The Surprising Reasons For Your Dry Skin

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Why should skin become dry?

Dry skin is a common problem for many people - women, men and even children. There are numerous things that will cause our skin to dry out:

  • Cold and/or windy weather - especially cold and dry winds with low humidity. This affects not only your face, but any area of your body leading to dry, itchy, cracked and tight skin. In turn this could lead to further skin problems or make an existing one much worse.
  • Very dry weather and/or too much sun. These conditions can also strip the oils out of your skin leaving it dried out.
  • Wearing clothing that causes sweating or irritations.
  • Age.
  • Hormone changes - menopause, monthly cycle, pregnancy.
  • Frequent long hot showers.
  • The air in your home or workplace can also dry out your skin due to central heating or air conditioning.

However, that's not the end of the story. For many people who take care not to let their skin dry out, it can still be an on-going problem for them. First lets have a brief look at the skin and it's functions and then we'll go onto look for other possible causes of dry skin.

The skin

One of the main functions of the skin is to protect the underlying structures and systems of the body and as a barrier to pathogenic invasion. In order to do this properly the skin needs to be able to stretch and move in a fluid supple way. It does this by producing a thin layer of fatty substances that trap mositure keeping your skin supple and healthy.

The skin also:

  • Acts as a regulator for body temperature
  • Nerves in the skin allow us the sense of touch
  • It is a complex organ containing hair follicles, blood vessels, nerves, sweat glands and oil glands.

Why dry skin may cause other health problems.

When the skin is severely dry, cracks become bigger allowing bacteria and other organisms to invade. Two of the most common ailments caused by dry skin are the inflammatory disorders cellulitis and dermatitis.

  • Cellulitis - this is a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of skin - the dermis. It is frequently caused by group A streptococcus bacteria.
  • Dermatitis - at a very basic level, dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. However, the condition is much more complex than this. There are various forms of this ailment and it presents differently with each person. Therefore, treatment to help the condition can be difficult - what works for one person, has no effect on another. There are also numerous allergens that may cause a flare up.

The causes of dry skin can be many due to the fact of the skin itself being a complicated organ.
The causes of dry skin can be many due to the fact of the skin itself being a complicated organ. | Source

Skin Facts

Skin Facts
1. The medical term for dry skin is 'xerosis'.
2. The skin is the body's largest organ. It weighs about 3.6 kilos and is around 22 square feet.
3. The skin is also capable of manufacturing vitamins. It makes vitamin D that helps to convert calcium into maintaining healthy bones.
4. The epidermis - the outer layer of skin - has special cells called Langerhans Cells - that alert the immune system when an invader is trying to get into the body.
5. The skin contains special glands called Apocrine glands that develop in puberty. They produce an attractive scent appealing to the opposite sex, however these glands are also responsible for producing body odour!

Uncommon reasons for dry skin

When skin is continually exposed to the elements and washed with soaps, chaffed with cold air, hot air and so on, the natural oils are stripped away continually and don't get a chance to replenish. This not only causes the skin to loose it's ability to retain water, but the cells within the skin begin to shrink, making the areas feel tight. With continual dehydration, the cells become brittle and unflexible, leading to cracks and rough patches. Anything that usually aggravates your skin such as soaps, detergents, fibres and so on, will be able to penetrate deeper into your skin due to the cracks. This causes more irritation and possibly inflammation or sensitive skin.

However, there are other reasons that can contribute to dry skin. Some of the less well known causes are:

  • Not using skin moisturiser properly.
  • Medical conditions
  • Diet and nutrition
  • Medications

Moisturiser

Most women do use moisturiser on a fairly regular basis. However, if used wrongly, it could add to the problems of dry skin. The main reason for this is because we apply moisturiser when it's least likely to help. Although moisturisers are an important part of skin health, they can also have the opposite effect if they are not used at the best time.

Many skin experts recommend putting on moisturiser while your skin is damp, not dry. As soon as you have used a cleanser, toner or when you have padded your skin lightly with a towel after washing, leave the skin damp, then put on moisturiser. The reason is that water is the only substance that can keep your skin hydrated. Skin products only help to keep natural moisture in our skin by acting as a barrier. When using moisturiser on damp skin this helps to lock in even more fluid.

Medical Conditions

  • Ailments such as diabetes can make skin dry. This is due to fluctuations in glucose levels that leads to dehydration which will affect the skin. In addition, people with diabetes take much longer to heal, so it's important that they avoid dry, cracked skin that may lead to infection.
  • Hypothyroidism can also lead to dry skin. Low levels of thyroid hormone means less oils are produced within the skin causing it to become dry. Using moisturiser in this case is unlikely to help - thyroid replacement is necessary.

Diet

If your diet is lacking in essential nutrients then this can lead to the skin becoming dry and itchy. In particular if you lack proper amounts of:

  • Vitamin A - according to the World Health Organisation, half the countries in the world have a problem with vitamin A deficiencies. Naturally the majority are in the poorerst countries but not always. Many people in richer societies do have enough to eat, but if the diet is not nutritious and balanced then vitamin and mineral deficiencies will occur. One of the main symptoms of vitamin A deficiency is dry, scaly and thinning skin.
  • Vitamin B2 - If this vitamin is lacking in the diet it can lead to extremely dry skin and sores. One of the main manifestations of dry skin with this deficiency is around the corners of the mouth. However, seborrheic dermatitis is also common with vitamin B2 deficiency. This form of dermatitis usually affects the face and scalp but other areas of the body can also show signs of this condition.
  • Iodine - this chemical is essential for physical and mental development. One of the main signs of this deficiency is very dry skin along with depression, feeling cold, fatigue and many other symptoms.

Medications

There are some common medications that may cause drying out of the skin as a side effect. Drugs such as :

  • Diuretics that are used for high blood pressure and heart related conditions. In addition some cholesterol reducing drugs can also cause dry skin. These medications tend to reduce the water content of the top layer of skin called the 'stratum corneum' so leading to dry areas.
  • Some medications used to treat acne can also lead to drying out of the skin due to this medication's function of reducing the ability of the skin to produce oil.
  • Some other medications such as anti-histamines can also cause drying of the skin.
  • Although pain relief such as co-codamol are not thought to cause itchy skin, I can personally vouch for the fact that I did develop itchy skin with this medication. The itch disappeared as soon as I had stopped taking it. In addition, one of my brother's-in-law and a colleague also had the same reaction with co-codamol.

The list of medications that can cause problems with the skin is not exhaustive but these are some of the most common.

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How to help dry skin

There are a number of things that will help to prevent or assist with dry skin. The suggestions here have been chosen from a number of medical and dermatology sites.

  • Taking lukewarm baths or showers instead of hot.
  • Limiting your bath or shower to a maximum of 10 minutes
  • After washing your hands or having your bath/shower apply moisturiser. Apply it gently. Being too rough can take the top layer of skin off leading to even more dry skin. In addition put moisturiser on when the skin is damp.
  • When using a soap or shower/bath gel choose one that has a moisturiser in it. This needn't be the most expensive one either. I use a Boots brand that is very reasonably priced.
  • From season to season vary your creams that you use. For example in the summer use lighter ones with sun screen. In the winter go for a heavier cream to give more of a barrier to the chaffing cold.
  • Diet and nutrition is always important for health and your skin is no exception. We can use as many lotions and creams as we like, but it won't help if our diet is lacking in essential nutrients. Our skin needs to be looked after from the inside as well as on the outside.
  • Exfoliate your skin on a regular basis. This removes dead cells, allowing moisturisers to penetrate better.

This is just an overview of what can cause dry skin. As mentioned previously, the skin is a very complex organ and there are a number of factors that will affect it. Therefore, when aiming to treat your own dry skin don't just look at one cause. Have a think about your lifestyle as a whole to see what other things may be causing your skin to become dry.

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Comments 16 comments

ChitrangadaSharan profile image

ChitrangadaSharan 4 years ago from New Delhi, India

A very useful hub, with lots of information on skin dryness. I always thought it was due to loss of moisture or fluid from your system, due to various internal or external factors. But there is more to it. Thanks for sharing this useful information.


writer20 profile image

writer20 4 years ago from Southern Nevada

I have very skin. I used Vanicream Moisture which I get from my dermatologist but it can be order through any pharmacy. It really keeps my soft, it's a 1lb tub for $20 and it lasts about 6 months.

Voted up and useful and very interesting, Joyce.


grandmapearl profile image

grandmapearl 4 years ago from Southern Tier New York State

Thanks so much for sharing this useful information about dry skin. In the wintertime my thumbs crack so deeply that I cannot type or do my quilting. We cut wood for heat and that makes my hands severely dry even though I always wear gloves. I have used lots of skin lotions, but the one that helps the most for me seems to be Vaseline Intensive Care. As long as I apply that when my skin is moist, I don't seem to have those painful cracks as often or to such a severe extent. Voted Up, Useful and Interesting!


Millionaire Tips profile image

Millionaire Tips 4 years ago from USA

Great information on the causes of dry skin and how to avoid it. I get really dry skin in the winter. I try to keep my house humidified and use lots of lotion. I will start watching what I eat now to see if that helps as well.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi ChitrangadaSharan, always lovely to hear from you and thank you for taking the time to leave a comment. I also learned a lot about moisture and the skin from researching this hub. I think that's the great thing about being a writer, you learn something new nearly every day!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Joyce, as always lovely to hear from you. Paying $20 for 6 and lasting for 6 months is a very good buy, and the most important thing is that it works!! Dry skin is a pain and anything that we can do to relieve it is a blessing!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi to you grandmapearl - lovely to hear from you. Hope things are well with you?

Oh that sounds very painful, having cracked skin on your thumbs - the fingers are so sensitive! Vaseline Intenstive Care is a winner with me as well. I usually use it on my elbows - they get very dry especially in the summer. Luckily I don't have to use it at the moment for my elbows, but I also use it on my feet. I walk a lot with the dogs and my feet can get very dry. The vaseline works great. I've seen very expensive foot cream, and bought it once, but for me the vaseline worked really well. I use the petroleum gel and then the cream on top.

Many thanks for your visit and for the very interesting comment!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi MT lovely to hear from you.

You seem to be like grandmapearl, she too has problems in the winter with very dry skin - she can get cracks on her thumbs that must be so painful!! My sister also keeps her house humidified as well and uses creams. She used to buy very expensive ones but the cheaper brands seem to work just as well for her.


Gypsy48 profile image

Gypsy48 4 years ago

Very informative hub. Before I was diagnosed with hypothyroidism I experienced very dry skin and hair along with other symptoms. The medication I have been taking has certainly helped. Voted up and useful:)


Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

Gypsy Rose Lee 4 years ago from Riga, Latvia

Voted up and interesting. Thanks for this very informative and useful hub. I get quite dry skin in the winter but I use special night skin cream which seems to take care of the condition and I drink more milk in the winter as that too makes my skin better. Passing this on.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Gypsy48, lovely to hear from you and glad that the hub was useful. Hypothyroidism is a horrible condition to deal with - there are so many effects on the body and as you say, dry skin and hair as well. Really glad that your medication is helping with this!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Gypsy - always lovely to hear from you and glad that you enjoyed the hub!

Since getting pre-menopausal my skin has definitely become dryer and it wasn't really a problem that I had to deal with previously - except as with yourself in the winter. I also get itchy skin as well with the pre-menopause ups and downs, along with flushes, being crabby and tired!!!! If we get reincarnted, I'm coming back as guy the next time!!


facedoctor1 profile image

facedoctor1 4 years ago from US

Good one..Nice video as well..Thanks a lot for sharing..:)

Visit:-http://www.facedoctor.ca/


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi facedoctor1 many thanks for stopping bad and glad you enjoyed the hub!


Alecia Murphy profile image

Alecia Murphy 4 years ago from Wilmington, North Carolina

I have dry skin and didn't know that my anti-histamines could be a culprit. I'm definitely going to keep these tips in mind so I don't suffer this winter. Thanks so much for this information.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 4 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Alecia - I'm very interested in your second name 'Murphy' as this is my middle name from my Maternal Grandma, her folks were originally from Ireland.

Anyway, glad that you've found the hub useful and hopefully you will have a much bette winter this time round. Many thanks for the visit, it was great to hear from you!

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