog to make your walk a bit more intense. It will make you both more healthy.

7. When going between floors take the steps instead of the elevator.

8. Walk or bike instead of driving to the library, church, restaurant or theater.

9. Purchase a wii and have fun at home with a variety of exercises and games.

10. There are a plethora of exercise videos to choose from. Get them cheap on Amazon.com or the Half-Price books.

B. Reduce your Cholesterol: Cholesterol is a form of fat that is carried in the blood. Unhealthy cholesterol levels can raise your risk for Type 2 Diabetes and heart disease. This can be changed with a healthy diet or medication.

C. Getting to and staying at a healthy weight can help you prevent and manage problems like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol, and high blood glucose.

D. Eating healthy: Healthy eating is one of the most important things you can do to lower your risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It is also a way to loose the weight (see above) that leads to Diabetes and other diseases.

Here are some ideas for eating more healthfully:

Buy Healthier:

  • Choose more fresh vegetables, fruits, and whole grains by adding specific items to your shopping list and planning recipes that use them.
  • Focus on the foods you need to eat more. Go to MyPyramid.gov, find out how many servings of veggies, fruits, and whole grains you need each day, and work on achieving those goals.
  • Buy leaner meats (such as chicken, turkey, and lean cuts of pork or beef such as sirloin or chuck roast) and lower fat dairy products (like low-fat or skim milk and yogurt or goat cheese and yogurt). Eat more fish.
  • Buy whole grain breads and cereals.
  • Reduce or eliminate purchasing soda, sweets, chips or other snack foods.
  • Remember that special "dietetic" or "diabetic" foods often cost extra money and may not be much healthier than simply following the suggestions given here.

Plan Smart:

  • Set aside some time to plan your meals each week. Having a plan (and writing your grocery list with it in mind) can actually save you time, stress, and extra trips to the store.
  • Stock your pantry with plenty of healthy basics, including brown rice, whole grain pasta, crackers and cereals.
  • Remember that fresh fruits and vegetables are usually healthier than canned or frozen. If you do need to stock up, frozen is usually better than canned.
  • Shop only from your grocery list and try to eliminate impulse purchases.
  • Avoid the candy and goodie aisles and don’t linger over the specials on the end caps.
  • Never shop when you are hungry and might be tempted by a less healthy food.

Eat Smart

  • To cut down on the sodium in canned vegetables by draining and rinsing them before heating in fresh water. Buy canned fruits that are packed in their own juice (not syrup).
  • Start your meals with a salad or a broth or tomato- based soup with lots of vegetables. This helps you eat more good-for-you veggies while filling you up.
  • Make healthy snack foods easy to find in your kitchen. Stock celery, carrots, apples, grapes, or pretzels instead of chips and cookies.
  • Spread Hummus on celery instead of cheese on crackers.
  • In restaurants, ask if meats can be grilled rather than fried, and request sauces and dressings on the side.
  • Order a house salad or soup to start and then share an entrée. Then share or skip dessert. This saves money and lots of calories.
  • At restaurants or pot-lucks choose fruit, salad, or other vegetables as side items, rather than french fries.

(Much of this information was taken from: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/checkup-america/healthy-eating.html on Aug. 3, 2011 by A. Gagliardi at 9:10 pm)


The American Diabetes Association's book What Do I Eat Now? provides a step-by-step guide to eating right.

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Comments 9 comments

sfshine profile image

sfshine 5 years ago from Michigan

Good information about diabetes. Thanks.

Sfshine


Ms Dee profile image

Ms Dee 5 years ago from Texas, USA

Great information! Thanks for collecting and posting all this. I'm sure it will be of help. :)


Phil Plasma profile image

Phil Plasma 5 years ago from Montreal, Quebec

Very comprehensive post about diabetes. Great job in filling in all of the details about what preventative measures can be taken. Vote-up, useful and awesome.


agaglia profile image

agaglia 5 years ago Author

Hi sfshine & ms Dee,

thanks for viewing my Hub. I am trying my darndest to NOT become diabetic. I bet lots of other people are working at it too. So, I am glad to see you got something out of it.


b. Malin profile image

b. Malin 5 years ago

Having worked in the Medical Field Agalia, I think you've pretty much covered all there is to know about Type 2 Diabetes, and done an excellent job on researching and explaining in layman terms. Keep up the good work on your own Health as well.


acaetnna profile image

acaetnna 5 years ago from Guildford

Gosh this is so comprehensive and totally excellent. Bookmarking for future reference.


agaglia profile image

agaglia 5 years ago Author

Thanks b. Malin and acaetnna for your kind comments. I am trying to NOT be diabetic. Hope it works.


JamaGenee profile image

JamaGenee 5 years ago from Central Oklahoma

Wonderful information here! Every time I was pregnant, I was only borderline gestational diabetic but had to curtail my sugar intake anyway. Otherwise, diabetes has never been a threat because I instinctively keep my weight down.

But then, when I was growing up recess was a daily activity in grade school and an hour of P.E. (phys ed) in junior high...and there were no soda or snack machines in the hallways or in the cafeteria. Cafeteria food was also much healthier than the garbage served today.

Common sense says eliminating recess and P.E., adding pop and candy machines, and serving high-calorie foods in schools was a perfect recipe for the current epidemic of childhood obesity. So sad to see children saddled with adult health problems at a young age!

May I add an easy tip to the list of ways to prevent getting Type 2 diabetes in the first place, or eliminating it by taking the extra weight off if you already suffer from it?

Eat SLOWLY and only HALF of whatever's on your plate. Most restaurants serve portions that are too big to begin with even when you order from the "healthy" side of the menu. At home we're apt to take larger servings than we really need because it all *looks* and smells so good. But your eyes will *always* be bigger than your appetite, and contrary to how most of us were brought up, children in China will NOT starve and the sky will NOT fall if you leave food on your plate! ;D


agaglia profile image

agaglia 5 years ago Author

Jamageene, thanks for writing and for the added tip. I agree with you on both counts. When we eliminated Phy Ed and recess in schools, we do a disservice to kids. I think that these pastimes have been brought back to most schools.

Also, I love your idea of eating slowly and only half. I usually cut my portion in half and ask for a 'to-go' bag right away. Then put half in the 'to-go' bag right away. Then, I feel satiated as I finish my portion. If it is really good, I have a second meal to look forward to.

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