For the OP IMHO people definitely are affected by change in weather. From personal experience I live in San Diego with long periods of days with sunlight and comfortable temperature. When rain arrives I become happy. Sometimes when cloudy days arrive I feel a sense of relief. But, a long duration I move toward the blues. When peaks in temperature heading toward the 90's arrive my energy is sapped if outside too long and may have a sense of misery. But, probably as most here the constant of weather being temperate it is same ole’, same ole so, no real impact especially with mood.
Jumping to Seasonal Affective Disorder I accept that it is a diagnosable form of depression while remembering not the blues. It is kinda’ finicky too. Research shares it is related to light intensity and also melatonin. A Hub can be written on SAD and its therapies. Sharing even here in the San Diego area I know a few people diagnosed with SAD. And, yes I have an intimate friend in Sweden that experiences it. We email daily and it is easily detected in those when she experiences it.
The OP hit my curios bone, so I poked around a bit. Here is what I discovered regard the effects of weather and seasonal changes:
Sleep cycles - circadian rhythms related to periods of light
Birth rates peak at spring and summer
Suicides increase during summer months
Blood pressure is lower during summer
The blues occur more with cold & cloudy days
Change to summer hot days affects allergies / asthma
Before rain joint pain
Sharp change in weather causes headaches
Bright sunlight causes migraines (This I knew & why I get transitional lens for my glasses)
The effects of pollen at springtime
Diabetics have troubles controlling blood sugar during cold fronts
Burn more calories when cold
Higher heart attacks with drops in temperature
Hot humid weather more difficult to breathe
Rapid temperature changes lowers immune system
Greater sinus problems with changes in barometer (This affects me. When rain clouds are first present I get sinus headaches)
Personally with what I learned I think especially at my age and health issues I will consider those above. For instance I am diabetic and that bit of knowledge may be helpful regard my menu plan.