How to reduce cholesterol by Mushrooms
Most people in the world are found to be having excessive toxins in their blood. To clean up these poisonous toxins causing serious problems, the bio-remediation uses the metabolism of micro organism to remove pollutants.
One form of bio-remediation is “my-co-remediation”,which is the use of fungi to degrade or remove toxins from the environment.
My-co-remediation efficiently breaks down toxins and heavy metals by directing them to the fruit bodies of mushrooms. Fungi are adept at disassembling molecules and breaking down hydrocarbon bonds of the toxins because.
The mushrooms have the capacity to turn long chained toxins into less toxic chemicals. They clean up the ground areas contaminated by the chemicals by breaking down all kinds of poisonous pollutants. Mushrooms reduce the contaminants like E-Coli bacteria which is a deadly bacteria found in spoiled food.
Easily growing oyster mushrooms can break down the pesticides, petroleum based contaminants and hydrocarbons based pollutants.
How Mushrooms Kill the Toxins
The vegetative part of fungus or mushrooms consisting of thread-like hyphe ( singular hyphae) is a long thread like branching filamentous structure) is called mycelium. Its plural is mycelia.
The fungus absorbs nutrients from the environment through mycelium in a process in two stages. Firstly the hyphae secretes enzymes on or into the food source. These enzymes break down the long chain biological polymers into smaller monomers. Through the process of diffusion and transportation the mycelium then absorbs these monomers.
Mycelia also decompose the plant material,and play crucial role in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They contribute to the organic function of the soil, and their growth releases back the carbon-dioxide into the atmosphere. It also increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption of plants and imparts resistance to some plant pathogens. It is an important food source for many soil invertebrates.
Unlike the plant, the mycelium, uses acids created by it to break down complex organic compounds. It can break down lignum or cellulose in wood fiber and hydrocarbons. These acids dwell within the fungus,hence it is important that the fungus itself is protected from these acids. For this purpose the outer shells of mycelium shoots are made of of chitin(a substance that protects shellfish and insects).
Mycelium acts as a binder when spread on logging roads.It holds new soil in place and prevents soil erosion till new plants get hold and the soil. Removing chemicals and microorganisms from soil and water by mycelia mats is called mycofilteration.
Cleaning Lead Contaminated Soil
Exposure to lead poisoning which is common near smelters and industrial sites is a global health hazard especially for children.
The blood lead levels in children as low as 10 µg/ dL causes reduced attention span, lowered intelligence,hyperactivity, impaired hearing,antisocial behavior together with reading and learning disabilities.
Addition of phosphates immobilize the lead contaminated soil by forming complexes called pyromorphite,which are insoluble and are not absorbed in the digestive tract. This phosphates re-mediation reduces the pH value of soil,and the leaching of other toxic heavy metals like chromium,cadmium and arsenic also occurs.
On the other hand the fungi transforms the toxic lead into stable and non-toxic mineral (pyromorphite or chloro-pyromorphite), as an important bio-remediation technique for lead-contaminated sites.
In some countries,the absence of lead in gasoline has drastically reduced the exposure to lead emitted in the air which ultimately accumulates into the soil through deposition.
The children are at increased risk of lead exposure due to lead based household paints,because the paints end up as dust,and children often put things into the mouth. Bio-remediation reduces the toxicity of soil. It is also a powerful tool in cleaning up domestic and global hazardous waste sites and regions of developing countries, where lead waste and poisoning still causes significant health impacts.
Saprophytic,gourmet and medicinal mushrooms are all wood decomposing,and recycling agents on earth. They recycle recycle carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus, nitrogen and other minerals from dead plants into nutrients for living plants.
Enzymes and acids secreted by them decompose the large molecules of dead plants into simpler molecules and use them as building blocks of poly-saccharine for their own cell walls.
They also decompose organic compounds.petroleum products,soil contaminants and pesticides from the ecosystem. Knowledge of the relationship between fungi and plants can open new avenues to improve crop production.
Mushrooms Against Cholestrol
Oyster mushrooms are the easiest of all the mushrooms to grow. They grow on almost anything like old chairs, soggy money, coffee fields etc. They are delicious and contain a chemical known as lovastatin which acts as a cholesterol-lowering agent.
Myco-protein is produced from mycelium,which is used in the production of quorn ( a meat substitute) for vegetarians.
Against Chemical Weapons
The VX nerve gas, which is a dangerously toxic chemical and has no other use except in chemical warfare as a nerve agent. It has been termed by UN, as a weapon of mass destruction and hence its stocking and production has been banned. It is normally in liquid state despite its name and normally takes hundreds of years to break down or decompose on its own. The VX nerve gas contains a molecule which degrades with great difficult. Some species of mushroom can successfully break down the VX recalcitrant nerve gas molecules. Mushrooms transforms these molecules into a harmless substance.
Enemy of Dioxin
The burning of wood and organic materials creates the ash which is contaminated with a little long-lasting chemical pollutant, called dioxin.
The serious environmental misdeed is the dumping of oils containing dioxin. Dioxin is a natural substance but its unnaturally high concentrations cause cancer and other diseases. The WHO has declared dioxin as the worst of the chemical pollutants.
To keep dioxin out of the environment the common plan is to dig up the contaminated soil and then dump it in landfills by burying it with a plastic sheet.
But many species of mushrooms are bio-re-mediators and natural organisms which break down the pollutants. After colonizing the contaminated soil the mushrooms secrete certain enzymes, that break down the chemical pollutants into nontoxic components. This results into the cleaning of the soil and a crop of lots of mushrooms.
So the bio-remediation removes the pollutants from the environment completely, instead of encasing them in plastic sheets.
Cleaning up Oil Spill with Hair and Mushroom
The oil spill in an eco-cleaning solution used human hair and Mushrooms. To clean up oil at the beaches by totally organic method of waste removal, the hair mats and mushrooms were used at San Francisco beaches.
The oil spills in an eco-cleaning use mats made of human hair. Human hair naturally absorb oil from air and water and these mats act as a perfect sponge for oil slicks. When the mats are soaked with the oily black gunk the oyster mushrooms are placed on them to grow. The mushrooms take approximately 10 to 12 weeks to absorb all the oil and also convert the oily hair mats into nontoxic compost. Oyster mushrooms can even clean up the oil contaminated soil.
© 2013 Sanjay Sharma
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