Literature Review - Hans Christian Andersen and 'The Emperor's New Clothes'; A Lesson for the 21st Century



On 7th April 1837 the great Danish teller of fairy tales Hans Christian Andersen penned the third volume of his 'Fairy Tales Told For Children'. The whole collection of tales included nine stories, but this third volume included just two. One was 'The Little Mermaid'. The other, though very brief, was a story of great morality and highly perceptive commentary on the human condition. It was of course, still a fairy story intended for children. But this was a fairy story which, in the opinion of the author of this page, has merits far beyond those of its humble origins - merits for which it deserves to be considered as a great work of 19th century literature. It was called 'The Emperor's New Clothes'.

On this page, I relate the story of 'The Emperor's New Clothes', how it came into being, and the messages of the story which are still hugely relevant in the 21st century.

A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen painted by the artist Christian Albrecht Jensen in the year 1836 - just one year before the publication of 'The Emperor's New Clothes'
A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen painted by the artist Christian Albrecht Jensen in the year 1836 - just one year before the publication of 'The Emperor's New Clothes' | Source


Two weavers are approached by a vain, pompous Emperor who desires the finest and most luxurious clothes in all the land for himself - clothes befitting of his supreme status. The two weavers promise him just such a set of clothes, so fine and wonderful that they will be only for the eyes of the greatest and the best in society; indeed, they will be quite invisible to anyone who is stupid, incompetent or unworthy of their position in society. What's more, the clothes will be made of a material so fine ('as light as a spider web') that they will not weigh down the wearer, so fine, the wearer will not even be able to sense them draped over his body. Such a set of clothes would be perfect for a great Emperor. They would suit his sense of his own importance, and their magical properties would enable him to find out which of his ministers were unfit for their jobs ('and I could tell the wise men from the fools').

Of course, the weavers are nothing more than a pair of con-men - swindlers who have no intention of creating a fine set of clothes. They have heard of the Emperor's vanity and they believe they can turn his failings to their own advantage. So they decide to go to the pretence of making this set of fine clothes. Of course when the Emperor goes to visit the weavers at their work and they make a show of enthusing over the cloth and the clothes they are making, he cannot see anything at all. But he is too proud and arrogant to admit that he cannot see the clothes. To do so, he feels, would be to label himself as stupid and unfit to be Emperor. And of course when his courtiers and ministers visit the weavers, they also cannot see the clothes, but they too pretend that they can - because if they say anything different, they will be admitting their own incompetence and unworthiness. ('Can it be that I'm a fool? It would never do to let on that I can't see the cloth'). And if any of them did have their suspicions, well to voice their doubts about the existence of the clothes would be to imply that the Emperor himself was stupid enough and gullible enough to be taken in by this foolery.

When the Emperor finally walks out among his subjects in his non-existent finery, the crowds watch eagerly. They all want to see which of their friends or neighbours are so stupid that they cannot see the clothes. What actually happens of course, is that none of them see any clothes. But not one of them says anything except to praise the clothes. Perhaps some are embarressed to tell the truth because they think that they themselves must be too stupid to see the cloth. Perhaps others believe that to say anything would be to draw attention to the truth of the Emperor's own stupidity. Perhaps others simply do not wish to be the first to speak out with a contrary voice to the crowd. Only one small child who is far too innocent of all this pretension and conceit and social convention shouts out 'But he hasn't got anything on!' At first his father tries to correct the boy, but gradually the news breaks out and everyone finally realises they are not alone in their inability to see the clothes. And everybody now finds the strength in numbers to admit that there is nothing to see, and they begin to laugh. The Emperor cringes, but continues with the procession, because to turn back would be to admit his own stupidity and gullibility. Better by far to continue on in the pretence that he is the only one with the wisdom to see the clothes. His courtiers likewise feel they have to continue to live the lie, and continue to dutifully follow their leader.

Original drawing of the Emperor's parade by Vilhelm Pedersen, the first illustrator of Hans Christian Andersen's tale
Original drawing of the Emperor's parade by Vilhelm Pedersen, the first illustrator of Hans Christian Andersen's tale | Source


In 1835 the first of three installments of fairy tales was published by Hans Christian Andersen in a series called 'Fairy Tales Told for Children. First Collection'. This first volume published on 8th May included four tales of which the best known are 'The Princess and the Pea' and 'The Tinderbox'.

Towards the end of 1835, the second installment was released on 16th December. Three tales were included, one of which was 'Thumbelina'.

The third installment was delayed till 1937, when 'The Little Mermaid' and 'The Emperor's New Clothes' were published.

Other famous fairy tales written by Hans Christian Andersen in his career include 'The Steadfast Tin Soldier' (1838), 'The Ugly Duckling' (1844), and 'The Snow Queen' (1844).


Where did Hans Christian Andersen get his inspiration for this particular fairy tale? It is known that some of his stories including 'The Ugly Duckling' and 'The Snow Queen', were entirely his own creation, while some others including 'The Princess and the Pea' were adaptations or ideas based on old folk tales. 'The Emperor's New Clothes' is in this latter category.

The story is based on the seventh of fifty cautionary tales in a 14th century Spanish collection by the colourful politician, soldier and writer, Juan Manuel, under the titles 'Libro de los ejemplos', also known as 'El Conde Lucanor' (Book of the Examples of Count Lucanor). This collection in turn was derived from many other sources including Aesop's Fables and Arabian folktales.

The original story - 'A King and Three Imposters' - was very similar in many respects. Rather like Andersen's tale, it featured a ruler (a king) and a trio of unscrupulous weavers who had fabricated a story about invisible cloth. However it was somewhat different in its focus; Andersen's tale is principally about vanity and pride. in Juan Manuel's story, the clothes could only be seen by the true son of the man who was wearing them, and as such it was a story about illegitimate paternity - the king and his 'sons' were all concerned that if they confessed that they could not see the cloth, then this would prove that they were not of true royal descent. So they all pretended that they could see the non-existent cloth.

There is one other intriguing difference. In Andersen's tale, it takes the innocence of a child to point out the truth. In Juan Manuel's story it takes the innocence of a black spectator to point out the truth - the black person had no claim to be the son of the King and presumably at this time would have been of low status in society, and therefore had nothing to lose in telling the truth. A translation of this ancient story from 1335, can be found in the references, and makes an interesting read.

Quite why the key revelation was changed so that it comes from the mouth of a child is not clear. Of course the change would have made the story more appealing to children, the intended audience. However, it may have had its origins in an occasion when as a small boy Hans Christian Andersen had himself watched a parade in which he saw the then King of Denmark Frederick VI. No doubt he had been told of the power and finery of the King, and he later recalled that when he saw the King he had expressed surprise that the King looked 'just like an ordinary human being'.

Following publication in 1837, 'The Emperor's New Clothes' became a staple of recitals in polite society, and soon became one of the most popular of fairy tales. Since then the story has been adapted as the subject of a ballet, a musical, film and television cartoons, and thematically aspects of the story have been applied to many satirical works. It has been translated into more than 100 languages, and its place as one of the great children's tales has therefore been cemented. My aim is to show that it is also a great work for adults to learn from.

The ultimate irony in this story is that in attempting to conceal a supposed stupidity (by claiming to see clothes when none exist) the Emperor and his courtiers only succeed in confirming their real stupidy and gullibility
The ultimate irony in this story is that in attempting to conceal a supposed stupidity (by claiming to see clothes when none exist) the Emperor and his courtiers only succeed in confirming their real stupidy and gullibility | Source


In my introduction I suggested 'The Emperor's New Clothes' might be considered one of the great works of 19th century literature. Can that be defended? In some respects of course, it may be seen as an exaggeration. First of all this is a very short piece - just 1500 words in the English translation - which cannot bear comparison for literary merit with great novels. However brevity is not in itself a contraindication to greatness - one cannot judge greatness simply by the number of words written; otherwise no poetry could ever be considered as great. And Shakespeare himself said in 'Hamlet' that 'brevity is the soul of wit.'

It may also be argued that this is 'only' a trivial fairy tale for children. So what? There is no literary law which says that fairy tales cannot be as meritorious as serious stories for adults. Many look down their noses at such seemingly trivial pieces of fiction in the same way that some of the most pompous of classical actors may look down their nose at comedy dramas and classical musicians may look down their noses at popular music. They are wrong to do so.

But I would not of course recommend 'The Emperor's New Clothes' on the basis of its brevity or its target audience, and not even on the quality of writing. No. What sets the majority of revered works of literature apart from the rest is the thought provoking insight that they provide into the human condition. It is in this area that 'The Emperor's New Clothes' scores over other fairy tales which rather formulaically feature beautiful princesses, handsome princes, wicked witches and romance, and not much in the way of real perceptive comment. In this respect, 'The Emperor's New Clothes' also has more to recommend it in its few short paragraphs, than many an epic novel of action and adventure.

Some of these insights into human behaviour will be analysed in the next section.


2) The Emperor's pride makes it impossible for him to admit that he cannot see the clothes. Such an admission would deem him to be stupid. Pride makes him deny the truth of his own eyes. He ends up deceiving himself, because his pride matters more to him than the truth.

The message in the real world is that pride comes before a fall. The more pride one has, the more difficult it is to admit one's fallibility, and the more likely one is to allow that fallibility to influence one's judgement.

1) The Emperor's vanity and his overwhelming desire for the finest set of clothes ever to be fashioned, allows the con men to manipulate him. They can play on his vanity. They flatter him to deceive him into parting with his money.

The message in the real world is that vanity can lead one into making the worst of decisions and specifically the worst of purchases. Con artists play on people's vanity. And it's also how advertisers persuade consumers to spend money on expensive luxury items whose beauty may be illusory.

4) The folly of the unquestioning acceptance of 'facts' means that the truth is ignored. The Emperor and courtiers believe what the weavers tell them, and the crowd believe what their leader tells them, in spite of a total lack of hard evidence. The Emperor, the courtiers, the crowd - one after the other - they all assume that the existence of the clothes is unquestionable.

The message in the real world is that we should be critical and objective when examining 'facts'. Too many 'facts' which we hear are in reality merely beliefs and opinions (or even lies in the case of this story). The evidence needs to be very rigorously examined, and this alone should form the basis of our 'facts', or 'truth', even if it results in one arriving at a conclusion which is not popular or politically correct.

3) The Emperor's sense of self importance is boosted by having a bunch of obsequious 'yes men' around him. None of these 'yes men' is prepared to question the intelligence of his judgement and none of them is prepared to say or do anything which might damage their standing in their ruler's eyes.

The message in the real world is that gathering 'yes men' around him is the worst thing a leader can do, be it an emperor, a president, or a managing director. If the followers of a leader are unwilling or unable to tell him the truth, to stand up to him, to criticise when he is wrong, then detachment from reality grows and the leader's conceited self-belief will soar to levels of self-deception. If no one tells him that he is sometimes wrong, he will believe he is always right.

6) The folly of behaving like sheep leads to the crowd living a collective lie. All the crowd can see no clothes and yet none of the crowd is willing to stand up for the truth. It's so much easier for everyone to just go with the consensus and conform, rather than to think for themselves.

The message in the real world is that the instinct to conform and agree with the majority, too often outweighs the courage to say what one actually believes. But history has shown that the majority is not always right. If people in the crowd refuse to stand up for the truth in the presence of a falsehood, then that way lies the descent into a sham society in which the truth is never spoken. The worst excesses of dictators have not come about when they have been forced to brutally defend against courageous opposition. The worst excesses have come when the dictator has been free to continue to live and escalate his lies because the majority - both in the inner circles of government (the 'courtiers') and in the general public (the 'crowd' lining the streets) - have failed to speak out through self-interest or through fear. (Think of the rise of Nazi Germany, and its culmination in the holocaust to see how true this is).

5) The folly of everyone in the story who claims to see beauty where no beauty exists, is the direct result of the collective, undue respect for supposed experts - fake weavers who enthuse over their 'wonderful' cloth, and the court officials who praise the invisible clothes.

The message in the real world is that just as in the story, we far too often believe that something must be good because an 'expert' tells us it's good. The best examples are in the fields of popular culture, fashion and modern art where an absolute absence of talent and beauty may be dressed up with 'image'. In the case of much popular culture and fashion, it should be clear that real talent is lacking - otherwise the culture or fashion would survive. Fashion, by definition, is transient, whilst true talent and beauty will be recognised forever. In the case of modern art, works which require little imagination in their conception and no talent in their creation, sell for $1000s, because they are hyped with pretentious pseudo-intellectual babble (in much the same way as the clothes in the story are hyped by the weavers whose 'expert' words are believed.

8) The Emperor continues his parade even when the crowd are laughing at him. To turn back would be to admit that he cannot see the clothes (which would label him as 'stupid' according to the weavers) or that he realises he has been fooled by the weavers (in which case he is gullible as well as stupid). Either way, he'd be deemed to be stupid. Instead he continues blindly on pretending that everyone else is wrong and he is right - the most stupid response of all.

The message in the real world is that folly is only compounded by continuing with it. Too many people prefer to carry on blindly rather than admitting to a mistake and withdrawing gracefully and humbly. Many tragedies, even wars, have been caused by continuation with a course of action even after all the evidence has shown it to be misguided.

7) The child who speaks out when no one else dares to, is at first exposed to ridicule and scorn. But eventually truth wins the day as the crowd recognise the lie they've been a party to.

The message in the real world is that free thinking individuality and freedom from social conventions which may be rooted in folly can allow the truth to emerge even when no one else is initially prepared to admit it. This is so true even today. For the innocence of the child in the story, to the man who can see an injustice in society which others are blind to, all should have the confidence to speak out. If the individual is wrong, then at least he has shown guts, but if he is right, then people will gradually appreciate his rightness, and society will change for the better.

The farcical pageant of the Emperor continues
The farcical pageant of the Emperor continues | Source


If one looks behind the very simple language in the telling of this fairy tale, one finds a story of the failings of human beings - failings which have caused so much grief, hardship and sadness in the world. The vain, proud Emperor, unsuited to the job of high office, the pandering obsequious henchmen whose support is offered uncritically, and the crowd who fail to recognise truth and prefer to allow lies to continue because that is the easier option - we can recognise all of these in today's nations and societies. We recognise them, but we do not necessarily apply them to our own lives. There are undoubted lessons in 'The Emperor's New Clothes' which have not been learned by all. But they are lessons which make this the most intelligent of all fairy tales for both children and adults.

As a Commentary on Human Failings, 'The Emperor's New Clothes' is the Greatest of all Fairy Tales

5 stars for The Emperor's New Clothes

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Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 16 months ago from Essex, UK Author

cam8510; Thanks Chris. One of the appeals of old tales like this is that although human lifestyles may change, human behaviour - good and bad - never does.

I am sure plenty of characters as vain, pompous and obsequious as the ones in this story exist today. And Hollywood I'm sure is home to many of them! :)

cam8510 profile image

cam8510 17 months ago from Columbus, Georgia until the end of November 2016.

Great job mining some very pertinent applications of this old story to modern life. I'm thinking that the self-important attitudes to be found in Hollywood may be a good place to begin applying this story.

Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 17 months ago from Essex, UK Author

Jonas Rodrigo; Thank you Jonas. It's often an appealing element in a story when an innocent junior is shown to be wiser than those who are supposedly his seniors or superiors.

theBAT; Cheers for that. All that you say about pride is true. Pride is so often misplaced and actually disadvantages those who suffer from an excess of it.

Jonas Rodrigo profile image

Jonas Rodrigo 17 months ago

The Emperor's New Clothes is one of my favorite stories. I love the character of the boy - the child who isn't really named but everyone knows is the real hero.

theBAT profile image

theBAT 17 months ago

Hi. Thanks for this great piece. I agree that the "Emperor's New Clothes" has a profound moral lesson and should be taken seriously at this time. We got to let go of too much pride. Learn to accept our frailty and not pretend knowing everything.

Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK Author

tillsontitan; Glad you liked the review. Thank you so much for such a warm comment. It's very much appreciated.

I've long felt that this story deserved to be regarded as more than just a simple fairy tale; it is amazing to me just how much wisdom about human beings can be contained within such a short story - that was the genius of Hans Christian Andersen when writing 'The Emperor's New Clothes'.

Thank you also for the votes and accolades. Alun.

tillsontitan profile image

tillsontitan 4 years ago from New York

Bravo! This is as comprehensive a tale as ever has been have made this fable come to life with explanations that only make it more comprehensible. You've truly proved the "thought provoking insight that they provide into the human condition" and have written it so well! You are a superb writer.

Voted up, useful, awesome, and interesting.

Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 4 years ago from Essex, UK Author

holdmycoffee; thanks for that. I do not know how much of a part fairy tales play in childrens' lives in the 21st century, but there certainly should be a place for simple fantasy in every child's life, and a place for gentle and subtle morality tales such as 'The Emperor's New clothes'. I hope therefore that children are aware of stories such as these - I guess it's up to parents to keep alive the tradition of reading them to children. I hope they do. Alun.

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holdmycoffee 4 years ago

I grew up with Hans Christian Andersen's stories and enjoyed them very much. I thought everyone knows them, but every time I talked about one of the stories, people are puzzled. Thank you for reminding of my fairytale-filled childhood and telling me I am not alone.

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alancaster149 4 years ago from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire)

Wait a minute, don't I know this one? Is it us, the UK public conned by Tony Blair & Co about New Labour, and our new importance in global affairs - with the 'special cross-Pond relationship' at the time of 'Dubya'? Turned out it was the same old 'Sweet'n'Sour' dish we had before, and nobody else thought we were all that special. We just got this Afghanistan thing dumped on us! Remember the landslide that brought Tony in? That was just the rumble in the jungle that King Kong - Vladimir Putin - made when he thought he was missing out on another caper. The 'Emperor's New Clothes' were meant for him, how come us Brits got them instead?! (could be Parcel Force got the address wrong again).

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