Forms of Poetry

Euterpe, Muse of Lyric Poetry and Music

Euterpe, Muse of Lyric Poetry and Music was pained by Egide Godfried Guffens (1823-1901).
Euterpe, Muse of Lyric Poetry and Music was pained by Egide Godfried Guffens (1823-1901). | Source

Writing Poetry

When I published Poetry Forms in January 2013, I never dreamed how successful that article would be. Poets began writing poems in styles which were new to them. People who had never written poems began writing micropoetry. haiku, haiga, and senryu were making many more appearances.

A number of people have commented that they bookmarked the article and are using it as reference material.

Poetry Challenge

Maria Jordan (who publishes articles on HubPages using the pseudonym marcoujor) challenged herself to write a poem in each of the 15 poetic forms discussed in the article.

Series of Articles

Forms of Poetry describes poetic forms not discussed in my previous article. I hadn't intended Poetry Forms to be the start of a series, but it appears that that is what has happened.

My hope is that more poets will be encouraged to try forms of poetry which are new to them, and more readers will write their first poem.

Poetry Terms

An epic poem is an extremely long multi-stanza poem.

A quatrain is a four-line verse (stanza).

A quintain is a five-line stanza (verse).

A refrain is a word, phrase, or line which is repeated one or more times in a poem.

A rhyme is the sharing of an ending sound between words on two or more lines in a poem.

A rhyming pattern or scheme is the combination of rhymes in a poem. It is the order in which the rhymes are presented.

Rhyming notation is the manner in which rhymes are indicated. It is the visual representation of the rhymes in articles about poetry, in textbooks, in classroom discussions. The alphabet is used to designate rhyming partnerships.

Please see my descriptions of the poetic forms abhanga and dizain for examples of rhyming patterns.

Poetic Forms Discussed in Poetry Forms Article

The following chart lists the types of poetry discussed in Poetry Forms. Please refer to that article if you would like to know more about these poetic styles.

 
 
 
chōka
Fibonacci
rictameter
cinquain
haiku
sestina
diminished hexaverse
haiga
tanka
epulaeryu
senryu
trilinea
etheree
musette
tritina

Spoken Poetry

Most poets showcase their work in printed form. Some produce beautiful videos, which enable us to hear them reading their work. Please listen to Vincent Moore reading one of his poems.

Non-English and Non-Japanese Poetry Forms

While conducting my research for this article, I discovered a number of forms of poetry which didn't originate in either the English or Japanese languages.

This image of saint-poet Tukuram was created in 1832 by an unknown artist. It is in the public domain worldwide due to the artist having been deceased more than 100 years and its copyright having expired.
This image of saint-poet Tukuram was created in 1832 by an unknown artist. It is in the public domain worldwide due to the artist having been deceased more than 100 years and its copyright having expired. | Source

Abhanga (India | Marathi)

Abhanga originated in India in the 17th century. The first abhanga were devotional poems written in Marathi by individuals considered saints. Abhanga are still sung in ritual marches by devotees of saint-poets Dyaneshwar, Namdeo, and Tukaram.

Abhanga consist of four lines totaling 22 syllables. The first three lines are six syllables long. The fourth line is four syllables. In addition to having a syllable pattern, abhanga have a rhyming pattern. The second and third lines rhyme, and the first and fourth lines do not.

Syllable pattern: 6 - 6 - 6 - 4
Rhyming pattern: a - b - b - c

Since the poem is short and the rhyming pattern is not complicated, contemporary Indian and non-Indian poets have begun writing non-religious abhanga. Some poets are not using rhymes at all, Non-rhyming abhanga in the 6 - 6 - 6 - 4 format appear similar to haiku and senryu in the 5 - 7 - 5 format and trilinea in the 4 - 8 - 4 format.

This painting of Baron Bálint Balassi de Kékkő et Gyarmat (1554 - 1594) is in the public domain worldwide due to the artist having been deceased more than 100 years and its copyright having expired.
This painting of Baron Bálint Balassi de Kékkő et Gyarmat (1554 - 1594) is in the public domain worldwide due to the artist having been deceased more than 100 years and its copyright having expired. | Source

Balassi Stanza (Hungary | Hungarian)

The Balassi Stanza was developed by Baron Bálint Balassi de Kékkő et Gyarmat, a 16th century Hungarian lyricist. Baron Balassi, the founder of modern Hungarian poetry, was the first person to write erotic poetry in Hungarian.

To create one of his stanzas, Baron Balassi took an existing three-line format and broke it down further. Each of the three lines had 19 syllables, for a total syllable count of 57:
19 - 19 - 19.

Balassi changed each line to a syllable pattern of 6 - 6 - 7 (still 19 syllables). The three lines then became 6 - 6 - 7 | 6 - 6 - 7 | 6 - 6 - 7.

After he changed the syllable pattern, Balassi added a rhyming scheme:
a - a - b | c - c - b | d - d - b.

Poetry written using Baron Balassi's syllable count and rhyming pattern can be written as a one-stanza poem or with multiple stanzas.

Dizain (France | French)

A dizain is a poetic form which originated in France in the late-14th to early-15th centuries. The poem has either eight or 10 lines, with either eight or 10 syllables per line. The same number of syllables must be used throughout a dizain. Variations in line length are not allowed within a given poem.

In addition to there being rules regarding the number of syllables and number of lines, a dizain has a specific rhyming pattern.

For the more common 10-line dizain, the rhyming pattern is
ababbccdcd

In the 8-line dizain, the rhyming pattern is
ababcdcd

Monchielle (Norway | Norwegian)

The Monchielle was developed by Norwegian poet Jim T. Henriksen (1974 - ). The poem consists of four five-line stanzas (quintains), with every line being six syllables long. Lines three and five rhyme, while lines one, two, and four do not.

The first line in each of the four stanzas is a refrain. It repeats—the first line is the same in each stanza.

Ode (Greece | Greek)

Created by the Greeks, the ode originated as a choral song to be used in Greek drama. Odes were arranged in stanzas which included moving from a lyrical premise (strophe), a return to the premise (antistrophe), and a finish (epode). During the drama, the chorus would walk across the stage while singing the strophe and walk back across in the opposite direction while singing the antistrophe.

In the 19th century, the ode evolved into lyrical poetry rather than songs. It became a poem with a lyrical quality which spoke directly to its subject. Although not a requirement, most odes use the word "ode" in the poem's title.

Ottava Rima (Italy | Italian)

Italian poets developed ottava rima poems in the 14th century. Ottava rima began as epic poems about religious or heroic subjects, but later there was an about-face, and the poems began mocking these concepts.

Ottava rima poems have one or more eight-line stanzas (octets), with 10 or 11 syllables per line. The rhyming pattern is similar to that of a sonnet.

a - b - a - b - a - b - c - c ...

d - e - d - e - d - e - f - f ...

g - h - g - h - g - h - i - i ...

[there is no limit to the number of stanzas an ottava rima can have]

Quatern (France | French)

A quatern is a 16-line poem which originated in France. It is composed of four quatrains (4-line stanzas), with each line having eight syllables.

The poem has a refrain—a repeating line. The refrain is the first line of the first stanza, the second line of the second stanza, the third line of the third stanza, and the fourth line of the fourth stanza. Since the refrain is such an important part of the poem, when writing a quatern, it is a good idea to write the refrain first.

English Language Odes

Odes written in the English language are lyrical poems dedicated to someone or something about which the poet has a strong feeling.

Poetry Preference

Which type of poetry do you prefer—free verse (open verse) or structured poetry?

See results without voting

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Comments 52 comments

Vellur profile image

Vellur 3 years ago from Dubai

Great article on various forms of poetry with clear, easy to understand explanations. Now I can try out different forms that you have so well showcased in this hub. Voted up and shared across.


Docmo profile image

Docmo 3 years ago from UK

wonderful erudition. This is an excellent accompaniment to your previous hub and expands on the subject further. you know how much I like to learn new things - the selection of international poetic forms is inspired. up/awesome.


Sunshine625 profile image

Sunshine625 3 years ago from Orlando, FL

You just might be a poet, but don't know it! Well done Daisy!!


marcoujor profile image

marcoujor 3 years ago from Jeffersonville PA

This is an exciting addition to your first masterpiece, Daisy...I will absolutely have to expand my personal challenge to include these international poetry forms as well.

I will be back many more times and am most appreciative.

Excellent research and information. Voted UP and UABI. Hugs, Maria


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Nithya (Vellur),

Thanks reading my latest poetry article and being the first person to comment in it. I gathered so much information while doing my research, I think I have enough for two more articles.

One of my next articles might be another international poetry one. I had to eliminate a lot of information from this article because the word count had already passed 1300.

After you try one of the poetry forms in this article, please let me know. I'll link my Hub to yours.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Mohan (Docmo),

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. I appreciate your continuous support of my writing.

I'm glad I decided to discuss international poetry forms in this article. Poetry is an art form enjoyed all over the world. I was really excited to find so much information about poetic forms not derived from English or Japanese.

I've seen in my stats that you've accessed my first article in the series a number of times. I have yet to see you publish a Hub using a poetic form which is new to you. I'm looking forward to reading some "new" poetry, my friend.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Linda (Sunshine625),

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. Micropoetry makes sense to me, so I've been sticking primarily to that. Several people have said they find writing haiku to be difficult, but I don't have a problem with them.


teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 3 years ago

This is very I well done. I didn't realize there were so many different forms.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Maria (marcoujor),

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. I'm glad you find my poetry Hubs informative.

I was surprised by how much information I found on poetry forms developed in other than English or Japanese. I have enough research material for another international poetry article and a more generalized article as well.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Dianna (teaches12345).

Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. While doing my research for the first article, I found more than 50 poetry forms. I haven't counted how many forms of poetry I can add to that list, but I know it's more than just a few.


MartieCoetser profile image

MartieCoetser 3 years ago from South Africa

Thanks for this informative, inspirational and much needed hub about poetry forms, Daisy :)


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Martie,

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. I appreciate your very kind words.

Have you read the first article I published on this subject...Poetry Forms?


whonunuwho profile image

whonunuwho 3 years ago from United States

Thank you for sharing the basics and well received. whonu


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

whonunuwho,

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. My Poetry Forms article has a similar type of information. You might like to read it when you get a chance.


DDE profile image

DDE 3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

A wonderful insight to the forms of poetry and so well explained, I learned something new here about poetry in all forms


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Devika (DDE),

Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. I appreciate your very kind words. Perhaps you will have an opportunity to read Poetry Forms, an article of mine which deals with similar subject matter.


kidscrafts profile image

kidscrafts 3 years ago from Ottawa, Canada

I think you deserved the praise for your first article and I indeed noticed your hub mentioned in other hubs! I think you started a trend:-) I am very happy for you! You deserved it!

I didn't know that it exist so many different forms of poetry. Very interesting!

Nice to see you again :-)

Enjoy your weekend!


Vincent Moore 3 years ago

Daisy you've outdone yourself once again with this addition of your most interesting work, a study of Poetry forms and history styles. I am in awe of your work and this will be placed on my timeline at Face book for many to continue to read, study and refer to. My style is Free Verse and Prose. My words come to me from all levels of inspiration, I am not a student of poetry, my words simply flow from my soul.

I am amazed and intrigued by the amount of styles there are. You my dear friend have educated many and I am honored as well that you chose one of my videos to introduce one of the methods of conveying ones words to the world. Video allows one to go international and I am learning more about it and how to apply my Free verse style through the use of this exciting medium.

I am so happy to read of how many are now giving poetry a try to using some of these methods you so generously outlined here, the more people get involved, the more their voices will be heard, no better way than with words expressed in all styles of poetry. I look forward to your continual series on this very very interesting subject and the interest it has created. Blessings to you my dear poet and friend. Hugs


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Joelle (kidscrafts),

It's always nice to hear from you. Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. I appreciate your very kind words.

I had no idea there were so many forms of poetry until I began doing the research for Poetry Forms. I am so happy that I have gotten my readers interested in poetic forms which are "new" to them. Seeing links to Poetry Forms mentioned in other authors' Hubs is very exciting to me. It's wonderful to know that my work is appreciated.


livingsta profile image

livingsta 3 years ago from United Kingdom

So much useful and interesting information here Daisy. I never knew that there existed so many forms of poetry. Thank you for sharing this with us. Voted up and sharing!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Vincent,

Thanks for reading, commenting in, and sharing my article. I appreciate your very kind, and eloquent, words, my friend.

I published my first poetry-related article in what has now become a series because I wanted to publish some of my micropoetry. Writers who are in the HubPages Apprenticeship Program, and writers who graduate from the program and become Apprentice Alum, are not permitted to publish poetry in their primary HubPages account. If they want to publish poetry they must do so in a second HP account.

As you know, I was invited by HubPages to particpate in the beta test group (the first group) in the Apprenticeship Program. I published a senryu article the day before my apprenticeship began.

Before I wrote any words in Poetry Forms, I contacted the HP staff members involved with the Apprenticeship Program. I asked if it was acceptable for me to publish an article "about" poetry and use some of poems as examples. I was told that since I would be publishing an "educational" Hub, this was OK. I didn't want to open a second HP account, so I found an alternative response to "the rule."

You wrote that your "words simply flow from [your] soul." A number of people have mentioned that they find writing haiku to be difficult. I write a few forms of micropoetry...haiku, senryu, tanka, and others. I find them very easy to write, not difficult at all. The words float into my head, often when I'm not even thinking about writing a poem.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Dahlia (livingsta),

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. Thanks, too, for sharing my Hub.

I haven't counted recently, but I know that there are well over 50 forms of poetry. New poetry styles are continually being developed. There might be close to 100 by now.


Eiddwen profile image

Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales

So interesting and useful Daisy. Voting up and sharing onto my FB page A brand new dawn.

Eddy.


Genna East profile image

Genna East 3 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

“My hope is that more poets will be encouraged to try forms of poetry which are new to them, and more readers will write their first poem.”

This sums up your hub perfectly. We each have our different styles of writing poetry. I wish that more people would endeavor to write poetry and to learn of its history, international appeal and many styles of communication. There are many worlds out there that are truly one when we discover this art form that is one of the miracles of humanity.

I love Vincent’s video, ‘Lost for Words,’ that showcases his inimitable talent.

Wonderful hub, Daisy.


janetwrites profile image

janetwrites 3 years ago from Georgia country

I'm very ignorant when it comes to poetry and especially poetry forms so your hub which is very informative and interesting was also really educational for me. Thanks for sharing it.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Eddy (Eiddwen),

Thanks for reading my article and adding your comment. Thanks, too, for sharing my Hub on your Facebook page. I appreciate your support.

When I started out with Poetry Forms, I had no idea the appeal of learning "about" poetry would be. I was excited to find so many poetic forms not based upon English or Japanese. I'm currently writing another article about international forms of poetry, and I might write another article dealing with poetic forms after that.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Genna,

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. The reaction to Poetry Forms, my first article in what has become a series, surprised me.

A few people told me that they wrote their first poem after reading my article. More established poets tried poetic forms which were "new" to them.

This is why I included "My hope is that more poets will be encouraged to try forms of poetry which are new to them, and more readers will write their first poem." in this article. I have a statement with the same sentiment in the article I am currently writing.

Vincent has been writing poetry for less than four years. Can you imagine the works we would have read if his muse began visiting him earlier in his life?


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Janet (janetwrites),

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it.

Since you found my Hub to be informative, you might like to read my Poetry Forms article if you get a chance.


Lisa Luv profile image

Lisa Luv 3 years ago from Conneticut, USA

Wonderful and so helpful! Happy Sunday!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Lisa,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. I appreciate your very kind words.


MsDora profile image

MsDora 3 years ago from The Caribbean

Quite a challenge to who's stuck in one form of poetry. Thanks for introducing us to all this poetic stuff. We have no excuse to be bored now.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

MsDora,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it. This Hub is the second one in which I discussed poetry forms. I'll be publishing the third article in the series within the next day or two.


Glimmer Twin Fan profile image

Glimmer Twin Fan 3 years ago

I was so happy that my daughter was writing different forms of poetry in school this past year. I'm going to have to show her this so she can see more. Really interesting hub.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Glimmer,

Thanks for reading my article and sharing your anecdote.

I have written three articles which showcase forms of poetry. If you would like to do so, you can go to my HP profile page and find the other two. If your daughter writes any poems in "new" poetic forms which I've discussed in my articles, please post another comment.


Laurinzo Scott profile image

Laurinzo Scott 3 years ago from Phoenix, Az.

This is actually a very worthy tool to use, for poets and anyone who loves the stuff

I love that you took the time to research this, and put it in plain simple english...very well done...


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Laurinzo,

It's good to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it.

What pleases me is that poets have been writing poetry in forms which are new to them, and people who had never written poetry before are now writing micropoetry.


suzettenaples profile image

suzettenaples 3 years ago from Taos, NM

Daisy: I have enjoyed this series of articles on the different types of poetry. It is very illuminating. From this group the only ones I knew about before reading this were the ode and the ottava rima. This is quite interesting and thanks for sharing your knowledge with us. I also love your International Poetry site on google. You have done a great job with that site and it is growing everyday. I don't know how you keep up with it. Bravo!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Suzette (suzettenaples),

Thank you for reading my article and commenting in it. I currently maintain two blogs, Poetry Forms and Daisy Mariposa's World. The first blog, as one might assume from its name, deals primarily with poetry. The second deals primarily with short stories and non-fiction articles. I'm designing and creating the content for a parodies and pastiches Web site.

I'm the admin for three Facebook groups. I'm also the creator of the International Poetry community (group) on Google+ to which you referred. I'm very proud of the fact that we currently have members in our International Poetry community from 47 countries. I'm one of the moderators in three Google+ communities in addition to International Poetry, and a member of six other communities.

How do I accomplish all of this? I drink a lot of coffee, and I don't need much sleep.


Paul Kuehn profile image

Paul Kuehn 3 years ago from Udorn City, Thailand

Daisy,

As a novice to the forms of poetry, I found this hub very interesting and useful. I have never written a poem, but I sure plan on trying to write some within the next year. Voted up and sharing with followers on Hubpages and Facebook. Also Pinning.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Paul,

It's nice to "see" you again. Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. Thanks, too, for sharing my Hub and pinning it. I appreciate your support.

This article is the second in a series of three I have published. If you have time, you might enjoy reading Poetry Forms. It includes a number of types of micropoetry, short poems based upon syllable count. Micropoetry is a great place for novice poets to begin.


Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

Gypsy Rose Lee 3 years ago from Riga, Latvia

Thanks for sharing another interesting and fascinating hub on poetic forms. I know my dad who was a Latvian poet used to study different poetic forms. Passing this on.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 3 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Rasma (Gypsy Rose Lee),

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. I appreciate your sharing my Hub.

I published this Hub since there were too many forms of poetry to discuss in my Poetry Forms article, the Hub which was awarded the 2013 Hubbie for Most Interesting Hub. Have you read the third Hub in what became a series, International Poetry? There are a number of poetry readings in that article.


Trisha Roberts profile image

Trisha Roberts 2 years ago from Rensselaer, New York

This was such a beautiful hub about poetry and it's forms. I have to say I did not know all those terms, (and I write poetry myself). Thank you so much for sharing this information with me and many out there. Beautifully written too.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Trisha,

It's nice to meet you. Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. This Hub is the second in a series of three which I published. I was awarded the 2013 Hubbie for Most Interesting Hub for the first article, Poetry Forms.


Vellur profile image

Vellur 2 years ago from Dubai

Came back to read again, great hub. Great explanations about the different forms! Voted up.


DealForALiving profile image

DealForALiving 2 years ago from Earth

Fantastic hub! I've never been a poet, but I love the challenge of all the different styles and formats.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Nithya (Vellur),

Thanks for returning to read my article another time. With the amount of information my Hub contains, I have to continually return to read about the various forms of poetry.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

DealForALiving,

Welcome to HubPages. It's nice to meet you. Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. This article is the second is a series of three Hubs about different types of poetry. I hope you have an opportunity to read the others.


Paula Atwell profile image

Paula Atwell 2 years ago from Cleveland, OH

This is really an excellent resource. Didn't know about a lot of these terms. I will definitely come back here for more information.


AudreyHowitt profile image

AudreyHowitt 2 years ago from California

Such a great primer on form Daisy--this should be bookmarked and referred to again and again!


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Paula,

Thanks for reading my article and posting your comment. This is the second of three articles I write which discuss types of poetry. I hope you gave a chance to read the other two, Poetry Forms and International Poetry.


Daisy Mariposa profile image

Daisy Mariposa 2 years ago from Orange County (Southern California) Author

Audrey,

Thanks for reading my article and commenting in it, When I did the research for my Poetry Forms Hub, I saw that there were a few dozen type of poetry which should be discussed. That's what led to my publishing this Hub and then International Poetry.

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