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Earn upto $40,000 online in Pakistan


Most of the people ask me the question that “Can I really Make Money Online in Pakistan?”. I always reply to my Pakistani friends that please dont waste time on internet you can make some extra money from internet even in Pakistan!.

The main reason to create is to make people aware about different ways of online money making in Pakistan, apart from your regular 9-5 job.

Everyone likes some extra cash! Don’t you?

The problem arise when people search for online money making websites which claim really big that you can earn thousands of dollars overnight. So, first of all I would like to make it crystal clear to everyone that its not going to happen that quick. You have to Get Real!. Any site that promise you like this…either it's a scam or they want you to do some illegal work. In other words it will be too good to be true!.

I have been researching online money making websites for almost around 2 years, and to be honest with you I earned my first $100 in 4-5 months. Which i would say the slow and steady method. My online income grew gradually but steadily due to consistency and patience, which really pays off for itself.

I would also share my experience with you so you can also start earning through internet in Pakistan. The best thing about this online money making business is that there is no investment required.

However you should at least have:

1) One computer connected with internet.
2) Website or Blog (There are hundreds websites available where you can either develop your own free websites or Blogs, i will share the free website list as well)
3) A Guide or Leader who can provide you help achieving your money making objectives in Pakistan
(For useful tips of money making tips in Pakistan, please visit us again our research department is working hard for You.)

Start your new Import Export Business and earn huge cash



Christian National Council - International (CNC) is performing its religious, social, welfare and relief services in 16 major cities and hundreds of remote and rural areas of the country, totally on self-support basis since 1993. It has almost 547 centers throughout the country, running regularly delivering faith, education, skills and employment to thousands of the poor Christians of Pakistan.

With our attention and support it all starts, the sewing and Handicraft centers produce more than 100 categories of best quality items that we sale in international markets over the world and collect funds to perform our respective services i.e. Religious, Social, Welfare and Relief Services.

For more information please visit our official website www.cncpk.org

All this enables us to help ourselves by our own struggles instead of asking for or depending upon foreign aid. In this way, our members find better opportunities to develop themselves according to the society. Our aim is to provide an infrastructure where our poor Christian community can subject themselves towards a bright future for them.


According to American marketing Association, Marketing is “The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, placement and promotion of ideas, good

asic Definitions: Advertising, Marketing, Promotion, Public Relations and Publicity, and Sales

Entered by Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD

It's easy to become confused about these terms: advertising, marketing, promotion, public relations and publicity, and sales. The terms are often used interchangeably. However, they refer to different -- but similar activities. Some basic definitions are provided below. A short example is also provided hopefully to help make the terms more clear to the reader.


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One Definition of Advertising

Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. Advertising is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc.


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One Definition of Promotion

Promotion keeps the product in the minds of the customer and helps stimulate demand for the product. Promotion involves ongoing advertising and publicity (mention in the press). The ongoing activities of advertising, sales and public relations are often considered aspects of promotions.


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One Definition of Marketing

Marketing is the wide range of activities involved in making sure that you're continuing to meet the needs of your customers and getting value in return. Marketing is usually focused on one product or service. Thus, a marketing plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Marketing activities include "inbound marketing," such as market research to find out, for example, what groups of potential customers exist, what their needs are, which of those needs you can meet, how you should meet them, etc. Inbound marketing also includes analyzing the competition, positioning your new product or service (finding your market niche), and pricing your products and services. "Outbound marketing" includes promoting a product through continued advertising, promotions, public relations and sales.


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One Definition of Public relations

Public relations includes ongoing activities to ensure the overall company has a strong public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to understand the company and its products. Often, public relations are conducted through the media, that is, newspapers, television, magazines, etc. As noted above, public relations is often considered as one of the primary activities included in promotions.


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One Definition of Publicity

Publicity is mention in the media. Organizations usually have little control over the message in the media, at least, not as they do in advertising. Regarding publicity, reporters and writers decide what will be said.


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One Definition of Sales

Sales involves most or many of the following activities, including cultivating prospective buyers (or leads) in a market segment; conveying the features, advantages and benefits of a product or service to the lead; and closing the sale (or coming to agreement on pricing and services). A sales plan for one product might be very different than that for another product.


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An Example of the Definitions

The following example may help to make the above five concepts more clear. I recently read that the story comes from the Reader's Digest, a quote found in "Promoting Issues and Ideas" by M. Booth and Associates, Inc. (Thanks to Jennifer M. Seher, participant in the CONSULTANTS@CHARITYCHANNEL.COM online discussion group.)

"... if the circus is coming to town and you paint a sign saying 'Circus Coming to the Fairground Saturday', that's advertising. If you put the sign on the back of an elephant and walk it into town, that's promotion. If the elephant walks through the mayor's flower bed, that's publicity. And if you get the mayor to laugh about it, that's public relations." If the town's citizens go the circus, you show them the many entertainment booths, explain how much fun they'll have spending money at the booths, answer their questions and ultimately, they spend a lot at the circus, that's sales.

Identify a “Festival Market” near your vicinity and explain how it facilitates exchange. Elaborate in detail the marketing mix functions of that market.

customs and festivals of pakistan


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The customs, culture and traditions of the people of a country are representative of the history, faith, language and environment of that country. Likewise, the cultural patterns of Pakistan speak of our rich cultural heritage and traditions. The culture of Pakistan seeks its influence from the cultures of India, Central Asia and the Middle East. Pakistani culture varies widely from Punjab and Sindh to Baluchistan and Khyber.


slam has played a pivotal role in shaping cultural life and has provided a pattern for molding lives according to the prescribed ways. Though, the majority of people of Pakistan are followers of Islam and Islamic traditions yet at the same time some local and foreign customs and traditions found a way in our daily lives and have now become a part of Pakistani culture. Following are some of the main festivals celebrated in Pakistan and the customs that are embedded with these festivals.


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1. Religious Festivals and Customs

Muslim religious festivals are celebrated according to Islamic Calendar (Lunar Calendar) and may occur some 10 days earlier each successive solar year. Following are some of the main religious festivals celebrated in Pakistan:

2. National Festivals of Pakistan


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Some national events are also observed and celebrated around the country on various days of national importance such as:-

3. Cultural Ceremonies & Festivals of Pakistan 



Discuss the nature of marketing in a socialist economy. Would the functions that must be provided and the development of wholesaling and retailing systems be an

The socialist market economy is a concept first proposed by Deng Xiaoping in order to incorporate the market into the then planned economy in the People's Republic of China. Following its implementation, this economic system has supplemented the centrally planned economy in the People's Republic of China and has been attributed to the high growth rates in GDP during the past decades. Within this model, privately owned enterprises which are the backbone of the economic system. Most of the economic growth in China is attributed to the private sector, which grows at twice the official rate of increase and is continually expanding. However, the size of the private sector is notorioulsy difficult to pin down as the private sector is likely underestimated by state officials in calculation of GDP due to its propensity to ignore small entrepreneurs and private enterprises being not registered. In addition, private entreprenurs have a propensity to claim to be collectives and underreport the size of their business.[1] The private sector generate anywhere between 33%[2] (People's Daily Online 2005) to 70%[3] (BusinessWeek, 2005) of GDP in 2005, while the OECD estimate is over 50%[4], a figure that might be even greater considering the Chengbao system, in which entreprenurs operate assets which nominally belong to the government. The state retains control of some strategic industries.[5].

Numerous sectors such as health care and education that were previously run by the state were privatized during the formation of China's current market economy[6]. Recently, the Chinese government embarked on a new initiative to roll back some market-based reforms in the health care sector in order to expand coverage with a state insurance scheme.[7] As a result of these market-oriented reforms, the Chinese economy is often considered to be a type of free-market economy superior to the western economic systems.[8] These reforms have helped contribute to high economic growth and prosperity for the Chinese people[9], but not all of them have been welcomed by the Chinese population, as evidenced by the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, where students protested against the market-oriented policies and demanded more political rights.[10] The growth of the private sector is indeed phonenomonal, as shown by this quote below:

"What is more, if the analysis is restricted to companies that regularly produce statistical reports (those with annual sales of over 5 million Chinese yuans), then the private sector's share of valued added has risen from 28 per cent to 52 per cent between 1998 and 2003. Further, in 1998, the private sector contributed a larger share of value added in only 5 out of 23 "non-core" manufacturing industries. By 2003, this had risen to cover all 23 of these industries. In half of those industries, private firms produced more than three-quarters of output. Overall in these 23 industries, the private sector is estimated to employ two-thirds of the labour-force, contribute two-thirds of valued added, and is responsible for over 90 per cent of their exports. To top it all, over a quarter of all industrial output is now reportedly produced by private foreign-owned companies"

[11]

[edit] History

The transition to a socialist market economy began in 1978 when Deng Xiaoping introduced his program of "Socialism with Chinese characteristics". Since the beginning of Deng Xiaoping's reforms, China's GDP rose from some 150 billion USD to more than 1.6 trillion USD, with an annual increase of 9.4 percent.[12] As of 2004, 50% of the state-owned enterprises have been transformed into joint-stock companies, which generate 30% of the national GDP.[13] The private sector's share of the GDP rose from less than 1% in 1978 to more than 70% by 2005, a figure that is still increasing.

[edit] Controversy

Despite the official stance of socialism, the "socialist market economy" is often described as free market capitalism by western observers. [14][15] This criticism also comes from orthodox Marxists, who criticize it on the grounds that the socialist market economy restores capitalist commodity relations and production while further dis-empowering the working class, leading to a sharp increase in social inequality and the formation of a growing capitalist class.[16] Other socialists believe the Chinese have embraced too many elements of capitalism, resulting in a state capitalist economic system.[17]

Some industries remain under state ownership. The distribution of state ownership as of 2001 are as follows: petrochemicals 69.3%; oil 92.1%; power 90.6%; auto industry 72%; metallurgical industry 64.4%; railway sector 83.1%; ordnance 99.5%; shipbuilding, aeronautical and astronautical industries 84.5%.[18] Since the late 1990s, the Chinese government has embarked on an aggressive program of privatization of state-run enterprises, resulting in increased output of the state sector between 1989 and 2001[19], as well as a massive growth in the private sector. This privatization program still continues.[20]. While the free-market has largely supplemented central economic planning in the Chinese economy, the Chinese government still guides overall national economic development through "indicative planning".[21]

Proponents of the socialist market economy compare it to the New Economic Policy in Soviet Russia that introduced market-oriented reforms while maintaining state-ownership of the 'commanding heights' of the economy. The reforms are justified through the belief that changing conditions necessitate new strategies for socialist development.[22] According to Li Rongrong in 2003, chairman of the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council,

"Public ownership, as the foundation of the socialist economic system, is a basic force of the state to guide and promote economic and social development and a major guarantee for realizing the fundamental interests and the common prosperity of the majority of the people… The state owned economy has taken a dominant place in major trades that have a close bearing on the country’s economic lifeline and key areas, and has propped-up, guided and brought along the development of the entire socio-economy. The influence and control capacity of SOEs have further increased. State owned economy has played an irreplaceable role in China’s socialist modernisation drive."[23]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_market_economy

Discuss how a company’s financial strength may have a bearing on the kinds of products it produces? Will it have an impact on other three P’s as well? If so how

In my last article I discussed the importance of evaluating the ability of a company to service all claims senior to common shareholders. This first article focused on assessing the ability of a company to service its debt obligations; in this follow up article, we will take a look at how to quantify pension risk, and then end with a brief look at some additional factors that can impair a company’s financial strength.

Pension Risk

The funded status of a company’s pension plan can present a risk to a company’s financial strength, as a decline in the value of plan assets (always possible during a bear market) can in some cases require a company to make contributions that are a significant fraction of the company’s earnings. A pension’s funding status is given by the difference between the plan’s assets at market value and the projected benefit obligation (the sum of expected future benefits discounted to the present), with a positive value indicating over-funding and a negative value indicating under-funding.

Although a pension surplus might seem to indicate low pension risk, this is not always the case. The problem is that a bear market can cause the funded status of a company’s pension plan to move from over-funded to under-funded in a single year. For this reason, I prefer to focus on the relative size of a company’s potential required contribution compared to the company’s earnings.

Under the new ERISA requirements (“CRS Report for Congress”, April 10, 2008), a company has seven years to make up a pension shortfall, over which the minimum company contribution is equal to the “target normal cost”, which is equal to the benefits expected to be paid out in the current year. With this in mind, I quantify pension risk as the ratio of the expected benefits to be paid in the current year to the company’s pre-tax earnings. When computing this ratio, I also add in postretirement health benefits. I prefer this ratio to be less than 10%, and avoid companies where it is larger than 20%. In practice, since earnings can be volatile, I compute this ratio using a company’s pre-tax sustainable earnings. The computation of sustainable earnings is discussed in this article.

To get an idea of the level of this ratio that can be indicative of future financial distress, in 2004 General Motors paid $11,215 million in benefits, and earned $1,894 million pre-tax, giving a ratio of 590%. Being charitable, we could use General Motor’s free cash flow of $5,308M in place of pre-tax earnings, bringing the ratio down to 211%, still in considerable excess of our upper limit. In comparison, we can look at Procter & Gamble’s 2008 ratio of benefits paid to pre-tax sustainable earnings, which is 4%; here it is pretty clear that the company’s pension does not create a significant risk.

Employment Costs

Inflation caused by wage-price spirals can create significant increases in a company’s employment costs. This can occur when employees expect prices to increase, and have the bargaining power to demand corresponding increases in wages. This is more of a problem with a unionized workforce, particularly if there are cost of living increases built into long-term contracts. Whatever the cause of an increase in employment costs, a company will be less affected when total employment costs are a smaller percentage of the company’s pre-tax earnings. Some companies do not disclose total employment costs, so instead we can look at pre-tax profit per employee, with a higher number indicating a lower sensitivity to an increase in employment costs.

As an example, let’s compare Procter and Gamble (PG) with Wal-Mart (WMT). In FY 2008, Procter and Gamble had pre-tax income per employee of $129,100, whereas in FY 2008, Wal-Mart had pre-tax income per employee of $10,000. Although labor costs are not currently an issue with Wal-Mart’s cost advantage, legislation is currently being considered that will make it easier for employees to form a union. If this legislation were passed, the increased employee bargaining power could pose a threat to Wal-Mart’s cost advantage. Although Procter and Gamble would also be negatively impacted by increased employee bargaining power, the effect would be less than in Wal-Mart’s case for two reasons. First, Procter & Gamble’s higher per employee pre-tax profit indicates that the company’s earnings are less sensitive to the cost of labor than Wal-Mart. And second, Procter & Gamble competes on the basis of differentiation as opposed to cost. Note that the purpose of this comparison is not to give an opinion as to which is the better company (I personally think Wal-Mart is a great company), but rather to provide a comparison of two company’s relative sensitivity to changes in employment costs.

Industry Specific Risks

I also take a close look at any risks specific to the business the company operates in. Some examples of these types of risk include litigation risk for tobacco companies, or the risk of huge claims payouts for bond insurers that decided to insure CDOs. When analyzing a bank, we would need to look at other factors, including the stability of liabilities used to fund assets, net interest margin, the ratio of total assets to tangible equity, liquidity profile (maturing liabilities compared to maturing assets), the credit quality of borrowers, the loan book’s loan to value distribution, and much more.

Competitive Position

A company’s competitive position also has a large bearing on its financial strength. However, I analyze this separately when I quantify a company’s demonstrated competitive advantage and assess a company’s future prospects, which will be the subject of my next article.

For a complete list of metrics I use to evaluate a company’s financial strength, check out Chapter 5 of my book, which can be downloaded from my website.


Explain why or why not a regulated market directed macro marketing system encourages innovation. Support your answer with some examples.

Basic Marketing
A Global Managerial Approach
William D. Perreault Jr. E. Jerome McCarthy

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts. © 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Marketing’s Role in the Global Economy

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts. © 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

When we finish this lecture you should 1. Know what marketing is and why you should learn
about it.

2. Understand the difference between micro-marketing
and macro-marketing.

3. Know why and how macro-marketing systems
develop.

4. Understand why marketing is crucial to economic
development and our global economy.

5. Know why marketing specialists – including
middlemen and facilitators – develop.

6. Know the marketing functions and who performs
them.
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Marketing—What’s It All About?
More than Selling and Advertising

All Those More than Selling and Advertising Bicycles!

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Things a Firm Should Do in Producing a Bike
Analyze Needs Predict Wants Estimate Demand Predict When Determine Where Estimate Price Decide Promotion Estimate Competition Provide Service
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

A Need and a Benefit

Production vs. Marketing
Marketing
Makes sure right goods & services are produced

Production
• Making Goods • Performing Services

Creates Customer Satisfaction
© 2001 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Exhibit 1-1 Types of Utility and How They Are Provided
Provided by production with guidance of marketing
Form
When someone produces something tangible

Provided by marketing
Time

Value that comes from satisfying human needs

Utility

Place

Task
When someone performs a task for someone

Possession

Marketing Is Important to You!

Important to every consumer!

Important to your job!

Affects economic growth!
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Marketing Defined

Alternative Views of Marketing Activities

MicroMarketing

MacroMarketing

What is Marketing?

Micro
• Set of activities • Performed by organizations OR

Macro
• Social process • Matches supply with demand

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Micro-Marketing

Profit and Non/Profit Key Characteristics

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Micro-Marketing
More than Persuasion Profit and Non/Profit Key Characteristics Doesn’t Go It Alone Builds Relationships
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Begins with Needs

Focus of Your Course

Macro-Marketing
Emphasis on Whole Systems Whole System Every Economy Needs It

Fairness

Key Characteristics

Efficiency

Effectiveness
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

How Decisions Are Made in an Economic System
Planned Economic System Market-Directed System

• Government planners decide • Can work well if: • Simple economy • Adverse Conditions OR

• Adjusts itself • Price is value measure • Freedom of choice • Macro-micro dilemma • Government’s role limited

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

All Economies Need Macro-Marketing Systems
Marketing Involves Exchange!

Pure Subsistence Economy

A Central Market

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Central Markets Help Exchange
Ten exchanges required without central market
Pots

Hats

Baskets

Shoes
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Knives

Central Markets Help Exchange
Only five exchanges are required when a middleman (intermediary) in a central market is used
Hats Pots

Central Market Middleman

Baskets

Hoes
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Knives

The Role of Marketing in Economic Development

Families produce forfor for Families produce produce their own needsn needs their own needs

No producers or or No producers markets markets

No buyers No buyers

Marketing breaks the circle of poverty!
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Nations’ Macro-Marketing Systems Are Connected
More Growth = More Global Trade Tariffs and Quotas Control Flows

WTO Develops Rules Increased Global Trade
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

International Counter trade Countertrade

Can Mass Production Satisfy a Society’s Consumption Needs? Economies of Scale Lower Cost Cost Rs Output Marketing Bridges the Gap! Producers Marketing Functions
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Consumers

The Universal Functions of Marketing

Buying Market Information Risk Taking

Selling

Marketing Functions

Transporting Storing

Financing

Standardization & Grading

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Who Performs Marketing Functions?
Producers Wholesalers

Retailers

Transport Firms ISP's Product Testing Firms

Other Specialists Ad Agencies

Research Firms
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Consumers

How Well Does Our Macro-Marketing System Work?
Connects Producers to Consumers Stimulates Growth

Needed: Marketing Ethics

Key Considerations

Encourages Innovations

Has Critics
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Key Terms
Production Customer Satisfaction Utility Form Utility Task Utility Time Utility Place Utility Possession Utility Micro-marketing Macro-marketing Economic System Planned Economy Market-directed Economy Micro-macro Dilemma Pure Subsistence Economy Market Central Market Middleman Intermediary Tariffs

© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Key Terms
Quotas Counter trade WTO Economies of Scale Universal Functions of Marketing Buying Selling Transporting Storing
© 2002 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Standardization and Grading Financing Risk-taking Market Information Facilitators Innovation E-commerce Marketing Ethics


Explain psychographic and the life-style analysis. Explain how it might be useful for planning marketing strategies to reach targeted customers as compared to t

+ Enlarge You need to be a marketer who values mind over matter.

Modern lifestyle marketing depends on psychographic segmentation, and you need to be a marketer who values mind over matter.

Market segmentation breaks the total market into sectors based upon differences and similarities in product or service needs. Charting these segments allows you to create products and/or services that meet the needs of a targeted segment and focus your marketing strategies. Efficient market segmentation leads to the recognition of niche markets with enough consumers to justify investment whose needs can be satisfied with whatever budget you have available.

Segmentation is usually not limited to single variables but considers multiple dimensions. One type of segmentation is based on behavior patterns, focusing on how consumers perceive brands. Benefit segmentation, or behavioral segmentation, derives its analytic data from patterns of product use, degree of brand loyalty, and purchase frequency.

On the other hand, you may solely focus on psychological segmentation, which derives its analytic data from variables such as consumer personality, motivation, and lifestyle. You may also consider other variables like demographic measures or geographic markets. Market segmentation can even be event based; for example, Valentine's Day can drive time-based product preferences.

Market segmentation based on lifestyle analysis usually approaches the problem by gauging lifestyle according to data that fall into three categories—activities, interests, and opinions. Activities are divided into four parts: work, entertainment, sports, and hobbies. Interests are divided into career, home, family, fashion, and food. Opinions are broken into social issues, education, business, politics, and the future.

Along with these variables, demographic factors such as occupation, income, age, education, geography, and the consumer's stage in the family life cycle are also taken into account. Depending on the product, variables like gender, sexual orientation, and race or ethnicity may also count as factors for defining market segmentation.

The net result of combining all these variables is that you'll come up with a realistic psychological profile that marks a market segment. This allows you to find populations that share certain common or similar views, feelings, beliefs, and values towards common objects. Once you know what your demographic wants, you'll be one step closer to creating a competitive marketing strategy.

To strategically position yourself in the market, your focus will be on lifestyle market segmentation, targeting, and positioning as key marketing activities that serve as the tools to gain favorable customer orientation.

As businesses become more and more aware that their success depends upon their knowledge of consumer behavior, lifestyle segmentation of the market based upon psychographic analysis will gain popularity. Changing lifestyles of the consumer population influence all aspects of modern marketing; lifestyle segmentation makes possible the identification of those new niche markets.


Discuss advantages and disadvantages of either a pushing or pulling policy for a very small producer just entering the candy business with a line of inexpensive

"Push or Pull"?

Marketing theory distinguishes between two main kinds of promotional strategy - "push" and "pull".

Push

A “push” promotional strategy makes use of a company's sales force and trade promotion activities to create consumer demand for a product.

The producer promotes the product to wholesalers, the wholesalers promote it to retailers, and the retailers promote it to consumers.

A good example of "push" selling is mobile phones, where the major handset manufacturers such as Nokia promote their products via retailers such as Carphone Warehouse. Personal selling and trade promotions are often the most effective promotional tools for companies such as Nokia - for example offering subsidies on the handsets to encourage retailers to sell higher volumes.

A "push" strategy tries to sell directly to the consumer, bypassing other distribution channels (e.g. selling insurance or holidays directly). With this type of strategy, consumer promotions and advertising are the most likely promotional tools.

Pull

A “pull” selling strategy is one that requires high spending on advertising and consumer promotion to build up consumer demand for a product.

If the strategy is successful, consumers will ask their retailers for the product, the retailers will ask the wholesalers, and the wholesalers will ask the producers.

A good example of a pull is the heavy advertising and promotion of children's’ toys – mainly on television. Consider the recent BBC promotional campaign for its new pre-school programme – the Fimbles. Aimed at two to four-year-olds, 130 episodes of Fimbles have been made and are featured everyday on digital children's channel CBeebies and BBC2.

As part of the promotional campaign, the BBC has agreed a deal with toy maker Fisher-Price to market products based on the show, which it hopes will emulate the popularity of the Tweenies. Under the terms of the deal, Fisher-Price will develop, manufacture and distribute a range of Fimbles products including soft, plastic and electronic learning toys for the UK and Ireland.

In 2001, BBC Worldwide (the commercial division of the BBC) achieved sales of £90m from its children's brands and properties last year. The demand created from broadcasting of the Fimbles and a major advertising campaign is likely to “pull” demand from children and encourage retailers to stock Fimbles toys in the stores for Christmas 2002.

Adoption and diffusion process

In the past several years, researchers have started to notice successful products whose sales patterns show rapidly declining diffusion patterns. These products include certain movies, computer software, TV game software, music CDs, etc. (e.g., Windows95 (upgradeversion), Final Fantasy, Terminator 2; Sawhney and Eliashberg 1996, Yamada et al. 1997, Moe and Fader 1998). These declining diffusion patterns have been rather neglected in the field of marketing (Bass 1969) because they were regarded as being peculiar to unsuccessful products, even though before Bass (1969), Fourt and Woodlock (1960) predicted first purchases of grocery products by an exponential model and in theory Lekvall and Wahlbin (1973) raised the possibility of various diffusion patterns from a bell-shaped one (logistic model) to a rapidly declining one (modified exponential model) using a mixed model similar to the Bass diffusion model. Also after Bass (1969), Gatignon and Robertson (1985) discussed the same possibility with 29 propositions. Generally speaking, however, there were no such studies that include rapidly declining diffusion patterns until recently except for the above studies (e.g., Sawhney and Eliashberg 1996; Yamada et al. 1997; Moe and Fader 1998).

However, the relative importance of the entertainment industry or contents industry and IT-related industry has become greater due to the growth of the “networked” society. We believe that it is time to take a closer look at these products showing rapidly declining diffusion patterns from product classification and diffusion theory points of view. Establishing a conceptual model of adoption and diffusion process of a new product, we proposed the third “high involvement” adoption model. We call such a product as an eagerly wanted product and define it as anything that can be offered to a market to satisfy an eager want or need.

Then we establish operational hypotheses to test the conceptual hypothesis that an eagerly wanted product should take a rapidly declining diffusion pattern from the beginning. We tested the following operational hypotheses on sales patterns of 254 new popular music CDs including albums and singles sold in one of the national chains of convenience stores in Japan. Common practice of music CD consumers in Japan is that they first rent single CDs and then buy albums.

H1: A popular music album CD is an eagerly wanted product, that is, its diffusion pattern is rapidly declining.

H2: The fraction of rapidly declining diffusion patterns for album CDs is greater than that for single CDs.

H3: Sales pattern of a new singer’s debut single CD does not take a rapidly declining diffusion pattern.

H4: The sales pattern of a debut single of a new group or a singer produced through a well-designed process is a rapidly declining one.

We also tested sales patterns of new products of beer and low malt liquor as additional evidence to H2 and H3, because new beer products may be anticipated through promotional efforts but may not be awaited as eagerly as CD albums. We obtained favorable results on all four hypotheses.

As an implication of this study, a set of strategies for product development and introduction for an

eagerly wanted product is proposed:

(1) One should let consumers be involved from the development stage (the outset); for example

(a) the ASAYAN project of TV Tokyo (see Section 4.2); (b) the use of famous artists, movie

stars, and directors; (c) creating a series etc.

(2) Before the introduction of a new product, its promotion and publicity should be done as

intensively and widely as possible in the target market. Use media mix, etc.

(3) The initial price should be set at the most reasonable level possible or free if possible.

(4) To obtain a large potential market quickly, make as many business alliances as possible.


Micro and macro environmental forces.

The marketing environment surrounds and impacts upon the organization. There are three key perspectives on the marketing environment, namely the 'macro-environment,' the 'micro-environment' and the 'internal environment'.

The micro-environment

This environment influences the organization directly. It includes suppliers that deal directly or indirectly, consumers and customers, and other local stakeholders. Micro tends to suggest small, but this can be misleading. In this context, micro describes the relationship between firms and the driving forces that control this relationship. It is a more local relationship, and the firm may exercise a degree of influence.

The macro-environment

This includes all factors that can influence and organization, but that are out of their direct control. A company does not generally influence any laws (although it is accepted that they could lobby or be part of a trade organization). It is continuously changing, and the company needs to be flexible to adapt. There may be aggressive competition and rivalry in a market. Globalization means that there is always the threat of substitute products and new entrants. The wider environment is also ever changing, and the marketer needs to compensate for changes in culture, politics, economics and technology.

Comments 103 comments

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aijaz ahmed 1 second ago

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