Medical Studies Prove The Extensive Damage LSD Does To The Body & Mind
In a recent series of Hubs on LSD and the effects on pregnant women I was challenged to prove my statements that LSD was extremely harmful. Well... here we go.
Science. 1971 Apr 30;172(982):431-40.
LSD and genetic damage.
Dishotsky NI, Loughman WD, Mogar RE, Lipscomb WR.
Of nine studies in vitro, six have indicated some degree of induced chromosomal breakage after exposure to LSD; three failed to confirm these results. The damage, when found, was generally of the chromatid type, arising during or after DNA synthesis.
The results of early chromosome studies suggested that true genetic damage might be a consequence of LSD exposure. The comprehensive evidence from studies on drosophila indicates no mutagenic effect from 0.28 to 500 microg of LSD per milliliter and a definite mutagenic effect from 2,000 to 10,000 microg/ml; this is consistent with a threshold response or a sigmoid dose-effect relation.
Circular dichroism experiments suggested that the specific mechanism of action of LSD on DNA may be a direct interaction resulting in conformational changes in the DNA helix.
Early chromosomal studies implicated LSD as a potential cause of congenital malformations, fetal wastage, and germinal chromosome damage.
In a study of human pregnancies, those exposed to illicit LSD had an elevated rate of spontaneous abortions.
This early study gets a little bit wound up in the differences between ingesting pure LSD and illicit LSD and thus obfuscates its own conclusions. So let's go onto some more interesting later studies...
Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Mar 17;111(1-2):182-8.
Dynamic changes in prefrontal cortex gene expression following lysergic acid diethylamide administration.
Nichols CD, Garcia EE, Sanders-Bush E.
Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 8148 Medical Research Building Three, Nashville, TN 37232-8548, USA.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a psychoactive drug that transiently alters human perception, behavior, and mood at extremely low doses. Certain aspects of the behavior elicited by acute doses of LSD closely resemble symptoms of mental disorders such as schizophrenia.
We find that the gene response to LSD is quite dynamic. The expression of some genes increases rapidly and decreases rapidly, while other genes change more gradually. Dose-response studies show two classes of expression; gene expression maximally stimulated at lower doses, versus gene expression that continues to rise at the higher doses.
Here is an instance of a recent study, just a few years old, which clearly states that LSD plays havoc with your genes, and the next study shows how LSD affects the fetal brainstem directly...
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Jan;55(1):114-26.
Developmental changes in [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding to serotonin receptors in the human brainstem.
Zec N, Filiano JJ, Panigrahy A, White WF, Kinney HC.
Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
This study provides baseline information about the quantitative distribution of [3H]LSD binding to serotonergic receptors (5-HT1A-1D, 5-HT2) in the human brainstem, from midgestation through maturity, with a focus upon early infancy. Brainstems were analyzed from 5 fetuses (19-25.5 weeks postconception), 5 infants (42-55.5 weeks postconception), and 3 mature individuals (4, 20, and 52 years).
The highest levels of [3H]LSD binding occurred prenatally throughout the brainstem. At all ages, the highest relative binding localized to the rostral raphe. A marked decline in [3H]LSD binding occurred between the midgestation and infancy in brainstem regions involved in control of cardiovascular function, respiration, and pain.
It is clear by this study that LSD scrambles all sorts of developing neural functions in the fetal brainstem. Now let's look at the effects of LSD on the female reproductive system...
Eur J Pharmacol. 1993 Jan 5;230(1):115-7.
Lysergic acid diethylamide is a partial agonist at 5-HT2 receptors in ovine uterine artery of late pregnancy.
Zhang L, Dyer DC.
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames 50011.
d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produced dose-dependent contractions (EC50, 17.9 +/- 2.1 nM) on isolated ovine uterine artery of late pregnancy, which were competitively antagonized by ketanserin. The maximal contraction to LSD was 51% of the 5-HT response. LSD competitively antagonized (pA2 9.21) contractions produced to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The results indicate that LSD is a partial agonist at 5-HT2 receptors in ovine uterine artery.
So now we see that there is a basis to believe that LSD affects the female reproductive system in mammals. But it gets even more interesting with this study...
Neuroendocrinology. 1983 Jun;36(6):462-7.
Progesterone enhancement of lysergic acid diethylamide and levo-5-hydroxytryptophan stimulation of the copulatory response in the female rat.
Sietnieks A, Meyerson BJ.
Copulatory behavior in the ovariectomized rat, i.e. the lordosis response (LR) on being mounted by a male, can be induced by administration of either estrogen alone or estrogen followed by progesterone. LR has been shown to be inhibited by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in certain doses (greater than or equal to 50 micrograms/kg) and by Levo-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP) (greater than or equal to 2.5 mg/kg). This effect was recently found to be enhanced by increasing doses of progesterone.
Small doses of L-5-HTP (0.25 and 0.05 mg/kg) stimulated the LR and the influence of progesterone was the same as for small doses of LSD.
It's fairly obvious that even in mammals which have had their ovaries removed, the effect of LSD mimics some hormonal functions. But the severe physiological effects of LSD don't stop there...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jan;80(2):569-73.
Heat shock protein in mammalian brain and other organs after a physiologically relevant increase in body temperature induced by D-lysergic acid diethylamide.
Cosgrove JW, Brown IR.
A physiologically relevant increase in body temperature from 39.7 to 42.5 degrees C, which was generated after the intravenous injection of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), caused the induction of synthesis of a 74,000-dalton heat shock protein in the brain, heart, and kidney of the young adult rabbit.
LSD drives a mammalian body into an overheated state to such a degree that heat shock can ensue. I'm sure that is perfectly healthy for pregnant women! Again, NOT! But let's look at what LSD does to your immune system...
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1994 Feb;16(1):23-40.
Immunological consequences of in vitro exposure to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
House RV, Thomas PT, Bhargava HN.
IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL 60616.
It was demonstrated that LSD is able to suppress the proliferation of B-lymphocytes; the production of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6; and the induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes at a concentration of 100 microM. In vitro exposure to LSD had differential effects on natural killer (NK) cell activity, with significant enhancement of both basal and IL-2-augmented NK cell function at concentrations between 0.0001 and 0.1 microM, and suppression of NK response at 100 microM. These results demonstrate that LSD may have a direct effect on components of the immune system at concentrations that may be reached upon human exposure.
OK, so LSD pretty well wipes out your immune system. Given the correlation between drug users and HIV-positive status, I'm sure that this is just what the doctor ordered to seropositive individuals. NOT! Now let's look at what LSD does to your brain...
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1980;69(3):315-7.
Lysergic acid diethylamide: morphological study of its effect on synapses.
Kemali M, Kemali D.
A morphometric analysis of the effect of LSD on synapses was performed in the habenulae and the interpeduncular nucleus of the frog.
LSD-treated frogs had a higher total area of synaptic contact than control frogs. Exocytosis profiles were observed only in LSD-treated frogs. Other qualitative changes in the ultrastructural characteristic of synapses were appreciable after LSD administration.
So LSD physically changes the way your brain's synapses connect with each other. I don't know about anyone else, but I think that the shape of my synapses is best left the way my maker made 'em...
J Neurochem. 1986 May;46(5):1436-43.
Characterization of a translational inhibitor isolated from rabbit brain following intravenous administration of d-lysergic acid diethylamide.
Fleming SW, Brown IR.
Intravenous administration of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to rabbits results in a transient inhibition of brain protein synthesis in vivo and in vitro. A translational inhibitor that appears in the postribosomal supernatant fraction of cerebral hemispheres following LSD administration was partially purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 and precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate. This inhibitor, which was proteinaceous, reduced the translational capacity of an initiating cell-free protein synthesis system derived from brain. It also inhibited a messenger RNA-dependent reticulocyte lysate programmed with brain polysomes and a globin-synthesizing reticulocyte lysate system.
LSD inhibits the synthesis of protein in your brain, which is an essential brain function. And let's look at what a brain on LSD does to the person it inhabits...
Am J Ophthalmol. 1976 Apr;81(4):413-6.
Severe solar maculopathy associated with the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
A 23-year-old man sustained severe macular damage by sun gazing during a hallucinogenic drug-induced state. Sequential fundus photography and fluorescein angiography documented prominent focal injury to the retinal pigment epithelium.
Not to mention that LSD serious affects your serotonin response and thus can not only lead to significant behavioral problems but also neutralizes any of the serotonin uptake inhibitors which are commonly prescribed. Here are just some of those studies...
Neuropsychobiology. 1999 Nov;40(4):183-7.
Binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites in platelets from healthy children, adolescents and adults.
Sigurdh J, Spigset O, Allard P, Mjörndal T, Hägglöf B.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Norrland University Hospital, Umeâ, Sweden.
Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;42(5):826-30.
Unsurmountable antagonism of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptors by (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide and bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide.
Burris KD, Sanders-Bush E.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6600.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Sep;258(3):891-6.
Lysergic acid diethylamide, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a potent serotonin 5HT1C receptor agonist.
Burris KD, Breeding M, Sanders-Bush E.
Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 1990 Apr;3(2):137-48.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) administration selectively downregulates serotonin2 receptors in rat brain.
Buckholtz NS, Zhou DF, Freedman DX, Potter WZ.
National Institute of Mental Health, Laboratory of Clinical Science, Bethesda, MD 20892.
And while we're at it, let's throw in a few more...
Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Jan;114(1):47-50.
Persistent palinopsia following ingestion of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
Kawasaki A, Purvin V.
Midwest Eye Institute, Methodist Hospital of Indiana, USA.
Pharmacol Res Commun. 1988 May;20(5):435-6.
Effects of D-lysergic acid diethylamine on serotonin, adrenaline and dopamine evoked aorta contractions.
Silvestrini B, Palmery M, Severini C.
Institute of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Rome, La Sapienza, Italy.
Circ Res. 1980 Jun;46(6 Pt 2):I64-9.
Pharmacological assay of cardiac H2-receptor blockade by amitriptyline and lysergic acid diethylamide.
Angus JA, Black JW.
Experientia. 1975 Mar 15;31(3):328-30.
Lysergic acid diethylamide affects blood flow to specific areas of the conscious rat brain.
Goldman H, Fischer R, Nicolov N, Murphy S.
Wiad Lek. 1975 Mar 1;28(5):383-6.
[Some psychotoxicological problems exemplified by lysergic acid diethylamide]
[Article in Polish]
Mutat Res. 1974 Dec;26(6):523-8.
The mutagenic effect of lysergic acid diethylamide. III. Evaluation of the genetic risk of LSD in man.
Srám RJ, Goetz P.
Mutat Res. 1974 Dec;26(6):513-6.
The mutagenic effect of lysergic acid diethylamide. I. Cytogenetic analysis.
Goetz P, Srám RJ, Zudová Z.
This is only a precursory examination of the medical literature on LSD effects. There are hundreds more studies to quote and the vast majority of them stand as clear and evident scientific proof that LSD is extremely harmful to almost every single mammalian and human anatomical, physiological, and psychological function. Even such a very basic overview of the current science is enough to scare the living daylights out of any intelligent person, pregnant woman or not, to not even remotely consider that LSD is in any way safe or beneficial in any way, shape or form.
Now we can start a CIVILIZED debate on the ISSUES. We'll talk FACTS. I won't attack anyone personally and no one will attack me personally, or I will simply not publish the comment. The rules are clear. Let's go.
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