A Guide through the Different types of Medical Diet
Diet is the total amount of food eaten by a person. Personal Habits and Cultural preferences prevent a person from consuming different cuisines such as pork, beef, chicken and so on and so forth. Similarly, as you undergo surgery, there are certain restrictions regarding said condition. For instance, a person who just went on a major surgery cannot simply eat a McDonald's happy meal. There are restrictions and indications as to why these diets are made.
1. Clear Liquid Diet
Its purpose is to rest the gastrointestinal tract and maintain fluid balance.
- difficulty swallowing
- certain diagnostic tests to reduce fecal matter
- immediate postoperative period
Foods allowed: "SEE THROUGH FOODS" such as water, broth, jelly, apple juice, clear carbonated beverages, and ice pops
Note: This diet is not nutritionally adequate
2. Full Liquid Diet
Used as a transition diet between clear liquid and soft diet; Short term
Foods allowed: Clear liquids, milk and milk products, all fruit juices, cooked and strained cereals
Note: Can be Nutritionally Adequate
3. Soft Diet
Used as a transition between full liquid and regular diet
- Mild GI disturbances
- Chewing difficulties from lack of teeth or oral surgery
Foods allowed: Low fiber foods, Pureed vegetables, Cooked eggs (not fried), tender meat, potatoes, cooked fruit
Note: Nutritionally Adequate
4. Bland Diet
Promotes healing of gastric mucosa and is chemically and mechanically non-stimualting
Foods allowed: Soft diet without spices
5. Low-residue Diet
Residue is the indigestible substance left in the digestive tract after food has been digested.
- Colon, Rectal, or Perineal surgery
- Diagnostic exams
- Bowel Inflammatory Disease
Note: Teach the client to AVOID foods high in fiber, foods having skins and seeds, and milk and milk products
6. Gluten-Free Diet
Purpose is to eliminate gluten (protein) from the diet.
- Malabsorption syndromes
Foods to ELIMINATE: Barley, Rye, Oat, Wheat, Cream sauces, Breaded foods, Cakes, Muffins, and Breads
Foods Allowed: Corn, Rice, and Soy flour
7. PKU (Phenyketonuria) Diet
Purpose is to control the intake of phenylalanine, an amino acid that cannot be metabolized.
It will be prescribed until at least age 6 to prevent brain damage and mental retardation.
Foods to AVOID: bread, meat, fish, poultry, cheese, legumes, nuts, and eggs
GIVE Lofenalac Formula
Teach family to use low-protein flour for baking
Sugar substitutes such as Nutrasweet contain phenylalanine and must NOT be used.
8. Low-Purine Diet
Indicated for gout, uric acid kidney stones and uric acid retention.
Foods to AVOID: organ meats, fish, lobster, dried peas, beans, nuts, oatmeal, and whole wheat
9. Low Protein Diet
Purpose is to limit Ammonium production.
Indicated for patients with Renal and/or Liver Failure
Limit meat, eggs, and milk product and encourage CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTS WITH ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID.
10. High Protein Diet
Purpose is to support protein synthesis
- Nephrotic syndrome
Encourage meat, fish, and dairy products
11. Low Cholesterol Diet
Purpose is to decrase risk for CAD (Coronary Artery Diseases). This diet is indicated for patients with Cardiovascular disease as well as patients with Diabetes Mellitus.
Limit fried foods, eggyolk, Shellfish, liver, pork
Encourage to eat more on broild or steamed food, fruits, vegetables, chicken meat, vegetable oils
12. Diabetic Diet
Indicated for diabetes mellitus patients. Its main prupose is to control plasma glucose levels.
- Each meat should contain carbohydrates, fat, and protein.
- Avoid skipping or delaying meals.
- Frequent small meals.
- Unplanned Activity
13. Low-Sodium Diet
Its purpose is to decrease sodium/fluid load and is idicated for patients with Hypertention and Edema due to CHF, Liver Cirhosis, PIH, Nephrotic syndrome.
Limit canned foods, salted food, smoked meat, ham, bacon, sauce and encourage more on salt substitutes.
14. High potassium Diet
This is to avoidpotassium depletion.
- Thiazide Diuretics
- Diabetic Ketoacidosis
- Chronic vomitting
Encourage; Bananas, Prunes, Avocado, Soy beans