Male Cancer-Prostrate Cancer-Colorectal Cancer-Skin Cancer-Testicular cancer

Male Cancer-Early Detection And Screening

This hub will describe four common cancers found in men that can be detected early by screening tests or by having signs and symptoms checked by your doctor: Prostate, Testicular, Skin and Colerectal. Many symptoms can be caused by problems which are less serious than cancer itself. See your doctor to be sure. If cancer can't be prevented, treatment is more likely to be successful if found early enough.

Early detection means finding cancer at an early stage. When cancer is found early, it is often far easier to treat. Recognising symptoms and getting regular checkups help detect cancer early. Be aware of your body and dont ignore any changes. The sooner you report your symptoms to your doctor, the sooner the problem can be dealt with.


Screening is the early detection of cancer by checking for disease when you don't have any symptoms. Many types of cancer don't have a screening test, but some cancers can be found before you have even noticed something might be wrong. Screening tests can help find cancer at it's earliest, most treatable stages. Some screening tests can also help detect precancerous conditions that can be treated before cancer develops. If a screening test shows up something unusual, normally follow up tests are required.

Screening programmes that offer screening tests for certain types of cancer are widely available across the world. Programmes may vary from place to place. These screening programmes are offered to people in specific age groups who don't have any signs or symptoms of cancer. If you have a family history of a specific cancer you may be at a higher risk for developing cancer and could be tested at an earlier age or more often. talk to your doctor about a personal plan of testing. It's also very important to know that no screening test for cancer is 100% accurate.  For example, a screening test can sometimes show cancer when there isn't, or not show cancer when there is.  But overall, screening tests do save lives.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer starts in the cells of the prostrate gland. It is the most common type of cancer found in men and is diagnosed most often in men over 65 years of age. Men with a family history of prostate cancer or men who are of African descent are at a higher risk of developing the disease at a younger age. If you are over the age of 50 years old, talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of testing for prostate cancer. If you are at higher risk for prostate cancer because of family history or of an African descent, discuss the possibility of starting testing at an earlier age.

The following tests may be used for the early detection of prostate cancer:

  • Digital rectum examination(DRE): a physical exam of the prostate gland through the rectum. The doctor inserts a gloved finger into the rectum to feel the prostate for lumps or anything else that seems unusual.
  • Prostate-specific antigen(PSA) test: a blood test that measures prostate specific antigen, a substance produced by the prostate.

The PSA and DRE tests can help detect prostate cancer early, but they can also cause false alarms or miss prostate cancer that is present. In some cases, these tests can detect prostate cancer that may not pose a serious threat to your health. It is important to talk to your doctor about your personal risk of developing prostate cancer, and about the benefits and risks of testing.


Prostate Cancer Symptoms

What to watch for

These signs and symptoms may be caused by prostate cancer or by other health problems, such as inflamed or enlarged prostate.

See your doctor if you have:

  • the need to urinate often, especially at night.
  • an intense need to urinate
  • difficulty in starting or stopping the urine flow
  • an inability to urinate
  • weak, decreased or interrupted urine stream
  • a feeling that the bladder hasn't completely emptied
  • burning or pain during urination
  • blood in the urine or semen
  • painful ejaculation

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer starts in the cells of a testicle. While testicular cancer is quite rare, men between the ages of 15 and 49 are at increased risk of developing it. Treatment for testicular cancer is usually successful, especially if the cancer is found in the earl stages. A few simple checks by yourself can help detect it early enough. Become familiar with your testicles and check them regulary. The best time to do it is after a warm bath or shower, when the testicles descend and the muscles of the scrotum are relaxed. See your doctor right away if you notice anything unusual. Have regular medical checkups by your doctor that include testicular examination.


Testicular Cancer Symptoms

What to watch for

These signs and symptoms may be caused by testicular cancer or by other health problems.

See your doctor if you have:

  • a lump on the testicle
  • a painful testicle
  • a feeling of heaviness or dragging in the lower abdomen or scrotum
  • a dull ache in the lower abdomen and groin

Skin Cancer

The different types of skin cancer (basal cell,squamous cell and melanoma) begin in different kinds of cells in the skin. Basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers are very common in hot countries especially like U.S.A, Cyprus, Canada to name a few, but both types can usually be treated easily and successfully. The best way to prevent skin cancer is to protect yourself from the sun. Here are a few tips on how to stay safe in the sun:

  • Protect yourself and your family from the sun, particularly between 11a.m and 4p.m when the sun's rays are strongest, or any time of day when the UV Index is 3 or more. Stay in the shade, under trees, an awning or an umberella, and try to plan outdoor activities before 11a.m or after 4p.m.
  • Cover your arms,legs and head.  Choose clothing that is loose fitting, tightly woven and lightweight.  Don't forget your hat to protect your head, face, ears and neck.
  • Use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher.  Don't forget to apply sunscreen on cloudy days and during the winter.
  • Wear sunglasses to help provent damage to your eyes.  Choose glasses with even shading, medium to dark lenses, and UVA and UVB protection.
  • Avoid using indoor tanning equipment.  Just like the sun, tanning lights and sun lamps give off ultraviolet rays that can cause sunburn, damage skin and increase the risk of skin cancer.
  • Check your skin regularly. Get to know the skin you're in and report any changes to your doctor.


Skin Cancer Symptoms

What to watch for

These signs and symptoms may be caused by skin cancer or by other skin problems.

See your doctor if you have:

  • changes in the shape, colour or size of birthmarks and moles
  • sores that don't heal
  • patches of skin that bleed, itch or become red and bumpy

Colorectal Cancer

Most colorectal cancers start in the cells that line the inside of the colon and the rectum. It is the third most common cancer for both men and women. Colorectal cancer often grows slowly and in a predictable way. It may not cause any symptoms in its early stages because the lower abdomen (below the stomach area) has lots of room for a tumour to grow and expand. Screening tests help find colorectal cancer before symptoms develop. It can usually be treated successfully when diagnosed early.

If you are 50 or older, have a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) at least every 2 years. This test checks your stool for traces of blood that can be seen only through a microscope. Having blood in the stool doesn't always suggest you have cancer. It could have other causes for example, polyps (non-cancerous tissue growth), ulcers or even hemorrhoids. If the FOBT shows traces of blood in the stool, follow up tests may include a:

  • Colonoscopy: a test that lets the doctor look at the lining of the entire colon using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: a test that lets the doctor look at the lining of the rectum and the lower part of the colon using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end.
  • Double contrast barium enema: an x-ray of the colon and rectum that uses a special dye (called barium) that assists the doctor to see the lining of the colon more clearly.

Some men have a higher than average risk for colorectal cancer. Talk you your doctor about when and how often you should have the tests if you have:

  • a parent,brother, sister or child with colorectal cancer (especially if the relative was diagnosed before the age of 45).
  • a personal history of colorectal cancer.
  • already been diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease or polyps.
  • an inherited condition such as familial adenamatous polyposis (FAP) or heridaty non polyposis colon cancer (HNCC).


Colorectal Cancer Symptoms

What to watch for

These signs and symptoms may be caused by colorectal cancer or by other health problems.

See your doctor if you have:

  • general discomfort in the abdomen(bloating, fullness, cramps)
  • a change in bowel movements, such as diarrhea or constipation, for no apparent reason
  • blood in the stool (either bright red or very dark)
  • Stools that are narrower than usual
  • an urgent need to have a bowel movement
  • a feeling that the bowel hasn't completely emptied
  • nausea or vomitting
  • fatigue (feeling very tired)
  • weight loss

Reducing Your Risk Of Cancer

There is an abundance of health information out there, some of it's confusing or even conflicting. What we do know is that you can help reduce your chances of getting cancer by making healthy choices every day.  At least half of all cancers can be prevented through healthy living and policies that protect the health of the community.

You can:

  • Be a non smoker and avoid second hand smoke.
  • Eat 5 to 10 servings of vegetables and fruit a day.  Choose high fibre, lower fat foods.  If you drink alcohol, limit your intake to 1 or 2 drinks a day.
  • Be physically active regulary.  This will also help you maintain a healthy body weight.
  • Protect yourself and your family from the sun, particularly between 11a.m and 4p.m when the sun's rays are strongest, or any time of day when the UV Index is 3 or more.  Check your skin regularly and report any changes to your doctor.
  • Follow cancer screening guidelines. Knowing your family's history of cancer will help you and your doctor decide on a personal plan of testing.
  • Visit your doctor or other healthcare provider if you notice a change in your normal state of health.
  • Follow health and safety instructions both at home and at work when using, storing and disposing of hazerdous materials.

Male Cancer-Testicular Cancer

Comments 3 comments

Pamela N Red profile image

Pamela N Red 5 years ago from Oklahoma

All important things to think about and keep an eye on.

More men have prostate cancer than women who have breast cancer and yet we seldom hear about it.

Super Chef profile image

Super Chef 5 years ago from Around the world Author

Thank for the info I only wrote this hub as I had a scare and thankfully it only turned out to be a Hernia

Sunshine625 profile image

Sunshine625 5 years ago from Orlando, FL

Informative article! There is a typo in your's Prostate not Prostrate. Good news about your hernia and it was nothing life threatening!

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