weight loss reflects an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. It can be voluntary, for aesthetic or therapeutic purpose, or involuntary, can then be due toprogressive organic diseases, or eating disorders.
Normal and stable weight and is one of the best markers of normal health in adults. Between 20 and 50 years, weight continue to increases then stabilizes physiologically only to decrease spontaneously after 75 years of age
The eating disorders: anorexia nervosa and other forms.
Weight loss with diet
metabolic or endocrine disorders: hyperthyroidism, diabetes, primary hyperparathyroidism, pheochromocytoma.
intake of caffeine and smoking.
digestive diseases: malabsorption of celiac disease in adults, Crohn's disease, the protein-losing enteropathy and chronic pancreatitis.
paraphysiological weight loss in old age. cancers, infectious diseases, severe neurological disease, liver disease, heart, kidney or severe respiratory diseases chronic psychiatric illness or alcohol.
iatrogenicWeight loss , due to multiple medication use in the elderly.
When energy intake is less than the amount of energy the body uses the energy stored as fat. Conversely, if energy intake is greater than the amount of energy expended, the body stores the excess as fat. The plans are therefore intended to increase expenditure through exercise, and reduce the amount of energy ingested.
Changes in behavior are usually temporary. People who have lost weight, their metabolism are reduced. Resumption of old behaviors is thus accompanied by a gaining weight very fast because the energy is lower (less exercise and lower basal metabolism ).
It is often recommended during dieting to calculate your daily energy needs. There are complex formulas to calculate it based on age, weight, frequency of exercise, etc.. In general, it is around 2000 kcal for women and 2500 kcal for men. This energy requirement (BEN) is the number of calories needed to maintain weight. To lose one kilogram of fat, the body must be in deficit of 7000 kcal compared to its energy needs. This means that consuming 500 kcal less than the BEN every day, it will take 14 days to lose one kilogram.
Diets are of several kinds:
caloric restriction "balanced" (ie from 50 to 55% carbohydrates, 30-35% fat and 10-20% protein) and moderate, which is a decrease (for example, 600 kcal per day) compared to the usual ration.
changes inducing food calorie reduction via increased satiety, without caloric restriction imposed: reduced fat, increased fruits, grains and vegetables.
very low calorie diets: less than 800 to less than 600 kcal / d. They can be sources of deficiencies if they are extended. Even sudden death have been reported. [Ref. required]
the low-fat diets where lipids represent only 10-15% of inputs (Dukan diet for example). Its efficacy is controversial.
protein diets, low carbohydrate , but high in fat and protein, no restriction in calories, but that increase satiety. They have some efficacy. and are even in the short term, slightly higher than other systems. This advantage is no longer found in the medium term . Serious side effects have been reported.
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