I work in an OB/ GYN office and there are numerous types of birth controls. It really depends on what you want to do, your insurance, etc. There is always the pill. If you remember to take it daily around the same time, it is very effective.
There are patches and the Nuvaring. Similar to the pill in you have to remember to replace weekly.
There are IUDs, they are little devices doctors or nurse practitioners can place in your uterus. One type lasts for 5 years (Mirena), the other type for 10 years (Paragard). The procedure lasts, at least in our office, 20-30 mins. The majority of the time is spent setting everything up. Putting in the IUD takes less than 30 seconds. IT can be slightly crampy, but it is years of birth control without having to think about it. There may be other types out there, but these are the ones we use.
Also another one is the Implanon/ Nexplanon. It is another device that can be inserted under the skin in your arm. It gives 3 years protection. The procedure again is similar to the IUD in, the set up takes longer than the actual placing of the device.
An added benefit. With both the IUD (Mirena) and the Implanons, many women dont get their periods monthly or at all. The estrogen/ progesterone in the devices thin the lining of the uterus, leaving less to shed monthly.