Water borne curtaneous infections
Humans are exposed to water through a variety of recreational and occupational activities, Human exposures include ingestion's, inhalation and dermal absorption of microbial organisms and toxins, more than 100 species of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa can be found in contaminated water.
Cutaneous infections can be gotten through contact with water as a result of fresh water exposures and trauma such as simple abrasions, puncture wounds, propeller injuries and alligator and water snake bites. They are associated with superficial trauma before or after the water exposure. Most of these infections are caused by grain negative bacteria such as Onas hydrophila, Vibro vulnificus, Pseudornas. Other pathogens include: Mycobacteria, gram positive bacteria, virus and fungi as we all know. Naturally occurring bio-toxins produced by aquatic animals and parasites results in cutaneous infections.
A hydrophilia is capable of producing several virulence factors including cytotoxins, enterotoxins, haemagglutinis, and exoenzymes. It is ubiquitous in nature and is known to cause disease in fish,reptiles and amphibians and is found in fresh water and brackish water. Isolates of A.hydrophilia can be recovered from fish tanks,swimming pools and chlorinated tap water, Medicinal leeches colonized with A.hydrophilia have been implicated in nosoconial transmission, A diabetic patient with chronic denniUis have been reported to develop cellulite's caused by A.hydrophilia in the lower extremites after submerging his feet repeatedly in a bucket of water at borne. Cellutis develop within 48 hours of exposure to contaminated water.
This may progress to skin necrosis, fascitis subcutaneous nodules, patients with chronic liver disease or immunologic disorders such as leukemia are at a higher risk for developing sepsis.
A clinician or even you should suspect A.hydrophilia as the agent in a person with a rapidly progressive cellulites and a history of water exposure.
Mycobacterium marinurn is naturally found in fresh water and salt water causing infections associated with trauma and exposure. Skin lesions develop into a large granulomatous ulcer. The infection may appear as a watery nodule and a chronic infection may develop into osteomylitis if not treated appropriately. Vibro bacteria inhabit marine and estuary environment. The infections area associated with warm weather month's shellish and recreational water activities. Wound infections exposed to such water rapidly develop into cellutis with hemorrhagic bullae, ulcerations and necrotizing fascitis.
Conclusion: Although uncommon, cutaneous infections can be acquired through contact with water and when not properly diagnosed can lead to treatment failure with chronic ulcers developing. The purpose of this hub is to dispel the popular disbelief the such conditions have mystic undertones........Hala!!!!
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