The Dangers Of Measles

Measles rash
Measles rash | Source

The UK Epidemic

Although the measles outbreak hasn't yet reached the whole of the UK it seems likely it will get there sooner rather than later. The measles infection began in south Wales and there are now confirmed cases in the north east and north west of England. At the time of writing Scotland does not have any cases of measles. These areas seem to be particularly badly affected because not all children have been vaccinated with the triple vaccine MMR - Measles, Mumps, Rubella - that protects against diseases such as measles.


Why has this happened?

A scientific paper released in 1998 stating the dangers of the MMR vaccination made many parents very nervous about having their child immunised. This scientific paper has since been discredited. In addition some media coverage at the time have been accused of 'scare-mongering' without knowing the facts. This led to many children receiving no vaccine and therefore no immunity. The infamous scientific paper stated that it had found links between the MMR vaccination and autism. Subsequent research carried out by a number of medical researchers found that the research was faulty and no links were found between the vaccination and cases of autism in children.

Because of the scare and the reduction in children being immunised, This has caused a lack of, what doctors call, 'herd immunity'. This is a term that explains that when most of the population are immunised against a particular disease then it tends to give protection to all. Around 95% of a population needs to be immunised before they are safe against measles. At the present time there are many areas of the UK where less than 90% of the population are immunised and it some areas it's as low as 70%. This gives the measles virus ample opportunity to rear its head.

In addition, although the disease has made news headlines over the past week or so, according to the NHS (National Health Service), measles has been on the increase in the UK for a number of years.

Immunisation with MMR is still the best protection against measles.
Immunisation with MMR is still the best protection against measles. | Source

What is measles and what are the dangers?

We all tend to get complacent in the 21st century about diseases such as measles. This is a mistake. The diseases that killed thousands of people many decades ago, still have the capacity to cause severe illness and damage as well as death. One fatality in the city of Swansea, Wales is already being investigated for measles being the cause.


Measles

Measles is a highly infectious virus that is spread by contact with infected people as well as through droplets when infected people cough or sneeze. The virus can live outside the body for up to two hours, giving it ample time to spread. The virus has been found alive, for example, on door handles, work surfaces and so on. The most common victims of the virus are children between 1 and 4 but anyone can catch it who hasn't been vaccinated.

When a person is infected the virus lives in the mucous of the nose and at the back of the throat. From here is spreads to the rest of the body.


The initial symptoms of the disease are:

  • Fever
  • Light sensitivity - often with red eyes.
  • grey-white spots in the mouth and throat
  • general symptoms similar to a cold
  • Rash - usually appears after 2 - 4 days.It tends to start behind the ears, spreading around the head and neck and then to the legs and rest of the body.


The problem with measles is the complications that can arise from being infected by the virus. The most common complications are:

  • Diarrhoea and vomiting
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Inner ear infection and inflammation
  • Laryngitis - inflammation of the voice box


Less common but more serious complications are:

  • Meningitis - an infection of the linings that surround and protect the brain.
  • Pneumonia - an inflammation of the lungs.
  • Hepatitis - inflammation of the liver.
  • Encephalitis - inflammation of brain tissue.
  • Thrombocytopenia - a condition where people bleed more than normal. This happens due to a reduction in the numbers blood cells called platelets that help with clotting.
  • Bronchitis - inflammation of the main airways of the lungs due to infection.
  • Croup - a condition that affects children and involves inflammation of the airways and larynx (voice box).


In very rare cases the measles virus may cause:

  • Problems of the heart and nervous system
  • SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Thankfully this condition, that affects brain cells, is very rare. When it does occur it usually develops a number of years after a person has had the measles virus. This is a distressing and heartbreaking condition that affects children. It is also progressive, finally leading to death as there is, as yet, no cure. The disease itself causes blockages between brain cells that prevents them communicating with each other. This results in deterioration of everyday thinking and physical ability, finally progressing until the body is unable to sustain life.
  • Eye disorders - especially infection of the optic nerve - the main nerve of the eye. This infection leads to optic neuritis - where the nerve becomes inflamed. The condition can lead to partial or total blindness in the eye affected.


The outbreak in Wales and the rest of the UK is a warning to us all not to be complacent about diseases such as measles. Naturally parents are always concerned whether or not immunisation is safe. In the case of MMR however, there is no scientific evidence to show that MMR causes autism or any other long term condition in children.

In addition, when the majority of the population are immunised against viruses such as measles, this also helps to protect the youngest babies from being exposed to the virus - babies have to be at least 12 months old before they can be vaccinated, so those under this age are vulnerable. They are also particularly at risk when, due to lack of 'herd immunity' there are many more opportunities for these babies to become infected.

As we can see from this article, the old diseases are not dead - we have won a few battles but not the war.

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Comments 10 comments

Frank Atanacio profile image

Frank Atanacio 3 years ago from Shelton

Ive never had the measles.. but wow you're right about one thing I thought we have but licked all these childhood diseases.. we have won battles indeed.. but the war wages..LOL another great medi-hub... I do appreciate them Seeker


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Frank LOL!! yes, the tiniest organisms in the living world are still causing human kind all sorts of problems and will continue to do so! I wonder what - or with who - the next battle will be with? TB? Typhoid etc? Glad that you enjoyed another hub it's always lovely to hear from you.


Sharkye11 profile image

Sharkye11 3 years ago from Oklahoma

Interesting hub. I have a super hard time with the vaccinations. We have done them all, but it is sheer agony. My daughter has bad reactions to every single one of them, including scarring around the injection sites. I wish they could think of a better way to give these, so everyone could be protected, but without the pain!

Measles can certainly be bad news. My great-aunt caught them in her teens. As a result, she ended up in a coma with brain lesions. She lost a lung, suffered paralysis of her right side, and had to have a hysterectomy (this was the 40's) because they told her that having kids would endanger her life. I know we have better medical knowledge now than then, but still...it is scary to think of how many problems she had from just measles. Voting up!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

Thank you for this very interesting and timely information, Seeker7. The measles outbreak sounds scary. I hope it ends soon.


Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

Gypsy Rose Lee 3 years ago from Riga, Latvia

Thanks for sharing this informative and useful hub. Ah, yes the measles. I got lucky when I got the measles nothing worse happened that my fever shot way up and I had hallucinations for one whole day and then the fever broke and I was on the way to recovery. Passing this on.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

HI Sharkye11, many thanks for stopping by and for leaving such an interesting comment.

What a shame about your daughter have those bad reactions - I hate to see that when it happens to youngsters and I agree, I wish we could do away with the hypodermic needles and get something much easier and one that won't cause side effects, like your daughter has experienced. I think it will come in time and the sooner the better - what we need is something like they have in 'StarkTrek' just a torch like thing that no one feels but gives immunity to everything!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Alicia, lovely to hear from you as always and glad that you found the hub interesting.

Yes the outbreak is scary and at the moment is seems like Wales is still the focus for the epidemic and I too hope that it ends soon!


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

HI Rasma,

Lovely to hear from you and sharing your experience with the measles. I was luck and had a very light bout when about 8 but my older sister had a terrible time. She was about 9 and was ill four about a week with a terrible rash as well. Still she did get over it and no lasting effects.

As always, thank you for the vote up and the share - greatly appreciated!


Eiddwen profile image

Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales

This has been foremost on our media these past weeks and a hub such spell out the dangers clearly .

Thankfully all my children and grandchildren have been vaccinated.However it is so easy to listen to scares and to decide not to vaccinate which is what has happened .

A wonderful article to vote up and I also share all around..

Eddy.


Seeker7 profile image

Seeker7 3 years ago from Fife, Scotland Author

Hi Eddy, lovely to hear from you and I hope your course work is going well?

Yes, measles is such a horrible illness with devastating consequences at times. I feel sorry for the parents who were caught in such a scare about he MMR. When these scientists are doing research they really need to ensure that there facts are not 100% certain, but 200%+! Now we have parents on a massive guilt trip about not having their kids vaccinated. To be honest I blame the media just as much as the false research findings for this blow up of measles. The media always dramatise things big time and no wonder a number of parents were very frightened and as a result refused to get MMR jab for their kids. Here's hoping it soon starts to decrease.

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