Woman and Cancer part two

As a continuation to my hub cancer and woman, in this part two of the article about cancer and woman we will see some of the other factors that relate to cancer among woman and how they can deal with it.

Chemoprevention:

The 2 main agents found to prevent the development of breast cancer are the tamoxifen (its a antioestrogenic hormone) and vitamin A analogue.

If go and look into the other important cancers are cancers of the uterus and ovary. Even though this type of cancer is not as common as cervical cancer, the predisposing factors of uterine cancer include obesity, nulliparity, late menopause, diabetes and high blood pressure. Use of contraceptive pills does not possess any uterine cancer risk factor, on the contrary in some cases it is been observed that it actually decreased the risk of uterine cancer.This is an irony of nature! on the one hand, if you do not have sex leading to pregnancy the chances of uterine tumour are increased. On the other hand, if you have more sex in life, you are prone to develop cervical cancer. This shows only the actual understanding about the limits of everything that is been provided in life, the need for moderation in sexual activity only could balance yourself in between these two. If you cross the limit, it certainly will not help your health.

Uterine cancer mostly occurs after menopause between 50 and 60 years of age while benign cancerous tumour generally (the non-cancerous fibroid) occurs in the woman of child bearing age. The size of the benign tumour may vary big to tiny.

The malignant disease develops symptoms like profuse and irregular vaginal bleeding; pain is present in 60% of the cases. If the tumour is large, a heavy feeling in lower abdomen is the usual complaint. Uterine cancer may spread to the fallopian tubes, cervix, vagina etc, etc.

In the early stages of the disease the surgical removal of teh tumour yields good results. In late stages, surgery in combination with radiotherapy is quite effective, but with ovarian cancer is concerned, an interesting finding is that oral contraceptive pills reduce its risks.

Cancers of the ovary and breast share some common causative factors, women with breast cancer have twice the expected risk for ovarian cancer and vice versa. Pregnancy has consistently been shown to protect against the development of ovarian cancer. The researches has shown that use of coffee and tobacco does not seem to increase the risk for ovarian cancer but a slight increase has been seen with alcohol consumption.

The ovarian tumour is more frequent between 50 and 60 years of age. It presents as abdominal swelling a benign tumour may attain the size of a foot ball. Other symptoms of this kind cancer are, produced due to pressure. Disturbance in the menstrual function and development of pain are rare in non-cancerous tumours.

Cancerous tumours are generally found on both sides. There is post menopausal vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, ascites (collection of water in the abdomine) etc. In the late stage, extreme cachexia develops.

The primary treatment for this type cancer consists of the surgical removal of the tumour and chemotherapy to destroy the residual part of the same. The role of radiation therapy in this case is limited.

Prophylaxis:

Oophorectomy or the removal of ovary is the only effective prophylactic measure in the prevention of ovarian cancer. Normally it is better for a woman undergoing hysterectomy ( removal of uterus) due to any cause at the age of 40 or 40+ should go in for oophorectomy also.

Although other organs like the head and neck, lung, brain, kidney, stomach, colon, urinary bladder, skin may develop different kinds of cancers, the woman has no special predisposing factors due to feminine work culture etc, thyroid cancer is , however, more prevalent in females.

Thyroid Cancer:

Although the actual cause of thyroid cancer is not known radiation is regarded as the most important proven cause in this disease. The role of iodine is significant too. On the one hand, iodine deficiency may lead to one type of thyroid cancer, on the other hand, iodine abundance is also found to be associated with another type of the cancer and genetic factor has also been identified as a cause in some cases.

Clynical symptoms of thyroid cancer include the appearance of a swelling or nodule in front of neck, airway obstruction, hoarseness of voice and difficulty in swallowing.

The surgical removal of the tumour mass followed by the administration of thyroid hormone is the usual treatment. Post operative radiation therapy is also effective to metastatiselesions and to eliminate chances of a recurrence. The outcome of treatment depends upon the histopathological type of the tumour.

In my next and final part of this cancer and woman hub i will be discussing with the control of cancer.

If you have missed my first part of this story you can read it here, and leave me your comments, which can motivate me.

http://hubpages.com/hub/Cancer-and-Woman

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